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Optical Communications

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Question No. 1:

a) Briefly describe scattering losses in optical fibers with regard to: I. II. Rayleigh scattering Mie scattering

I.

Rayleigh scattering

Rayleigh scattering is the phenomenon of light taking place inside the fiber due to the scattering of light from the particles having wavelength smaller than the wavelength of light.

It arises because of the fluctuations in the refractive index of the medium at the microscopic level. Rayleigh scattering is responsible for 96% of the total attenuation in the fiber. Rayleigh scattering loss is given by

= exp (-RL) where L is the length of fiber and R is the Rayleigh scattering coefficient. Rayleigh scattering coefficient depends inversely with the wavelength of light. Thus Rayleigh scattering loss is less at higher wavelengths. R = (83/34)*(n8*p2*C*K*TF) Where is wavelength, n is refractive index, p is avg. photoelastic effect, c is isothermal compressibility at temperature T and K is Boltaz manns constant.

II.

Mie scattering

Mie scattering is the phenomenon of light taking place inside the fiber due to the scattering of light from the particles comparable to or greater than the wavelength of light. It is due to improper core-cladding refractive index difference, diameter fluctuations, strains and bubbles. It accounts for much lesser attenuation as compared to Rayleigh scattering in the fiber. The loss due to Mie scattering can be controlled by careful fabrication.

b) Determine attenuation in decibels per kilometer due to Rayleigh scattering in silica fiber at optical wavelengths 0.65 m and 1.33 m. Note that silica fiber has temperature of 1400K with isothermal compressibility of 8*10-11 m2N-1, photoelectric effect and refractive index of silica fiber are 0.286 and 1.46 respectively. Also Boltazmanns constant is 1.381*10-23 JK-1

= 4.34 *

db/km

R = (83/34)*(n8*p2*C*K*TF)

db/km

db/km

db/km

= 5.2 db/km

R = (83/34)*(n8*p2*C*K*TF)

db/km

= 4.34 * R

db/km

db/km

Question No. 2:

a) Briefly explain reasons of pulse broadening due to material absorption in optical fiber.

Pulse broadening of light injected into the fiber is due to the dispersion of light waves inside the fiber. Dispersion is the phenomenon where different components of signal travel at different velocities, reaching the receiver at different times thus resulting in pulse spreading. As the refractive index of the silica is frequency dependent therefore different frequency components travel at variable speed accounting for material dispersion in the fiber. Additionally waveguide dispersion occurs because light propogates differently in the core than in the clad.

b) Estimate total rms pulse broadening per kilometer due to material dispersion, assuming waveguide dispersion to be negligible. Note that wavelength of 0.85 m is used for transmission. The rms spectral width is 45nm and material dispersion is 30 ps nm-1 km-1

m = ?

Rms pulse broadening due to material dispersion is given by m = (L/c)*|d2n1/d2| which in terms of Material dispersion parameter M is given by M = (/c)*|d2n1/d2| Comparing the above two equations we get rms pulse broadening in terms of Material Dispersion as m = LM m = 45*1*30 m(/km) = 1350ps

Question No. 3:

a) Briefly explain what is meant by critical bending radius for an optical fiber?

Critical Bending Radius In an optical fiber bending causes the traversing pattern to change so that some of the light is refracted into the cladding. As the radius of curvature of the fiber is decreased from infinity, that is from a straight line, the fields of an electromagnetic wave propagating in the fiber begin to become detached from the fiber and radiate out into the space, is known as the critical bending radius. If the radius of curvature of the fiber is less than the critical radius, the incidence angles at the bends become less than the critical angle causing part of the energy in the wave to enter into the cladding. At radii below the critical radius nearly all the energy radiates from the fiber as mode conversion takes place at the bend.

This is due to the energy in the evanescent field at the bend exceeding the velocity of light in the cladding and hence the guidance mechanism is inhibited, which causes light energy to be radiated from the fiber.

b) A graded index fiber has refractive index at core and cladding axis of 1.46 and 1.40 respectively. Determine transmitted wavelength when critical bending radius is 2mm.

Rc = 3n12 / 4 (n12 - n22)3/2 = (Rc*4 (n12 - n22)3/2)/3n12 = (2*10-3*4 (1.462-1.42)3/2) / (3*1.462) = 2.79*10-4 m = 279 m

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