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SPEECH COMMUNICATION FORMS

Communication is the activity of conveying meaningful information. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the sender.

A. Dyadic Form
 Dyadic communication is the direct communication between two people or groups of people. Usually it refers to mother-child verbal interactions which include close eye contact, exaggerated prosody, and mutual imitation.

 

In the dyadic condition, subjects could use five minutes to communicate. The difference in the length of the discussion periods across groups result from the disparities in the number of discussants and medium of communication. The two types of dyadic communication are;  Formal; interview, confession, and counseling.  Informal; chit-chat, teasing.

B. Small Group Discussion Form


 A qualitative method to obtain in-depth information on concepts and perceptions about a certain topic through spontaneous group discussion of approximately 6-12 persons, guided by a facilitator. To exchange points and come up with a consensus

 

In the group-communication conditions, subjects participated in communication within a group of eight people. Subjects knew that they would eventually be paired with one of the other subjects in their group, but did not know who this person would be. Examples are:  Meetings  Class discussion  Seminars

C. Public Speech  The act art, or process of making effective speeches before an audience.
 Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. It is closely allied to "presenting", although the latter has more of a commercial connotation.

SMALL GROUP COMMUNICATION


Small-group communication refers to the nature of communication that occurs in groups that are between 3 and 7 individuals. Small group communication generally takes place in a context that mixes interpersonal communication interactions with social clustering.

A. Small Group Discussion  Small group discussion is invaluable for allowing more participation at a large event. Break people into groups to discuss particular points, generate ideas, or to try to come to an agreed position. Each group can record its points on large paper, then report back to the larger group or put its paper on the wall. It's helpful to have clear written instructions, either given to each group or on a whiteboard at the front, and to set clear timeframes. It can also be a good idea for each small group to appoint a facilitator, a recorder and a timekeeper. What are the characteristics of small group discussion in my classes? When you take one of my classes, you will observe that we use small groups to generate ideas in preparation for a lecture, film etc.; summarize main points in a text or reading; assess levels of skill and understanding; reexamine ideas presented in previous classes; review exams, problems, quizzes, and writing assignments; process learning outcomes at the end of class; compare and contrast theories, issues, and interpretations; solve problems that relate theory to practice; and brainstorm applications of theory to life.

Examples j Debate; A discussion, as of a public question in an assembly, involving opposing viewpoints: a debate in the Senate on farm price supports. Formal contest in which the affirmative and negative sides of a proposition are advocated by opposing speaker. j The Synposium; a meeting or conference for the discussion of some subject, especially a meeting at which several speakers talk on or discuss a topic before an audience. A collection of opinions expressed or articles contributed by several persons on a given subject or topic. An account of a discussion meeting or of the

conversation at it.
B. Dimensions of Small Group Discussion.  Discussion methods vary on a number of dimensions. Roby (1988) classifies types of discussions primarily on a continuum that relates to whether the teacher or students, or both, have interpretive authority. A secondary dimension is the content of the discussion. Using these dimensions, he identifies three types of discussion. Problematical

discussions focus on the solutions to either complex or simple problems in which the teacher is dominant in the discussions. Dialectical discussions focus on expressing, comparing, and refining students (and the teachers) points of view, and the students play a dominant role in the discussions. Informational discussions focus on controversial issues within an accepting atmosphere, and students have considerable freedom to bring up issues they wish to discuss. At the extremes are two types of what Roby calls quasidiscussions: Quiz Shows and Bull Sessions. In the former, the teacher determines the questions to be asked and has almost all the interpretive authority; in the latter, the students have control over the topic and almost all the interpretive authority. In their 1949 study, Axelrod, Bloom, Ginsburg, O'Meara, and Williams, which was one of the first empirical investigations of discussion, also placed discussions on a continuum that related to whether the teacher or students had interpretive authority. Gall and Gall (1976) classify discussions according to the instructional objectives: to achieve subject mastery, to bring about a change in attitude or opinion about an issue, or to solve a problem. An example of a subject-mastery discussion method is Manzo and Casales (1985) Listen-Read-Discuss Strategy. In this method, the students listen to the teacher give a short lecture on the material to be learned, they read the pages of the text on which the lecture was based, and they then discuss questions raised by the text. An example of an issue-oriented discussion method is found in Roby (1983): Devils Advocate Strategy. In this method, students articulate their positions on an issue and then take an opposing position and argue against themselves. An example of a problemsolving discussion method is Maiers (1963) Developmental Discussion Strategy. In this method, the teacher and students identify a problem, break it into manageable parts, and work on the parts in small groups. The small groups then reconvene as a whole class to discuss their solutions with the teacher. Discussions about and around texts vary on a large number of dimensions. These approaches serve various purposes depending on the goals teachers set for their students, defined in terms of the stance towards the text: to acquire and retrieve information (an efferent stance), to make spontaneous, emotive connection to the text (an aesthetic or expressive stance), or to interrogate or query the text in search of the underlying arguments, assumptions, worldviews, or beliefs (a critical-analytic stance). Each approach comprises some type of instructional frame that describes the role of the teacher, the nature of the group, type of text, and so forth. Although the goals of these approaches are not identical, all have the potential to help students develop high-level thinking and comprehension of text. Most variation across text-based discussion approaches is in the degree of control exerted by the teacher versus the students in terms of who has control of topic, who has interpretive authority, who controls turns, who chooses the text, and the relative standing on the three stances. Moreover, there is a relationship between degree of control exercised by teachers versus students and the stance toward the text. Discussions in which students have the greatest control tend to be those that give prominence to an

aesthetic or expressive stance. These approaches are Book Club (Raphael & McMahon, 1994), Grand Conversations (Eeds & Wells, 1989), and Literature Circles (Short & Pierce, 1990). These discussions are often peer-led. Conversely, discussions in which teachers have the greatest control tend to be those that give prominence to an efferent stance. These approaches are Instructional Conversations (Goldenberg, 1992), Questioning the Author (Beck & McKeown, 2006; Beck, McKeown, Hamilton, & Kucan, 1997), and Junior Great Books shared inquiry (Great Books Foundation, 1987). It should be noted that Questioning the Author is the only discussion approach that was designed specifically to help students grapple with the meaning of informational text. Finally, discussions in which students and teachers share control tend to give prominence to a critical-analytic stance. In these approaches, the teacher has considerable control over text and topic, but students have considerable interpretive authority and control of turns. The approaches that fall into this category are Collaborative Reasoning (Anderson, Chinn, Waggoner, & Nguyen, 1998), Paideia Seminars (Billings & Fitzgerald, 2002), and Philosophy for Children (Sharp, 1995). Other approaches to text-based discussion, not included in the above, are less easy to classify and there is less research on them. These are Conversational Discussion Groups (O'Flahavan, 1989), Dialogical-Reading Thinking Lesson (Commeyras, 1993), Idea Circles (Guthrie & McCann, 1996, and Point-Counterpoint (Rogers, 1990). There are also text-based discussions that have less consistency of application, so they cannot be readily labeled. These include the general class of literature discussion groups based on reader-response theory (see Gambrell & Almasi, 1996), discussion-based envision-ments of literature (Langer, 1993, 1995, 2001), and instructional integrations of writing, reading, and talk (Nystrand, Gamoran, & Carbonaro, 2001; Sperling & Woodlief, 1997). Accountable talk is another approach to conducting intellectually stimulating discussions that, although not specifically designed for discussions about text, has applicability for promoting reading comprehension (Wolf, Crosson, & Resnick, 2004). It comprises a set of standards for productive conversation in academic contexts and forms part of the New Standards Project developed by Lauren Resnick and colleagues at the University of Pittsburgh. Another dimension on which discussions vary is small-group versus whole-class discussions. In a 1991 study of 58 12th grade students, Sweigart found that student-led small-group discussions produced greater effects on students recall and understanding of essays they had read than did lecture or whole-class discussion. Morrow and Smith, in a 1990 study of kindergarten students who engaged in discussions of stories that were read aloud, reported similar benefits of small-group discussions compared to one-on-one discussions with the teacher or whole-class discussions. Smaller groups provided more opportunities for students to speak, interact, and exchange points of view. Taking into account all available evidence, the best generalization that can be made is that smaller groups are better but they should not be so small as to limit the diversity of ideas necessary for productive discussions (Wiencek & O'Flahavan, 1994).

Yet another dimension is teacher-led versus studentled discussions. The relative merits of these formats have been the subject of debate and some research. On the one hand, the teacher can play an important role in discussion by keeping students on topic and modeling and scaffolding the talk to enhance the quality of their learning opportunities (O'Flahavan, Stein, Wiencek, & Marks, 1992; see also Wells, 1989). On the other hand, student-led discussions can enable students to collectively explore topics more fully and to have more control and interpretive authority (Almasi, 1994). Most probably the question as to who should lead the group is the wrong question. The issue is not so much who leads the group but how much structure and focus is provided while giving students the flexibility and responsibility for thinking and reasoning together (Mercer, 1995). Productive discussions need to be structured and focused, but flexible enough to foster generative learningand these can be teacher-led or student-led.

C. Physical Setting Format  A facilitator is in front facilitating the discussion, a recorder recoding what will be discussed and a time keeper on how long does the discussion. Example of a small group discussion is a meeting. Its format are likely similar.

PUBLIC ADDRESS
A. Types of Speeches  Persuasive Speech  Informative Speech  Demonstration Speech  Tribute Speech  Inspirational Speech  Motivational Speech  Acceptance Speech  Graduation Speech  Birthday Speech  Introduction Speech  Anniversary Speech  Retirement Speech  Farewell Speech

B. Preparing the Speech


1. Select a speech topic y This may seem like an easy task, but there are infinite public speaking topics. How do you choose the right one? How do you select a topic which is a perfect fit between you and your audience? Your topic leads to your core message the entire presentation aims to deliver this core message to your audience. 2. Create a speech outline y Your speech needs structure. Without structure, your audience will either wonder what your core message is or they will lose interest in you entirely. Sadly, this step is often skipped to save time. A planned outline is vital. 3. Write the speech y Speech writing is an iterative process which begins with your first draft. Writers block can handicap speakers at this stage. y Once the first draft is created, speech writing involves iteratively massaging your speech into its most effective form. Keeping your ego in check, you are wise to edit mercilessly. The fifth article in the series shows you how to edit your speech for focus clarity, concision, continuity, variety, and impact. y Remember that speeches should be written for the ear; adopting figures of speech will keep your speech from sounding like an essay or legal document..

4. Apply gestures, staging, and vocal variety y At this stage, the words are ready, but thats all you have words. A presentation is not read by the audience; it is listened to and watched. 5. Practice and solicit feedback y Great speakers seem natural when they speak, almost as though they are speaking the words for the first time. Nothing could be more wrong. Rehearsing your speech makes you a master of the content. Soliciting feedback and acting on it gives you confidence that your presentation will be a success. 6. Self-Critique: Prepare for the next speech Although listed as the final step in the process, its really the first step in preparing for your next speech. After youve delivered your speech, examine your performance objectively. This will solidify lessons learned as you prepare for your next speech challenge.

PRESENTING A SPEECH
y y y y If you feel comfortable with the subject matter, both technically and inspirationally; If you have adequate time to prepare If you are comfortable with the setting and have access to it beforehand; Know what kind of talk the requestor and the audience are expecting. What is your purpose? (ITEM = Inform? Touch? Entertain? Move to action?) Is it to be an informal talk with expectations of humor? Teaching technical material? If so, will the audience have hand-outs? (This greatly affects the pace and permissible amount of information per slide.) Who will prepare the hand-outs? What is the educational level or background of the audience? If it is an engineering talk, what are the educational expectations of the audience? Merely familiarize? Details of how to? You know the time limit and understand the format; The necessary AV tools can be made available in a timely manner and it is understood who will be responsible for providing them; and You will be properly introduced by your host.

y y y

Before presenting: y y y y Read-up on the subject of how to give a technical presentation (e.g. Allen 2003); Do a 'dry run' if the time allocated seems to be too much or too little; Have someone proof-read a paper version of your presentation; Arrange for lectern or podium if you plan to use a prepared speech (to be read, or perhaps frequently referred to), so that your hands will be free;

y y y

Test sound system for best distance between mouth and microphone (bring a trial listener if you can) and understand who will be responsible for adjusting system during the talk; Before entering the room do a silent lion roar' (yoga exercise) to relax your face. Stress makes some presenters look very serious this can adversely affect mood of audience. Know and clearly understand your purpose. Are you informing to a group of casual listeners? Convincing an audience of an idea that most are already opposed to? Entertaining at a function which is an informal gathering of professionals and their wives? Formally teaching highly technical material?

When using a screen: y y y y y Know where the lights switches are and which ones matter; Determine how much control you have over the ambient light level (can the room be made dark enough for your particular AV equipment?); If the light switches or dimmers are at the back of the room, delegate to someone the job of adjusting them (by prior agreement); Use a good quality screen. An ordinary painted wall will often make for a disappointing presentation (poor brightness/contrast, defects in the surface, things in the way); and Make sure everyone will be able to see the whole screen. Are there pillars or obstructions in the room? If using is a portable screen, is it big enough?

When using an overhead projector (OHP) or imaging camera: y Check the machine and determine whether you will need a wide-angle lens (because the distance between the OHP and the screen is too short). Use a trial transparency to check size-on-screen and to set the focus (beforehand); Optimize the position of the OHP so that machine itself is not blocking the view of some of your audience; Ensure that your images and text are clear and that the text is readable at the back of the room. Get your slides oriented and in the correct order beforehand. Separate them by blank sheets of paper so that you can get them apart more easily and also more easily see what slide is coming up next (the room may be quite dark); A small weight may be needed in order to keep transparencies from moving (static can be a problem sometimes); If the screen is immediately behind you, the room is wide, and the audience fills it, move to a position beside the screen so that the people to the far left (or far right) of the room will be able to see your images. This can be done after you change each slides or sheet; If the room is large and the screen is elevated (so that your body cannot interfere with the audiences view), stand beside the OHP and point to each slide as it sits on the projector. This can be done by laying a pencil or pen on the transparency itself. If you plan to use a laser pointer and are prone to tremors, find somewhere to rest your pointerhand; and

y y y

y y

Color transparencies and sheets often look good in your hand but usually exhibit a great deal of wash-out (poor color intensity) once projected.

When using computer projection unit with laptop computer: y y y y Do all hook-ups in advance, extra plugs/cords may be needed (the devil is in the details); Avoid last-minute positioning/focusing/elevating in front of a waiting audience; Get your first image on the screen beforehand. Do not experiment with unknown buttons and settings. Do not make everyone wait while Windows and PowerPoint get up to steam; Check minimum level of ambient light. Luminous output of most computer projection units is not on par with overhead projectors or 35 mm slide projectors, so an insufficiently dark room can ruin your presentation; If possible, stand beside the screen and point to details within it using a pointer; and Avoid PowerPoint poisoning your audience (using an excessive number of computer-generated slides having a similar appearance).

y y

When using a board: y y y A white-board is a great auxiliary tool, especially when needing to make a sketch in order to better answer a question; Check in advance for dry-erase markers (they are different than permanent markers!), and; Know where the eraser is and use it (avoid getting chalk or ink on your hands).

When presenting: y y y Avoid starting with a litany of apologies; Be aware that the physical presence of the audience will affect the way your voice carries, you may need to speak more loudly than in your dry run; Begin with thanks and acknowledgments. Did someone help you set up? Did you receive guidance with respect to technical content or slide aesthetics? Are you using some material that you did not prepare yourself? Thanks are in order!

Do not make your visuals the focus of your attention! Face your audience as much as possible and make frequent eye contact (particularly important in public hearings, little eye-contact = reduced credibility); Know your material well; If you intend to try to speak extemporaneously it is a good idea to memorize, or have access to, a sequence of key words. An acronym may help; Take control of your audience - silence with eye contact can be very effective; Modulate your voice and move around somewhat; Avoid frequent ers, and ums 'the motor doesnt need to be running when brain is in neutral'; Avoid hands-in-pockets, playing with keys or other personal articles, avoid adjusting clothes (particularly underclothes); Never use profanities or bad language; Do not try to be funny if you are not; Try to stay near the centre of the front of the room, and; Check your watch (perhaps place it in front of you on the lectern), don't forget the time allowance for question period (if any).

y y y y y y y y y y Other: y y y y y y

Dress appropriately; Hands folded in front (if not gesturing), avoid crossed arms, avoid hands on hips; Extemporaneous use of a white-board can be very helpful in answering technical questions, it also shows that you know your material and can think on your feet; Be careful about using copyrighted material, especially if you are getting paid for the talk; Be careful about using photographs with people in them, especially people who may be in the audience; and Slight nervousness is normal (even good), adrenaline adds verve to presentations.

SPEAKING WITH A PURPOSE


Every day, you are on the receiving end of public speaking. For the most part, you might not even be aware that someone is "doing" public speaking. The best speakers and presenters speak in a natural way that invites you to make some change in your life, no matter how small. There are four essential purposes of public speaking, listed below in random order: 1. To Entertain. It seems that the best public speakers these days tend to be the comedians and storytellers who can make us laugh or touch our emotions. If you have good storytelling techniques, you can command the attention of any audience. As a public speaker, you can lift the spirits of your listeners through an entertaining presentation and still any of the items listed below as well. 2. To Educate. A well-prepared public speaker can help anyone of any age learn new ideas, concepts and skills. In formal settings such as schools, a good speaker moves students beyond "Do I have to learn this?" to "I can't believe I learned so much!" Outside of learning institutions, there are many places for anyone to give great educational public speaking speeches such as community organizations and health-care institutions. Smart people of any age always want to learn and there is a place for you to teach with public speaking. 3. To Convince. If you want someone to change his or her mind about a subject, then public speaking is the key to that change. While the Internet has brought us many ways to be in touch, the well-told story from an authentic speaker is still King in communication.

4. To Inspire. While the "motivational speaker" may be a clich that is abused on comedy shows, a person who is passionate about their topic and has coupled that with effective audience-reaching speaking skills can inspire both young and old to reach for something beyond them. While most public speakers try to create positive messages, it is possible to fall into a fifth reason for speaking: to manipulate. When you speak, think about your goals and reason for speaking. Are you trying to build up your community and the people in it? Or, are you attempting to build up something or someone through false stories and lies? Be wary of manipulating your audience through your public speaking speeches.

INTERPRERTATIVE READING
Interpretative or dramatic reading may be performed by one or more people. The focus is on vocal expression. Consequently, physical movement is limited and the piece is not memorized. Each reader has the script in hand and often does not portray a character. Rehearsals focus on vocal tone, volume, rhythm, and inflection. One person may read a poem, a story, or scripture. Two or more people may read a short piece of dialogue or an essay broken into separate lines.

A. Concepts and Process of oral reading


Oral reading is a complex process in which the reader becomes the "link" between the author and the listeners by comprehending the selection and interpreting it for the enjoyment and understanding of those listening. Students who read orally improve their speech and understanding, and gain much enjoyment when they experience success.

B. Poetry Reading
Poetry often is meant to be performed, sometimes even with music. So, even if you are not in a private place, or if you feel funny about "performing" a poem by reading it aloud in an aptly dramatic manner, you can at least read it aloud and try to imagine what tones of voice you should use at various lines. So, read the poem through once, check to make sure you have a handle on what it's saying, and then read it two more times experimenting with various voices and poses. Are some lines ironic? Sneering? Passionate? How does the meaning of various lines change when you change the tone of your voice? Once you have nailed down how the poem should be read, then go one-by-one through the questions below and see if the poet has employed any of these devices in the poem to add to the poem's significance (in other words, what you can make it mean): 1. TONE or VOICE: how would you describe the poet's "voice" in the poem? Is the poet speaking in a character? In a sense, all writers speak in a character, so even if you feel that the voice in the poem is the poet's own voice; it is still worthwhile to see what the tone of the poem is. Is the poet speaking in a "public" way, or in a private and personal way? Does the poet assume that s/he is speaking for all people, or is the purpose of the poem to communicate a single, special way of seeing something? 2. METAPHORS and IMAGES: make a mental list of the images that the poet piles up in the poem. Sometimes, it's not what the poet says that is interesting so much as the images that they use to set up their way of looking at the world. There's a sonnet of Shakespeare's, for example, that talks about love, yet stacks image after image of business, banking, and accounting to do so. These images--in one reading of this sonnet--change what the sonnet means, because it almost

forces us to ask why the poet has chosen the language of business to talk about love. In your poem, how would you describe the poet's use of images? 3. RHETORIC (The art of speaking in public eloquently and effectively): we don't take classes in rhetoric any more, and so it's not natural for us to look for it in writing. Poetry, however, is very rhetorical, in that the sentences often are very elaborate and artfully set up to attain maximum effect. In your poem, does the poet play with words and the structure of sentences much? What are they trying to accomplish by doing this? Does it in some way add to what the poem already means for you? 4. STRUCTURE: like essays, poems are made up of pieces. --Each line is a piece: are there places where the line breaks of the poem add to your experience of it? --Each stanza or couplet is piece: are there places where individual stanzas are interesting, wonderful, or meaningful in them? --If this is a longer poem, you should read it as made up of shorter poems put together. How has the poet structured the smaller parts of the poem? What do they add up to? 5. AMBIGUITIES: Are there any moments in the poem where key words can mean more than one thing? One fun way to deal with ambiguity is to think of the poem as a word-puzzle: how many solutions can you find? How many readings can you construct? Does the title help you to nail down which seems most correct? 6. TRADITION OR CONVENTION: Is there a tradition or set of conventions that the poem is writing within or against?

THE SOLO PERFORMANCE MODE A. Lecture Recital  Recital;

a. A musical entertainment given usually by a single performer or by a performer and one or more accompanists. b. A similar entertainment in a field other than music: a dance recital. c. A program or concert by dance or music students to demonstrate their achievements or progress. d. An act or instance of reciting. A formal or public delivery of something memorized. i. Delivering something like a lesson discussed without the presence of teaching or visual materials; yet it is only recited. It requires better memorization skills.

B. Dramatic Monologue  A poetic form in which a single character, addressing a silent auditor at a critical moment, and reveals himself or herself and the dramatic situation.

a poem written in the form of a speech of an individual character; it compresses into a single vivid scene a narrative sense of the speaker's history and psychological insight into his character.

THE GROUP PERFORMANCE MODE A. Speech or Verse Choir  The recitation of poetry or prose by an ensemble or chorus.
 The two kinds of Speech Choir are 1. Conventional (or Traditional) and 2. Dynamic (or Theatrical). The first one has no use of costumes, or props, or choreography. The choir just simply speaks (or reads) a literary piece together. The other one has all the elements I mentioned.

B. Readers Theater  Reader's theatre is a style of theatre in which the actors do not memorize their lines.
Rather, they go through their blocking holding scripts and reading off their lines, or else sit/stand together on a stage and read through the script together. In Reader's theatre, actors use vocal expression to help the audience understand the story rather than visual storytelling such as sets, costumes, and intricate blocking. According to some drama teachers, plays have built-in strategies to help students improve their reading skills. The acting out of dialogue causes readers to work more closely with the text to project and interpret meaning into the reading experience. Consequently, students gain improvement in vocabulary, comprehension and retention. Reading in a small group provides reading role models which is also proven to improve reading skills in students. Research has shown that Reader's Theatre can improve reading fluency, word choice and comprehension.

C. Chamber Theater  Chamber theatre is a method of adapting literary works to the stage using a maximal
amount of the works original text and often minimal and suggestive settings. In Chamber Theater, narration is included in the performed text and the narrator might be played by multiple actors Chamber Theatre has more realistic costuming and actual movement around the stage. Readers parts are typically memorized. Still is not fully fledged stage acting and typically has pantomimed props rather than real ones.

BROADCAST SPEECH
Broadcasting is the wireless distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via broadcast radio, broadcast television, or other. Receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset of thereof. It could also be for purposes of private recreation, non-commercial exchange of messages, experimentation, self-training, and emergency communication such as amateur (ham) radio and amateur television

A. Broadcast Media Speech  The term broadcast media covers a wide spectrum of different communication methods such as television, radio, newspaper, magazines, and any other materials supplied by the media and press.

The broadcasting media supplies lots of valuable information, for example speeches, documentaries, interviews, advertisements, daily news, financial markets and much more. The latest (newest/most up-to-date) information can be found here

B. Radio and T.V Broadcast  Radio broadcasting is a one-way wireless transmission over radio waves intended to
reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both. Audio broadcasting also can be done via cable radio, local wire television networks, satellite radio, and internet radio via streaming media on the Internet.

C. News Programs  A news program, news show, or newscast is a regularly scheduled radio or television
program that reports current events. News is typically reported in a series of individual stories that are presented by one or more anchors. A news program can include live or recorded interviews by field reporters, expert opinions, opinion poll results, and occasional editorial content.

D. Radio and T.V Script  Instruction on how to make a radio broadcast script j Develop a concept listeners will buy. Your radio broadcast should be something
believable, or it should incorporate subject matter that is a part of the general public's current interest or concerns. War of the Worlds was written at a time when a belief in, and fear of, visitors from another world was prevalent. We've seen too many alien movies today. Radio audiences are too desensitized for something like War of the Worlds to play the same way now as it did then. Ask yourself what the current trends are, what the public is concerned about and how you can turn those subjects into a mock radio broadcast people will believe. j Write in terms of what your audience can hear. Radio is all about bringing something to life with sound. Think about sound effects that might become a part of your script, the type of announcer that might read it and the specific words you use. A lot of this will be determined in the production phase of the script if it ever airs, but the more you can work into your script, the more realistic it will be. This is especially true of the words you write for the announcer. j Write your radio script in the proper format. A radio script is divided into two columns. The left column is where you indicate sound effects, abbreviated SFX. In the right column, in all capitals, describe the sound listeners will hear. The left column is also where you write character name or announcer. Announcer is abbreviated ANNCR. Write what the character or announcer says in the right-hand column. Abbreviations should be written in uppercase and speaking parts in lowercase.

PORTFOLIO
IN ENGLISH 119: SPEECH IMPROVEMENT

Submitted by: Kurt Lubim A. Libertad AB English 3

Submitted to: Mrs. Viola Ann Baccus Instructor