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CHL 331

Problem Sheet # 2
1. A 150- mm-thick demister pad for removing fine droplets of H
2
SO
4
from a gas
stream is made of 50-

m fibers randomly oriented in the plane perpendicular to


the gas flow. The average porosity is 0.90. Calculate the pressure drop for gas
velocities of 0.3 and 0.9 m/s at 90
o
C and 1 atm using the drag coefficients for
individual fibers.
2. Urea pellets are made by spraying drops of molten urea into cold gas at the top of a
tall tower and allowing the material to solidify as it falls. Pellets 6 mm in diameter
are to be made in a tower 25 m high containing air at 20
o
C. The density of urea is
1.330 kg/m
3
. Viscocity of air is 10
-5
PaS. (a) What would be terminal velocity of the
pellets, assuming free settling conditions? (b) Would the pellets attain 99 percent of
this velocity before they reached the bottom of the tower?
3. Spherical particles 1 mm in diameter are to be fluidized with water at twice the
minimum velocity. The particles have an internal porosity of 40 percent, an average
pore diameter of 10

m, and a particle density of 105 g/cm


3
. Prove that flow
through the internal pores is very small compared to the flow between the particles,
and that the internal porosity can be neglected in predicting the fluidization
behavior.
4. Catalyst pellets 5 mm in diameter are to fluidized with 45,000 kg/h of air at 1 atm
and 80
o
C in a vertical cylindrical vessel. The density of the catalyst particles is 960
kg/m
3
: their sphericity is 0.86. If the given quantity of air is just sufficient to
fluidize the solids, what is the vessel diameter?
5. Figure given below outline briefly the justification for supposing that the energy-
equation frictional dissipation term for flow with superficial velocity
u
0
through a
packed bed of length L is of the form:
F = (a u
0
+b
2
0
u
) L ,
in which
a
and b are constants that depend on the nature of the packing and the
properties of the fluid flowing through the bed.


Flow through a packed bed
H
L
Liquid
supply
Liquid
Packing
Exit
H
L
Liquid
supply
Liquid
Packing
Exit
As shown in figure a bed of ion-exchange resin particles of depth L = 2 cm is supported
by a metal screen that offers negligible resistance to flow at the bottom of a cylindrical
container. Liquid (which is essentially water with = 1 cP and = 1 g/ cm
3
) flows
steadily down through the bed. The pressure at both the free surface of the water and at
the exit from the bed are both atmospheric.
The following results are obtained for the liquid height H as a function of
superficial velocity u
0
:
H (cm): 2.5 75.4
u
0
(cm / s): 0.1 1.0
First, obtain the values of the constants a and b for the packed bed. (Hint: perform
overall energy balances between the liquid entrance and the packing exit, ignoring any
exit kinetic energy effects.) Second, what is the d Arcy law permeability, , (cm
2
) for
the packed bed at very low flow rates?
Third, a prototype apparatus is to be constructed in which the same type of ion-
exchange particles are contained between two metal screens in the form of a hollow
cylinder of outer radius 5 cm and inner radius 0.5 cm. What pressure difference (bar) is
needed to effect a steady flow rate of 10 cm
3
/s of water per cm length of the hollow
cylinder? (If needed, assume the flow is from the outside to the inside.)
6. Figure given below shows a particle of mass M that is ejected vertically upwards
from the surface of fluidized bed with an initial velocity
s

. The velocity of the


fluidizing gas above the bed is g

, and the resulting drag force on the particle is D


= c (
)
g , where c is constant and

is the current velocity of the particle.


Departure of particle from the top of a fluidized bed.
Prove that the maximum height h to which the particle can be entrained above
the bed is given by:

, 1 1
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+

b
s
b s
b g
n
g
h



in which b
v
is the steady upwards velocity of the particle when the drag and
gravitational forces are balanced.
7. Figure given below shows an apparatus for studying flow in a porous medium.
Fluid of high viscosity flows between two parallel plates PP under the
Fluidized bed
z
D
v
M
v
g
v
s

influence of a uniform pressure gradient dp / d
x
. Midway between the plates is a
slab S of porous material of void fraction and permeability
.
The diagram
shows the velocity profile in the fluid, the velocity within the slab being the
interstitial velocity:
dx
dp
u
i


.2


Apparatus for studying flow in a porous medium.

Explain why the velocity profile is of the form indicated, with particular attention to
the boundary conditions at the slab surfaces. Show that the total flow rate
Q
per
unit width is:
( ) .
6
1
3
]
]
]

+ +
,
`

.
|
h a
a
dx
dp
Q

8. Figure given below shows a spherical reactor of internal diameter D that is packed
to a height H (symmetrically disposed about the equator) with spherical catalyst
particles of diameter d and void Fraction

. A volumetric flow rate


Q
of a liquid
of
density

and viscosity flows through the packing.



Flow through a spherical reactor.
How would you determine the resulting pressure drop? Give sufficient detail so that
Some body else could perform all necessary calculations based on your plan.
u
i
a
h
a
P
S
y
P
x
u
i
a
h
a
P
S
y
P
x
D
H
Q