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A study about Sexual Intercourse during Pregnancy, Is Safe or Dangerous?

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction

One study has proven that approximately 54% of pregnant women experience diminished sexual desire during the first trimester of pregnancy. Why? There are any number of reasons for lack of interest in sex. Preoccupations over the welfare of the fetus or overprotectiveness due to previous miscarriages. First time pregnancies also provoke feelings of being overwhelmed and a desire for everything to be perfect and safe for baby. These feelings are perfectly normal. Men, too, may be wary of having sex during pregnancy.

They may not think its safe to have sex while pregnant and they may harbor fears of hurting the penis during lovemaking. These fears are all normal, in both men and women. What you and your partner should be doing during this time is enjoying your pregnancy and the quality time that you get to spend together before you have a newborn who needs round the clock care. Relax and

enjoy the increased sexual desire that usually accompanies the second trimester, and have a healthy pregnancy.

Sex during pregnancy is perfectly normal. You and your partner do not have to give up on intimacy for almost a year of your lives. Sexual desire will vary during the first, second, and third trimester, but that is just natural. Many men may have reservations about engaging in intercourse for fear of hurting either you or the fetus, but there is really no foundation to such fears.

During the first trimester, some women will experience a diminished sex drive. Bouts of morning sickness, preoccupations over the thought of motherhood, and all the hormonal changes going on in a womans body may leave her too nauseated or exhausted to even think about sex. Sore breasts may further inhibit sex while pregnant. After the first trimester, a womans interest in sex may pick up when hormonal activity begins to level off.

For many women, having sex while pregnant during the second trimester is the best time of their pregnancies for sexual intimacy. After the fatigue and nausea have subsided, during the second trimester the clitoris and vagina are more engorged with blood. This may increase pleasure and some women have

even experienced multiple orgasms for the first time during this period. Usually towards the end of the second trimester, sexual activity diminishes once again. The expanding girth of a third trimester woman makes sex during pregnancy quite difficult, but sexual activity during the final trimester of pregnancy normally poses no risk to the fetus if it is not a high risk pregnancy.

A recent study conducted by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has determined that intercourse after the 29 week milestone does not increase the risk of preterm labor or harm the fetus. Make the most of the alone time with your partner and enjoy a healthy sexual relationship for as long as you like during your pregnancy.

Statement of the problem The study is entitled a study about sexual intercourse during pregnancy, would like to answer the following questions: 1. What is the Profile of the respondents as to: a. Age b. Civil status c. Educational attainment 2. Are you well informed about the safety of having sexual intercourse while pregnant? 3. Do you think that sexual intercourse is really needed for the sake of your relationship with your husband while pregnant? 4. Does the sexual intercourse cost much for you, even if you are pregnant? 5. Are you aware that you might have infections when you had sexual intercourse while pregnant and your child might be infected? 6. Do you think that not having sex with your husband while pregnant will loose his interest in you? 7. Do you have sexual intercourse while you are pregnant ?

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

INPUT

OUTPUT

PROCESS

Pregnant Women who respondent accordingly on 8. having sexual intercourse while pregnant.

To determine whether sexual intercourse while pregnant has good or bad effects.

Sexual intercourse while pregnant is proven with the current research and information that is acknowledge by the professionals with the published articles about sexual intercourse while

Scope and limitation

This study deals mainly with having sexual intercourse during pregnancy.

1. to be able to indicate the history and meaning of sexual intercourse and pregnancy the researchers go to the library and research for its history and meaning; 2. they also visited website of this topic; 3. also the researchers has able to spread questionnaires to people that is involved in their topic; 4. listing only important information is the first thing they do; 5. secondly the researchers edited the data they gathered;

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE & STUDIES Related literature

It is safe for most couples to continue having sex during pregnancy. There are several issues to be aware of, and some guidelines to follow.

You should be aware that orgasm, as well as breast stimulation, can cause the uterus to contract, this will not cause miscarriage. A bit of cramping after intercourse can be very normal. Of course, if cramping continues, or if it is associated with any spotting, you should see your care provider right away.

If you have a history of bleeding after the first trimester or are at risk of pre-term labor, you should discuss this with your physician.

Sometimes you or your partner may have unfounded worries about having sex during pregnancy. For example, some people are afraid that the baby somehow knows that sex is taking place. However, the baby is well protected

by a cushion of fluid in the womb and by the moms abdomen and is completely safe. The partner sometimes worries that intercourse might cause discomfort or pain for the pregnant woman. While this can happen, it is more likely that enjoyment of sex may be heightened due to increased blood flow in the pelvic area.

The safest positions in pregnancy include: Woman on top Spooning (Man behind woman, rear entry) Hands and Knees Side lying, knee pulled up

Some guidelines to follow: Deep penetration should be at the discretion and comfort of the mother. Water or air (or any foreign objects) in the vagina should not be part of any sex play during pregnancy. Douching should never be done during pregnancy. \ Understanding, empathy, creativity and humor will be good assets to love making during pregnancy.

You should always be able to say no." Avoid intercourse (or sexual activity) if advised to do so by your care provider.

Intercourse should be avoided if the amniotic fluid is leaking, has ruptured, or if there is a suspicion that it may be leaking.

Any sexual contact should be avoided if the woman or her partner has been exposed to, or has confirmation of a sexually transmitted disease or HIV.

Keep your sense of humor! Performing oral sex on your partner (fellatio) is always safe during pregnancy and for some couples is a very satisfactory substitute when intercourse isnt permitted.

If you are carrying twins or more, intercourse should be avoided during the last trimester.

As term approaches, start to discuss postpartum contraception.

One question that many moms to be would like the know the answer to is whether or not it's a good idea to have sex during pregnancy.

In a normal pregnancy, it's safe to engage in sex during every stage. Normal in this situation means that you're considered a low risk for pre-term labor or other complications. If you're wondering about whether you fit in this category, talk to your doctor or midwife. Most women have no trouble engaging in a little bedroom play with their partners. However, that doesn't necessarily mean everyone is in the mood while pregnant. Sexual desire tends to fluctuate during our pregnancies, and can even become awkward or uncomfortable as our bodies change shape. Remember to maintain good communication with your partner, and keep in mind that there's not just one way to stay intimate. Kissing, touching, cuddling and manual stimulation can provide a lot of the same closeness and pleasure that sex does, without the problems.

There are a few things that aren't safe. Never engage in practices where your partner blows into the birth canal, since that can cause a blockage of blood vessels potentially fatal for you and your baby. In addition, while it's always important not to be intimate with someone whose history isn't known to you, and who might be a risk factor for a sexually transmitted infection, this is a lot more serious with a baby on the way. You'd not only be putting yourself at risk, but your unborn child. If your doctor or midwife detects problems or feels that you might develop complications, you may also be asked to avoid having sex while you're pregnant. Most commonly, this might be caused by a history of early labor,

signs of a potential miscarriage, bleeding or cramping without explanation, amniotic fluid leaking from the birth canal, problems with your cervix, or a condition called placenta previa. If you're carrying twins or more, you might also be asked to avoid sex with your partner.

Remember to check in and see how your partner is feeling, too. Some men find that their wives' and partners' changing pregnant bodies make them more amorous. Others have trouble reconciling sexuality with the impending birth of a child, and aren't as interested until after the birth.

It's important to remember that in a normal pregnancy where these risks aren't a big concern, sex can't hurt you or your baby. Even having an orgasm won't cause a miscarriage or unwanted contractions. You may find that your drive to engage in sex waxes and wanes, though. During the first trimester, many of us are too preoccupied with nausea, tiredness, sore breasts and constant bathroom breaks to be in the mood. By the second trimester, these symptoms have often subsided, and we realize that it's been several months since we were romantic with our partners. This means that in a number of women, the sex drive goes up. However, by the third trimester, extra bulk, anxiety, and other problems might mean sex is the last thing on your mind.

Related studies

Every woman wants to have a safe and healthy pregnancy. In fact, many women go to great lengths to ensure their baby's well being by tailoring their stress levels, sleeping patterns, diets and even kicking bad habits (like smoking and alcohol consumption) to accommodate the new life inside them. And while the benefits of these precautions are well documented and publicized, there still seems to be a cloud of uncertainty around how safe it is to have sex during pregnancy, which is why we've come up with this guide.

Before we talk about anything else, let's just get this straight: yes! If you are experiencing a normal pregnancy (or one that is considered as low-risk for miscarriage or premature birth) than it is also perfectly normal both to have sex and to want to have sex while pregnant. On the other hand, not wanting to have sex is also normal, and should not be a source of embarrassment.

Although we often think of women as being the most sensitive about the health and well-being of their baby during pregnancy, in fact many men report feeling awkward about initiating sexual activity due to fear of causing pain or

problems for either his partner or their baby. On the other hand, many women actually say they experience a heightened sense of sexual desire during pregnancy, which is likely caused by hormonal changes that cause the vulva (the area around the opening of the vagina) to enlarge and the breasts to be extra sensitive. Also, some women report the newfound freedom of not having to worry about contraception, combined with a new sense of intimacy with their partner makes their sex-life less inhibited.

However, this feeling will likely vary in intensity throughout the pregnancy. For example, women who experience morning sickness and general fatigue during their first trimester are not likely to feel particularly desirous. And once a woman reaches her third trimester she may be feeling uncomfortable due to weight gain, and therefore may feel discomfort or a lack of desire for sex during this time.

In any case, talking with your partner in an open and honest way about your feelings around sex during pregnancy early on and regularly is the best way to ensure you both feel connected and fulfilled.

Once a woman has reached the second trimester it is generally not encouraged that she lie on her back due to the added pressure her growing uterus would place on major blood vessels; thus making sex in the missionary position increasingly risky - not to mention uncomfortable. Here are several other positions that you can try:

Spooning (while lying down man enters woman from behind) Woman on top Woman on hands and knees, rear entry Side lying, woman's knee pulled up

Also, be aware that oral sex can be harmful if the man blows air into your vagina, as this could potentially block a blood vessel.

As long as you are having a healthy pregnancy, sex will be safe. If you have had bleeding or other complications, check with your healthcare provider first. Don't worry -- the baby is well protected in the amniotic sac. It will cushion the activity for him or her. One thing to keep in mind is to not have your partner penetrate too deeply, as this could irritate your cervix. Otherwise, have fun!

As your body changes, you will notice that it may be more difficult to have sex the way you are used to. Now is the time to experiment with new positions that will accommodate your growing belly. When trying to find positions that will work, a good rule of thumb is to try to keep your partner's weight off your abdomen (stomach). This will make sex much more comfortable for you.

Again, as long as you are having a healthy pregnancy, you should be able to have vaginal, oral, and/or anal sex -- whatever you are in the mood for!

Synthesis

Remember to check in and see how your partner is feeling, too. Some men find that their wives' and partners' changing pregnant bodies make them more amorous. Others have trouble reconciling sexuality with the impending birth of a child, and aren't as interested until after the birth. For some men, desire comes and goes while we're pregnant.

Knowing how your partner feels and making sure he knows what your interests and moods are can go a long way to making sure things stay smooth in the bedroom. You might have to try new things, too. For instance, many women find that their breasts are too sensitive to be touched much, or that they aren't interested in aggressive sex while they're pregnant.

If you're still feeling amorous late in pregnancy, different positions might be needed to accommodate your growing belly. Experiment, and remember not to get stressed about your sex life. What goes on in the bedroom is meant to be fun and to help us feel closer to our partners, even while we're pregnant.

For women experiencing normal pregnancies, sexual intercourse should have no bearing on the overall health and safety of your baby. She is safely stowed in the uterus, where the amniotic sac and strong muscles protect her from coming into contact with the penis. Neither intercourse nor orgasm will cause you to have a miscarriage.

Many women also worry about orgasms inducing labor. In fact, semen does contain a chemical that could encourage contractions, which is why many health experts do not recommend having sex during the final weeks of pregnancy. Of course you should first visit your health care provider early to determine what risks (if any) intercourse could pose to your baby. Some reasons why sex should be avoided during pregnancy include:

Your doctor has advised against it You have a history of premature birth or labor If your placenta partially or completely covers your cervix (placenta

previa)

Your water has broken Your are currently experiencing unexplained bleeding Either yourself or your partner have an active, sexually transmitted

disease (std)

During the first trimester if a woman has a history of miscarriages or

threatened miscarriage, or shows signs of a threatened miscarriage

During the last trimester if a woman has a history of premature or

threatened premature labor, or is experiencing signs of early labor

In the last trimester, if twins are being carried

But remember that even in the absence of these symptoms your body will tell you what is right for you. If for any reason you are feeling uncomfortable about the prospect of intercourse during pregnancy speak with your partner and your doctor so you can make your pregnancy the best time for you!

And for all your questions on sex and pregnancy including comfortable positions, sex drive and possible complications,

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Research design Descriptive method was used by the researchers. This involves the collection of data in order to answer the questions concerning the current status of the study. Descriptive data was typically collected through questionnaire survey, interviews, and through observation, which the researchers employed in order to arrive at the results that will be essential for the accomplishment of this study.

Sources of data The gathered information will be from the questionnaires that will be given to the selected respondents from where the researchers will soon conduct a survey and interview. Secondary data was obtained from the references and sources coming from the information about communicable disease and topics about sexual intercourse during pregnancy.

Population of the study The respondent were 50 community people which were all female and pregnant.

Sampling Sampling is the process of selecting a number of individuals for a study such way that the individuals represent the larger group from which they are selected. Since there is no accurate number of how many respondents or

community people know about sex and what good it does., only those who are available and willing on the selected day are opt to be given questionnaires. The researchers used Accidental Sampling provided that a minimum of 50 respondents will be used.

Data gathering & instrument The information will be obtained with the aid of structured questionnaires. The questionnaires contain relevant questions to elicit response regarding sexual intercourse during pregnancy. The Liker type of questionnaire that shows the amount of agreement / disagreement is used in the study. The rating 5 is the highest and 3 being the lowest.

WEIGHTED POINT 5 4 3 = = =

ADJECTIVAL EQUIVALENT YES NO MAYBE

Data analysis & statistical tools One of the intentions of the researchers was to examine sex and what good it does to our bodies and using quantitative contents analysis as our research technique, the researchers then examined the recurring social themes of having sexual intercourse during pregnancy. The following statistics were used : PERCENTAGE - This was used to find out part of relation of the score of one respondents to the whole group. RANKING - This showed how the scores of a respondents to the group MEAN - This was used to get a representative score of the group. FREQUENCY - This is used to determine the number of responses as perceived by the respondents or the different categories included in the study.

Percentage and Frequency Distribution Method Percentage and frequency distribution consists of a summarized data. frequency distribution is a systematic way to order a set of data from lowest to highest value showing the number of occurrences (frequency) at each value or range of values. The information derived can tell the relationship between a part to its whole. Percentage (%) = Where as: P = percentage of distribution F = frequency N = sample size F/N X 100

CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION OF DATA TABLE 1 AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS

CATEGORIES 13-14 15-16 17-19 TOTAL

FREQUENCY 3 26 21 50

PERCENTAGE 7 52 41 100%

According to this table there more pregnant women with age 15-16 years old with 52% and with 26 respondents out of 50. This means that there are more pregnant women who coordinates in the study

TABLE 2 CIVIL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

CATEGORIES MARRIED SINGLE COMMON LAW TOTAL

FREQUENCY 14 17 19 50

PERCENTAGE 31 34 38 100%

According to this table there more mothers that we interviewed that are practicing common law or living in, it is 38% with 19 respondents and secondly is the single category which is 34% with 17 respondents. This means that there are more pregnant women that are not married and practicing common law or they are all a single teenage mother.

TABLE 3 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE RESPONDENTS

CATEGORIES ELEMENTARY GRADUATE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATE TOTAL

FREQUENCY 3

PERCENTAGE 7

26 21

52 41

50

100%

This table shows that there are more high school level mothers than any of the three categories. With their age they are not fully aware of safe pregnancy, and especially on being pregnant at a very young age. Most of pregnant women are only high school undergraduate.

TABLE 4 AWARENESS OF THE RESPONDENTS TO QUESTIONS

do you agree that having sexual intercourse while pregnant is safe?

CATEGORIES YES NO MAYBE TOTAL

FREQUENCY 35 9 6 50

PERCENTAGE 70 18 12 100%

70 percent answers that they agree that having sexual intercourse while pregnant is safe, 9 said they are not familiar with it and only 6 are confused about this term. Meaning that pregnant women agree that having sexual intercourse while pregnant is safe.

TABLE 5 AWARENESS OF THE RESPONDENTS TO QUESTIONS

are you well informed about the safety of having sexual intercourse while pregnant?

CATEGORIES YES NO MAYBE TOTAL

FREQUENCY 35 9 6 50

PERCENTAGE 70 18 12 100%

70 percent said that they are informed about their safety of having sexual intercourse while pregnant, while 9 said they dont know anything about it and only 6 were confused. This means that there is a large number of pregnant women who has knowledge about the sexual intercourse while pregnant than those who do not understand it.

TABLE 6 AWARENESS OF THE RESPONDENTS TO QUESTIONS

do you think that sexual intercourse is really needed for the sake of your relationship with your husband while pregnant?

CATEGORIES YES NO MAYBE TOTAL

FREQUENCY 27 8 15 50

PERCENTAGE 54 16 30 100%

27 our of 50 respondents nodded with this question, while 15 are not that sure and only 8 disagree with this fact. This means that there are more number of pregnant who has knowledge about the sexual intercourse is really needed for the sake of your relationship with your husband while pregnant is important than those who do not understand it.

TABLE 7 AWARENESS OF THE RESPONDENTS TO QUESTIONS

does the sexual intercourse cost much for you, even if you are pregnant?

CATEGORIES YES NO MAYBE TOTAL

FREQUENCY 45 0 5 50

PERCENTAGE 90 0 10 100%

Accordingly, this only shows that most of the pregnant women with 90% think that the sexual intercourse costs much for them, and only 10% answers maybe. Meaning there are still a large number of pregnant women who dont have sex while they are pregnant.

TABLE 8 AWARENESS OF THE RESPONDENTS TO QUESTIONS

are you aware that you might have infections when you had sexual intercourse while pregnant and your child might be infected?

CATEGORIES YES NO MAYBE TOTAL

FREQUENCY 3 26 21 50

PERCENTAGE 7 52 41 100%

52 percent of the respondents that not aware that they might have infections when they had sexual intercourse while pregnant and the child might be infected, 41 percent said that maybe they do know and only 7 percent relatively answers yes. Meaningly these pregnant women doesnt know that they might be infected by infections when they had sex while being pregnant. TABLE 9 AWARENESS OF THE RESPONDENTS TO QUESTIONS

do you think that not having sex with your husband while pregnant will loose his interest in you?

CATEGORIES YES NO MAYBE TOTAL

FREQUENCY 50 0 0 50

PERCENTAGE 100% 0 0 100%

All of the 50 respondents agrees that their husband might loose his interest in them when they dont have sex with them while they are pregnant.

TABLE 10 AWARENESS OF THE RESPONDENTS TO QUESTIONS

do you have sexual intercourse while you are pregnant ?

CATEGORIES YES NO SOMETIMES TOTAL

FREQUENCY 8 5 38 50

PERCENTAGE 14 10 76 100%

38 out of 50 respondents said that sometimes they had sexual intercourse while they are pregnant, 8 said yes and only 5 said no. This means that there are still more pregnant women who had sexual intercourse while pregnant.

CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION SUMMARY

As long as you are having a healthy pregnancy, sex will be safe. If you have had bleeding or other complications, check with your healthcare provider first. Don't worry -- the baby is well protected in the amniotic sac. It will cushion the activity for him or her. One thing to keep in mind is to not have your partner penetrate too deeply, as this could irritate your cervix. Otherwise, have fun!

As your body changes, you will notice that it may be more difficult to have sex the way you are used to. Now is the time to experiment with new positions that will accommodate your growing belly. When trying to find positions that will work, a good rule of thumb is to try to keep your partner's weight off your abdomen (stomach). This will make sex much more comfortable for you.

Again, as long as you are having a healthy pregnancy, you should be able to have vaginal, oral, and/or anal sex -- whatever you are in the mood for!

CONCLUSION

Unfortunately, it can be hard to get a straight answer from people you know, and many women have trouble getting up the courage to talk to their doctors. There's no one simple answer, too.

Every woman's pregnancy is different, meaning that for some, sex during pregnancy is no trouble at all. For others, morning sickness, weight gain, and various aches and pains mean that romance is the last thing on their mind.

However, sex during pregnancy can be a lot of fun, and isn't necessarily a problem. Here's when and how to enjoy some special time with your partner while you're expecting.

RECOMMENDATION

This research paper is recommended to be read by the following people:

COUPLES & PREGNANT WOMEN & PARENTS

From this they will gain knowledge whether if, its safe to have sexual intercourse while pregnant.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Vogue ; Sex has brought social drives in the bodies. January 1999 edition Sofia Levis ; www.amazingpregnancy.com Thomas Perkins ; www.wdxcyber.com

Funk and wagnalls Company; Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia ; 2003 edition ; Volume 25 ; Sex