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CONTENTS ABSTRACT CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Role of chassis in Automotives 1.2 Types of frame 1.3 Frame construction 1.4 Cross members 1.5 Chassis material 1.6 Loads on the chassis frame 1.7 Conclusion CHAPTER 2 : MODELING OF CHASSIS 2.1 Geometric model of chassis 2.1.1 Parts of chassis frame 2.2. 3-D Diagrammes of Frame with assembly 2.3 Conclusion CAD INTRODUCTION BIBLIOGRAPHY

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The present scenario in automotive industry is an increase in demand of trucks not only on the cost and weight aspects but also on improved complete vehicle features and overall work performance. The chassis plays an important role in the design of any truck. The chassis design in general is a complex methodology and to arrive at a solution which yields a good performance is a tedious task. Geometric modelling of the various components of chassis has been carried out in part mode as 3-D models using PRO-ENGINEER. The properties, viz. crossectional area, beam height, area moment of inertia of these 3-D modelled parts are estimated in PRO-ENGINEER.


The chassis which is made of pressed steel members can be considered structurally as grillages. It acts as a skeleton on which, the engine, wheels, axle assemblies,brakes etc are mounted.Every vehicle body consists of two parts; chassis and body work or superstructure. The chassis is the frame work of any vehicle. Its principle function is to safely carry the maximum load for all designed operating conditions. It must also absorb engine and drive line torque, endure shock loading and accommodate twisting on un even road surfaces. The chassis receives the reaction forces of the wheels during acceleration and breaking and also absorbs aero dynamic wind forces and road shocks through the suspension. So the chassis should be engineered and built to maximize pay load capability and to provide versatility, durability as well as adequate performance. To achieve a satisfactory performance, the construction of a heavy vehicle chassis is the result of careful design and rigorous testing.

It should be noted that this ladder type of frame construction is designed to offer good downward support for the body and pay load and at the same time provide torsion flexibility, mainly in the region between the gearbox cross member and the cross member ahead of the rear suspension. This chassis flexing is necessary because a rigid frame is more likely to fail than a flexible one that can weave when the vehicle is exposed to arduous conditions. A torsionally flexible frame also has the advantage of decreasing the suspension loading when the vehicle is on uneven surfaces.

e assemblies, brakes, suspensions etc are mounted. The frame supports the cab, engine transmission, axles and various other components. Cross members are also used for vehicle component mounting and protecting the wires and tubing that are routed from one side of the vehicle to the other. The cross members control axial rotation and longitudinal motion of the main frame, and reduce torsion stress transmitted from one rail to the other.


I. Ladder frame This is a common type of frame in which all the transverse (lateral) connecting members are straight across in the plane view. In this type, the frame resembles a ladder as the name implies. II. Perimeter Frame A perimeter frame consists of welded or riveted or bolted frame members around the entire perimeter of the body. In this, the frame members are provided underneath the sides, as well as for the suspension and related components. III. Sub-type frame A sub-type frame is a partial frame often used on unit-body vehicles to support the power train and suspension components. Normally the various components are bolted directly to the main frame. But many a times, these components are mounted on a separate frame called sub frame. This sub frame is further supported by the main frame at the three points. In this way the components are isolated from the effects of twisting and flexing of the main frame.

The advantages of sub frames are:


The mass of the sub frame along helps to damp vibrations. The provision of sub frames simplifies production on the assembly line and facilitates sub sequent overhaul or repair. IV. Unit body construction: Unit body construction is a design that combines the body and the structure of the frame. In this, the body itself supports the engine and drive line components. In this type of construction, heavy side members used in conventional construction are eliminated and the floor is strengthened by cross members and the body, all welded together. In some cases the sub frames are also used along with the type of construction. V. Space frame construction: Space frame construction consists of formed sheet used to construct a frame work for the entire vehicle. This vehicle is also drivable without a body. VI. Conventional chassis frame: Steel pressing of channel or box section from the side(frame) members. They are connected together by means of cross members (made of channel or box sections) so as to form a rigid but light frame work. The cross members are also used to

mount the chassis components on them. These transverse members are usually riveted or welded to the side members, with the help of special enlarged flanges known as gusset plates. At the front and rear ends, the longitudinal members are tapered in depth (beams of uniform strength for minimum weight). The side rails at the front end are brought closer together when viewed in plant in order to provide space for the free turning of the steered wheels. It is usual to arch (upswept) the side rails towards the front and rear ends, in order to provide sufficient space for the vertical moment of axles during its springing action while travelling on a rough road. VII. Frameless chassis (Integral chassis frame and body): Developments in the art of welding and pressing of large steel sheets in to complex shapes, have allowed the integration of the frame structure and the body work as a single unit, so as to achieve a very light but a stiff structure for a given material content. This chassis cum body construction is also called as frame less chassis. The body structure is also made to take part in load sharing instead of just acting as an enclosure. This has resulted in the

reduction of the heaviness required by the side and cross members considerably allowing the usage of lighter side members. Combining the sides and cross members with the floor panel and body structure, constitutes a useful load bearing structural component which also results in considerable weight reduction. Basically, the structure includes integration of an under frame consisting of floor panel and the cross members, the bonnet wings (sides), steel facial at front to receive the engine, rear luggage compartment or tray and other structural members behind the rear seat portion. They are all welded together as one single assembly. This is further enhanced by coating both the inner and outer surfaces with anti-corrosive prier paint. A sound damping material is stuck on the inside of panel to avoid panel vibration which causes an objectionable drumming sound.

The body itself becomes a load carrying beam The load is diffused through the entire structure so that body becomes lighter retaining the strength It is easy assemble the different body panels into a unitized structure

During collision the impact loads are absorbed by the body crumbles and there by the shock load transferred to the passengers is reduced to a large extent.

During the accidents the body panel receives major impact loads crushing into bundle of steel plate mass. Usually, the damage to the body of an integral chassis construction is Considerably large, many a times beyond repair. This makes the servicing costs quite high. VIII. Tubular Chassis: The flat frame is by no means the best form to resist torsion and for this reason certain firms adopted a tubular chassis. Hence, in the flat frame type of chassis the principal members, namely the engine and transmission parts are stressed heavily by road shocks and reaction torques. In tubular chassis, the complete transmission line which includes gear box and different units, are accurately aligned in a central tubular member, forked at the front end to take the engine

assembly. The front axle is also carefully positioned and connected to the fork end of the frame.

The rear wheels are sprung separately and each is driven by a shaft from the differential gear. Two cantilever springs and a coon connecting leaf spring situated below the differential casing arrangement gives greater strength in torsion and bending in the longitudinal sense although it is not so convenient as the flat frame for body mounting. Form factors are usually made of tubular chassis frame of rectangular type


The frame or body is the main structural piece of the vehicle. Though they provide similar functions, they have different designs and purposes. When combined with all the breaking, steering and suspension systems, this is commonly referred to as the chassis, or under carriage of the vehicle. Frame constructions usually consists of channel shaped steel beams welded and/or fastened together. The frame of the vehicle supports all the running gear of the vehicle, including the engine, transmissions rear axle








construction, referred to as full frame, is so complete that most vehicles can usually be driven without the body. Most trucks and larger rear wheel drive cars use a full frame. The frame or body provides the structural strength of the vehicle and also location and mounting pots for other systems that make the total chassis. The frame design is the oldest, made of steel and designed so that body of the vehicle is mounted on the top. The unibody, on the other hand differs from the frame in that it is actually stamped out as a part of the body structure. Also referred for to some times as unitized construction, todays automobiles most commonly use the unibody design because of its inherent ability to absorb energy during a collision. Most like trucks continue to use body on-frame construction. Even though a car or light truck is usually built one way or the other, they are some vehicles that use a partial frame (sometimes called a subframe) along with unibody construction. Most frames are available either inside or partial inside channel reinforcement or outside reinforcements. The

reinforcements are used to provide a greater resisting bending moment than can be obtained by using a single main frame rail.

The cross members control axial rotation and longitudinal motion of the main frame and reduce torsional stress transmitted from one main frame to the other. All cross members are designed to provide rigidity and strength, along with sufficient flexibility to with stand twisting and bending stresses encountered when operating on uneven terrain. Gussets are used to connect the cross members and the main frame. Gussets are generally welded or bolted to the main frame web.

Cross members may be I-beam, C-section, Tubular, Boxed or other shapes and may be bolted or welded together. I case of bolted joints, the majority of the load is transferred by the frictional force or clamping force between the members of the joint. The bolts must be properly tightened to develop and maintain the desired clamping force.


Heavy-duty chassises are usually manufactured with either frame rails of steel or aluminium alloy. The forged steel is preferable for chassis frame because of its high yield strength.


The chassis frame in general are is subjected to the following loads: Weight of the vehicle and the passengers, with causes vertical bending of the side members. Vertical loads when the vehicle comes across a bump or hollow, which results in longitudinal torsion due to one wheel lifted (or lowered) with other wheels at the usual road level Loads due to the camber, side wind, cornering force while taking a turn, which result in lateral bending of side members

Loads due to wheel impact with roads obstacles may cause

that particular wheel to remain obstructed while the other wheel tends to move forward, distorting the frame to parallelogram shape Engine torque and braking torque tending to bend the side members in vertical plane

Impact loads during a collision 1.8

Thus we see that chassis is an important part of any

automobile on which different types of loads are acting. Hence, it should be designed in such a way that it withstands all types of loads carrying on it at the same time, possesses the minimum possible weight.


Geometric modelling of the various components of chassis has been carried out in part mode as 3-D models using PROENGINEER..



The chassis under study consists of following parts, whose 3-D models have been created:
1. 2. 3.

Longitudinal members 1,2 Cross member 1,2,3 Cross member back Front brackets (2) Back brackets (2) Leaf spring Bumper

4. 5. 6. 7.

Fig1:Longitudinal member 1

Fig1:Longitudinal member 2

Fig: Cross members 1,2,3

Fig: Cross member back

Fig; Front brackets (4)

Fig: Back brackets (6)

Fig: Leaf springs(2)

Fig: Bumper

Fig: The 3-D chassis Assembly model

The 3-D parts of these are as shown in above figures. Four different chassis models have been derived by varying depth of the longitudinal or cross member or both as shown in fig .

Static analysis has been carried out on these four models in order to evaluate their relative perform-ances and pick on the models that have good static characteristics.

INTRODUCTION TO CAD CAD is the term which means computer-aided design. It is a technology concerned with the use of computers to perform certain functions in Design and Production. This techno-logy is moving in the direction of greater integration of design and manufacturing which was earlier treated as distinct and separate function in a production firm. Ultimately CAD will provide the technology base for the computerintegrated factory of the future. Computer-aided design(CAD) can be defined as the use of computer system to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. The computer system consists of the hardware and software to perform the specialized design functions required by particular use firm. The CAD hardware typically includes the computer, one or more graphics display terminals, keyboards, and other peripheral equipment. The CAD software consists of the computer programs to implement computer graphics on the system plus application programs to facilitate the engineering functions of the user company. Examples of these application programs include stress-strain analysis of components, dynamic response of mechanisms, heat transfer calculations, and numerical control part programming. The collection of application programs will vary from one user firm to the next because their product lines, manufacturing processes, and customer markets are different. These factors raise the difference in CAD system requirements. The computer has grown to be essential in the operations of business, government, the military, engineering, and research. It also demonstrated itself, especially in recent years, to be very powerful tool in design and manufacturing . Modern computers systems are based on interactive

computer graphics (ICG). Interactive computer graphics denote a useroriented system in which the computer is employed to create, transform, and display data in the form of pictures and symbols. The user in the computer graphics design system in the designer, who communicates data and commands to the computer through and several input devices. It is important to note that ICG system is one main component of computeraided design system, the other major component is human designer. The evolution of computer-aided design has been largely related to developments in computer graphics. ICG forms the essential of the technological foundation for computer-aided design. One

significant initial projects in the area of computer graphics was the development of the APT language. APT is the acronym of Automatically Programmed Tools. Before examining the several facts of computeraided design. Let us first consider the general design process. The process of designing something is characterized as an iterative procedure, which consists of six identifiable steps of phases. 1) Recognition of need 2) Definition of problem 3) Synthesis 4) Analysis and Optimization 5) Evaluation 6) Presentation Hardware components for computer-aided design are available in a variety of sizes, configurations and capabilities. Hence it is possible to select a CAD system that meets the particular computational and graphics requirements of the user firm. Engineering firms that are not

involved in production would chose a system exclusively for drafting and design-related functions. Computers also include nongraphic applications of the computer in deisgn work. These consistes of engineering results which are best displayed in order than graphical form. Nongraphic hardware can employee to create rough images on a piece of paper by appropriate combinations of characters and symbols. The CAD workstation is the system interface with the outside world. It represents a significant factor in determining how convenient and efficient it is for a designer to use the CAD system. The workstation must accomplish five functions. 1) It must interface with the central processing unit. 2) It must generate a study graphic image for the user. 3) It must provide digital displacement of graphic image. 4) It must translate computer command into operating functions. 5) It must facilitate communications between the

system and user. The use of interface graphics has been found to be the best approach to accomplish these functions. A typical interactive graphics workstation would consist of the following hardware components. A graphical terminal Operator input devices There are various technological approaches which have been applied to the development of graphical terminals. The technology continues to evolve a CAD system manufactures attempt to improve their products and reduce their costs. Nearly all computer graphics terminals available

today use the cathode ray tube (CRT) as display device. A heated cathode emits a high speed-electron beam onto a phosphor-coated glass screen. The electrons energize the phosphor coating, causing it to glow at the points where the beam makes contact. By focusing the electron beam, changing its intensity, and controlling its point of contact against the phosphor coating through the use of deflector system, the beam can be made to generate a picture on the CRT screen. There are two basic techniques used in current computer graphics terminals for generating the image on the CRT screen. They are 1) Stroke Writing 2) Raster Scan These techniques are used for graphic terminals to generate an appropriate image with clear dimensioning as it is in the design. These techniques are quite essential in any kind of graphic terminals of displaying the image. The effective part is the designing process is the displaying part which enables us to make any further changes with the designing process if in case any correction has to be done. The necessary changes are effectively only for the part shown and specified. As the dimensioning usually is semi-automatic, the manual dimensioning is necessary when an appropriate allowed dimensioning of components is required. There are many benefits of computer-aided design. Only some of which can be easily measured. Some of the benefits are intangible, reflected in improved control, all of which are difficult to quantify. Other benefits are tangible, but the savings from them show up far downstream in the production process, so that it is difficult to assign a dollar figure to them in the design phase.

About Pro/ENGINEER:Pro/E is a software product of PTC (Parametric Technology Corporation).Its initial versions was Pro/E 1, 8,9..up to 20. Later PTC launched sequentially versions as Pro/E 2000; 2000i, 2000i2; 2001i, wildfire1.0; wildfire2.0, wildfire3.0, wildfire4.0 & wildfire5.0 and now they are

calling the latest version as CreoElements/Pro . Definition of Software:Pro/E is a feature based parametric associative software. Feature based:-All operations we do in this software is called features. Well be having some symbols to select the features instead of having a command space. So well be having greater flexibility to change the shape of the model any time. Lets consider weve a case to change counter bored hole to counter drilled hole, we can change it any time whenever we want. In a non feature software we cant do like this, weve to delete everything what weve done and we need to create it again. Parametric:-Pro/E is parametric natured software. It means the features of a part become interrelated if they are drawn by taking reference of each other. We can change those dimensions, constraints any time whenever we want by double clicking on it. So whenever we change those dimensions, constraints automatically the changes will be propagated throughout the model. Associative:-Pro/E is bidirectional associative software. It means if we change the dimensions, constraints any time those modifications will be

updated in all related modules. Generally the design procedure in Pro/E will be in the following way SKETCHER-PART-ASSEMBLY-DRAWING. Suppose if we make any changes in part that will be updated in the remaining modules automatically. Modules In Proe 1) Sketcher 2) Part 3) Assembly 4) Drawing 5) Manufacturing

Terms used in Software:The following are the general terms we use in software. Entity: - An element of section geometry is called an entity. The entity can be an arc, line, circle, point, conic, coordinate system, and so on. When one entity is divided at a point then the total number of entities is said to be two. Dimension: - A measurement of an entity or a relationship among other entities. Constraint: - A condition defining the geometry of the entity or a relationship among entities. A constraint symbol appears next to the entity to which the constraint is applied. For example, you can constrain two lines to be parallel. A parallel constraint symbol appears to indicate this. Parameter: - It is defined as a numeric value or any definition that defines a feature. For example, all dimensions in a sketch are parameters. The parameters can be modified at any time. Relation: - An equation relating dimensions and/or parameters. For example, a relation can be used to

set the length of one line to be half the length of some other line. Weak dimension or constraint: - Weak dimensions and weak constraints are temporary dimensions or constraints that appear in gray color. These are automatically applied to the sketch when it is drawn using the Intent Manager. They are removed from the sketch without any confirmation from the user. The weak dimensions or the weak constraints should be changed to strong dimensions or constraints if they seem to be useful for the sketch. This only saves an extra step of dimensioning the sketch or applying constraints to the sketch. Strong dimension or constraint: - A dimension or constraint is called ``strong'' if Sketcher cannot delete it automatically. Dimensions and constraints created by the user are always strong. If several strong dimensions or constraints are in conflict, Sketcher asks you to remove one. Strong dimensions and constraints appear in yellow. Conflict: - Contradicting or redundant conditions of two or more strong dimensions or constraints. When this occurs, the conflict must be resolved immediately by removing an undesired constraint or dimension.

Basic Steps for modeling in Pro/E:To create any section in the Sketch mode of Pro/ENGINEER, certain basic steps have to be followed. The following steps outline the procedure to use the Sketch mode:

Sketch the required section geometry:-The different sketcher tools available in this mode can be used to sketch the required section geometry. Add the constraints and dimension the sketched section: - After sketching the section geometry, the constraints and dimensions are added to the section. For dimensioning the section there are two options. Either the Auto Dim option or the

DIMENSION submenu options available in the Menu Manager can be used. If the Intent Manager is used for sketching then the sketch will be automatically dimensioned and constrained. After adding the dimensions you can modify them as required. Add relations to the sketch: - The geometry of various entities of the sketch can be controlled by adding relations. Regenerate the section: - After dimensioning the sketch, the sketch must be regenerated. Remember that the section is regenerated only if the minimum constraints of the sketch are satisfied. Pro/ENGINEER has the capability to analyze the section and if the section is not complete for any reason, the section will not be regenerated. However, Pro/ENGINEER makes certain assumptions to regenerate the section.

Entering into software:To enter into Pro/E software double click on Pro/E shortcut on desktop (or) right click on shortcut on desktop & select open (or) go with START-PROGRAMS-PTCPro/ENGINEER- Pro/ENGINEER. After that well get a window as shown below.

Software window description:-

Title bar: - Gives the file name which we are currently working with, software name, version details. Menu bar: - Gives different drop-down or pulldown options like file, edit, view, etc Navigator: - When we are in sketcher navigator displays the system folders. If we enter into part well get model tree in the place of navigator. Web browser: - Itll give us the option to enter into PTCs website, to get online help & to get online tutorials. Toolbars: - Here well get all the toolbars like FILE, EDIT and VIEW etc

Message area: - Here well get the message, How to proceed further when we are using an unknown tool, When we do errors.

Entering into SKETCHER:To enter into SKETCHER go to FILE-NEW (or) NEW FILE from FILE toolbar. Then well get a window like below.

Give required name in the given box. By default itll give name as S2D001. Change it to the desired name, and press OK. Then we enter into sketcher module. Then the window will be displayed like below.

Sketcher window description:-

Module 2:- Part Design CREATING BASE FEATURES:The base feature is the first solid feature created while creating a model in the Part mode. The base features are created using the datum planes. However, they can also be created without using the datum planes. But in this case, you do not have proper control over the orientation of feature and direction of feature creation. While creating the base feature of a model, the designer should be extra careful in selecting the attributes to create it. This is because if the base feature itself is created wrong then the features created on it are also created wrong. This results in waste of time and effort. Although Pro/ENGINEER provides you with the options to redefine a feature, doing so also consumes additional time and effort. You need to enter the Part mode to create the base feature.

ENTERING THE PART MODE:To enter the Part mode, select New from the File menu or choose the Create a new object button from the File toolbar. The New dialog box is displayed with the various modes that are available. The Part radio button in the Type area and the Solid radio button in the Sub-type area is selected by default in the New dialog box. The default name of the part file also appears in the Name edit box. You can change the part name as desired and then choose the OK button to enter the Part mode. When you choose the OK button, the new part file is opened and you enter the Part mode. In the New dialog box, the Use default template check box is selected by default. This means that you have selected to use the default template provided by Pro/ENGINEER. This template has certain parameters related to the part file that you will create. The units of this model will be Inches lbm second. The length is in inches, mass in lb, time in seconds, and temperature in Fahrenheit. If this check box is not selected, and you choose the OK button, the New File Options dialog box

is displayed as shown in below Figure. From the New File Options dialog box you can select the template file you need. If you want the default system of units to be mmNs (millimeter Newton sec), then select the mmns_part_solid template from this dialog box.

Then well get a window like below

THE DEFAULT DATUM PLANES:Generally, the first feature in the Part mode is the three default datum planes. These datum planes are further used to create the base feature. These datum planes act as a plane on which you can draw a 2D sketch and then convert it to a 3D model by protrusion. Generally, the base feature you create is referenced with the default datum planes. These three default datum planes are mutually perpendicular to each other. They are not referenced to each other and are individual features. When a solid model is created, the datum planes adjust their size to the size of the model. You can create any number of datum planes for your requirement.


Mostly the designs consist of more than one component that is assembled together at their relative working positions. These assembly designs are created in the Assembly mode of Pro/ENGINEER. To proceed to the assembly mode, choose the Create a new object button from the Top Tool chest. The New dialog box is displayed, select the Assembly radio button from the Type area and then select the Design radio button from the Sub-type area as shown in Figure 9-1. Specify the name of the assembly in the Name edit box and choose OK.

Figure 9-1 selecting the Assembly mode from the new dialog box

Terms:Bottom-up Approach: - This is the method of assembling the components in which the components created as different parts in the Part mode are assembled in the current assembly file. Top-down Approach: - This is the method of assembling the components in which the components of the assembly are created in the same assembly file. Package: - It is the state in which the component that is being assembled is not fully constrained and thus is not rigidly placed at its actual location. Placement Constraints: - The placement constraints are the constraints that are used to rigidly bind the components of the assembly to their respective positions in the assembly. These constraints are also called the assembly constraints. Generally,these constraints are used in combinations in order to constrain all the six degrees of freedom of a component.


Choose the New button from the File toolbar to display the new dialog box. Select the Drawing radio button in the new dialog box, as shown in Figure 12-1.

Figure 12-1 The New dialog box.

Specify the name of the drawing in the Name edit box and then choose OK to display the New Drawing dialog box, as shown in Figure 12-2.

Figure 12-2 The New Drawing dialog box with the Use template radio button selected


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