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The Philadelphia Inquirer

173d Year, No. 104



75 cents in some locations outside the metropolitan area


Hijacked Planes Destroy Trade Towers, Hit Pentagon; Thousands Feared Dead
Bush vows justice will be sweeping

By Ralph Vigoda

A series of near-precision assaults shattered two symbols of Americas military and financial power yesterday, killing untold numbers of people, halting Americans daily routine, and forever destroying a nations feeling that it cant happen here. Within minutes at the start of the workday, unidentified terrorists hijacked two commercial jets and plunged them into the twin towers of New Yorks World Trade Center reducing the 110-story landmarks to rubble and sending some workers leaping out windows then crashed a third jet into the Pentagon outside Washington. A fourth hijacked plane, possibly also diverted toward the Washington area, crashed in Somerset County in Western Pennsylvania. The terrorists audacity was matched by the stunning coordination of their operation all four planes had left three airports within 12 minutes of one another and experts scrambled to start investigating how they had bypassed security and pulled it off. U.S. officials said they had had no reports that the attacks were imminent and can expect questions about the breakdown in intelligence. The carnage seemed destined to stand as the worst attack on civilians in U.S. history. The death toll which could take days, even weeks, to emerge was likely to be far more catastrophic than the 2,400 killed nearly 60 years ago in the surprise bombing at Pearl Harbor. Emergency workers at the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan faced a gruesome, blazing scene. There were bodies everywhere, body parts everywhere, said Angelo Otchy, a National Guardsman from See ATTACK on A14

27 pages of coverage inside

In seconds, a confident N.Y. is shaken

By Alfred Lubrano

Fire and smoke engulf the towers of the World Trade Center in New York City after commercial jetliners hit the building. Both towers collapsed shortly after.

SPENCER PLATT / Getty Images

Magnitude of tragedy unfolds in lost lives

One of the victims was a pilot from Bucks County. Pray for them, his father-in-law said.
By Matthew P. Blanchard and Kayce T. Ataiyero

Victor Saracini was a self-made man, working his way up from Navy pilot to United Airlines captain, and settling with his wife and two daughters in an affluent Bucks County community. His life ended yesterday. Saracini, 51, was commander of the second commercial jet to crash into the World Trade Center while a disbelieving

world watched live on television. Lower Makefield resident Saracini was among the first of what will likely be hundreds and perhaps thousands of victims, including 266 passengers and crew aboard four hijacked flights, to be identified in the days and weeks to come. Pray for them, said Saracinis father-in-law, Bernard G. Hildebrand. Pray for them all. Across the nation, people with friends and family working in the financial nerve center of Lower Manhattan, at the Pentagon, or traveling cross-country for business spent yesSee PILOT on A17

Life changed fast and forever yesterday morning, when an unseen terrorist hand guided two planes into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, collapsing the symbols of New York Citys commercial and cultural greatness. Now there is smoke where there once was steel, shocked silence where a self-assured populace once ran Americas most dynamic city. Casualties were expected to be in the thousands, as the attack rocked what amounts to two vertical cities. By nightfall, an unsettling quiet permeated Lower Manhattan from Soho, to Chinatown, to Greenwich Village. Two inches of white ash had snowed onto the streets, muffling noise like a blizzard, giving a savage day a surreal end. Its like Pompeii, a Battery Park City doorman said, as though only an See CITY on A8
2001, Philadelphia Newspapers, Inc. Call 215-665-1234 or 1-800-222-2765 for home delivery.

Pedestrians run from the World Trade Center area as the first of the twin towers
collapses. All tunnels and bridges into Manhattan were closed yesterday.

PAUL HAWTHORNE / Associated Press

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Wednesday, September 12, 2001

Freedom itself was attacked this morning, and I assure you freedom will be defended. Make no mistake.
President Bush

Plane crash in Pa. investigated
Authorities are looking into whether the United Airlines flight was linked to the crashes in New York and Washington. A3.

Reacting to the attack

Around the country, city halls and schools closed. Americans lined up to donate blood. Many admitted they felt unsafe A4.

Why us? Experts offer answers

For traditional cultures around the world, the U.S. is a threat to their way of life. For some, that justifies wide-scale violence. A4.

The view from the Mideast

Israelis and some Arabs sympathized with victims; others said U.S. arrogance brought on the attack. A6.

The second Pearl Harbor?

Hardly, Trudy Rubin writes. This time, the perpetrator wont show his face. A7.

Early guesses point to bin Laden

The prime suspect is the fugitive Saudi Arabian terrorist believed to be in Afghanistan. A7.

Northeast transit in lockdown

For hours after the attacks, modes of transportation were out of commission. A10.

Bodies all over the place

New York rescue crews move to find survivors and recover the dead. A10.

A helicopter flies over the burning Pentagon. Glenn Flood, a Pentagon press officer, said the noise from the impact of the plane sounded like furniture being moved.

TOM HORAN / Associated Press

Trying to get word through

With phone lines jammed, anxiety rose for people trying to contact loved ones in Manhattan. A11.

Utter disbelief at the Pentagon

You think youre safe you cant imagine it here, one worker said of viewing the N.Y. raid. Then it happened.

Remembering the 1993 attack

When terrorists set off a bomb at the World Trade Center seven years ago, it was the worst event some people could imagine. A12.

A symbol falls under attack

The World Trade Center meant strength. The surprise: The towers could fall. A13.

By James Kuhnhenn

For Bush, a roundabout route

As a precaution, the President was taken to Louisiana and Nebraska before returning to Washington. A16.

The Presidents remarks

George Bush addresses the nation, saying: The search is under way for those who are behind these evil acts. A16.

Crews likely disabled first

Experts suspect terrorists overpowered pilots and flew the jets themselves to pull off the attacks. A18.

A monumental test for Bush

The plane crashes in New York and Washington shattered the complacency that had settled over the presidency. A19.

The economic fallout

The damage to markets is likely to be huge and widespread, but how long it will last remains a question. A19.

The electronic town square

Television offered Americans an opportunity to witness and grieve as never before. A20.

The information kept flowing

Despite the unprecedented number of calls and loss of some equipment in New York, there were no serious problems with telecommunications. A21.

Needed now: Prayer and unity

As they grieve, angry Americans must not let ideals become the next victim. Editorial, A26.

A nightmare come to life

Americans sense of how they fit into the world has been changed forever, columnist Larry Eichel writes. A27.

Looking into the face of atrocity

Teams everywhere take time-out

Play at every level, from the pros to high schools, is on hold while players and coaches cope. Sports

River Entrance Mall Entrance Location of plane crash Corridor One Entrance Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport Heliport Entrance
SOURCE: Inquirer Research

a An


295 95

To Our Readers
There is no Business section today because financial markets did not open after the terrorist attack in New York. The Food section was held out of the paper, and the local news sections were combined, so that we could focus more fully on coverage of this historic event.



7 267 66

Map Area


South Parking Entrance

Dulles International Airport



In reacting, what kind of nation do we want to be? columnist Jane Eisner asks. A28.

WASHINGTON Glenn Flood, a Pentagon press officer, heard a loud thump. I thought it was people moving furniture, he said. From nearby roads, stunned commuters immediately could see the real horror as a commercial airliner, flying low and fast from the west, slammed into the Pentagon, striking the fourth, fifth and sixth corridors of a building that is the symbol of U.S. might. Witnesses said two blasts sent a smoky fog through the Pentagons hallways, and Defense Department employees fled the building. We came out, and everyone was running, said a Pentagon employee who declined to give his name. You think youre safe just to see what happened at the World Trade Center and you cant imagine it happening here, and before you can get it out of your mouth, I felt the impact into the building. Last night, firefighters were still battling the blaze, and officials were not sure how many people might be dead or injured inside. The area hit by the aircraft was under renovation, and thus some offices might not have been occupied, officials said. Overall, 24,000 people work in the Pentagon. If were lucky it would have been more lightly populated than normal, said Rear Adm. Craig Quigley, a Pentagon spokesman who talked to reporters at a gasoline station across the street from the building. Within 30 minutes of the plane crash at the Pentagon, officials began evacuating major government buildings, from the White House to the Capitol to the State Department. Congressional leaders were sent to a secure government facility 75 miles west of Washington. They returned in the evening, and the House and Senate each planned to convene at 10 a.m. today to pass resolutions condemning the attacks. They then will recess until tomorrow morning, when normal business resumes. As evening fell on the capital, about 150 lawmakers from both the Senate and the House of Representatives gathered on the east steps of the Capitol. When America suffers and when people perpetrate acts against this country, we as a Congress and as a government stand united, House Speaker J. Dennis Hastert (R., Ill.) said. Then, as the House and Senate leaders were leaving, the members broke into God Bless America. There were tears in the eyes of many members. We havent seen such destruction on our ground since the Civil War, historian David McCullough said as he emerged from George Washington University Hospital, where he had gone to donate blood. By noon, yellow police tape outlined security perimeters around the White House and the Capitol. The buildings within were vacant; the streets empty. The silence was broken only by the persistent wail of sirens. At key intersections near the White House, Secret Service officers

The plane that crashed into the Pentagon ripped through the fourth, fifth and sixth
corridors of the building. The area hit was being renovated, officials said. watched warily, perching their shotguns against their hips or cradling automatic weapons. Roads leading out of the nations capital quickly became clogged with commuters as the government sent home all nonessential workers. Inbound lanes on bridges leading into Washington were closed. Workers traveling out of the city over the Potomac River could see the plumes of smoke still rising from the Pentagon.

SCOTT S. HAMRICK / Inquirer Suburban Staff

Outside the Capitol, Rep. David Dreier (R., Calif.) examined his prearranged schedule for the day. It included a White House barbecue last night. It all seems so irrelevant now, he said. Folks, this whole area has been shut down, a National Parks police officer yelled as people approached the Capitol. Go to the Metro [subway], and go home! Police also cordoned off Union StaPE NN

tion, two blocks from the Capitol, and Amtrak officials discontinued service in and out of Washington. District of Columbia Mayor Anthony Williams declared a state of emergency in the city, and hospitals in the region were put on maximum alert. Early reports said at least 40 people had been admitted to area hospitals with a variety of injuries. Sen. Charles E. Grassley (R., Iowa) walked somberly outside a Senate office building, noting that U.S. counterterrorism officials had quashed a suspected millennium-celebration bomb attack against Seattles landmark Space Needle. You can get kind of smug and say you have a pretty good intelligence operation, Grassley said. I dont want to pass judgment. This just raises questions. Sen. Sam Brownback (R., Kan.) slipped into St. Josephs Catholic Church on Capitol Hill during noon Mass for a moment of reflection and prayer. Well be operating differently after today, he said.
James Kuhnhenns e-mail address is This article includes information from Inquirer wire services.

There is no defense plan to thwart a suicide strike on the capital. A5.

Pentagon Attacked
About 9:45 a.m., American Airlines Flight 77, a Boeing 757 en route from Dulles International Airport to Los Angeles, was hijacked and crashed into the Pentagon. Roosevelt Island
T. Roosevelt Memorial 66 Bridge






White House














Lincoln Memorial

Washington Monument


U.S. Capitol

Arlington Memorial Bridge


Jefferson Memorial Arlington National Cemetery




George Mason/ Rochambeau Bridge



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Arland D. Willams Jr. Bridge

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MILES 0 10

AARON STECKELBERG / Inquirer Staff Artist

Wednesday, September 12, 2001


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I dont think there are enough words in the English language to describe the range of emotions that I as a Pennsylvanian feel after witnessing what may be the most brutal act of terrorism in American history.
Gov. Ridge

Pennsylvania State Trooper Jeff Lewis stands guard over the scene of the plane crash in Stonycreek, Pa. Investigators were surveying the damage and searching the debris yesterday.

LAURENCE KESTERSON / Inquirer Suburban Staff

Crash in Pa.: We are being hijacked!

A panicked passenger made a phone call before the plane went down south of Pittsburgh. The FBI is probing links.
By Thomas Fitzgerald and Diane Mastrull

STONYCREEK, Pa. A United Airlines jet crashed here yesterday shortly after 10 a.m. about 80 miles southeast of Pittsburgh after an emergency dispatcher picked up a call from a panicked passenger who shouted: We are being hijacked! The Boeing 757 had 38 passengers, two pilots and five flight attendants on board. The FBI said it was reviewing tapes of the 911 call. At this point, were not prepared to say it was an act of terrorism, though it appears to be that, FBI agent Wells Morrison said. An investigation will continue today into the link between the crash of United Flight 93 and the two acts of apparent terrorism that destroyed the World Trade Center and damaged the Pentagon. Another passenger on the plane, Tom Burnett of Pleasanton, Calif., also made a phone call, the San Jose Mercury News reported. Burnett, the father of three children, called his wife, Deena, and indicated that he and other passengers were about to attempt to overpower the hijackers. Burnett told his wife that somebody on the plane had been stabbed, said Father Frank Colacicco of St. Isidores Church in Danville, Calif. Were all gonna die, but three of us are going to do something, Burnett told his wife, according to Colacicco. He added, I love you, honey, before the call ended. Though the FBI did not confirm the terrorism link, members of Congress were speculating freely. Rep. James Moran (D., Va.) told the Associated Press after a Marine Corps briefing in Washington that Flight 93 apparently was intended for Camp David, the presidential retreat in the mountains of Maryland. The crash site was 85 miles northwest of Camp David. Later, during a conference call with reporters gathered at the Johnstown airport, Rep. John P. Murtha (D., Pa.), in whose district United Flight 93 went down, disputed that notion. He suggested the plane was bound for other targets. Gov. Ridge flew over the crash site in Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, yesterday. Its a despicable, unconscionable, immoral act, he said of the attack on the airplanes crew and passengers. There is no rational explanation for this because we dont resolve our differences this way in our country, he said. Ridge declared the site a disaster area, which will speed federal and state assistance in recovering victims remains and cleaning up the site.

Officials from the National Transportation Safety Board, the FBI, and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, along with local police, combed through scorched fields and woods littered with plane debris and bodies trying to determine what brought down the airplane. About 100 state police troopers had roped off an area about five miles in radius around the crash site. Reporters were bused to an area less than a half-mile from the crash site, passing fields of goldenrod and corn that had abruptly turned to charred ruin. The crash site was unmistakable: a gouge eight to 10 feet deep in a hillside, with shards of metal glittering from within. Farther down the hill were heavy woods where police believe most of the plane and the bodies came to rest. Trees there were still smoldering by mid-afternoon, with paper and plastic bags hanging from branches. The biggest piece I saw was about one foot in diameter, said state police Trooper Tom Spallone, describing wreckage he had found in the woods. Coroners from around the state were at the site, a former strip mine, to help identify the dead. They did not expect to be able to start their work until today. Flight 93, which took off from Newark, N.J., bound for San Francisco, at 8:01 a.m., crashed while under orders to land as part of a nationwide shutdown of commercial air traffic. The order, cancelling departing flights and directing all planes in the air to land at the nearest airport, followed the crash of two planes into the World Trade Center in New York City and a third into part of the Pentagon outside of Washington. John Hugya, administrative assistant to Murtha, said the plane flew past Pittsburgh to Cleveland, and then turned back east and flew briefly before crashing. As it did, a passenger was calling for help. We are being hijacked; we are being hijacked, Glenn Cramer, a supervisor at the Westmoreland County dispatch center, read from a transcript of the call, received at 9:58 a.m. The passenger, a man, said he was locked in a bathroom on the flight. Stressing that the call was not a prank, the passenger reported hearing an explosion, seeing smoke and feeling that the plane was going down, Cramer said. Then, he said, we lost contact with him.
Diane Mastrulls e-mail address is

Departure cities Where planes crashed



8:27 a.m.

American Airlines Flight 11 (departs 7:59 a.m.)

Lake Erie




9:39 a.m.


United Airlines Flight 93 (departs 8:01 a.m.)

United Airlines Flight 175 CONN. (departs 7:58 a.m.)

8:59 a.m.



Harrisburg Philadelphia

New York City

American Airlines Flight 77 (departs 8:10 a.m.)

W. VA.

WashingtonDulles Intl. Airport



Baltimore Washington

Contact with American Airlines Flight 77 was lost at 8:56 a.m. The plane later crashed into the Pentagon.

The Pentagon

Timeline of a Nation Under Attack

that two of its planes have crashed.

7:58 a.m.: United Airlines Flight 175 departs Boston for Los Angeles.
leaves Boston for Los Angeles.

7:59 a.m.: American Airlines Flight 11

8:01 a.m.: United Airlines Flight 93 flies out of Newark, N.J., for San Francisco. 8:10 a.m.: American Airlines Flight 77 leaves Washington-Dulles International Airport for Los Angeles.
slams into the One World Trade Center, the north tower.

9:58 a.m.: A passenger, locked in a bathroom aboard the hijacked United Flight 93, uses his cell phone to call an emergency dispatcher in Westmoreland County, Pa., telling him, We are being hijacked. We are being hijacked. The man told dispatchers the plane was going down. 10 a.m.: The south tower of the World
Trade Center the building hit by the second plane collapses. evacuated.

Noon: The President arrives aboard Air

Force One at Barksdale Air Force Base near Shreveport, La. Laura Bush was taken to an undisclosed bunker near Washington. Vice President Cheney and National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice go to a secure place in the White House.

Noon: U.S. borders with Canada and

Mexico are partially closed.

8:45 a.m.: American Airlines Flight 11

10:05 a.m.: The White House is 10:10 a.m.: A large section of the
Pentagon collapses.

1 p.m.: Bush goes on TV from

9:03 a.m.: A second plane, crashes into Two World Trade Center, the south tower. The plane is presumed to be United Flight 175. 9:05 a.m.: President Bush, reading with children in a class in Sarasota, Fla., is told about the attack by Chief of Staff Andrew H. Card Jr. 9:18 a.m.: The FAA shuts down all New York-area airports.
Sarasota, makes a statement promising to hunt down those responsible for the attack.

Louisiana and vows to punish the attackers. Freedom itself was attacked this morning and I assure you freedom will be defended, Bush says.

10:10 a.m.: United Flight 93 crashes

into a wooded area in Somerset County in western Pennsylvania, 80 miles southeast of Pittsburgh. flights are diverted to Canada.

1:30 p.m.: Bush leaves Barksdale Air Force Base for Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska for a teleconference with his National Security Council. 2:51 p.m.: The Navy dispatches missile destroyers and other equipment to New York and Washington. 3 p.m.: Bush arrives at Offutt Air Force Base. 5:20 p.m.: Seven World Trade Center collapses. The evacuated 47-story building was damaged when the tower above it collapsed. 6 p.m. Explosions begin north of the
Afghan capital of Kabul, but American officials say the United States was not responsible.

10:25 a.m.: Incoming transatlantic 10:29 a.m.: The World Trade Centers
north tower the building hit by the first plane collapses.

9:20 a.m.: President Bush, from

10 a.m.-11:30 a.m.: Evacuation of

9:21 a.m.: Bridges and tunnels leading into New York City are closed.
national groundstop of all civil air flights.

9:25 a.m.: The FAA issues a first-ever

9:45 a.m.: A third plane American Airlines Flight 77 crashes into the western side of the five-story Pentagon building, hitting between the first and second floors. 9:48 a.m.: The U.S. Capitol is evacuated. 9:55 a.m.: Bush leaves Sarasota.
SOURCES: Flight; Inquirer research; wire reports

government buildings around the country and closing of national landmarks, monuments and attractions. New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani calls for the evacuation of lower Manhattan. Medical personnel make urgent pleas for blood for New York City and Washington. New York City issues a call for police and fire help. confirms that two of its planes are missing.

6:56 p.m.: Bush arrives in Washington from Nebraska. 8:30 p.m.: In an address to the nation, Bush condemns the attacks as despicable evil and says that those responsible would reap the justice of a great country.
JOHN DUCHNESKIE / Inquirer Staff Artist

11:18 a.m.: American Airlines

11:59 a.m.: United Airlines confirms

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Wednesday, September 12, 2001

[Such an attack] takes a logistics operation that is second to none. Only a very small handful of terror groups is on that list.
Chris Yates, an aviation expert at Jane's Transport magazine.

Terrorists strike symbols of U.S. culture, capitalism


In Greenwich, Conn., Sergio Paniaqua cries as he listens to the news of terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center in New
York. A woman in Ohio said: Im very afraid. I dont feel safe, a thought shared by many amid yesterdays events.

ROBERT LUCKEY JR. / Associated Press

Attack reverberates around the nation


Many Americans expressed fear as buildings closed.

By Tom Infield

College students at Notre Dame were advised to stay in their dorms. Disneyland was closed. Army Reservists were called to their armory in Aberdeen, S.D. Everywhere, Americans lined up to donate blood. The United States reacted yesterday as a nation under attack. Were at war, were absolutely at war. This is 21st-century war, said U.S. Rep. Curt Weldon, a Delaware County Republican, speaking from Washington. Its the most god-awful wake-up call weve ever had, said Sen. Joseph R. Biden Jr., a Delaware Democrat. The month and day 9-11 seemed all too appropriate. In communities around the country, the closings of many schools, the declarations of local emergency, the heightened security at power plants, the interruption of mail delivery in some areas it reminded older Americans of the futility, the frustration that had followed Pearl Harbor nearly 60 years ago. In Nashville, a World War II veteran attending a reunion of sailors from the USS Intrepid aircraft carrier, said: I feel like going to war again. A New Yorker with friends who work at the World Trade Center said: We have to come together like 41 go after them. Feelings about them grew angrier as the day unfolded. Find out whoever did it and wipe em off the map, said construction worker Lonnie Sullivan, 27, in Bradenton, Fla., a few miles from the school where President Bush had cut short a morning visit. We find them and we take them out, agreed Bradenton bail bondsman Dan Evans, 52. Thats the only way we can stop this stuff. In Denver, where emergency officials huddled in a bombproof bunker, city spokesman Andrew Hudson said: I dont think theres any place in America right now thats not at risk. Surely, some of the reaction was overblown. Surely, most Americans were hardly at risk. But who could know what would happen next? The need to react in some way, any way, was overwhelming. State and city officials closed city halls and courts, kept police officers and firefighters on overtime, and urged companies to let their employees leave early. In Chicago, the John Hancock Center and other buildings were shut within an hour of the New York disaster. In Los Angeles, police erected barricades to prevent cars from parking near major buildings. Across the country, workers in high-rises were among the first sent home. Almost everywhere in America, phone lines jammed as people tried to reach loved ones, even in places a thousand miles from the attacks. Parents ached to hold their children close. Im very afraid. I dont feel safe, said Charlin Sims, taking a cigarette break outside her office in downtown Columbus, Ohio. I want to hug my son. In Kansas City, Mo., a woman in a navy dress walked outside of One Kansas City Place, her face ashen. She

and Stacey Sanchez hug after a noon prayer meeting for the terrorism victims. started crying, alone. Her sister, she said, was inside the Pentagon and could not be reached. Strangers gave the woman a hug. Above them towered Missouris tallest building. If theyre going to hit somewhere in the Midwest, it could be here, Tracie Mitchell said. It makes you uneasy. Its scary. College students, often far from home for the first time in their lives, felt particularly vulnerable. At Howard University in Washington, a 10-minute subway ride from the Pentagon, students were ordered at 10:45 a.m. to stay in their dorms. A mood of uncertainty and some fear pervaded the campus, said Lisa Wade, a freshman from Cheltenham Township, Montgomery County. Many students on my floor are actually packing up, and their parents are coming to take them home, said Wade, who was in the university bookstore when a TV monitor first showed the Pentagon being hit. Another student on her dorm floor in the Harriet Tubman Quadrangle, she said, was desperately trying to find out the condition of her brother and uncle, who she believed to have been in New Yorks World Trade Center when it was attacked. Students are having trouble calling out, Wade said. At 11 a.m., about 600 miles from Washington and 700 miles from New York, University of Notre Dame officials in South Bend, Ind., canceled classes and urged students and faculty to remain on campus and pray. The Rev. Edward Malloy, the schools president, said counselors would help students struggling with their emotions. Students at Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kan., skipped class to gather at television sets, sometimes with professors blessings. It seems ridiculous that I would stand in front of my class talking about Plato when something this important is going on, said Laurie Bagby, a political science professor. Any large public gathering seemed a risk. Broadway stages went dark. Major league baseball postponed its games. A ceremony to introduce the new lights at the Jefferson Memorial was canceled. Two sentences in a statement from the Union of American Hebrew Congregations captured the national mood. After today, said Rabbi Eric H. Yoffie, the unions president, we know that our lives in America will never be the same. In ways large and small, our world has irreparably changed.
Tom Infields e-mail address is

At Southern Methodist University in Dallas, students Becca Panoff (facing away)

RYAN DONNELL / Dallas Morning News

So America becomes, as the late Ayatollah Khomeni called it, The The late Colombian cocaine kingpin Great Satan. Pablo Escobar, one of the most violent You dont need to be a rocket scienterrorists of modern times, put it suc- tist to understand the roots of such cinctly. hatred, said an Iranian graduate stuTerrorism is the atom bomb for dent who asked not to be named. I the poor, he said, referring to those think the closest analogy is to a slave who are enemies of the wealthy na- revolt. Slave revolts are always espetions of the world. cially bloody, violent affairs because The coordinated attacks on the the slaves seek to exact retribution World Trade Center and the Pentagon from their masters. For decades now, yesterday lacked the destructive po- civilians in Arab countries are being tential of a nuclear weapon, but the killed all the time, and the world impact was tantamount to one. doesnt react with outrage. So a kind Americans, finding it hard to fath- of primitive, biblical logic takes over. om the determined hatred that would An eye for an eye. drive anyone to carefully plan and That could explain the celebrations execute such acts, are asking: Why in some parts of the West Bank and us? Gaza yesterday. The World Trade Center is a symWhats happening in America is a bol of American capitalism, and from natural punishment for its continuthe point of view of probable terror- ous aggression on the weak and poor ists, a symbol of American deca- people in the world, said Abdullah dence, said Jim Hedtke, chairman of Shami, a senior political leader for the history and political science de- the Islamic Jihad in Gaza City. The partment at Cabrini College. FBI, the CIA and all the military The victims in the could not prevent what planes and the buildings happened today. were not the real targets The attacks What is being attacked of the attack. The intend- lacked the is our democracy and our ed victims were you and way of life, said George destructive me. Joulwon, a retired U.S. Most speculation about force of a Army general and former the attacks concerned the nuclear bomb. Supreme Allied CommandMiddle East, where disafer of NATO, who actually fected Arab groups have The impact was saw the hijacked commerlong blamed the United equal to one. cial plane crash into the States for their plight. In Pentagon yesterday. I the case of Palestinian exspent 22 years of my catremists, America is the prime sup- reer living outside of this country, so port for the state of Israel. In the case I see it maybe better than most. Our of Iraq, the United States led the coali- way of life doesnt exist in most parts tion that drove Saddam Husseins forc- of the world, and that fosters admiraes from Kuwait, and which daily en- tion, but it also fosters resentment forces punishing sanctions includ- and anger. ing bombing missions that have killed Retired U.S. Army Gen. Wayne civilians in recent days. Downing, who served as commander America bears responsibility for in chief of the Special Operations Comits actions and clear support of aggres- mand, said that yesterdays attacks sive nations like Israel, said Asem had not gone unpredicted. Mussafar, a psychology graduate stuNo one could have foreseen the dent in the West Bank town of Ramal- precise tactics employed, but those lah. I hope America will understand of us in the special operations commuthis message today. nity have been warning about this The message goes beyond the obvi- growing threat for years, he said. A ous political ones. More traditional lot of solutions have been proposed, cultures are deeply threatened by the too, but they were all rejected, disrapid worldwide spread of American missed as too extreme, or too dangerculture, which includes everything ous. So what we end up with is somefrom cinema, television, clothing, and thing 10 times as bad as Pearl Harfast food to basic values such as de- bor. mocracy, individual freedom, personWeve been very fortunate in the al rights, and a strictly secular state. U.S. to have avoided such an attack up To some extent, America is being until now, considering how easy it is made a victim of its own success, to access our civilian infrastructure, said Ahmad Chalabi, a member of the which is not protected in a democratIraqi National Congress, an organiza- ic, free society, said Steve Cimbala, a tion of Iraqi expatriates opposed to professor of political science at Pennthe regime of Hussein. sylvania State University. There are Chalabi believes that the threat a lot of targets, and it would be imposAmerica poses to more traditional cul- sible to protect them all. tures strikes in their homes. So such a highly visible attack sucAmerica has a huge appeal to ceeds by making all of America feel young people all over the world, he vulnerable. said. They want more and more freeIt is that sense of vulnerability, dom. They want to dress like Ameri- powerlessness and anger that the tercans, talk like Americans. And societ- rorists are hoping to instill, the Iraniies that lack a credible, equally attrac- an student said. They are saying, tive alternative feel like their world is This is how we feel. being undermined by this power they They are expecting side effects cannot stop. like fear, panic, and national paralysis to set in, Cimbala said. Lotteries Pennsylvania
DAILY Sept. 11............................................9 5 2 BIG 4 Sept. 11 ........................................1 7 9 2 CASH 5 Sept. 11........................11 14 16 25 39 SUPER 6 Sept. 08 ................19 24 39 53 56 57

By Mark Bowden

Mark Bowdens e-mail address is

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Taylor Wickstrom takes a flag from his


mother, Kari Kallio, during a rally in Riverfront Park in Spokane, Wash. Many said the terror was an act of war.

Wednesday, September 12, 2001



[The perpetrators were] terrorists who do not believe in democracy, people who believe that with the destruction of buildings, with the murder of people, they can somehow achieve a political purpose.
Secretary of State Colin L. Powell

Washington is an unprotected target

How is it possible an air attack could be made on the Pentagon? Simple. Theres nothing in place to stop it.

By Steve Goldstein

WASHINGTON The most brazen attack on the United States since Pearl Harbor yesterday struck at a target in the heart of the nations capital. How was this possible? How could a hijacked airliner fly through Washington air space and crash into the Pentagon, the five-sided symbol of American military might? Even an hour after the first plane struck the World Trade Center, how could the nerve center of the nations defense system remain so exposed? The simple, if tragic, answer is that there is no air defense program designed to thwart a suicide strike by an aircraft on the main governmental core of Washington. Until September 1994, when a Maryland truck driver with a history of mental illness flew a stolen Cessna two-seater onto the White House grounds, killing himself, there was no plan to defend against such an incident. Now, according to experts and informed governmental officials, Secret Service agents have access to shoulder-fired ground-to-air missiles that can be fired from the roof of the Executive Mansion. Shortly before the Cessna incident, author Tom Clancy published a novel titled Debt of Honor, in which a vengeful Japanese pilot flies a 747 at the U.S. Capitol. Air defense around Washington is provided mainly by fighter planes from Andrews Air Force base near the Maryland-District border. The D.C. Air National Guard is also based there and is equipped with F-16 fighter planes, a National Guard spokesman said. But those planes only took to the skies over Washington in the aftermath of yesterdays devastating attack. The Pentagon presented a target of opportunity because it lies directly in the flight path to nearby Ronald Reagan National Airport. They did not target the White House, or the Capitol, said a former official with the National Security Council who asked not to be identified. You can fly right over the Penta-

evacuated from the site. The Pentagon presented a target of opportunity because it lies directly in the flight path to nearby Ronald Reagan National Airport. gon. You can fly 150 feet over the 14th Street Bridge [over the Potomac River] or take out the bridge. Theres no way to stop this. The idea of using missiles to knock down enemy planes around Washington went out of vogue in the 1950s, according to Dale B. Oderman, a retired Air Force colonel and a professor of aviation technology at Purdue University. Its a huge expense, and the question has always been: What targets do you protect? Oderman said. Its not a question that was even being asked until today. But many questions will likely be asked in the coming weeks and months, as Congress assesses what steps it must take to protect the capital and whether anti-terrorism strategy has been misguided. Although the federal government has spent tens of millions of dollars in the past decade on so-called homeland-defense programs designed to thwart terrorist attacks, the programs have been heavily focused on the use of chemical and biological weapons, which are considered to be highly effective in causing

A Metropolitan Police helicopter hovers over a field west of the Pentagon. People injured when a hijacked airliner crashed into the building yesterday were being

SCOTT S. HAMRICK / Inquirer Suburban Staff

destruction, said: This should be a transforming event in the way America evaluates its national security threats.

Flames and smoke pour from the Pentagon. Of the coordinated attacks, Joseph Cirincione, an expert on weapons of mass

JUD McCREHIN / Associated Press

counterterrorism chief with the FBI panic and mass casualties. That thinking may have expired yes- who is now working for a private international security firm, said that deterday. The terrorists caused thousands of fending against kamikaze air attacks casualties not with chemical, biologi- on Washington is extremely difficult. If someone in an aircraft particucal or nuclear agents, but with aviation fuel, said Joseph Cirincione, an larly a jet aircraft is intent on crashexpert on weapons of mass destruc- ing into a building, theres little you tion with the Carnegie Endowment for can do to prevent it, Blitzer said. International Peace. No one had an- You have all those planes coming ticipated or predicted attacks on the down the river, what does it take [for scale, and with the coordination of the a pilot] to divert? Even if it was the explosions in New York and Washing- White House, what would prevent a ton. But experts had warned of the suicidal terrorist from taking a sharp possibility for years, particularly af- left on his approach into National. Its sad but true, but we live in a ter the first attack on the World Trade free society, Blitzer said. Center [in 1993] came so Experts who consult close to collapsing the with the federal governbuilding with convention- Experts agree ment on anti-terrorist al truck bombs. that there is strategies said the kinds This should be a transof measures needed to proforming event in the way little that can vide protection against America evaluates its na- be done to such air attacks might be tional security threats, prevent inconsistent with a demoCirincione said. cratic society. In fact, on Monday, Sen- kamikaze-type If you want the totality ate Foreign Relations Comof security and protection, mittee Chairman Joseph air attacks. then you need the instituR. Biden Jr. (D., Del.) presaged the attack in a scathing critique tion of totalitarian measures, like marof the Bush administrations plans for tial law, said one consultant who said his government contract mandated ana national missile defense system. We will have diverted all that mon- onymity. In America, you can pay ey to address the least likely threat the price for freedom of movement. The consultant, who assisted the while the real threats come into this country in the hold of a ship, or the government in preparing a security belly of a plane, or are smuggled into plan for George W. Bushs inauguraa city in the middle of the night in a tion earlier this year said it required a special declaration from the Federal vial in a backpack, Biden said. Some terrorism experts depicted Aviation Administration to close the yesterdays attacks as a catastrophic airspace near the U.S. Capitol just beintelligence failure, despite huge ef- fore the noon swearing-in Jan. 20. This is a worst-case scenario that forts by the CIA and other U.S. government agencies to track the move- no one ever thought would happen ments of terrorist leaders such as Osa- and its happened, the consultant ma bin Laden and eavesdrop on their said. conversations. How nothing could have been Inquirer wire services contributed to this picked up is beyond me, said Ken- article. neth Katzman, a terrorism expert at the Congressional Research Service. Steve Goldsteins e-mail address is Robert Blitzer, a veteran former

Anonymous villains and civilian targets add to the evil

crashing before it reaches its target. Waking up to a glorious September day, we watch the horror unfold, live on television. The crash of the airliners, the collapse of the two towers, the volcanic plumes of dust, the rising flames, the wail of a hundred sirens. Death everywhere. Comparisons with Dec. 7, 1941, are inevitable but inexact. Both involved carefully planned, meticulously executed surprise attacks by foreign forces. But the Japanese pilots who attacked Pearl Harbor had military targets and military goals. Their aim was to cripple the U.S. fleet until Japan could conquer what it wanted in the Far East. Of the nearly 2,500 Americans killed in Hawaii that day, all but a handful were sailors or soldiers. The aim of yesterdays attacks was pure terror. The perpetrators wanted to bring this nation to its knees not physically, but surely psychologically. They succeeded. Unlike 60 years ago, most of the targets were civilians. It was a slaughter of innocents. At this juncture, no one dares guess what the death count could be. You and I know, somewhere inside, that it will be in the thousands. Will it exceed D-Day, with its 6,600 Americans killed? The Korean War, with its 33,000 Americans dead in combat? My heart is too sick to guess. But surely, Sept. 11 will go down as the day with the largest loss of life in U.S. history. By the time the last funeral is held, there will be few Americans untouched by the injuries or deaths. A parent, a spouse, a relative, a friend, a cousin, an old roommate, a business associate. Everyone will know someone who knew someone who was hurt or died. We will have perverse proof of the six degrees of separation. Like Pearl Harbor, people will remember for years where they were when they heard. I was at the kitchen table, tapping at my computer. My wife yelled down from her upstairs office, urgency in her voice: Youd better turn on the TV now. I did, just in time to see the second plane hit the Trade Center. A fireball, followed by dense smoke. Horror happens in real time these days. In 1941, it was hours before Americans heard of the attack, weeks before there were newsreel accounts. My first reaction? Fear that this could be the first of many attacks, perhaps in a number of cities. Fear, not for myself, but for our children, recently departed for school. Everyone felt that clutch of fear. That was the intent of the attacks. They could have been staged at midnight and had great effect. Instead,

I am a man of words at a loss for words to describe how I feel about this new Day of Infamy. Disbelief, horror, disgust, fear. All of them will do, but none of them will do. They are too pallid, too weak. Like the soldiers who liberated the concentration camps after World War II, many of us are driven to silence. The enormity of the evil demands it. It suffocates the spirit; it stills the tongue. Can these awful events be a product of the human mind? They seem more the province of the devil. The work of monsters. How else to explain the elegant coldness of the plan: four airliners hijacked, two to ram the twin towers of the World Trade Center in Manhattan; a third to take dead aim at the Pentagon; a fourth to destroy the White House or the Capitol, but mercifully

the attackers waited until the buildings were at their most crowded. This enemy wanted an astonishing body count. Objective achieved. Once the shock wears off, inevitably, the nation will rise up angry. After all, this is an act of war. But, by whom? There was no doubt in 1941. Those planes were emblazoned with the Rising Sun. Whom do we declare war on today? A hundred terrorists, in a dozen different cities? Our enemy fades in the shadows, out of reach of justice or revenge. And that leaves us with our fears that it could happen again, maybe closer to home. This is the punishment that terrorism exacts upon civilization. This is the lasting evil of the events of Sept. 11.
Tom Ferricks e-mail address is

Wednesday, September 12, 2001



This mass terrorism is the new evil in our world today. It is perpetrated by fanatics who are utterly indifferent to the sanctity of human life.
British Prime Minister Tony Blair

Worldview Trudy Rubin

Not enough attention paid to low-tech terrorist threat

America has the best military in the world, but we werent prepared for the kind of war that was unleashed on us yesterday. Our armed services are geared up to fight two simultaneous wars. The Pentagon is focused on retooling the military for high-tech battles and defense against long-range missiles. But as we learned to our horror they have paid far too little attention to the low-tech terrorist threat. The warnings were out there. Last December, a high-level report by the National Intelligence Council warned: The main threats to U.S. territory over the coming 15 years will likely come from terrorists and other adversaries using low-tech war tools. The council calls this asymmetric warfare. In other words, a weaker foe tries to circumvent U.S. military strengths by exploiting U.S. weaknesses. The enemy takes advantage of an open society that allows people to move freely, including those bent on terror, and uses easily available materials to attack highly symbolic sites. But our intelligence and counterintelligence agencies obviously didnt put sufficient resources into meeting this challenge. They had no inkling of a staggering plot that involved four hijackings, and must have had a large support network within our borders. This exceeds in scope anything the intelligence community anticipated, former presidential national security adviser Samuel R. Berger said. No one expected there was a group with this level of capability that could launch this kind of coordinated attacks, the noted terrorism expert Anthony Cordesman added. Yet a string of low-tech terrorist attacks against Americans during the 90s had already shown how asymmetric warfare can hurt the worlds most powerful nation. 8 In 1993, a loose group of Islamic radicals exploded a truck bomb in a parking lot under the World Trade Center towers, causing huge damage but mercifully few casualties. Had the truck been placed more strategically near support columns, the towers would have collapsed back then. 8 In 1995, Timothy McVeigh carried out the Oklahoma City bombing with a truck bomb. 8 In 1996, a truck bomb was used to attack a U.S. military barracks in Saudi Arabia. 8 In 1998, radical Islamic terrorists linked to the international terror leader Osama bin Laden simultaneously exploded bombs at two U.S. embassies in east Africa. 8 In 1999, a routine check at the U.S.-Canadian border caught an Algerian terrorist with a car full of bomb material, who then unraveled an Algerian network that aimed to bomb the Los Angeles airport. This galvanized U.S. and European agencies to round up other members of the Algerian group in Europe and India who planned to attack other U.S. targets and who were also believed to have

Although Osama bin Laden apparently has the resources for yesterdays strike,

Associated Press

the Taliban in Afghanistan, where he is thought to live, condemned the attack.

Early guesswork points to elusive Osama bin Laden

By Larry King

to address the nation about the World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks. ties to bin Laden. 8 In 2000, a small boat crammed with explosives and two suicide pilots rammed the destroyer USS Cole at a port stop in Yemen, killing 17 sailors, an unprecedented attack on a U.S. military vessel. American officials believe, but cannot prove, that this attack was also linked to bin Ladens network. The existence of the Algerian network reportedly caught U.S. intelligence unawares. Ditto, the bombing of the Cole and yesterdays outrages. Why, we must ask? Why? Some will say the terrorist threat has changed, and is harder to unravel. It no longer revolves primarily around tightly knit terror groups with political objectives, backed by states such as the Soviet Union, East Germany, Syria, Iraq and Iran. When terror was state-backed, pressure could be exerted on those states. The new brand of terrorism is more decentralized, involving individual malcontents such as McVeigh or loose networks of radical Islamists who see America as the Great Satan. Primary among these is the loose network loyal to the elusive bin Laden, who hides out in a remote region of Afghanistan, a wild, broken country seemingly impervious to U.S. pressure and sanctions. Such groups are hard to penetrate with agents; we lack the language skills and the right kind of manpower. And satellite intelligence cant substitute for human intelligence. As for bin Laden, the chief suspect in yesterdays outrages, he is hard to reach. He is protected by the fanatically pure Islamic regime of the Afghan Taliban regime and its leader, Mullah Omar. We bombed his Afghan bases in retaliation for the embassy attacks but failed to take him out. No one knows for sure whether bin Laden ordered yesterdays attacks. But Abdel-Bari Atwan, the editor of the London-based Arab newspaper alQuds al-Arabi, said he received information three weeks ago that bin Lad-

Air Force One sits on the tarmac under tight security after President Bush arrived

DOUG MILLS / Associated Press

In the aftermath of yesterdays bombings, senior intelligence offiEven before all the missing planes cials began sifting through the mounhad crashed and killed, the specula- tains of information that American spies and satellites have been collecttion began: Who could have done it? In this devastating instance, the ing on bin Laden and his loose-knit question seems as much one of means organization, often called al Qaeda, or the base surveillance photos, tranas of conscience. The suicide hijackings were so well- scripts of phone calls, reports from planned and synchronized and their CIA agents. What they found is deeply troutargets so symbolic of American wealth and power that some ex- bling: Since May, there had been nuperts suspect the attack had to be merous warnings that bin Laden or another terrorist leader was preparstate-sponsored terrorism. The coordination necessary to ing a major campaign against Amerihave four planes hijacked suggests cans, but all the intelligence suggestnot only an organization, but one that ed that any attacks would come overhas a lot of money and a significant seas. But fingering bin Laden definitively number of people, said Michael Radu, an instructor and senior fellow and determining how to strike back with the Foreign Policy Research In- may not be easy, according to counterstitute in Philadelphia. And that, in terrorism experts. For instance, U.S. investigators susturn, suggests some sort of state inpected almost from the start that bin volvement. Radu and others caution that, until Laden was responsible for the Cole hard evidence appears, they only can attack, but nearly a year later they are still trying to prove their case. offer educated guesswork. Bin Ladens organization is not a A lot of people made this kind of speculation when Oklahoma City hap- tightly run terrorism group, but a loose network of sympapened, Radu said, and with cells in they were all wrong. A lot of people thizerscountries, fromdozens of the Still, the chief suspect Philippines to North Africlearly is Osama bin Lad- made this kind ca to Central Asia. Many en, the fugitive Saudi Ara- of speculation pass through training bian terrorist now believed to be in Afghani- when Oklahoma camps in Afghanistan. Some said stan. City happened terdays experts couldyesattacks not Bin Laden is the leadhave been the work of bin ing candidate, said a se- Laden alone. nior intelligence official I dont think he has the who requested anonymity. Michael Radu, Theres nothing hard, but foreign policy fellow infrastructure, by himself, to do this, Radu said. hes one of a very few peoWho might have joined him? I ple who would want to do this and who also has access to the tools and the think the most obvious candidate is Iraq, Radu said. The government of kind of people you need to do this. Bin Laden has the planning, organi- Iran, I dont think, is that irrational. zation and skills to commit such an And I dont think the Taliban has the act, not to mention a long-standing en- money. Afghanistans ruling Taliban movemity for this country, said Martha Crenshaw, a professor of government ment was among those condemning at Wesleyan University who has stud- the attack yesterday. But few were ied political terrorism extensively. It buying its claim that bin Laden could points not to an ad hoc, spur-of-the-mo- not have been at least partly responsiment, newly emergent group, but one ble. What happened in the United with some heft and ability, not just someone who recently developed States was not a job of ordinary peosome antipathy for the United States. ple, a Taliban spokesman said. That, plus bin Ladens link to the This could have been the act of either 1993 terrorist bombing of the World internal enemies of the United States Trade Center, singles him out, Cren- or its major rivals. Osama cannot do this. shaw said. Crenshaw, among others, disagrees. The United States already suspects I think he could bring it off himbin Laden of plotting the bombings of two U.S. embassies in Africa in 1998 self, she said. Thats not to say that that killed 224 people and the attack a foreign state could not do it, but I last year on the USS Cole in Yemen would say that this took more skill and time than money and false docuthat killed 17 American sailors. According to an Arab journalist ments and things like that. There is also the possible element with access to him, bin Laden warned last month that he and his followers of unfinished business: the 1993 trade would punish U.S. support of Israel center bombing that killed six, falling far short of yesterdays carnage. with an unprecedented attack. There were no foreign governIt is most likely the work of Islamic fundamentalists, said Abdel-Bari ments involved in the earlier attack, Atwan, editor of an Arabic-language Crenshaw said. Not that they were weekly news magazine in London. particularly skilled in that instance, Osama bin Laden warned three but it is conceivable that they might weeks ago that he would attack Ameri- have said, We will do a better job of it can interests in an unprecedented at- next time. The Pentagon and the trade center tack, a very big one. If bin Laden is responsible for the were targeted, Radu suggested, beattack, Michael Swetnam, a former cause there are no better symbols of U.S. intelligence official, said Presi- American economic and military domdent Bush must respond forcefully, if inance. necessary invading Afghanistan where hes hiding and seizing him. Larry Kings e-mail address is If theres ever an act of war, this is an act of war, Swetnam said. Were past the point where we talk about The Inquirer Washington Bureau and [responding with a handful of] cruise Inquirer wire services contributed to this missiles. article.

en would attack American interests in an unprecedented attack. Other signs point to bin Laden: the sophistication of the attack; the number of suicide bombers involved; and the fervent denials of his hosts, the Taliban, that he or they had anything to do with this outrage. Another possible sign of bin Laden involvement: Just days before the World Trade Center bombings, the most prominent Afghan opponent of the Taliban was apparently killed by two suicide bombers. I think the assassination and the World Trade [Center bombing] are interconnected, I was told by a well-informed Pakistani source. Having done [the Taliban] this huge favor, bin Laden has carte blanche from them to do the other yesterdays terrorist attacks without losing his safe haven in Afghanistan. His fingerprints are all over the place, the Pakistani source said. If so, the U.S. government must make him pay. This would require a concerted political and military effort by the United States, in coordination with its allies, to eliminate bin Laden. If there is strong evidence against him, any country that aids or shelters him should be considered at war with the United States. But whoever committed this monstrous attack, it is a belated, terrible warning that asymmetric warfare is a much bigger threat than our government previously imagined. The next band of terrorists could arrive with poison gas. Fighting back will require a serious reorganization of our counterterrorism effort at the presidential level. It requires a national debate over how to mesh security with our civic freedoms. It also requires a presidential focus on more immediate concerns than hightech space wars of the future. Thousands of people died because we underestimated the low-tech danger to our way of life.
Trudy Rubins e-mail address is

The explosion gouged a nine-story hole in the office building. It was one in a string of low-tech terrorist attacks in the 90s.

The north side of the Alfred Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was missing after a truck bomb exploded in 1995.

PAUL HELLSTERN / Daily Oklahoman

Wednesday, September 12, 2001



I saw people getting their heads split open. I saw people getting their backs crushed. Never in my life have I seen anything like this.
Brian Kelly, banker who works in the World Financial Center

The streets of New York were filled with people whose faces fully registered the shock, horror and sadness felt by people around the world watching the burning skyscrapers on television.

ERNESTO MORA / Associated Press

An unimaginable attack shakes a citys foundation

shook. We came here thinking it would be safe, he said, after scrambling over a wall and climbing a fence with his wife, Dinah, to get on a boat to Jersey City, across the Hudson River from the towers. Tugboats, ferries, water taxis and police boats bobbed in the light chop, as officials evacuated the southern tip of the island. Hundreds of people clambered aboard, many of them, Landskroner noted, from a riverbank walkway near the Holocaust Museum. Among the passengers was Monica Watt, the mother of a 5-year-old named Amanda who was in a wheelchair. Standing directly under Tower One with her son, William, 2, and Amanda, Watt feared they would be buried in debris. Suddenly, a stranger picked up Amanda, still in her chair, and ran with her toward a boat. Watt got on board, joining a flotilla that looked to one old-timer like the evacuation of Dunkirk, France, during World War II. In Liberty State Park in Jersey City, people stumbled off the boats, describing their escape from Manhattan, their eyes rimmed in red. Hundreds of ambulances from all over New Jersey awaited victims. Nearby, Datek Online Service, a Jersey City Internet company, opened its lobby to several hospitals, which set up receiving sites for the injured. As more and more people gathered in New Jersey, Staten Island commodities trader Eric Werner was on the verge of tears, worrying

CITY from A8 A burnt-gunpowder, acrid smell filled the air, and workers who were evacuated from the towers and nearby buildings covered their faces with handkerchiefs. A restaurateur near the World Trade Center tore up his linen tablecloths and handed them to people as they passed by. With cars and buses restricted from Lower Manhattan, the streets were filled with stunned pedestrians, trudging in pin-striped suits, wearing blank and vacant expressions. Caked in soot and dust, people moved stiffly like zombies from a horror movie, vainly trying to raise somebody, anybody, on cellular phones that were rendered useless, witnesses said. Massage therapist Maura Hurley, among the throng of people walking from the tower, said a woman suddenly ran up to her and exclaimed, I dont know you, but I feel like I need to hold onto somebody for a minute. Strangers tried to find comfort and assurance. People in buildings far from the towers streamed onto the street, seeking a kind of solace among neighbors they normally ignored. Visitors from politically troubled countries shook their heads. Terry McComish, a tourist from Northern Ireland, was shaken. Being from Belfast, he said, weve seen a few things blow up, but nothing like this. Yoram Landskroner, a visiting professor from Israel who lives across the street from the World Trade Center, fled with his wife when his walls

about his wife, Donna, who works in a building near the World Trade Center. I have no way of finding out if shes OK, he said with despair. The attack had a sickening echo for Werner, who had worked near the towers in February 1993, when terrorists bombed the buildings. New Yorkers such as Werner who had lived through this before, thinking they had seen the worst of terrorism, were left yesterday to rethink their definition of atrocity. As Werner spoke, F-16 fighter planes roared overhead, and warships steamed by, a show of might and a startling contrast to the expensive yachts and occasional dolphins normally found in the busy river. Hospitals in Manhattan were flooded with New Yorkers who wanted to help by donating blood. At St. Vincents hospital in Greenwich Village, the closest major hospital to the scene, officials turned away would-be donors because so many had already turned up. Ultimately, many people were left seething with anger, feeling rage against an unknown enemy for an unconscionable act. I feel violated, said Raymond Smith, a Hoboken artist who was sketching a picture of the dark cloud sitting where the World Trade Center used to be. I feel raped. I feel humiliated. This is just shameful what they did.
Alfred Lubranos e-mail address is

the devastation, one nurse said of the scene at the World Trade Center.

An emergency worker helps a woman injured in the attack. You cannot believe

GULNARA SAMIOLAVA / Associated Press

A10 C


Wednesday, September 12, 2001

I was too angry to just sit there and watch TV. I needed to do something, so thats why Im here.
Steve Forslund, 41, of Ludlow, Mass., who was waiting in line to donate blood

Philadelphia commuters dismissed early from work and school clogged Center City intersections like this one at 16th and Vine Streets. The trouble was temporary; by 2:30 p.m., the streets were nearly empty.

GERALD S. WILLIAMS / Inquirer Staff Photographer

For hours after terror attacks, Northeast travel meant trouble

Air and rail lines halted; highway traffic barely moved. Trains are now running, but flights wont resume until at least noon.
By Jere Downs

For five hours after terrorists attacked the World Trade Center, virtually every form of transportation in the Northeast went into lockdown. By midafternoon yesterday, however, the region was on the move again, if at a frustratingly slow pace. The Federal Aviation Administration has suspended all air traffic over the continental U.S. until at least noon today. But Amtrak service between Washington and New Haven, which had been halted shortly after 11 a.m., resumed at 2 p.m. A half-dozen lines in SEPTAs Regional Rail system, running between 30th Street Station and the western suburbs, had been shut down in conjunction with the Amtrak closure. But at 3 p.m., they were back on schedule. After the plane crashes, the New Jersey Turnpike was closed south of Newark. It reopened by 4:30 p.m., although the wall-to-wall traffic barely moved and still was barred from Hudson River crossings into Manhattan, such as the Holland and Lincoln Tunnels. They werent as lucky as legions of other commuters who, dismissed early from work and school, already were home. At 2:30 p.m., Center City Philadelphia was eerily quiet, the streets empty of cars that, just hours earlier, had converged in gridlock in an effort to get out. Instead of the usual tumult, the air was filled with the national anthem, issuing from a old blue sedan going west on JFK Boulevard at 15th Street. Anything could happen, said Phila-

delphia Highway Patrol Sgt. Jeff Ziernicki. People want to get home with their loved ones where they feel secure. Many found the going tough. On Pennsylvania highways such as I-80, huge flashing message signs warned New York-bound drivers: Major incident. Stay alert for multiple closings. Avoid New York City. Those headed south on I-95 were greeted with signs saying simply: Avoid Washington. Nationwide, an estimated 1.74 million air passengers the average weekday volume were forced to change plans. Grant Scanlen, 32, was on a flight from Chicago to Newark when the pilot announced that a plane had crashed into the World Trade Center. Looking out his window about 9 a.m., Scanlen recalled, We were watching the first tower and I saw this big orange flash. He had just witnessed the second plane strike. Sipping a drink at Lambertis bar at Philadelphia International Airport, to which his flight was diverted, Scanlen said he would not fly home. My wife is freaking out, he said. Im driving back. At the Airport Marriott, stranded passengers scrambled for rooms yesterday. By midmorning, the 419-room hotel was booked. Hotel workers set up coffee pots, televisions and tables in a nearby room for those without lodging. Were trying to accommodate people as best we can, said Bob Jones,

the general manager. Jeffrey St. Amour, a partner at PriceWaterhouseCoopers L.L.P., boarded Amtraks crowded 8:56 a.m. Acela train at 30th Street Station. About 15 minutes outside Newark, it stopped. They said it was some mechanical problem that could be fixed in a few minutes, he said. But the train didnt budge. We looked out the window, St. Amour said. We watched the first building collapse. When the train reached Newark, passengers were told to get off. St. Amour tried to book a hotel room there but could find no vacancies. So he took a train to Trenton and a $120 cab ride back to Philadelphia. Before SEPTAs Regional Rail lines returned to service yesterday afternoon, Suburban Station was jammed with people perplexed amid a bank of television screens reading: Service suspended. Please seek other means of transportation. Liz Lashley, 37, and Cynthia Johnson, 48, knew they were in for a long haul home to Delaware. Dismissed early from their jobs at Center City insurance companies, the women could not take the usual R2 train. So they figured out a circuitous route via the Market-Frankford El to 69th Street Terminal and then, by bus, to Marcus Hook, where Johnson had parked her car. I'm relieved, said Lashley, though the trip was the least of her worries. Her employer, Reliance Insurance, was based on the 91st floor of the World Trade Center.
Jere Downs e-mail address is

halted service and SEPTA shut down a half-dozen regional rail lines.

Suburban Station was a mob scene shortly before noon yesterday, after Amtrak

VICKI VALERIO / Inquirer Staff Photographer

As smoke clears, the rescue and recovery phase begins

By Helen ONeill

NEW YORK As night fell, the city moved past the nightmarish scenes of people on fire jumping from buildings and braced itself for more pain: picking through the rubble for the dead and the injured. Crews began heading into ground zero of the terrorist attack to search for survivors and recover bodies. The downtown area was cordoned off and a huge rescue effort was under way. Gov. George Pataki mobilized the National Guard to help, and hundreds of volunteers and medical workers converged on triage centers, offering services and blood. One man caught under the rubble used his cell phone to reach family members in Pennsylvania with a plea for help. She received a call from him say-

ing he was still trapped under the World Trade Center. He gave specific directions and said he was there along with two New York City sergeants, said Brian Jones, 911 coordinator in Allegheny County. He would not give their names, but said the message was passed to New York authorities. Angelo Otchy, 26, a private with the New Jersey National Guard from Maplewood, mobilized to work in the rubble. There were bodies everywhere, body parts everywhere, he said. I must have come across a thousand body parts. I seen a womans head in the street. Were just trying to pull people out, he said. We used shovels, anything. We heard people saying: Help! Help! Help! Otchy, a mortgage banker in Woodbridge, said rubble was piled as high as four stories. There were chairs and

desks everywhere. We just dug and dug trying to get people out, he said. He arrived about 2 p.m. and worked until 7 p.m. He said he and another New Jersey Guardsman came across four people who were alive, a woman and three men who all suffered serious burns and were evacuated by ambulances. Paramedics waiting to be sent into the rubble were told that once the smoke clears, its going to be massive bodies, said Brian Stark, an ex-Navy paramedic who volunteered to help. He said the paramedics had been told that hundreds of police and firefighters are missing from the ranks of those sent in to respond to the initial crash. I hope we get patients, said medical student Eddie Campbell, who rushed to help at one of the centers. But theyre not coming out. Theyre in there, he said, pointing down the

street to where the World Trade Center once stood. Emergency Medical Service worker Louis Garcia said initial reports indicated bodies were buried beneath the two feet of soot on streets around the twin towers. Garcia, a 15-year veteran, said bodies are all over the place. Eight hours after the catastrophe began, hundreds of firefighters sat on the West Side Highway or leaned against their rigs, waiting for orders to go into the leveled skyscrapers and search for what they feared would be hundreds of bodies, including many colleagues. This is going to hurt, said Jack Gerber, a 43-year-old Brooklyn firefighter. A lot of guys got killed today. He said that after the first building collapsed, surviving firefighters passed cell phones around to tell their

loved ones they were alive. Barbara Kalvig hurried with a car full of colleagues from the New York Veterinarians Hospital to lend a hand at a triage center opened up by the citys Board of Health. We closed the hospital and brought a bunch of doctors and nurses, Kalvig said. We just drove as far as we could. Hundreds of volunteers with medical, military or nursing experience formed ad-hoc crews to accept blood donations and take care of minor injuries as truckloads of medical supplies flooded in. Nearby, a construction crew hauled plywood to the emergency teams to be used as makeshift stretchers for rescue crews.
Inquirer staff writer Mark Fazlollah contributed to this article.

Wednesday, September 12, 2001



Im here on holiday. Being from Belfast, weve seen a few things blow up there, but nothing like this.
Terry McComish, 32, a tourist standing at the waters edge in Hoboken, N.J.

How to give blood, aid victims of attacks

To donate blood, call the Red Cross at 1-800-448-3543. People who wish to donate money to the National Disaster Relief Fund can do so in three ways. They can visit the Web site www.; they can send a check to the Red Cross at 23d and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia 19103; or they can call 1-800-4357-669. For information on passengers on United Airlines Flights 93 and 175, call 1-800-932-8555; for passengers on American Airlines Flights 11 and 77, call 1-800-245-0999. The Pennsylvania Medical Society is compiling a list of doctors who would be willing to assist emergency medical crews in New York and Washington, D.C. Physicians can volunteer by contacting the state Medical Society at 1-800-228-7823; 1-800-556-7850; or 717-558-7750, Ext. 7467. The society can also be reached by e-mail at A blood drive is being planned jointly by the Arab American Association of Philadelphia and the Arab American Community of Greater Philadelphia. Contact Marwan Kreidie at 215-625-3732 or 215-313-0189. South Jersey residents looking to offer or get help in a range of areas can call Contact of Burlington County at 856-234-8888. The World Trade Public Servants Emergency Fund is accepting donations to benefit families of public-safety officers killed or injured during the World Trade Center attack. Mail donations to Federal Drug Agents Foundation, 888 Seventh Ave., New York, N.Y. 10106. The September 11th Fund was created by the United Way and the New York Community Trust to receive financial donations. Those wishing to contribute may send donations in care of United Way of New York City, 2 Park Ave., New York, N.Y. 10016. Donors may specify the community (New York City, Washington, D.C., or other affected areas) where they would like their contributions directed. Contributions are also being accepted on the United Way of New York Citys Web site at www.uwnyc. org. Registered nurses who wish to volunteer may call the Pennsylvania Nurses Association at 1-800-568-4762. Emergency medical technicians should contact local ambulance services for information on how to volunteer.

People flee the scene near the World Trade Center after the disaster. Some in New York had to wait in long lines to use pay phones to check in with relatives.

DIANE BONDAREFF / Associated Press

Agonizing over loved ones in N.Y.

By Eils Lotozo and David Patrick Stearns

For many from the Philadelphia area, anxious hours passed as they tried to get calls through.
Area residents concerned about the safety of friends and family in Manhattan spent anxious hours trying to contact them yesterday. With land-line circuits jammed and cell phones mostly out in Manhattan, frustrated callers got busy signals, recorded messages or, often, nothing at all. It took a half-hour for Philadelphian Michele McPhee to reach her husband, Keith, who was in New York on business and staying at a hotel near Times Square. It wouldnt even ring at first, said McPhee. WXPN-FM (88.5) deejay Jonny Meister got his brother Ken, who works near the World Trade Center, on his first attempt but had no luck subsequently. He thought the best thing was to stay in his building, said Meister. But that was before the towers collapsed. I havent been able to get him since. Beatrice Obiesie of East Oak Lane, a flight attendant who heard about the disaster while attending classes at Community College of Philadelphia, borrowed a cell phone from a woman on the street to try to reach her family in New York. Im afraid, she said. I tried like 20 times, but I couldnt get through.

After the catastrophe, people struggle to deal with the cloud of smoke, ash and
debris that lingered in the air for hours yesterday in New York. In some cases, New Yorkers had more success dialing out. Ginny La Maina of Chalfont spent 40 terrified minutes trying to contact her daughter Jenna, with no luck. Finally, Jenna, whose brokerage firm had moved from the 52d floor of the World Trade

SUZANNE PLUNKETT / Associated Press

Center to a nearby building a few weeks ago, got through to La Maina, after standing in a long line at a pay phone to place a collect call. She said it was horrible, said La Maina. At that point, she had stopped trying to get to her office.

Cyndi Breslow, who works at UBS Paine Webber in Jersey City, directly across the river from the World Trade Center, watched in horror as the towers came crashing down. She was unable to reach her husband, Stuart, who works on the 40th floor of one of the buildings. But he was able to contact her by e-mail with a borrowed wireless device as he was evacuated. Later, Stuart Breslow asked a stranger who was talking on a pay phone to have the mans wife call Cyndi Breslow and tell her he was all right. Helen Krystopas son Chris, a broker in New York, called his father in Roxborough just before the towers collapsed and casualties began to pile up. But for the next several hours, Krystopa, who lives in Lansdale, and her ex-husband tried to reach Chris with no success. Feelings of helplessness grew as she watched the grim scenes on television. Then, just before 1 p.m, the worry turned to rejoicing. Chris girlfriend had gotten word to the family that he was safe, and that his company was putting him up in a hotel. I am just enormously relieved, said Krystopa, in tears. Its an overwhelming kind of day.
Eils Lotozos e-mail address is

Towers represented the financial might of America

The World Trade Center prospered with the stock market boom. Its prominence made it a tempting target for terrorists.
By Joseph N. DiStefano and Harold Brubaker

The destruction of the World Trade Center towers was an attack on American capitalism at its frantic heart. The World Trade Center is a symbol of Americas financial might. Thats probably why they wanted to get it whoever they are, said Gary Hindes, a Delaware investor who watched the towers go down like an elevator from his office in midtown Manhattan. The 110-story towers were probably the symbol of capitalism in the world. Maybe the New York Stock Exchange would rival it, but it wouldnt make as great a target, said Andrew Sterge, chief executive officer of one of the New York Stock Exchanges biggest trading firms, BNP Cooper Neff. Americans were very secure. They didnt have to be so risk-averse because America was safe. Everyone felt safe and safer. This makes everyone question that assumption. People

will become more risk averse. It couldnt have come at a worse time than the current economic slump, Sterge said. Nearly vacant when they opened as the worlds tallest buildings in the early 1970s, the World Trade Center towers prospered amid the stock-market boom of the last two decades. An estimated 40,000 to 50,000 people worked in the nine-million-square-foot towers and neighboring low-rise buildings in the complex. The first of two hijacked airliners flew into the north tower yesterday as Robert G. Scott, president of Morgan Stanley Dean Witter & Co., the multinational investment giant, was delivering a speech to a group of economists in the ground-floor Marriott Hotel ballroom in the south tower. The building shook all the way to the ground floor. The lights flickered, and immediately everybody left the room, said David Kotok, a Vineland money manager attending the speech. Kotok fled into the street as col-

leagues sought their families in the Marriott Hotel, which occupied the lower 20 stories of the south tower. Morgan Stanley was the biggest employer at the center, with 3,500 financial advisers, stockbrokers and clerks employed on 25 floors. The company said it did not know how many had been killed and injured, and did not return a call about Scotts fate. Other big investment firms such as Keefe, Bruyette & Woods and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., the nations leading government bond trader, and insurers including Aon Corp. had extensive offices on the upper floors of the complex where many workers may not have survived. But at least two major Trade Center tenants, Oppenheimer mutual funds and the law firm of Brown & Wood, said they believed that all their workers had survived. More than 300 tenants were located in the two towers, according to the buildings owner, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, another major tenant. The towers werent the only buildings crippled. When a building gets hit that hard it gets a certain sway to it, like a hurricane. Or an atomic

bomb. Everything near it got damaged Lehman Brothers, American Express, Merrill Lynch and Goldman Sachs, all of which have their headquarters in the neighborhood adjoining the towers, said Albert Moose Greenfield 3d, a third-generation Philadelphia high-rise developer and former Goldman Sachs bond trader. The New York and Nasdaq stock markets, which were not damaged in the blast, agreed to shut their doors through at least today, despite calls from some such as former Securities and Exchange Commissioner Arthur Levitt to keep the markets open in defiance of the attackers. Observers worried that the cost of the damage will cripple the struggling U.S. insurance business, which is already having a tough time paying claims. Firms were less concerned about damage to the U.S. financial payments system, since banking, insurance and investment companies routinely record transactions on backup systems located far from their New York offices. Indeed, while shredded paper records blanketed lower Manhattan along with biting smoke, glass and

metal shards, big financial corporations were tapping alternative data centers around the nation in an attempt to keep global payment systems afloat. Five minutes after the first plane hit, SunGard Data Systems Inc., of Wayne, set up a crisis center to enable stricken companies to activate backup data and transaction-processing centers for six big U.S. financial companies that suffered major damage in the attack. By 5 p.m. the company had put together six disaster-recovery centers (compared with 26 after Hurricane Floyd in 1999), but at least 44 other companies have reported problems and many expect to set up centers tomorrow or later this week, said Jim Simmons, head of SunGards business continuity and Internet services group. The financial system wasnt permanently crippled, Simmons said: Whats really horrific is how the entire nation has stopped because of the tragic loss of life.
Joseph N. DiStefano can be reached at 215-854-5957 or

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Wednesday, September 12, 2001

I just saw my two towers fall. Im devastated beyond belief. In many respects this is significantly worse than Pearl Harbor, and we dont know who the enemy is. Lewis Eisenberg, chairman of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which operates the World Trade Center

Thousands are feared killed ...

ATTACK from A1 New Jersey. Were just trying to pull people out. We used shovels, anything. We heard people saying, Help! Help! Help! Some people were alive in the debris and were making cell-phone calls, New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani said last night, but workers continued to be hampered by flames from the wrecked buildings. When we get the final number [of fatalities], it will be more than we can bear, Giuliani said. Between 40,000 and 50,000 people worked at the World Trade Center complex, 20,000 of them in the towers; an additional 90,000 visited on an average day. At the Pentagon, officials told one congressman that the building appeared to have sustained about 100 casualties. The four hijacked flights two from American Airlines, two from United carried 266 people in all. President Bush, preceded by a string of cabinet officers and congressional leaders, took to the airwaves last night to try to calm the nation and vow justice for the perpetrators. He put U.S. military forces around the world on an alert of the highest level. We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them, Bush declared in a televised address from the White House, where he had returned late in the day after taking a circuitous route from Florida to Louisiana and Nebraska for security reasons. No groups claimed responsibility. Afghanistans hard-line Taliban rulers condemned the attacks and rejected U.S. officials suggestions that terrorist mastermind Osama bin Laden might be behind them. The United States says bin Laden, who is believed to be hiding in Afghanistan, has organized and financed numerous terrorist operations. Sen. Orrin G. Hatch (R., Utah), the top Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee, said U.S. intelligence had intercepted communications between bin Laden supporters discussing the attacks. Explosions were heard early today near the airport in Afghanistans capital of Kabul, but the United States denied involvement. One U.S. official said the fighting appeared to have been rocket attacks by rebels. Army Gen. Henry Shelton, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, would not talk publicly about possible U.S. military retaliation. I have no intention of discussing what comes next, but, make no mistake, our armed forces are ready, he said. As the panic and chaos unfolded in New York and Washington, the nation went on high alert, and normally bustling centers of activity emptied out. Federal agencies, schools, malls, landmarks and tourist sites, including Independence Hall, shut down. All U.S. financial markets closed through today, with an announcement expected today when they will reopen. The Federal Aviation Administration grounded all commercial flights until at least noon today. Most cultural and sporting events, including major-league baseball games, were canceled or postponed. The U.S. Atlantic Fleet dispatched aircraft carriers to Washington and New York to provide air defenses for the nations political and financial capitals. It also sent guided-missile cruisers and destroyers, capable of thwarting air attacks, and amphibious ships, equipped with medical facilities, to New York. Officials tightened the borders with Mexico and Canada. The city of New York its mayoral primary promptly canceled was largely sealed off, with tunnels and bridges into Manhattan closed and public transit, including Amtrak and Greyhound service, frozen for most of the day. Bush declared a major disaster there. Bracing for the worst, federal health officials activated for the first time a full-blown nationwide medical emergency disaster plan aimed at identifying dead victims and caring for survivors. Officials in New York said that 265 firefighters had been killed, and that 78 police officers were missing. Tommy G. Thompson, secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, said emergency teams of medical and mortuary workers, totaling more than 300 people, were being dispatched to New York and Washington to assist local workers. Emergency medical supplies were also being shipped to New York. Eighty federal medical-disaster teams throughout the country also were ready to help, as were thousands of health workers in the private sector, Thompson said. He said his department was working with the Federal Emergency Management Agency and local health officials to assess medical needs and would provide additional personnel as needed. Bush was taking part in a reading lesson in an elementary school in Sarasota, Fla., yesterday morning when an adviser whispered the news into his ear. He called the terrorists cowards. Freedom itself was attacked this morning, and I assure you freedom will be defended, Bush said. His wife, Laura, and their 19-yearold twin daughters were moved to secure locations, as were Vice President Cheney, House Speaker J. Dennis Hastert (R., Ill.) third in line to the presidency and other top government officials, including members of the Supreme Court. Were at war. Were absolutely at war. This is 21st-century war, Rep. Curt Weldon (R., Pa.) said from Washington. In Philadelphia, schools closed in the morning, and the city was put on emergency status shortly before 10 a.m. All buildings in Independence National Historical Park were closed, parking was banned in the blocks surrounding the Liberty Bell and Independence Hall, and federal buildings and business towers were evacuated. The state Capitol in Harrisburg also was evacuated, but the Statehouse and state offices in Trenton remained open. When the New York towers crumpled, permanently altering the famed city skyline, clouds of dust and ash blew hundreds of feet into the air in a scene that many witnesses likened to an exploding volcano. The devastation was visible from space. As we went over Maine, we could see New York City and the smoke from the fires, Frank Culbertson, commander of the International Space Station, said on NASA television from the station. Those who were in and around the towers described a horrific scene. The smoke was completely engulfing me, said Peter Fink, 41, a lawyer from Long Island who was just outside. It was so thick, so dark, so black, you literally couldnt see as far as the tip of your nose. It was like

A jetliner is lined up on one of the World Trade Center towers in Manhattan. Within 90 minutes of being struck by the
planes, both towers had collapsed under the strain of subsequent explosions. someone had duct-taped your eyes shut. I was worried about smoke inhalation, about dying of smoke inhalation. I figured I didnt have too long, 40 seconds maybe. You could see people jumping out of the windows jumping out from the highest floors, added Megan Cummins, 23, a Wall Street trader. The debris was falling, too, and you could see the debris sort of floating. But the people werent floating. A physician at St. Vincents Medical Center in Greenwich Village, the main triage center for the disaster, said last night that 327 victims including 57 police and firefighters had been brought in, and that three had died. Sixty-two were in critical condition. Makeshift field hospitals and triage centers were also established in Lower Manhattan, at a sports complex on the citys Lower West Side, and in New Jersey. Giuliani declared a state of emergency in the city, closing off the area from 14th Street south to all but residents and emergency and rescue personnel. He said violators would be arrested and prosecuted. All four of the hijacked planes had taken off from East Coast airports two from Boston, one from Newark, and one from Dulles, outside Washington about 8 a.m., all heavy with fuel for intended trips to California. Spokesmen at American and United, the countrys biggest carriers, confirmed that each had lost two planes. The first jet, Americans Flight 11 from Boston to Los Angeles, crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center about 8:45 a.m., starting a fire. The second tower was promptly ordered evacuated. But 18 minutes later, while news programs were broadcasting live from the scene, United Flight 175 from Boston to Los Angeles appeared in the sky, slamming into the second tower in a crash of fire and filling the streets with

CARMEN TAYLOR / Associated Press

Centers north tower. Eighteen minutes after that tower was hit by an airplane yesterday morning, a jet slammed into the south tower.

A person falls from the World Trade

RICHARD DREW / Associated Press

smoke and ash. At first, everyone thought the first one was a bomb, said Dean Stamos, who owns a financial company on Wall Street. So we were sort of watching from the office window, and we could see this other plane come in, right-side up. The second plane, it sort of twisted so it was flying on one side, and then it crashed right in to the other tower. There were probably thousands of us. We all went to the South Street Seaport, and we were just standing there. These planes were flying by overhead, and everyone was just staring up because we didnt know what they were. Everybody was sort of running all sorts of ways, trying to get away, but they didnt even know what they were trying to get away from. Subsequent explosions collapsed each tower within 90 minutes. Later in the day, a 47-story building in the complex, long evacuated, also collapsed. See ATTACK on A15

Wednesday, September 12, 2001



The World Trade Center is a symbol of American capitalism, and from the point of view of probable terrorists, a symbol of American decadence. The victims in the planes and the buildings were not the real targets of the attack. The intended victims were you and me.
Jim Hedtke, chairman, political science department, Cabrini College, who teaches a course on terrorism

... in assaults by 4 hijacked jets

For the first time in 29 years, the sun sets behind a New York skyline that does not include the World Trade Center towers. Their destruction leaves the Empire State Building (right) as the citys tallest.

BETH A. KEISER / Associated Press

Pedestrians flee the World Trade Center area as the south tower falls. Later, a third building in the complex also collapsed.

AMY SANCETTA / Associated Press

ATTACK from A14 Shortly after the planes crashed Contacting the FBI into the towers, American Flight 77 Attorney General John Ashcroft from Dulles to Los Angeles slammed asked that anyone with into a side of the Pentagon. information about yesterdays Near the Pentagon, Michael Walter, terrorist attacks contact the FBI a television correspondent for USA Tovia a Web site day Live, was stuck in traffic. He got or call out of his car to see what the problem 1-866-483-5137. was, he said, and looked up to see a plane perhaps only 20 feet over his head. When I saw it, I said, Oh my God! Oh my God! Oh my God! I cant jacked. They are being kind. I love believe this. I was going into a state of you, the Washington Post reported. In New York, where the twin towers shock, he said. Shortly after, he heard a small ex- held equipment and antennas that plosion, which Pentagon officials said transmit millions of calls daily, phone were propane tanks exploding near lines became jammed as news of the attack filtered out, making it all but the building. You felt more than you heard, impossible for people to determine if said Navy Cdr. Tom Rawson, a missile friends, workers and family members analyst. First a shake, then a bang, were safe. In the West Bank city of Nablus yesthen a boom, boom, and you knew it terday, thousands of Palestinians wasnt normal. As rescue crews struggled to free poured into the streets to celebrate, people and firefighters battles the chanting God is great and distributspreading flames, a section of the Pen- ing candy to passers-by, even as their tagon, built during World War II, col- leader, Yasir Arafat, told reporters in Gaza that he abhorred the catastrolapsed about 10:10 a.m. Virtually all federal agencies in phe. We completely conWashington were evacuat We ed by midmorning. Passengers on demn this. shocked.were completely Its About 10 a.m., just beunbelievable, unbelievfore the last plane went the jets, using able, unbelievable, he down in Pennsylvania, an cell phones, said. emergency dispatcher reThis is perhaps the ceived a cell-phone call reported that most audacious terrorist from a man who said he hijackers had attack thats ever taken was a passenger locked in place in the world, said a bathroom aboard United stabbed flight Flight 93 from Newark to attendants with Chris Yates, an aviation expert at Janes Transport San Francisco. The man repeatedly said the call was sharp weapons. magazine. It takes a logistics operation from the ternot a hoax, said dispatch supervisor Glenn Cramer in neighbor- ror group involved that is second to ing Westmoreland County. none. Only a very small handful of We are being hijacked! We are be- terror groups is on that list. ing hijacked! the man said, accordThe Talibans foreign minister, ing to a transcript of the call. Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil, said in The man told dispatchers that the Kabul: We have tried our best in the plane was going down. He heard past and we are willing in the future some sort of explosion and saw to assure the United States in any white smoke coming from the plane kind of way we can that Osama is not and we lost contact with him, Cram- involved in these kinds of activier said. ties. Others who called from doomed However, terrorism expert Harplanes reported that they were calling vey Kushner of Long Island Universion hijackers orders, and said that cabins had been taken over by attackers ty said he believed bin Laden was with knives and sharp instruments the only person who could pull this and that flight attendants had been off. When you think of the coordination stabbed. One passenger on the flight that this took, its historic, he said. When struck the Pentagon was Barbara Ol- you think of the measures that will son, a frequent CNN commentator have to be put into place to ratchet up and the wife of Bushs solicitor gener- security in the United States, its monumental. al, Theodore Olson. Lauren Grandcolas called her husband, Jack, from one of the United Ralph Vigodas e-mail address is jets, telling him: We have been hi-

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Wednesday, September 12, 2001

Terrorist acts can shake the foundation of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America.
President Bush

Bush returns to reassure the country

He spent most of the day on military bases to give officials time to assess the danger at the White House.

By Ron Hutcheson

WASHINGTON President Bush returned to the Oval Office to reassure a shaken nation last night after spending most of the day secluded on military bases. Bush, who was on a trip to Florida when terrorists struck, arrived in Washington nearly 10 hours later, after a series of secretive flights to heavily guarded Air Force bases in the middle of the country. Reporters traveling with him on Air Force One were instructed to keep his movements secret until the information was cleared for release. Bush stopped first at Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana, then went to a secure command center at Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska, headquarters for the Strategic Air Command. White House spokesman Ari Fleischer said the extraordinary precautions were intended to give security officials time to assess the danger at the White House. The Secret Service, of course, was analyzing the information that came in and taking a very careful look at what was fact and what was fiction, Fleischer said. While Bush was away, Vice President Cheney, national security adviser Condoleezza Rice and other top administration officials monitored developments from a secure command center at the White House. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld was at the Pentagon when a plane crashed into it and stayed on as thousands of employees were evacuated and part of the building burned. The streets around the White House remained closed to traffic and under guard as Bush addressed the nation last night, but the president promised a return to more normal conditions today. The functions of our government continue without interruption. Our financial institutions remain strong, and the American economy will be open for business as well, he said, speaking from the desk once used by John F. Kennedy. First lady Laura Bush was on Capitol Hill preparing for her appearance before a Senate committee when word of the attacks reached Congress. Parents need to reassure their children everywhere in our country that theyre safe, she said before being whisked away by Secret Service agents. Our hearts and our prayers go out to the victims of this act of terrorism. The couples 19-year-old twin daughters, Barbara and Jenna, also were taken to secure locations. Bush learned that a plane had slammed into the World Trade Center minutes before his scheduled appearance at Booker Elementary School in Sarasota, Fla. The president initially seemed relaxed as he joined about 16 sixth-grade students for a reading lesson. His mood altered visibly moments later, when White House chief of staff Andrew Card leaned over and whispered the news that another plane had crashed into the New York landmark. Bush nodded and his face tensed. After receiving a more complete briefing in a holding room, he announced his intention to return to Washington.

White House chief of staff Andrew H. Card Jr. tells President Bush about the New York attack during Bushs visit to Booker Elementary School in Sarasota, Fla.
Ladies and gentlemen, this is a difficult moment for America. I, unfortunately, will be going back to Washington, he said. Echoing a phrase his father used near the start of the Persian Gulf War, Bush added, Terrorism against our nation will not stand. He apparently changed his mind about his travel plans a short time later, after a third plane crashed, this time into the Pentagon. After a hasty takeoff in Florida, Air Force One and its escort of fighter jets traveled east toward the Atlantic Ocean, then north toward Washington, then west to Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana. At the White House, Bushs aides reacted to the initial reports of a terrorist attack by researching then-President Clintons response to the April 19, 1995, bombing at the federal building in Oklahoma City. The work was interrupted when Secret Service agents ordered the White House evacuated. That precaution underscored the key difference between yesterdays terrorism and the 1995 bombing. The 1995 attack occurred miles away from the White House, and Clinton made a point of conducting business as usual despite the heightened security. Yesterday, White House aides could see a plume of smoke from the burning Pentagon as they evacuated the building. The closest historical precedent for the chaotic events might be the White

DOUG MILLS / Associated Press

House evacuation during the War of 1812, when first lady Dolley Madison fled an invasion by marauding British troops. President James Madison had left ahead of her to join U.S. soldiers at the front line. America has stood down enemies before, and we will do so this time, Bush said last night.
Ron Hutchesons e-mail address is

President assures the nation: Our country is strong


WASHINGTON The text of President Bushs speech to the nation last night: Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist acts. The victims were in airplanes or in their offices. Secretaries, businessmen and women, military and federal workers. Moms and dads. Friends and neighbors. Thousands of lives were suddenly ended by evil, despicable acts of terror. The pictures of airplanes flying into buildings, fires burning, huge structures collapsing, have filled us with disbelief, terrible sadness, and a quiet, unyielding anger. These acts of mass murder were intended to frighten our nation into chaos and retreat. But they have failed. Our country is strong. A great people has been moved to defend a great nation. Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shatter steel, but they cannot dent the steel of Amer-

ican resolve. America was targeted for attack because were the brightest beacon for freedom and opportunity in the world. And no one will keep that light from shining. Today, our nation saw evil, the very worst of human nature, and we responded with the best of America, with the daring of our rescue workers, with the caring for strangers and neighbors who came to give blood and help in any way they could. Immediately following the first attack, I implemented our governments emergency-response plans. Our military is powerful, and its prepared. Our emergency teams are working in New York City and Washington, D.C., to help with local rescue efforts. Our first priority is to get help to those who have been injured and to take every precaution to protect our citizens at home and around the world from further attacks. The functions of our government continue without interruption. Federal agencies in Washington, which had to be evacuated today, are reopening for essential personnel tonight and will be open for business tomorrow.

President Bush makes his televised address from Washington.

Our financial institutions remain strong, and the American economy will be open for business as well. The search is under way for those who are behind these evil acts. Ive directed the full resources for our intelligence and law-enforcement com-

CHUCK KENNEDY / Knight Ridder Tribune

munities to find those responsible and bring them to justice. We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them. I appreciate so very much the members of Congress who have joined me

in strongly condemning these attacks. And on behalf of the American people, I thank the many world leaders who have called to offer their condolences and assistance. America and our friends and allies join with all those who want peace and security in the world, and we stand together to win the war against terrorism. Tonight I ask for your prayers for all those who grieve, for the children whose worlds have been shattered, for all whose sense of safety and security has been threatened. And I pray they will be comforted by a power greater than any of us spoken through the ages in Psalm 23: Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil, for you are with me. This is a day when all Americans from every walk of life unite in our resolve for justice and peace. America has stood down enemies before, and we will do so this time. None of us will ever forget this day, yet we go forward to defend freedom and all that is good and just in our world. Thank you. Good night, and God bless America.

Wednesday, September 12, 2001



Im going to have to go home and look out my atrium window and not see the World Trade Center. Im worried because this isnt it. Someone started a war today.
Dany Jones, 42, handing out water to people trying to make their way to Weehawken Ferry in Hoboken, N.J.

Aurora Norton (center) prays at San Fernando Cathedral in San Antonio, Texas. Norton, who said her niece worked at the Pentagon, was attending a special Mass recited yesterday after the attacks.

ERIC GAY / Associated Press

Reflecting on lives that were cut short

PILOT from A1 terday frantically checking on the safety of loved ones. Sometimes, the news was bad. Saracini was among 65 people on board Flight 175 who perished when it slammed into the 110-story tower of the World Trade Center. His flight was one of the four commercial jetliners to crash yesterday after being hijacked. All those on board were presumed dead. The names of only about 20 victims had been made public last night, with relatives providing the information to reporters. Family members in Massachusetts confirmed that John Ogonowski, 50, was the pilot of American Airlines Flight 11, the first flight to hit the World Trade Center. His flight departed Boston at 7:59 a.m. yesterday, one minute after Saracinis flight was scheduled to depart. Ogonowskis copilot, Tom McGuinness, a father of two from Portsmouth, N.H., also died. Among the handful of others identified as slain was David Angell, 54, executive producer of the hit TV show Frasier. Angell was killed along with his wife, Lynn, as the couple flew home to Los Angeles on American Airlines Flight 11 after a vacation in New England. Killed on another airliner was Barbara Olson, 45, the wife of U.S. Solicitor General Theodore Olson, who argued President Bushs election appeal before the Supreme Court. Barbara Olson, a frequent political commentator on CNN, had used her cell phone to call her husband twice from aboard American Flight 77 out of Dulles airport to tell him that hijackers had taken over her flight. Her plane crashed into the Pentagon at 9:45 a.m., 42 minutes after Saracinis jet struck the World Trade Center. Those slain on the ground may include scores of rescuers, including firefighters and police killed by the collapse of the World Trade Centers two towers. Mike Carter, vice president of New York Citys firefighters union, estimated that half of the 400 firefighters who first reached the scene may be dead. We have entire companies that are just missing, he said. Were going to have to bury a lot of people. While the national death toll remains unknown, New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani predicted the final tally would be horrendous. In New York, Giuliani said, at least 2,100 people had been hurt, with 750 of those hospitalized. The number of casualties will be more than any of us can bear, ultimately, Giuliani said. In Washington, authorities said at

Barbara Olson frequently appeared as a

political commentator on CNN. She called her husband, U.S. Solicitor General Theodore Olson, twice from aboard the doomed American Airlines Flight 77 that hit the Pentagon.

Al Marchand, according to his

Associated Press

mother-in-law, was working as a flight attendant aboard United Airlines Flight 175, out of Boston, which crashed into the South Tower of the World Trade Center.

Mass., holds a photo of his brother. John Ogonowski was at the controls when Flight 11, the first flight to hit the World Trade Center, left Boston yesterday. least 100 people were dead or injured after a jet crashed into the Pentagon, collapsing at least four floors. Were still taking bodies out of this building, Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld said last night. The 266 presumed killed aboard the four airliners in itself would be greater than the 168 slain in the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. Airline executives said it could be days before a complete list of passengers and crew is made public. While the careful task of checking flight tickets with other information presents difficulties, digging bodies out of rubble and identifying them is likely to be a far more arduous and time-consuming task. In Palm Harbor, a retirement community off Floridas gulf coast, the Hildebrands were just another couple watching the horror on television yesterday morning until they learned that Saracini, their son-in-law, was among the dead. Saracini had been flying commercial jets for about 16 years when he took off at 7:58 a.m. from Boston on a flight to Los Angeles, they said. Barely an hour later, the Boeing 767 appeared on television screens, showing the burning North Tower at the World Trade Center, and flew into the South Tower. The fiery spectacle was replayed throughout the day on television. In Lower Makefield, Saracini left behind his wife, Ellen, and two daughters in the Pennsbury School District, one in middle school, the other in elementary school. Last night, police barred reporters from approaching the couples home on a cul-de-sac. Frank Lyons, a fellow United pilot, served as a family spokesman. Theyre in shock, he said. Theyre in total shock. I think at this point prayers are the only things that can be offered. In Florida, Saracinis in-laws, Bernadette and Bernard Hildebrand, grieved at their sudden loss. The couple said Saracini was the kind of pilot who would protect his passengers at all cost. The terrorists took control. Thats how they work, said Bernard Hildebrand, a retired Navy pilot. I cant stand anyone saying a pilot would crash. He never would. I believe he was dead by the time they hit. Last night, Bernadette Hildebrand

Jim Ogonowski, brother of American Airlines pilot John Ogonowski, of Dracut,

ROBERT SHEEHAN / Associated Press

Cee Cee Lyles, a United Airlines flight attendant, is seen with her sons, Jerome

DAMON HIGGINS / Palm Beach Post

(left) and Jevon, in this undated family photo. Authorities say Lyles called her husband, Lorne Lyles, a police officer in Fort Myers, Fla., on a cell phone from United Flight 93 shortly before it crashed about 80 miles outside Pittsburgh. Bernadette Hildebrand said, as she and her husband prepared to leave for an evening church service.
Matthew P. Blanchards e-mail address is

cried as the couple remembered the man who had married their daughter. He was a beautiful husband and a beautiful man, Bernard G. Hildebrand said. Just ask God to care for his wife,

Wednesday, September 12, 2001



We are talking about billions of dollars, and that is not even talking about the cost in lives. It is so beyond the comprehension of everybody that it is virtually impossible to contemplate the reaction.
Bruce B. Rader, an assistant professor of finance at Temple University

A new president suddenly faces ultimate test

Safety is utmost in the minds of Americans looking to George W. Bush for answers and leadership.

By Dick Polman

This morning, George W. Bush begins the first full day of his new presidency, because yesterday terrorists blasted his old one to rubble. Forget the tax cut, and the inspirational speeches on values he was planning to give this fall. Forget his abiding interest in improving childrens literacy. Forget the whole domestic agenda, because, in the sobering months ahead, this presiAnalysis dent, a novice at foreign policy, will be judged by the American people on how well he answers this question: Can he make us feel safe again? Few of Bushs predecessors ever faced such a daunting challenge. Pearl Harbor shocked the nation, but Americans knew in an instant who the enemy was and where to find him. The Cuban missile crisis brought us to the brink of war, but, in the end, John F. Kennedy was dealing with a world leader who did not view suicide as a higher calling. Americans always back their president when a crisis hits; even Jimmy Carter posted high poll ratings at the start of the Iranian hostage standoff. And Bush struck the predictable chords last night when he said, These acts shattered steel, but they cannot dent the steel of Americas resolve. But Bush has been pulled into the murkiest waters of foreign policy, a place where slogans such as compassionate conservatism have no meaning. Americans will turn to him for reassurance; many will demand vengeance. The challenges that await him would test even the most seasoned national leader. Allan Lichtman, a presidential historian who fled the U.S. Capitol building when the Pentagon was hit, said yesterday: The terrorists attacked our safety, our economy, and our sense of mobility a perfect strike against what it means to be an American. And this will require, from Bush, an incredible balancing act. He has to be resolute, but not precipitous. Americans like to believe in quick-fix remedies, but he cant simply give in to people who have blood in their eyes. He has to somehow respond to what is, in effect, warfare against the United States, but he cant turn us into a garrison state that poisons what is good about our liberties.

strike against what it means to be an American. And this will require, from Bush, an incredible balancing act. This also is a president who, as a candidate, assured journalists that if he didnt know much about a foreign topic, he would simply ask his advisers. But, Lichtman said: He has to communicate effectively with the people, in the weeks ahead, and his advisers cant do that for him. Only a president is supposed to have a mystical bond with the people. He has to get it from within himself. Stephen Hess, an aide in the Eisenhower and Nixon administrations, said yesterday: Bush has to show a greater presence, the situation requires it, and until now, he didnt seem prepared to do that. That was deliberate, actually, out of a conviction that Bill Clinton was in everybodys face too often. But now he needs to step up, because this is a nation that had always felt protected by oceans east and west, and friendly nations north and

President Bush makes a statement while in Sarasota, Fla. A presidential historian called yesterdays attacks a perfect

CHRIS OMEARA / Associated Press

south. Now we realize how easy it is for professionals to pierce that armor. And what will he do about that, in the long run? That question will dominate our politics after the rubble has been removed and the deaths have been tabulated. As California political analyst Bruce Cain said yesterday: That goes right to the top of the list, and dwarfs everything else. Thats where the scrutiny of Bush will really get in-

tense. From now on, everybody will become obsessed with terrorism, and the politicians will respond to that. People will demand heightened security. Theyll demand more money for beefed-up intelligence services. All this money has to come from the federal budget. Will Bush dip into the Social Security surplus as he hinted last month, when he said that such a move would be justified by war or a recession? Analysts cite other complicating issues. Would a public demand for more antiterrorist measures diminish political support for Bushs outer-space missile-shield proposal an expensive project that would do nothing to combat the kinds of horrors inflicted upon the nation yesterday? Is there enough money to do both? And while all that is happening, Bush will be expected to fashion some kind of acceptable response to attackers who are not easily deterred by American force. Assuming he finds the attackers. His predecessors often struggled for the right response. Ronald Reagan, generally lauded today as a strong foreign-policy president, bombed five targets in Libya, including Moammar Gadhafis palace, after concluding in 1986 that Libya had backed the bombing of a Berlin nightclub frequented by GIs. Yet in 1982, after terrorists killed 239 Marines in Beirut, Reagan didnt hit back. He responded by withdrawing all U.S. forces from Lebanon. Bushs response to this attack on American soil has to be strong enough to satisfy angry citizens and particularly the conservatives within his Republican base. They have been complaining for months that Bush has been stingy with money for defense, that he has been too easy on Yasir Arafat, and that he coddled the Chinese after they knocked a U.S. surveillance plane out of the sky. Yesterday, some conservative commentators demanded that Bush go after the countries that harbor terrorists, and Bush responded in his TV address last night, saying he would make no distinction between the attackers and their hosts. Assuming he finds the hosts. But the danger for Bush, Lichtman said, is that a president who wants to focus on domestic issues could get dragged into a new kind of intractable war. A similar thing happened to Lyndon Johnson. He wanted to be a great domestic president and he got Vietnam.
Dick Polmans e-mail address is

Attacks pose a substantial risk to an already troubled economy

By Josh Goldstein, Martha Woodall and Jeff Gelles It poses a substantial risk to an economy that is already very fragile, Zandi said. He said the most immediate effects would be on travel, communications, and the financial system. The more significant economic question is just how businesses and consumers will respond. Will they retrench further in their investment and spending as a result of something like this? he asked. Zandi said he was concerned, too, about the effect of the attacks on the United States position at the pinnacle of the world economy. One of the factors that has benefited our economy significantly over the last decade is that we are the safe haven. We are the Triple-A global credit. And if that view is tarnished by these events, then that also could be a weight on our economy just at the wrong time. Wars and international crises have typically been blamed for disrupting financial markets, but their economic effects have varied widely, according to an account published during the Persian Gulf war by Edward Kerschner, now chief global strategist at UBS PaineWebber Inc. The Dow Jones industrial average declined just two-tenths of a percent the day Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990, but dropped 15 percent in the next three weeks, Kerschner noted. The Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941, brought the market down an immediate 2.9 percent. The Cuban missile crisis in October 1962 caused an immediate drop of less than 1 percent, but that grew to 2.7 percent the next day. On the other hand, within a week of the Cuban missile crisis, the stock markets reaction had turned positive, and within a month, an explosive rally was under way, Kerschner said. But yesterdays attacks have already left the worlds markets reeling, shaking investors, money manag-

And he expects the economic repercussions to linger. INQUIRER STAFF WRITERS There is no question this is going The economic impact of yesterdays to slow consumer spending, Siegel terrorist attacks is likely to be mas- said. Travel and tourism will be sive and widespread, economists said. sharply curtailed. At times of crisis such as this, the A key question, they said, is how economy can often become unsettled long the economic damage will last. The uncertainty created by the at- with a decline in consumer confitacks could tip the U.S. economy, dence and productivity. George Tsetsekos, dean which has been in a yearof Drexel Universitys long downturn, into reces- For the short business school, said the sion. It may push up the attack increased the prosprices of goods and servic- run, it looks pects of a recession. es. And it could derail a extraordinarily Any hope of a shortpossible recovery of bad. term recovery is now in world financial markets. question, Tsetsekos said. Markets around the The impact will be felt country closed after the at- Jeremy J. Siegel, across the board. tacks. Investors around Wharton School Others cautioned that it the world reacted quickly, finance professor was too soon to predict a selling off stocks and driving the prices of gold and the Swiss long-term impact. The immediate reaction to this is franc sharply higher as individuals and institutions sought financial ha- going to be bad, said Bruce B. Rader, vens. Gold and Swiss francs are tradi- an assistant professor of finance at tionally regarded as stable places to Temple University. The question is, What will happen in a week or so, put money in times of crisis. In early trading today in Tokyo, and that depends on the response of stocks plunged and the dollar was sharp- the U.S. government. Over the long run, everything will ly lower against the yen. The benchmark 225-issue Nikkei stock average smooth out, he said. Like people, the ended the morning session down 519.24 markets are resilient. Stephen S. Golub, professor of ecopoints, or 5.04 percent, at 9,773.71 points, below 10,000 for the first time nomics at Swarthmore College, said the financial impact of the attacks since August 1984. The dollar was trading at 119.42 may be short-lived. Sure, there will be some damage, yen, down 2.30 yen from late Tuesday in Tokyo but slightly above its late but unless a war breaks out or someNew York level of 119.38 yen Tues- thing, it should not have a long-term effect, Golub said yesterday morning. day. The New York Stock Exchange said If there is some sort of global panic yesterday that U.S. financial markets about this, it would be very dangerous, but I suspect it will stop short of that. would not resume trading today. Mark Zandi, chief economist at For the short run, it looks extraordinarily bad, said Jeremy J., the West Chester conSiegel, a finance professor at the Whar- sulting firm, said he feared that the ton School of the University of Pennsyl- crisis could tip a weak economy into a vania. The uncertainty in the short tailspin, much the way the Persian run about what this means will play Gulf war helped cause the last recession. havoc with financial markets.

expresses her feelings with a sign made from lipstick and plastic foam. ers and market overseers. Stocks and the U.S. dollar plunged around the world yesterday as investors sought a haven in bonds. European markets fell sharply. Britains FTSE 100 index of leading shares plunged 287.7 points, or 5.7 percent, to 4,746.0 its biggest daily fall in points since Oct. 19, 1987. Investors sold transport, banking and drug stocks and piled into oil shares as Brent crude-oil prices spiked. London Brent Blend futures hit $31.05 a barrel, their highest level since December, before closing at $29, up $1.55 on the day. Energy prices usually go up whenever there is a percieved threat to the flow of oil from the Middle East. Whartons Siegel said that though the price of oil rose yesterday, he believed that the cost of oil and gasoline would fall soon because a drop in travel and tourism would curtail demand. In the United States, the Federal Reserve tried to reassure people that the nations banking system would be protected. In an unusual public statement, the central bank said it stood ready to provide additional money to banks if needed. The Federal Reserve System is

Brenda Jackson-Gray, a flagger with A&L Construction on the Chicago Skyway,

TED S. WARREN / Associated Press

open and operating. The discount window is available to meet liquidity needs, the Fed said in the two-sentence statement. The promise to supply additional money to the banking system was similar to a pledge that the Fed issued the morning after the October 1987 stock market crash. But the effect of yesterdays attacks clearly extends beyond any threat to the stock markets. This has destroyed a very expensive asset in lower Manhattan, Rader said. We are talking about billions of dollars, and that is not even talking about the cost in lives. These are highly skilled people, and that has an economic effect. It is so beyond the comprehension of everybody that it is virtually impossible to contemplate the reaction. The last time the New York Stock Exchange was closed for two successive days was in 1945, when it shut to celebrate the end of World War II.
Josh Goldsteins e-mail address is This article contains information from Inquirer wire services.

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Wednesday, September 12, 2001

It was like the movie Die Hard. All the windows exploded out, and there was a ring of fire around the buildings.
Judson Weaver, operations manager at Deutsche Bank, whose office faces the south tower of the World Trade Center

Amid the attacks, TV news operations suspend hostilities

The cooperative effort was believed to be a first. One CNN executive said it was whats right for the American people.
thought to be in that country. Were very competitive with correspondents, with news reporting, with on-air talent, said CNNs Jordan. It was also the first test under fire for new CNN chief Walter Isaacson; Brown, the networks new signature anchor; and new morning host Paula Zahn, a Fox News star less than a week ago. Thanks to the brave new world of vertical integration, networks shared their coverage with their corporate cousins. ABCs reports ran on ESPN and ESPN2 (both owned by Disney); CBSs on VH1 and UPN (Viacom); CNNs on all of AOL Time Warners domestic and international networks, including TNT, TBS, and Turner Classic Movies. Several network correspondents covering the story at the World Trade Center in Manhattan barely escaped serious injury, or even death. MSNBCs Ashleigh Banfield and her crew broke down the door of a building to escape falling debris. CNBCs Ron Insana ran and hid in a parked car when the second tower collapsed. CBSs Carol Marin said she thought she was about to be killed by an approaching fireball when a nearby firefighter grabbed her, threw her against a wall, and protected her with his body. Banfield, Insana and Marin were all covered in ash and clearly shaken while relating their stories on the air. Fox News Channel producer Dan Cohen, trained as an emergency medical technician, dashed to the scene and treated victims, then had to run for his life as the towers crumbled. He managed to do two phone reports. Like the correspondents, executives were also unnerved. We are in uncharted territory here, CNNs Jordan said. Nothing remotely similar to the situation we find ourselves in today has happened before. I hope to God it doesnt again. On a more mundane note, the 53d annual prime-time Emmy Awards, scheduled for Sunday night in L.A. on CBS, were postponed indefinitely out of respect for the victims and their families, said the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences.
Gail Shisters e-mail address is

The most horrific images, replayed in an endless loop

The nightmarish pictures kept coming, all day and on all channels, and they did not get any easier to deal with.

Sue Moormann watches news about the terrorist attacks. She was at a TV and appliance store in Enid, Okla., yesterday.

CHRIS LANDSBERGER / Associated Press

At first, the second Boeing 767 looked like a housefly. Then came the fiery flash. What followed was like one of those demolition events. An old factory or public housing project that falls on cue, sending smoke and debris in plumes, graceful as a Fourth of July firework, as gawkers ooh and aah. There were no oohs and aahs yesterday. Television showed video of the crashes and subsequent collapse of the twin towers of the World Trade Center in an endless loop. But the terror came home in the days most compelling shot, of people running directly at the camera, a fearful herd that commandeered an entire Manhattan street. Television, our usually pleasant friend, piled up the most horrific live images it has ever shown. First a hole in a skyscraper. Then a plane crashing Commentary into a second skyscraper. Then wreckage at the Pentagon. Then the twin towers collapsing. Yet it was all an empty shock until it got a human face. The ghostly financiers, gray from head to toe with ash covering their $1,000 suits. The firefighters and police struggling to help victims, or fleeing from those terrible speeding clouds themselves. Its a war. Weve been attacked, said one in that distinctive New Yorkese. Its like World War II. This is World War III. Still without a personality, despite the inevitable droning heads that filled the screen with speculation as the day progressed, the disaster finally elicited tears when Jim Ogonowski came out of his Massachusetts farmhouse to talk about his brother, John. He went to St. Stanislaus School in Lowell. He flew 22 years for American Airlines. And he was piloting Flight 11 out of Boston yesterday before it was hijacked and slammed into the north tower of the World Trade Center. I keep looking at the cornfield behind me, said Ogonowski, hoping that my brother comes walking on out. Television becomes the old town square when crisis hits, the place we gather. Even MTV stopped rocking yesterday eventually to cover the carnage. So did VH1, the shopping channels, the Food Network. EWTN the Eternal Word Television Network did its bit, presenting Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament for Bombing Victims and for Peace and other inspirational segments. No medium is better suited for communion, spiritual or otherwise. We gather to share the crisis. And we

Yesterdays events prompted the fiercely competitive networks to do something they dont like to do share. At the suggestion of 60 Minutes creator Don Hewitt, the broadcast and cable news networks agreed yesterday morning to share all video gathered from the days devastating air attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington. Such network cooperation is believed to be unprecedented on a breaking news story. There are times you just have to waive some of your competitive vigor and do whats right for the American people, said Eason Jordan, CNNs president, newsgathering. We are in every battle to win, and win big, but given the extraordinary, unprecedented, horrific nature of what happened today, were putting it aside, to a degree. Also put aside, refreshingly, were the predictable calls from network publicists crowing about beating rivals to the air by a minute or two. On this day, at least, it was all about the story. Virtually every anchor, correspondent, producer and technician from every network from every bureau around the world rushed to cover the worst attack on the United States since Pearl Harbor. For the first time since the Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995, the Big Three (ABC, CBS and NBC) immediately went to continuous live coverage. No commercials. They planned to stay with the story for the foreseeable future. NBC News employees at the networks world headquarters in New York Citys Rockefeller Center continued working, even after the rest of the 65-plus-story building had been evacuated. The Three Horsemen ABCs Peter Jennings, CBSs Dan Rather, and NBCs Tom Brokaw all put in more than 12 hours on the air, as did MSNBCs Brian Williams, Fox News Channels Shepard Smith, and CNNs Aaron Brown. CNN, as usual, took full advantage of its worldwide bureaus by broadcasting videophone pictures last night of explosions in Kabul, Afghanistan. Terrorism suspect Osama bin Laden is

both of Los Angeles, watch a billboard projection of President Bush speaking. know that if anything happens, word will be instantaneous. Thats also one of TVs biggest weaknesses. For a brief time in the early evening, viewers thought the United States had gone to war with Afghanistan. The mediums other failing is what happens when there isnt any news. Thats when the tap-dancing begins. An FBI guy is allowed to inflame the populace with his bellicose views. CBSs Fouad Ajami, always primed with Arab insight, gets to aphorize: The Taliban would like to hunt with hounds and run with the fox. Local TV news folk, human like the rest of us, are swept up in hyperbole. Channel 3s Ukee Washington actually said, Fear, mass chaos and mass hysteria is gripping our nation. The usual thing is to congratulate this news team for quick work, bash that anchor for cornpone analogies. But this time there was no amusement in citing Fox News for being forced to use exclusive pictures from archenemy CNN or Dan Rather for pompously quoting Thomas Paine, but placing the colonial patriot in 1894. There was no aesthetic appreciation to be had in Channel 6s great shots from Liberty Island or the devastating ground-zero video that ABC put up last evening. Because this was no housefly the video chillingly revealed. Nor was it a flamboyant attorney pontificating about a glove that didnt fit, or the leader of the free world engaging in a syntactic study of what is is. It was an airliner, filled with terrified passengers, slicing surgically into a skyscraper, changing our world forever.
Jonathan Storms e-mail address is

On the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles, Brian McNight (left) and Charles Melton,

E.J. FLYNN/ Associated Press

Evoking Hollywood films but without the escape


Reporters gather in a gas station parking lot near the damaged Pentagon for a briefing by officials.

SCOTT S. HAMRICK / Inquirer Suburban Staff

can see the wires on those stingray spaceships that demolish entire CaliHearts stopped. The Earth stood fornia towns. still. And Manhattans tallest towers And in Black Sunday (1977), the collapsed in a billow of steel and ash. Black September terrorists who hiJust like the movies, witnesses said. jack the Goodyear blimp and plan to If only. crash it into the Super Because afterward the Movies had Bowl crowd are foiled belights didnt come up. We fore the kickoff by FBI didnt leave the multiplex imagined and Israeli antiterrorist with that giddy adrenaline something forces. high and the certainty that How naive those movies it couldnt happen here. like this. seemed yesterday. This time, the adrenaline Their horrors I mentally rewound imsoured in our veins and ages from these films as I proved to acid seared our guts. watched the horrific kaleiAs we watched the be poor doscope of ambulances World Trade Center buildand gridlock and grief on ings crumple, first one, imitations. CNN. then the other, there was Just like the movies, I none of the visceral thrill we got from thought despite myself. Specifically, seeing the Washington Monument va- just like a 1998 film, The Siege. Thats porize in Earth vs. the Flying Saucers. the one in which Arab terrorists tarNo breathtaking spectacle like the get New York buses, FBI headquarmoney shot in Independence Day, ters, and a packed Broadway theater. In response, martial law is imposed when the White House is zapped by and the government indiscriminately aliens. rounds up Arab Americans, interning It wasnt a movie set where the cainnocent citizens in concentration sualties get up, dust themselves off, camps. and go to the commissary for lunch. As terrorist violence is met with And there was no last scene in which constitutional terrorism, a dignified the hero reassures us that mankinds FBI officer played by Denzel Washingfundamental decency can vanquish ton observes that our enemies wont any evil. need to destroy our liberties if we deIn The Day the Earth Stood Still, the stroy them ourselves. 1951 classic in which a spaceship At least in the movies, theres the from another planet lands on the comfort of a hero, the solace of susWashington Mall, an alien so dignified pended belief, the soothing voice of he could be a BBC anchor delivers an reason. Just like the movies? If only. anti-nuclear-weapons sermon that reaffirms the brotherhood of man. Carrie Rickeys e-mail address is In The War of the Worlds (1953), we

By Carrie Rickey

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Wednesday, September 12, 2001

People are confused. The natural reaction is anger, is hatred. People are asking: Where is the Loving God? This evil is done by men and reflects an absence of God, a turning [of] their back on Him.
Cardinal Anthony J. Bevilacqua

I feel more shocked than at Pearl Harbor, a veteran said.

Stunned, angry reactions in area

By Ken Dilanian

Paul Brown, who survived the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, thought nothing would affect him as deeply ever again. Then came yesterday. I feel more shocked today, said Brown, 81, of Southampton, Bucks County. Im despondent, bewildered and confused. Brown spoke for many in the Philadelphia region yesterday as people reflected on the most destructive assault on the United States in its history. As most workaday business ground to a halt, emotions fluctuated from worry to anger. Many, including Brown, said they wanted the United States to strike out militarily at those responsible. Stewart Miller of Queen Village said he suspected Saudi dissident Osama bin Laden, who is believed to be living in Afghanistan. As far as Im concerned, if Afghanistan wont surrender him, wed be justified in using a nuclear weapon and blasting the bastards, the 72-year-old retiree said. I think were at war, agreed Donna Bishel, 25, a medical assistant at University of Pennsylvania Medical Center. I think we should go after him wherever hes at. Karen Ellis, 26, who just moved to Philadelphia from Boston, disagreed. I think they have to handle everything with kid gloves now. These terrorists dont care about living, she said. Workers and visitors streaming out of Center City office towers at midday looked numb. Before being sent home, as high-rise buildings were closed, many had been following the story in their offices on television and the Internet. Im scared. Im scared for everybody, said a weeping Sheila Bullocks of Havertown, after leaving her job at the State Office Building at Broad and Spring Garden Streets. All I know is I want to go home and hug my baby. Angus Cater, a British insurance executive who was pitching his wares in Philadelphia, said he had been scheduled to attend a meeting on the 100th floor of one of the Trade Center towers this morning. This is going to change the perspective of America, he said. You have been very benign toward the outside world. You are at war now with these animals. James Gaddy had been power-washing the outside of the office building at 22d and Market when he saw people evacuating the building. I thought there was a fire drill, he said. They said, didnt you hear? This is terrible. Horrible. I hope President Bush will do something about it. Im totally messed up about this. he said. As the citys downtown emptied, Alex Weigel, a computer-security specialist for Cigna, was sitting at the

Across the region, a day of tension, gridlock and prayer

Early closings at schools and businesses caused traffic jams. Officials took extra security measures and called for calm.
By L. Stuart Ditzen and Monica Yant Kinney In Center City Philadelphia, not long after terrorists attacked Washington and New York, sirens wailed, government, businesses and schools closed, and traffic went into gridlock as a stunned populace reacted in fear and shock. By noon, Center City was reminiscent of the movie Independence Day, with cars crawling along clogged streets and expressway ramps in a high-stress push to get home. Downtown was a cacophony of horns, police whistles and sirens. Elevated parking decks and street-level garages cleared out, as workers left for home. In communities throughout the region, the scene was similar: Schools closed or were put on heightened security; courthouses and public buildings shut down; emergency communications centers were put into operation. In Haddon Township, Camden County, school officials were especially concerned because school buildings were in the direct flight path of Philadelphia International Airport. Police officers manned every door. Afternoon kindergarten and all afternoon activities were canceled. In Philadelphia, extra contingents of police, firefighters and medics were put on alert while city, state and federal offices were closed and workers were sent home. Police were placed on 12-hour shifts. In Chester County, the Coroners Office was preparing to send medical examiners to New York, Washington or the Pittsburgh area to identify bodies. Amid the morning exodus, William Devlin, head of the Urban Family Council, led about a dozen people in an impromptu prayer meeting shortly after noon next to the Clothespin, at 15th and Market Streets. As soon as we heard the news in our office, we figured this would be the natural place to gather people to pray, Devlin said. At a time like this, people dont know what to do. We figured this would be a positive venue to gather people together to pray. Many who idled slowly along Center Citys narrow streets soon found themselves in late-morning traffic jams on the Schuylkill Expressway, Interstate 95, City Avenue, and other major arteries. Thousands of commuter-rail riders were delayed or forced to find other means of transportation after Amtrak suspended service on its Northeast rail line between Boston and Washington. Several SEPTA commuter lines that use Amtrak tracks, including the busy Paoli trains, also were required to suspend service. Mayor Street convened a rare press conference, flanked by Police Commissioner John F. Timoney, Fire Commissioner Harold Hairston, and City Council President Anna Verna. He said that he had implemented the citys emergency plan and that all reasonable precautions were being taken to guard against a terrorist attack. Street termed the attacks in New York and Washington cowardly, shameful and deadly acts, and called for calm and urged prayers for the victims. We are asking all Philadelphians and people who live in our region to remain calm, vigilant and prayerful, a somber Street said. By midafternoon, the city had largely emptied of traffic. Commuter lines were running again, but the normally

a television outside Channel 3 studios at Fifth and Market Streets. Ramo, from Brooklyn, said she was concerned about family and friends in New York. Clothespin sculpture across from City Hall, typing on his laptop. He had been evacuated from Cignas offices on the 29th floor of Two Liberty Place, and was waiting for his wife to pick him up, since his train to Delaware wasnt running. My initial reaction is shock and horror, but Im also not surprised, he said. Ive always felt that this kind of thing was more of a threat than a rogue missile. Its time to go to war against terrorism. The tragic events brought people together. During an all-campus outdoor assembly at Muhlenberg College in Bethlehem, student body president Elias Saratovsky led the group in the Pledge of Allegiance. On the Vanguard campus in Malvern, Chester County, employees gathered around televisions. Everyone went pale, Vanguard executive Greg Agle said. There was dead silence and everyone was walking around dazed. It was pretty disgusting. Near the Liberty Bell, Marilyn Erickson of Anacortes, Wash., said she, her husband and another couple had been at the top of the World Trade Center on Friday. Ascending the elevator, she thought of the 1993 terrorist bombing there and grew uneasy, she said. They heard about yesterdays attack from a park ranger while they were inside Independence Hall about 10:15. Were sick, sick! she said. I cant believe it. She began to sob.
Ken Dilanians e-mail address is

Pesha Ramo cries as she watches video of the World Trade Center attack on

MICHAEL S. WIRTZ / Inquirer Staff Photographer

Arab Americans fearful of backlash

Though no Arabs had been blamed for yesterdays attacks, community leaders were on the alert for trouble.
By Thomas Ginsberg

Marwan Kreidies first thought after yesterdays attacks was revulsion. His second was fear, for himself and other Arab Americans. Weve had a lot of problems with people taking it out on Arab Americans, Kreidie, president of the Arab American Association of Philadelphia, recalled of previous terrorist acts. People had been harassed and beaten, so were worried this will happen here. While condemning the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, mainstream American Muslim and Arab leaders nationally and locally were palpably edgy that they might become targets of a backlash even though no Muslim or Arab group had been blamed. The Council on American-Islamic Relations, a Washington-based advocacy group, urged any Muslims who wear Islamic attire to consider staying out of public areas for the immediate future. Rumors of minor confrontations and threats already had spread across the region yesterday, though there were no confirmed reports of serious problems. In Philadelphia, Police Commissioner John F. Timoney met with Arab

and Muslim community representatives, promising extra police presence at mosques and other areas. A police cruiser was parked in front of the citys largest mosque, Al-Aqsa, in Germantown. In other cities nationwide, Arab and Muslim community leaders also met with authorities to discuss protection, said James Zogby, director of the Arab American Institute, a Washington-based group that fights discrimination against Arabs and Muslims. There are an estimated three million Arabs, who are not all Muslim, in the country. There are about six million to seven million Muslims, who are not all Arab. Across the region, local leaders estimate there are 25,000 Arabs and 100,000 Muslims. In the days after the April 19, 1995, Oklahoma City bombing, Zogby said a couple of hundred Arab Americans were harassed or attacked. In Philadelphia, an Arab family was assaulted in the Frankford section, Kreidie said. Just like white people shouldnt be blamed for Oklahoma City, we shouldnt be blamed for this, Kreidie said. Zogby said the perpetrators should be damned to hell. At the same time, unfortunately, well have to look over our shoulders to see whos pointing at our backs. Omar Dimachkie, Philadelphiabased president of the Association of Islamic Charitable Projects of North America, an educational philanthropy, said yesterdays attacks, if carried out by a Muslim group, harm Islam.

bustling subway concourse below City Hall was like a ghost town. Independence Hall was closed. Tourists were ushered out of the Liberty Bell pavilion in midtour. And other parks in the region, from Valley Forge to Washingtons Crossing, were closed. City schools, public and private, let out early. The U.S. Courthouse and federal office buildings were evacuated, spilling at least 3,000 employees and hundreds of jurors onto the sidewalks at Sixth and Market Streets about 10:20 a.m. Judge Harvey B. Bartle 3d was in the middle of taking a guilty plea when he was ordered to leave the courthouse, which he did promptly, leaving his briefcase behind. We forget in this country how vulnerable we are, Bartle said, standing on the sidewalk. But anybody can do this if theyre willing to sacrifice their life. All city civil and criminal courts were closed. Common Pleas Court President Judge Frederica MassiahJackson said she met with the mayor in his office at 10:30 a.m. and there was a sense of tremendous anxiety. Many Center City businesses, particularly those in high-rise buildings, also closed. By noon most major employers in Philadelphia either closed their offices or allowed workers to go home early, said Charles Pizzi, president of the Greater Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce. Lots of businesses [are closing] because of the major distraction as well as being prudent especially businesses located in high-rises, Pizzi said. Even the little-used ferry between Penns Landing and the Camden waterfront was shut down as a security precaution. At Philadelphia International Airport, security was tightened, and all aircraft including 99 commercial flights were grounded on orders of the Federal Aviation Administration. In Harrisburg, Gov. Ridge ordered the Capitol evacuated and closed. State and capitol police were placed on high alert. All state employees, except essential workers such as prison personnel, police and PennDot workers, were sent home. The Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency ordered all counties in the state to open their emergency operations centers. The Pennsylvania National Guard was placed on alert. In New Jersey, a state of emergency was declared. State offices in Newark were closed, but the Statehouse and other state offices in Trenton remained open. At 8 p.m., the mayor addressed the city in a televised speech in which he compared yesterdays attacks to Pearl Harbor, said that the city has sent search-and-rescue personnel to help New York and Washington and is preparing to send more, and urged: The most important thing we could do is pull together as a community to help each other cope with this terrible disaster. After night fell, Center City Philadelphia appeared to be in mourning. Few people were on city sidewalks. About half the restaurants and shops that would usually be open on a warm evening were closed. Rittenhouse Square and other gathering spots were largely empty. And U.S. flags were at half-staff.
L. Stuart Ditzens e-mail address is

This mosque at 45th and Walnut

JOHN COSTELLO / Inquirer Staff Photographer

was closed to outsiders yesterday. This is not what Islam calls for. This does not serve Islam or Muslims worldwide, Dimachkie said. A coalition of U.S. Muslim groups, the American Muslim Political Coordination Council, said it utterly condemns what are apparently vicious and cowardly acts of terrorism against innocent civilians. In a statement, the Council of Mosques and Islamic Organizations of New Jersey called the attacks a criminal sin in Islam and offered to help apprehend those responsible.

Thomas Ginsbergs e-mail address is

Vehicles clog Vine Street in Center City. Business closings made for an early

GERALD S. WILLIAMS / Inquirer Staff Photographer

rush-hour yesterday as commuters spilled out of buildings and headed home.

Wednesday, September 12, 2001



I feel very upset like Im waiting to wake up from a bad dream.
Terri Doring, an assistant with the Cozen & OConnor law firm in Center City

People flee Center City for comforts of home early and in droves
Scores of businesses closed. Workers left, eager to avoid tall buildings. This is the last place to be right now, a man said.
By Henry J. Holcomb

The scene in Center City yesterday morning looked and felt like a wartime evacuation. The citys major office towers began closing shortly before 11 a.m. With images of the collapsing World Trade Center seared in their minds, thousands of people appeared desperate to get away from the tall buildings. I feel very upset like Im waiting to wake up from a bad dream, said Terri Doring, an assistant with the Cozen & OConnor law firm, as she rushed to meet her sister. Ive got so many friends and family in D.C. and New York, said a distressed young man dashing up 16th Street from the GlaxoSmithKline building. By 11:15 a.m., there was gridlock. Impatient drivers blocked intersections. Horns honked. Suburban Station was chaotic. People going in bumped into people trying to get out because many regional rail lines werent running. Scores of employers throughout the region shut down operations, saying their employees should be with their

families. Some employees left work when bosses told them they could go. Others didnt wait. I just left. I need to get home to be with my daughter, a woman cried. Joe Weiszer, of the citys Frankford section, had just been seated on a jury when officials told everyone to leave the Criminal Justice Center. I knew terrorism would come to America soon, with all the fanatics there are, he was starting to say, standing in the shadow of Liberty Place, the citys signature office tower. Then a man shouted: This is the last place to be right now. A fire truck passed, siren wailing. Ive got to go home to see my wife, Weiszer said, turning away. A few didnt leave right away. Barry Robinson was attending a computer class in the Centre Square regional headquarters of Tenet Health Care System. At first we tried to continue, but things kept getting worse. We couldnt focus, Robinson said. Eric Koci, who repairs office machines for Cannon ABS, was working

Branch manager Steven E. Schwartz keeps an eye on news reports. He was the only broker left in the Morgan Stanley Dean
Witter office in Bala Cynwyd at midday, in case clients called. Morgan Stanley had offices in the World Trade Center. on the ninth floor of the Philadelphia Catholic Archdiocese office building when he heard the news. Things got quiet and emotional. We banded together for prayer. Considering it was the archdiocese office, it wasnt hard to find a priest, he said. On the streets outside, there was an air of panic as people tried to call loved ones on cell phones, often unable to get through. Amid the turmoil, the Episcopal Church of the Holy Trinity, on Rittenhouse Square at the edge of the financial district, hastily printed a sign inviting people inside for prayer. Some came to deal with grief, others to pray

JOAN FAIRMAN KANES / Inquirer Suburban Staff

for loved ones in New York and Washington. From damnation, deliver us O Lord, the Rev. Terence C. Roper read from a hymnal. Grant us wisdom. Grant us courage.
Henry J. Holcombs e-mail address is

In Philadelphia, caution over public places and landmarks

Mayor Street closed City Hall and other public buildings. Park officials turned away visitors at the Liberty Bell.
By Stephan Salisbury

After the calamitous attacks on the World Trade Center yesterday, local and federal officials moved to increase security at the Liberty Bell and other regional monuments and to close many of the areas historic and public buildings. At 10:30 a.m., less than two hours after the first of two jetliners crashed into the trade center, National Park Service officials closed down Independence National Historical Park, ushering visitors from the Liberty Bell pavilion, Independence Hall, and other park buildings. At a City Hall news conference shortly afterward, a somber Mayor Street directed that public buildings close at noon, and that the citys monuments and landmark buildings be protected by additional security throughout the day. Law-enforcement authorities received at least one threat of a bomb at the Liberty Bell pavilion. At 11:20 a.m., the police bomb squad arrived at the small building, which fronts Market Street between Fifth and Sixth Streets, and searched the interior and surrounding park with a bomb-sniffing dog. No bomb was found. Dozens of city and park service police were deployed along Market Street and around the park, and metal crowd-control barriers ringed the north end of the bell pavilion. Phil Sheridan, spokesman for Independence National Historical Park, said the decision to close the park was made in consultation with the regional office of the park service, which has authority over all 80 or so parks and sites in the northeastern section of the country. All those sites were closed after the attacks yesterday, according to Kathy Dilonardo, public information officer for the park services northeastern region. A decision regarding when to reopen was to be made late yesterday in Washington, she said. Construction on the National Constitution Center north of Arch Street between Fifth and Sixth Streets was halted after the attacks in New York and on the Pentagon in Washington, and workers were sent home. The Gateway Visitor Center construction at Sixth and Market was also halted. Because of the Liberty Bell and Independence Hall, we thought it was prudent to close, Sheridan said. Park service officials said no decision had been made yesterday about when to reopen any of the parks. Such a decision will be made by park service officials in Washington, Sheridan said. The citys other major historic sites and cultural institutions also shut down yesterday. The Philadelphia Museum of Art closed at noon in response to Streets directive but officials there said they anticipated being open

As one of many security measures taken in Philadelphia after yesterday mornings attacks, National Park Service officers close down the Liberty Bell Pavilion. Officers
also escorted visitors from Independence Hall and other park buildings. Law-enforcement authorities received at least one threat of a bomb at the Liberty Bell Pavilion. At 11:20 a.m., the police bomb squad arrived and searched the interior and the park with a bomb-sniffing dog. No bomb was found.

TOM GRALISH / Inquirer Staff Photographer

Motorists traveling north on I-95 in Philadelphia are alerted to closures in the city. National Park Service officials said no
today. We have normal security in place, said Charles Croce, museum spokesman. Our protection services people constantly review our policies, and we consider them to be adequate. Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, at Broad and Cherry Streets, closed shortly after opening yesterday morning. Hilary Pitts, a spokes-

BONNIE WELLER / Inquirer Staff Photographer

decision had been made yesterday about when to reopen the 80 or so parks and sites in the Northeast that were closed. woman for the academy, said it would be open today. Other public historic sites, including the Betsy Ross House, the Fairmount Park historic houses, and the

Rodin Museum closed around noon yesterday. City Hall closed and additional police were deployed throughout the historic building. Officials at the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, which is nearing completion at Broad and Spruce Streets, said they had beefed up security there yesterday, and at the Academy of Music, Broad and Locust Streets, which is now managed by the center. We have instituted security 24/7 at both sites, said John Fernandez, the arts centers director of operations. Construction was halted at the Kimmel Center late yesterday morning, as was painting and cleaning at the academy, where the Philadelphia Orchestras season is to open in a week. Security was already a focus at the Kimmel before yesterdays disasters, officials said. The center, with its public courtyard and dramatic glass arch, will be accessible to the public as much as 18 hours a day after it opens in December. We already had a security plan in place; it was something we budgeted for, Fernandez said. We have security trained to look for anything out of the ordinary.
Stephan Salisburys e-mail address is

A28 C


Wednesday, September 12, 2001

We are asking all Philadelphians and people who live in our region to remain calm, vigilant and prayerful.
Mayor Street

Peace of mind falls victim to mayhem

Help With Trauma
The American Psychiatric Association offers these suggestions for people who find themselves encountering a disaster: Keep in mind that, while a particular disaster is highly visible, it is an isolated event in a nation of nearly 300 million people. Act on facts, not fear or speculation. Keep informed. If you feel anxious, angry or depressed, youre not alone. Talk to friends, family or colleagues who may be experiencing the same feelings. By Stacey Burling, Marie McCullough and Marian Uhlman

Yesterdays attacks, both relentless and ferocious, are likely to leave many people depressed and anxious.

Psychologically, yesterdays terrorist attacks were a watershed event likely to leave many Americans feeling afraid, unsure of their government and vengeful, trauma experts said. Not since Pearl Harbor have people in this country felt so vulnerable, so helpless, so horribly surprised. This is the big one, bigger than anything, because of where it occurred and the extent of it, said Frank Farley, a Temple University psychologist and a past president of the American Psychological Association. There is no baseline of comparison. Several experts agreed that yesterdays attacks were worse than the infamous assault during another beautiful morning 60 years ago, a bombing that targeted a Hawaiian military base during a time of world war. And they were worse than the 1995 attack in Oklahoma City, a domestic act of terrorism that foreshadowed yesterdays events but lacked their scope. The victims of the multipronged onslaught were civilians working in bigcity buildings that are the very symbols of American commerce and military might. They were passengers on commercial jetliners that were hijacked and used as weapons. They could have been anybody. And there were so many people who were hurt, or might have been hurt, or had flown on those airplanes, or knew someone who was married to someone who once worked in lower Manhattan or just visited New York or Washington that the ripple effects could personally touch many thousands. There will be enormous fear and uncertainty, Farley said, precisely the goals of a terrorist attack. People will be left with the feeling that such a calamity could happen to them and they will be questioning whether we are losing control. People are going to be very unhappy in America, Farley added. And they will vent it upward. They will say: Whats going on? How could this happen in America? And a lot of politicians are going to start scrambling. Its the monumentalness of this. Its something that actually touches at the heart of people all over the United States, said Elna Yadin, a psychologist at the University of Pennsylvanias Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety. It was something that no one had ever thought possible. An Israeli citizen who has lived in this country 26 years, Yadin said one difficult thing about yesterdays attacks was that no one was sure when they would be over. A plane crash, a second crash, an attack on the Pentagon, a fourth plane down. Youre sort of prepared to deal with one and then you hear about another and then another, Yadin said. While Americans first reaction was shock and horror, it will take months for people to sort out the full emotional, financial and political fallout, experts said. They worried that people would vent their anger a natural reaction on innocent people who share no more than their nationality or their religion with the perceived terrorists. The problem is that people try to make a clear enemy oftentimes, said

For more information

The American Psychological Association offers other help for dealing with traumatic events online. Go to: www.helping.apa. org/therapy/traumaticstress.html.

Firefighters, their ranks thinned by casualties, gather at the base of the destroyed twin towers of the World Trade Center.
Teri Elliott, a psychologist who works in the University of South Dakotas Disaster Mental Health Institute. As a society and as individuals, if were not able to find a cause for an event, we cant get over our fear because we dont know where its coming from. They always say the first thing thats lost in a crisis in common sense, said Ellin Bloch, a psychologist and trauma expert at Alliant International University in Los Angeles. Bessel van der Kolk, a psychiatrist at Boston University who has worked on the West Bank and other international trouble spots, believes America has had its share of defining traumas. He pointed to the successive assassinations of John F. Kennedy (1963), the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1968), and Robert F. Kennedy (1968), which coincided with political and racial unrest. We started to break apart, he said. Those years were very disruptive to our sense of well-being. Im very much reminded of that right now. But theres another point of view. I think weve had a feeling of invulnerability for half a century, said Mary de Young, a sociologist and trauma specialist at Grand Valley State University in Michigan. Even Pearl Harbor was not on our home shores. Weve

MATT MOYERS / Associated Press

watched bombings and terrorism in the Mideast and in Africa from a distance. Weve had little doses [of collective trauma] with the Oklahoma City bombing and the [1993] World Trade Center bombing, but nothing on this scale. Experts say the impact of collective trauma can help build or break peoples faith in their government and social systems. Although no government can really guarantee security, leaders must convince citizens that all precautions have been taken. You have to live under the illusion that you can protect yourself, van der Kolk said. People psychological-

ly cannot tolerate the idea that they cant protect themselves. While the attacks will obviously be most stressful for people who were injured or knew victims, virtually everyone could find a connection to yesterdays events. We are all victims, said Ken Manges, a Cincinnati psychologist who specializes in trauma. Whoever it was, the terrorists used our liberties against ourselves. Merely witnessing the events on television and then seeing them rebroadcast endlessly could be enough to cause posttraumatic stress disorder for some Americans who had no direct connection to the attacks. Some people might have trouble sleeping, or they might have nightmares and flashbacks, said James M. Thompson, deputy medical director of the American Psychiatric Association. Some people, Thompson continued, might get excessively angry or excessively fearful. Some people could actually get clinically depressed and use drugs and alcohol to numb the pain. Psychologists said most people yesterday were doing what felt right to them talking to their friends and family, checking in with the people who matter to them. It wouldnt be unusual to feel anxiety or fear after an event like this. If it continues for several weeks, though, they might want to seek professional help. Yadin, who has experienced terrorism in Israel, said people were reacting in normal, understandable ways. Once they get past the disbelief, theyll try to understand what happened and that will be difficult. Terrorism, Yadin said, feels foreign. They dont understand it. How could anybody steer a plane into a building to make a point? To understand, I think thats what most people are trying to do right now.
Stacey Burlings e-mail address is

Staff Coverage
Contributing to The Inquirers coverage of the terrorist bombings of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were staff writers Tom Avril, Clea Benson, Kathy Bocella, Barbara Boyer, Cynthia Burton, Rose Ciotta, Angela Couloumbis, Peter Dobrin, Jere Downs, Melissa Dribben, Susan FitzGerald, Jeff Gammage, Thomas J. Gibbons Jr., Thom Guarnieri, Kathy Hacker, Kristin Holmes, Annette John-Hall, Lini S. Kadaba, Eugene Kiely, Monica Yant Kinney, Diane Mastrull, Craig McCoy, Michael Mills, Tom Moon, Bill Ordine, James ONeill, Suzette Parmley, Melanie Scott, Howard Shapiro, Joseph A. Slobodzian, Susan Snyder, Edward J. Sozanski, Tom Turcol, Elisa Ung, Fawn Vrazo and Anthony R. Wood. Members of the Inquirer suburban staff also contributed to the coverage, including Kayce Ataiyero, Erica Bennett, Matthew Blanchard, Alicia Caldwell, Adam Cataldo, Stephanie Doster, Lee Drutman, Steve Esack, Margie Fishman, Maureen Fitzgerald, Jonathan Gelb, Kristen A. Graham, Wendy Ginsberg, Mary-Anne Janco, Joann Klimkiewicz, Cynthia J. McGroarty, Zlati Meyer, Bob ONeil, Valerie Reed, Mark Stroh, Jacqueline L. Urgo, Will Van Sant, Jake Wagman, Benjamin Wallace-Wells, Susan Weidener and Kelly Wolfe.

Jane Eisner American Rhythms

A response that denies terrorists a victory

painful memories of atrocity and turn them into tragedy. But this, this is just atrocity. So, after the grief and anger and gut-wrenching bewilderment at yesterdays attacks on the nation, the real test will be our response. Not just our military, over-there response, but also the challenge this terrible new world presents to us as Americans. We know already that today will never be what it could have been. But what about tomorrow? What kind of nation do we want to be? I hope that this will reaffirm in America why were not terrorists, says Alan Wolfe, director of the Center for Religion and American Public Life at Boston College. We have an open society; its the best thing we have. We have a society of mobility. It would be terrible if we draw more into ourselves. Its part of our lives to go out into the world. We cant stop that. The only thing we can do is to go out fearfully, or go out hopefully. There are choices here. Terrorism and the blind fear that it generates temporarily rob us of the belief in choice. It is randomness at its most terrifying. But that, of course, is just what the terrorist ordered. Jim Wallis, head of the progressive Christian group Call to Renewal, heard people talking yesterday on the streets of Washington about closing off the borders. Stopping immigration. Putting up fences. Its only human to react in such a way at first. But he cautions: If we become fearful, enclosed, intolerant, we are indeed giving them a victory. This will change the way we view the world, but theres a moral question here. Whos in the community, and whos not? Do we become a more fearful society, a nation of security fences, or do we find some other way to be together? A bizarre unity has been forged by these attacks; they have brought the nation together more powerfully than anything since the first Kennedy assassination. Yesterday, Americans intuitively followed the rituals of mourning and consolation workaday life shut down, families and friends checked on one another, congregations gathered in houses of worship. Yesterday, people were especially generous with one another. Berenbaum was sitting in a Washington-bound airplane in Los Angeles when the passengers were told that the flight was canceled. There was not one word of complaint, he marveled. The importance of whatever people were flying to Washington for simply evaporated. Theres comfort in these collective rituals, the beginning of a healthy response to diabolical events. Now, in the shadow of fear and terror, the challenge will be to maintain the optimism, openness and tolerance at the center of the American soul.
Jane Eisners column usually appears on Sundays and Thursdays. Her e-mail address is

Weve dealt with tragedy before, in distant war and domestic crisis. We know how to recognize it, to somehow muster the strength and creativity to confront its awful aftermath. For in tragedy there is some relation between deed and fate, a Shakespearean narrative that stumbles toward resolution or at least a teachable moment. Tragedy offers us a glimpse of a cosmic balance sheet. Yesterday was not mere tragedy. Yesterday was pure atrocity. Atrocity never makes sense. There is nothing to be learned, no way to draw up a balance sheet because the price paid can never be compensated. What lesson is there in so many deaths, in national icons blown to rubble, in the silence of fallen towers? People have an absolute necessity to rediscover meaning, says Michael Berenbaum, a Holocaust scholar and head of the Berenbaum Group, based in Los Angeles. We try to salvage something from the ashes to make sure theres not only ashes. We take