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Where Manager Work :Organasation :- A consciously Co-Ordinated social unit composed of two or more people that function on a relatively

continous basis to achive a common goal as set of goal.      Social Unit Compose two or more people Continues process Achive common goal Or set of goal

1. 2. 3. 4. Management Function :    Planning Controlling Organissing Leading

Effectiveness efficiency achieving common goal needs to productivity

1. Planning :- A Process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy and developing plans to co-ordinates activities. 2. Organising :-Determining what tasks are to be done who is todo them, how the taks are to be grouped, who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made. 3. Leading :- A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels and resolving confilics. 4. Controlling :- Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviation. Management Skills : Technical Skills :- The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise  Human Skills :- The ability to work with understand and motivate other people both individually and in group.  Conceptual Skills:- The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situation.

Knowledge Skills A Manager Moves from the supervisory to top management level conceptual skills become move important than technically skills but human skills remain equally important. Organisational Behavior A field of study that investigates the impact that individual, groups and structure have an behaviour within organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization effectiveness. Replacing intuition with systematic study. Intuition :- A feeling not necessarily supported by research. Systematic Study : - Looking at relationship attempting to arribute cause and effects and drewing conclusion based on scientific evidenc. Provide a means to predict behaviour.: Preconceived notions :- The facts Major work force diversity category :1. Gender 2. Disability 3. Age 4. National origin 5. Race 6. Non Christia 7. Domestic Partners Basic Organisational Behaviour Model stages :Model - An abstracton of reality. A simplified representation of some real work phenomenon :Organizational systems level Group Level Individual Level Biographical Personality and Emotions Value and attitudes

Individual Level Perception Motivation

Group Level 1. Group decision making Communication

Organisational Level Human Output Productivity

Ability Human Input

Individual Learning All above Individual decision Making

2. Leadership and Trust Group Structures

Absence Turnover

Conflict Power and Politicians Work Teams What is perception and why is it important.

Human Output

Perception :- A Process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Peoples behavior is based on their perception of what reality is not on reality it self. The world as is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important

Factors that influence Perception:1. Factors in the perceiver y Attitudes y Motives y Interests y Experiences y Expectations 2. Factors in the situation y Time y Work Setting y Social Setting 3.Factors in the target y Novelty y Motion y Sounds y Size y Background y Pronimity y Similarity Uquiqueness only in intellectual property in global market. Errors and Biases in Attribution. Fundamental Attributions Erros. The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors & overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgement about behavior of others.

Self Serving Bias. The Tendency for individuals to attribute them own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. Selective perception :People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interest, background etc. Halo Effect :Drawing a general impression about on invividial on the basis of a single characerterstic. Contrast Effects : Evaluation of a persons charac that affected by comparisons & other people recently encountered who rank high or lover on same characterstictic. Frequently used short custs in Judging others. Projection :- Attributing ones own Charactieristics to other people Stereotyping :- Judging someone on the basis of ones perception of the group to which that person belongs. Common Biases and errors y y y y y Overconfidence Bias : Beloning too much in our own decision competencies. Anchoring Bias :- Fixation on early, first received information. Confirmation Bias:- using only the facts that support our decision. Avilability Bias :- Using information that is most readily at hand. Representative Bias :- Assessing the likelihood of an occurrence by trying to match it with a pre existing category.

Motivation:- The Processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal Key Elements  Intensity - How hard a persatries  Direction towards beneficial goal  Persistence How long a persatires Perception - Behavior Motivation = PERSONALITY - Decision Making Group behavior Defining and classifying Groups :-

Groups - Two or more individual interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achive particular object.  Formal Group A designated work group defined by the organization structure.  Informal Group - A Group that is neither formally structure nor organizationally determined. Appears in response to the need for social contact.  Command Group A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manger.  Task Group Those working together to complete a job or task.  Interest Group Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned.  Friendship Group Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics. Why People join groups 1. Security 2. Status 3. Self Esteem 4. Affiliation 5. Power 6. Goal Achievement The fine stage model of group development : Forming Stage The first stage in group development Characterized by much uncertainty  Storming stage The second stage in group development characterized by intra group conflict  Norming Stage The third stage in group development characterized by close relationship and Co-hesiveness ( Belonging ness)  Performing Stage The fourth stage in group development, when he group is fully functional  Adjourning Stage/ Final Stage/ Group Development ;- The final stage in groups development for temporary groups. Characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance.

Group Structure Roles :- (Short note in examination) Roles a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a giving position in social visit. 1. Role Identity Certain attitudes & behavior consistent with a role 2. Role perception An individual view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation. 3. Role expectations - How other believe a persons should act in a given situation. 4. psychological contact An unwritten agreement that sets what management expects from the employees & vice versa. 5. Role conflict A situation in which an individual in confronted by divergent role expectation. Group Tasks Decision Making  Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complete tasks  Smaller groups are better suited to co-ordineting & facilitating the implementation of complete task  Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group process be effective in order for the group to perform well. Group Decision Making Strengths Weaknesses More complete information More time consuming (Slower) Increased diversity of views Increased pressure to confirm Higher quality of decisions (More Domination by one or few members Accuracy) Increased acceptance of solution Ambiguous responsibility Group decision making Techniques 1. Interacting Group - Typical groups in which members interact with each other face to face. 2. Nominal group Technique A group decision making method in which individual members meet face to face to pool their judgements in a systematic by independent fashion. 3. Brainstorming = A idea generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, which withholding any criticism of those alternative. 4. Electronic meeting

Way to Improve Decision Making :1. Analyze the situation and adjust your decision.

2. Be aware of bias and try to limit their impact. 3. Can the rational analysis with intuition to increase decision making effectiveness. 4. Dont assume that your specific decision style is appropriate to every situation. 5. Enhance personal creativity by looking for novel solution or seeing problems in new ways and using analagien.

What is personality ? The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with other. Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individuals behavior. Personality Determinants. y Heredity y Environment y Situation Personality Test : Called Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Personality Types :Extroverted V/s Introverted (F or I) Sensing V/s Intuitive ( S or N) Thinking V/s Feeding (T or F) Judging V/s Preceding 1. Reserved 2. Less Intelligent 3. Affected by feeling 4. Submissive 5. Serious 6. Expedient 7. Timid 8. Tough Minded 9. Trusting 10. Practical 11. Forthright 12. Self Assured

13. Conservative. Personality Types :Type As - Are always moving,walking and eating rapidly. - Fee impatient with the rate at which most events take place. - Strive to think or do two more things at once. - Cannot cope with leisure fine. - Are obsessed with number measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of every thing they acquire. Type Bs  Never suffer from a sense of time urgenrly with its accompanying impatience.  Fee no need to disply or discuss either their achievements or acccomplishmants.  Play for fun and relaxation rather that to exhibit their superiority at any cost.  Can relax without gult.

Work Stress and its Management

Stress :- A dynamic condition in which an individual is with and opportunity constraint or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the customer is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Confronted Work Stress and its management : Constraints :- Forces that prevent individuals from doing what they desire. Demand :- The of some thing desired. Potential Source of Stress :Environmental Factors : Economic uncertainties of the business cycle.  Political uncertainties of political system.

 Technological uncertainties of terminal innovation.  Terrorism in threats to physical safety and security. Organizational Factors :1. Task elements related to the job. 2. Role demands of functioning in an organization 3. Interpersonal demands created by other employees. 4. Organizational leadership (Managerial Style) 5. Organizational life stage (Growth, Stability or decline) Individual Factors : Family and personal relationship  Economic problem from exceeding earning capacity  Personality problems arising for basic disposition. Individial Differences :  Perceptual variations of how reality will affected the individual further.  Greater job experience moderator stress effect.  Social support buffers job stress.  Internal locus of central lavers.  Perceived job stress.  Strong fellings of self efficiency reduce reaction to job stress. Potential Sources Environmental Factors  Economic uncertainty  Political Uncertainty  Technological Uncertainty Organisational Factors 1. Task Demands 2. Role demands 3. Interpersonal demands 4. Organizatinal Structure 5. Organizational Leadership 6. Organizational Life stage Individual Factors  Family problems  Economic problems  Personality Individual differences Perception Job Experience Social Support Belief in locus

Of control Self eeficacy Hostiling Experience Stress

Consequences :Physilogical symptoms : Headaches  High blood pressure  Heart diseas Phychological symptoms : Anxiety  Depression  Decrease in job satisfaction Behavioral Symptoms : Productivity  Absenteism  Turnover

Inverted U relationship between Stress and Job Performance :-

Force for Change

Force Nature of the work force Technology

Economic Shocks


Example More cultural diversity many new entrants. Faster conceper & more mobile computers on live music changing Rise & Fall of Stocks 200-02 stock market collapse record low interests rate. Global competition mergers and colobrations growth of E- commerc.

Establish, understand and analyzes. We implement the effect of this change to different dept. of management.

Social trends World politics Managing Planned change :-

Internet chat room social net working rise in discount & big bo & retailers. War on terririsom following 09-11-09

Change Making things different. Planned change Activation that are intutional and goal oriented. Change Agents :- Person who acts as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities. Goals of Planned Change :- Improving the ability of the organization to adapt to change in its environment. Change in behavior of individual and groups in the organization e.g. Introduction of computers.

Resistance to change :Forms of resistance to change  Over and immediate - Voicing complaints, Engaging in Job actions.  Implicit and deferred Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased error or mistakes, increased absentisam. Source of individual resistance to change :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Selective information processing Habit Security Economic Factors Fear to unknown

Source of organizational resistance to change : Structural inertia  Limited focus of change  Group inertia  Threat of expertise  Threat to established power relationship  Threat to established resource allocation Over coming resistance to change :1. Tractics for dealing with resistance to change.  Education and Communication


Participation Facilitation and support Negotiation Manipulation Coercion ( Force fully)

The Politics of Change :1. In puts for change likely to come from outside change agents. 2. Internal change agents are mot threatened by their loss of status in the organization. 3. Long time power holders tend to implement only incremental change. 4. The outcomes of power struggles in the organization wil determine the sped and quality of change.

Lewins three step change model:Unfreezing - Movement - Refreezing Lewins three step change Model Unfreezing Change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity. Driving Forces :Forces that direct behavior away from the status quo. Refreezing Stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces. Restraining Forces :Forces that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium.

Unfreezing the status QUO

Desired state

Status QUO

Greiners Model of Organizational Growth Need for Change Large Stage -1 Stage -2 Stage -3 Stage-4 Stage-5


Age of Organization