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CIV 6271 Design Project

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CONTENT
1. Executive Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 2 2. Conceptual Design................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 4 2.1 Scheme Steel structure ................................ ................................ .......................... 4 2.2 Scheme 2 Flat Slab Concrete Structure................................ ................................ ... 6 3. Structural Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 9
3.1 Slimdek Level 5 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 9

3.2 Level 1 Primary Beam................................ ................................ ........................... 11 3.3 Column ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 12
3.4 Truss................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 15

4. Detailing ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 20 4.1 The connection for ASB to ASB................................ ................................ ............. 20 4.2 Beam to column connection ................................ ................................ ................ 21 4.3 Roof to column connection ................................ ................................ .................. 23 4.4 Column to foundation connection................................ ................................ ........ 24 5. Foundation................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 26 6. Method statement ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 27 6.1 Slimdek ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 28 6.2 Method for the safety during the construction................................ ..................... 29 7. Letter to Client ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 30 Reference................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 31 Appendix................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 32

CIV 6271 Design Project

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1. Executive Summary

This project involves a 5-story laboratory building with a full-height atrium. The building is located at the centre of a city, beside an existing highway and over an existing 5.0m wide and 2.0m canal. The construction site is bounded in a size of 30x29m. It consists of two blocks with equal sizes on each side of the canal, shown in Fig.1.1. Block adjacent to highway will be used as an office building with seminar rooms on the ground floor (level 1). The other block is mainly for laboratories. Level 5 of both blocks is to be used for plant. The overall height of the building is 21m excluding the height of atrium, where level 1 is 5m high and the rest are 4m. The clients requirements are addressed, as followed: In the office building, internal columns are not permitted in level 1 seminar rooms. External columns are not permitted within 2m of the edge of the existing highway between level 1 and 2. Internal columns on the rest levels must be at least 5m from the external building line; Minimum clear headroom of 2.8m must be ensured. Besides, a 0.7m deep service zone is to be provide beneath the 2, 3,4 and 5 floors; There must be a 2m wide circulation balcony at levels 2, 3 and 4, and also two combined stair well/lift/elevator shaft cores are to be provided; Except the atrium roof, all other roof area is flat and need no t be glazed. All external walls are to be clad in masonry. 1m thick impermeable clay lining along the canal must not be damaged during construction. And traffic on the highway must not be interrupted. The building is to be built on a layer of soft clay with flat surface, beneath which is a rock layer with allowable bearing pressure of shows no ground water in the soil.
 . Ground investigation

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Figure 1.1 General layout of the building

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2. Conceptual Design

At this stage, two schemes were proposed and then evaluated by a few criteria, such like, feasibility of structure, cost, sustainability, etc. The first construction scheme is a steel framed building which adopts Slimdek floor system, while the second scheme is a pure concrete framed building with flat slab floor. Size of structural members is preliminarily determined by rough calculations.
2.1 Scheme Steel structure

Considerations for choosing proper layout according to clients requirements can be concluded as: (1) a different load transfer between level 1 and 2, i.e., the row of column adjacent to the highway on level 2 is supported by beam; (2) a limited height for floor system; (3) large loading on the top floor causing big deflection; (4) vibration of the floor should be limited; (5) lack of space for foundation along the canal and beside the highway.

Figure2.1 Scheme 1 Column Layout

Column layout for the first scheme is shown in Fig 2.1. For the purpose of efficient construction, a regular shape of grid lines was chosen. The bay size was kept to 5x6m, and columns were set on the corners of the bay, except for the columns
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supporting circulation balcony. Primary beam spans 5m and Secondary beam spans 6m at 2.5m spacing. In this configuration, load is transferred in a sequence of slab, secondary beam, primary beam, column and foundation. A special situation is on level 1, where columns near the highway were shifted 2m back to meet the client requirement. In this case, load of the edge columns on level 2 is transferred to primary beam, then columns on level 1 and foundation in the end. All columns and beams were braced by the lift cores in the middle to resist lateral shear and torsion under wind loading. Cores are 6m in length and 4m in width, built in reinforced concrete. Scheme 1 is also featured with the use of Slimdek. Slimdek is a flooring system formed with ComFlor 225 deep decking spanning between Asymmetric Slimflor Beams (ASBs), shown in Fig. 2.2. Practical evidences show that, it is cost-effective, and easy and fast to build. But the main reason to choose this flooring system is that it can greatly reduce the overall depth of slab, so it is favourable to the clients requirement.

Figure2.2 Slimdek With the proposed solution, preliminary sizing of some structural elements were determined, which are listed below.
y

Slab and secondary beams: Slimdek (C30 lightweight concrete, ComFlor 225 steel decking, 280ASB100)

y
y

Primary beam: UB457x191x67 Primary beam on level 1: UB 914X305X253 Column on level 1: UC356X406X340

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Pile foundation with eccentric column is to use to avoid disturbance to the canal and the highway. Because the soil is very soft (soft clay), piles must be driven to the rock layer to gain enough bearing resistance to the building.
2.2 Scheme 2 Flat Slab Concrete Structure 2.2.1 Structural type and layout

Flat slab are ideally suited to fast and economic multi-storey construction. The absence of beams allows storey heights and flexibility of both partition location and horizontal service distribution. It is easy to seal partitions for airtightness, acoustic isolation and fire containment. It is also suitable for structures like hospitals and laboratories accommodate sensitive equipment. Punching shear and deflections are generally critical but edge beams to support cladding are unnecessary. Slabs are assumed to be supported only by columns. The seminar room part (left ground floor) of the building is designed as normal concrete frame structure and Flat slab structure is adopted in other parts of the building. As there are no beams carrying any loads, Lateral stability will be provided by the edge beams which are designed into the edge of the slabs and can transfer loads to lift shaft wall.
2.2.2 Preliminary sizing of the main elements

2.2.2.1 Size of the beams (only seminar rooms) height of the beam h=(1/8~1/12)span, width b=(1/2~1/3)h. Maximum span: 8 meter Primary concrete beams: Secondary concrete beams: 2.2.2.2 Size of the columns All the loads on the left side of the structure is designed to be transferred to the primary beam and then the column. This column could be very critical. Columns: 600mm 600mm 1200mm 400mm 600mm 300mm

2.2.2.3 Thickness of concrete slabs As flat slab is adopted, the thickness of slab can be reduced to less than 260mm compared with normal slab with a large thickness. Level 1-4: 220mm
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l : R :

0 0

.3

.4

2.2.3 Load transfer paths For t l t part of t buil i load on slabs will be

transferred to columns, t en to t e critical beam and two columns of ground floor and finall to t e foundation. (As shown in the right figure) For the right part of the building, load on the slab is designed to be directl transferred to the columns and then to the foundation.

Figure2. Load transfer path 2.2.4 Method of construction Grade C40 in-situ concrete is used in this scheme and the canal would be used for material transportation.

j t



  

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2.2.5 Feasibility statement As there is an existing canal beneath the structure, more attention should be paid during the construction of the foundation. More money and labour would be consumed by this concrete flat slab structure as it needs extra area for foundation. 2.3 Scheme Evaluation Table1 Scheme evaluation Scheme 1 (Steel framed) Scheme 2 (Concrete flat slab) Advantages More environmentally friendly. Easy fabrication, less labour cost Light weight concrete provides good sound insulation between floors Disadvantages Recyclable and reusable No beam in level 2~5 Easy fabrication, comparing to traditional concrete framed structure Good ability to withstand corrosion Good fire resistance.

Low heat resistance Rusting easily High material cost

Need extra area in foundation

CO2 emission Need a large supply of manpower

Not easy to examine and repair in service phase

The building is located in the city centre. Therefore, in addition to the factors like cost and sustainability, it is essential to shorten the construction duration to reduce
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the impact to communities nearby. In accordance with the finding, scheme 1 was chosen as the final scheme.

Slimdek was designed with the aid of a computer programme, which is available from Corus Ltd. Structural elements other than slab were model in SAP2000 to find the optimi ed solutions. All the joints were modelled according to the real. Critical elements were checked by hand calculations, which will be presented in the following sections. Design loadings
Atrium roof: F t roofs: Plant areas:
)(

1 5 kN/m2 7 5 kN/m2
& & &

All other floors and balconies: 5 0 kN/m2

3.1 Sli dek Level 5 Design of internal beam using 300ASB 153 sections
300ASB153
300ASB 153

5000

Figure3.1 Slimdek beam layout


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#"

3. S ruc ur l D
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2 1 0 N/m

300ASB 153

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300ASB153 were used in this slab and the steel grade is S355. For the concrete light weight concrete Concrete density: 1900Kg/ Deep decking: SD225 Load type: Uniformly distributed load Slab weight total: 2.72 KN/ ; Beam weight: 152.8 X 6 X 9.81/ =9.0 KN

Applied Moment: Slab (including the deck): 2.98 KN/ Total: dead load: 3.19 X1.35=4.306 KN Imposed load: 7.5X1.5=11.25KN

; Steel beam: 0.3 KN/

Total load: W=15.42X6X5=466.86KN Mx=466.86X6/8= 350.15KN Moment resistant: Mc (assume the plastic neutral axis lies in the steel web and below the solid concrete slab) The moment resistance of the concrete slab: Rc =0.45 BeDs ; Ds=316-225=91mm ; Be=6000/8=750mm; =30N/

The longitudinal force due to the shear bond action between the steel section and concrete Fsb is given by Fsb= LP/4, where band perimeter. P=2( + +d)-

P=2 X(190+24+262)-27=921mm = 0.6x6000x921/400=828.9KN Since < Rc, Hence: partial share connection

To determine the position of the plastic neutral axis: Rt=Bt*Tt*Py=1573.2K R=Bb*Tb*PY==2484KN Rs=As* Py==6742KN Rw=2704.8KN
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Take Rc= Fsb=828.9KN; Rt+Rc =1573.8+828.9KN Rt+Rc=2402.7KN; Rb+Rw*(d-2(Ds-Dc-7t)/d) =2484+2704x (262-2x (61-30-24))/262=5044KN 3.1.2 Bending resistance check Max applied moment Moment resistance, Mc = 350.15 kNm / m = 872.8 kNm / m

So moment resistance is satisfactory 3.1.3 Deflection check Allowable deflection max , is the smaller of 1) Effective span/200 and 2) 20.0 mm (absolute maximum value), and 3) Slab depth/10 = (31.6 mm ) The deflection subjected to the imposed load: 7.68mm < L/360 Hence safisfactory As the deflection is less than span/200, the beam is considered to be satisfactory for total deflection.

3.2 Level 1 Primary Beam

MEd = 2635.8 KNm Section selection: Assuming section belongs to class 1.




Using Mb, Rd =REd and XLT=0.79,

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=7424.8cm3 Try UB 383x292x194, the cross-section belongs to Class 1. Check the resistance of cross-section: Bending:



The lateral restrain will be provided by adjacent slabs, no torsion buckling needs to be considered. Shear: VEd = 2461.6KN Shear resistance is , where +(

Therefore, Vpl,Rd = 2533.8KN

2461.6KN

OK!

Therefore, no shear buckling check required.

3.3 Column

Ground Floor Column The column is assumed to be pinned by both ends.

M y , Ed ! 351kNm , VEd ! 102k , N Ed ! 2400kN , M z , Ed is very small, so neglected.


Try UC 356x368x202, S355. Section properties:
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h ! 374.6 mm , b ! 374.7 mm , tw ! 16.5mm , t f ! 27.0mm , r ! 15.2 mm ,

hw ! 209.2mm , I yy ! 66261cm 4 , I zz ! 23688cm4 , Wpl , y ! 3972 cm3 , A ! 257 cm 2 , IT ! 558cm4 , I w ! 7.16dm6 , iy ! 16.1cm , iz ! 9.6cm
For flanges

c ! (b  t w  2r ) / 2 ! 163.9mm , c / t f ! 6.04
For web

c ! (h  2t f  2r ) ! 290.2mm , c / t w ! 17.59
I ! 235

355

! 0.81

c / t f ! 6.04 e 9I ! 9 v 0.81 ! 7.29 , c / t f ! 17.59 e 33I ! 33v 0.81 ! 26.73, Class . N c, Rd ! Af y / K M 0 ! 9123.5kN " N Ed M c, y , Rd ! M pl , y, Rd ! W pl, y f y / K M 0 ! 1410kN m " M Ed
Vpl , Rd ! Av ( f y / 3) / K M 0 ! 1380 kN " VEd Shear buckling check hw / t w ! 209.2 /16.5 ! 12.7 72I / L ! 58.32 , OK. Axial force Major axis

0.25N pl , Rd ! 0.25v 9123.5 ! 2281kN (0.5hwt w f y ) / K M 0 ! 613kN


Minor axis

N Ed

N Ed

(hwt w f y ) / K M 0 ! 1226 kN

N Ed

Reduce bending moment resistance

n ! N Ed / N pl , Rd ! 2400 / 9124 ! 0.263 a ! ( A  2bt f ) / A ! 0.212 M N , y , Rd ! M pl , y, Rd (1  n) / (1  0.5a ) ! 1162kN m " M y, Ed


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No moment in minor axis, hence check is not needed. Shear force


1 V pl , Rd ! 0.5 v 1380 ! 690 kN " VEd , shear neglect. 2

Buckling resistance in compression

Lcr , y ! Lcr, z ! 1.0 L ! 5000 mm


P1 ! T [ E / f y ]0.5 ! 76.1


Py !


Af y / N cr , y ! ( Lcr , y / i y )(1/ P1 ) ! 0.408 Af y / N cr , z ! ( Lcr , z / i z )(1/ P1 ) ! 0.684

Pz !

h / b ! 374.6 / 374.7 ! 1 1.2 , t f ! 27 mm 100 mm and grade S355.


y-y axis buckling curve b E ! 0.34 z-z axis buckling curve b E ! 0.49 Buckling curve: major (y-y) axis
J y ! 0.5[1  (P y  0.2)  P y 2 ] ! 0.619 G y ! 1.0 / [J y  J y 2  P y 2 ] ! 0.922
1
 

Nb , y , Rd ! G y Af y / K M 1 ! 8412kN " N Ed
Buckling curve: miner (z-z) axis
J z ! 0.5[1  (P z  0.2)  P z 2 ] ! 0.853 G z ! 1.0 / [Jz  Jz 2  Pz 2 ] ! 0.734
2



Nb , z , Rd ! G y Af y / K M 1 ! 6670 kN " NEd


OK. Buckling resistance in bending

Lcr ! 1.0 L ! 5000mm


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M cr ! C1T 2 EI z / Lcr 2 [


I w Lcr 2GI T 0.5  ] ! 12251kN m I z T 2 EI z

P LT ! [ y f y / M cr ! 0.339

Imperfection factor,


=0.21


Therefore, buckling resistance in buckling is ok! Buckling resistance combining bending and axial force

   

Therefore, buckling resistance in bending and axial compression satisfied.

3.4 Truss Roof truss (Fink truss) The truss to be designed is to support a roof which is only accessible for routine maintenance. The truss is 9m span with 24 pitch. The dimensions of the truss are
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shown in the figure below. The truss uses hollow sections for its tension chords, rafters and internal members. The truss is fully welded. Truss analysis is carried out by placing concentrated loads at the joints of the truss. All of the joints are assumed to be pinned in the analysis and therefore only axial forces are carried by members.

Figure3.2 Front elevation of fink roof

Characteristic actions Permanent actions Self-weight of roof construction Self-weight of services Total permanent actions Variable actions Imposed roof actions Total imposed actions Ultimate Limit State (ULS) Partial factor for permanent actions Partial factor for variable actions Reduction factor Design value of combined actions
=0.85 v 1.35 v 0.9+1.5 v 1.0=2.53kN/m2

0.75kN/m2 0.15kN/m 2 0.90kN/m 2

1.0kN/m 2 1.0kN/m 2

K G ! 1.35

K G ! 1.5
\ ! 0.85

Design value of combined actions on purlins supported by truss


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For distance of 2.25m between purlins center to center Design value ! 2.53 v 2.25 / cos 24r ! 6.23kN / m Design value of combined actions on truss For a purlin span of 6m

Fd ! 6.23v 6 ! 37.4kN
Truss analysis (due to forces Fd) Reaction force at support A RA ! 2 v Fd ! 74.8kN

Table2 Load of each element FAB FAC FBC FBD FCD FCE 138kN 126kN 34kN 123kN 42kN 84kN Compression Tension Compression Compression Tension Tension

Partial factor for resistance

K M 0 ! 1.0 , K M 1 ! 1.0 , K M 2 ! 1.25


Design of Top Chords (members AB, BD, DF, FG) Maximum design force (member AB and FG) =138kN (Compression) Try 80 v 80 v 5 square hollow section in S355 steel Material properties: Modulus of elasticity E=210000N/mm 2 Steel grade S355 and thickness40mm Yield strength fy = 355N/mm2
I = 235 fy ! 235 355 ! 0.81

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Section properties: Depth and width of section Thickness Radius of gyration Area h, b=80mm t= 5mm iz= 30.5mm A= 1470mm2

Classification of the cross-section

c ! 80  3v 5 ! 65mm
c ! 65 ! 13 t 5

Class 3 limit= 42I =42 v 0.81=34 13<34, so the section is at least class 3. Compression resistance of the cross-section:
N c , RD ! Af y K M0 ! 1470 v 355v 103 ! 522kN 1.0

N c, Rd " N Ed ! 138kN OK

Therefore, the compression design resistance is adequate. Flexural buckling resistance: Determine the non-dimensional slenderness for flexural buckling:


P!

Af y N cr

Lcr 1 2463 1 ! ! 1.06 iz P1 30.5 76.4

Determine the reduction factor due to buckling


Gz ! 1 *  *2  P N b , Rd ! G z Af y K M1 !
2

1 1.15  1.152  1.062

! 0.63

0.63 v 1470 v 355 v10 3 ! 329 kN 1.0

N b , Rd " N Ed ! 138 kN OK

Therefore, the design flexural buckling resistance of the selected 80 v 80 v 5 SHS is satisfactory.
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Design of bottom chords (members AC, CE, EG) Maximum design force (members AC and EG) =126kN (in tension) The bottom chords will also be a 80 v 80 v 5 SHS, S355. By inspection, the design tension resistance is equal to design plastic resistance of the cross-section.
N pl , Rd ! Af y KM0 ! 1470 v 355v 103 ! 522kN " N Ed ! 126kN OK 1.0

Design of internal members (members BC, CD, DE, EF) Maximum design compression force (BC and EF) =34kN Maximum design tension force (CD and DE) =42kN Maximum length in compression is BC and EF =1096mm Try a 40 v 40 v 5 SHS, in S355 steel. Following the same design process as above, the following resistance can be calculated: Flexural buckling resistance (Lcr=1096mm), N b,Rd=155kN Tension resistance Npl,Rd =239kN Thus all internal members will be selected as 40 v 40 v 5 SHS, in S355 steel. Serviceability Limit State (SLS) Partial factor for permanent actions Partial factor for variable actions

K G ! 1.0 K G ! 1.0

Design value of combined actions ! 1.0 v 0.9  1.0 v 1.0 ! 1.9 kN / m 2 Design value of combined actions on truss ! 1.9 / 2.53 v 37.4 ! 28.1kN Deflection: The maximum allowable deflection is assumed to be span/300
Span / 300 ! 9000 / 300 ! 30 mm

The maximum deflection of the truss is obtained for the SLS value of combined actions (i.e. Fd=37.4kN). The deflection at the apex was found to 13.8mm when all of the joints are assumed to be pinned. Deflection is therefore satisfactory.

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The connection for the ASB to ASB is determined depending on the British standard and the end plate connection was recommended to be used. The end plate may be taken as a standard width of 200mm for all ASB sections, which allows connections to 203 UKC and larger columns. The vertical distance between the bolts is 75mm for 3-bolt rows and it also recommended that for the span <6m, the end plate thickness for moment resistant connections should be 12mm. The table below also advertised to use M20 Grade 8.8 Bolt for the connection.

There are also some detailing rules for end plate connection to ASBS. The data is shown as follow.

@9

@@9

4. The c
8

ec i

6 7

4. D

3 54

ili

for ASB to ASB

Figure4.1 Recommended bolt si es and plate thickness for ASB connection

Figure4.2 Detailing rules for end plate connections to ASBs


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From the data provide from the slimdek manual, all the data for the ASBS connection can be obtained as below. Bolt: Grade 8.8 M20 Plate thickness: 12mm The spacing of the bolts: 75mm Dimension for B in the figure above The moment resistant is 192KN.M The web panel share force is 781KN.M

4.2 Beam to column connection

Med=211KN.m, Ved=106.5KN.m Connection structural elements Cantilever under balcony: UKB 457x191x82 Column: UKC 356x368x129 Design grade 43 M20 8.8 Bolts 200x20 END PLATE A mini haunch 150mm deep will develop a moment of 351KN Table3 Moment calculation Row No Beam side Column side Minimum Lever arm Moment capacity Cumulative moment capacity 1 2 3 4 Total 274 228 182 136 266 266 230 211 266 228 182 136 812
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0.542 0.452 0.362 0.272

144.172 103.056 65.884 36.992 350.104 247.228 313.112 350.104

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The moment capacity for 2 rows will suffice check compression. Compressive force or column is 812KN for 4 rows bolts efficient is 812KN for 2 rows of bolts. Compressive force on column is 494KN, adequate, hence using 2 rows bolts. Vertical shear check; Applied shear is 106.5KN.m Bottom row dedicated to share provides 2x91.9=183.8KN Each tension row connection resistance=331KN > 106.5KN.m Hence ok! Web panel share check The unstiffened web panel shear resistance is 605KN The applied web panel shear by two rows of bolts is 494KN. Hence ok! Wels to end check The unstiffened web panel shear resistance is 605KN The applied web panel shear by two rows bolts is 494KN Wels to end plate. Provide: Haunch: Angle of flange is taken of 60 degrees. Fillet weld with a length equal to the flange thickness. Tension flange: 12Fw, Web 8Fw, Compression Flange: 8Fw

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4.3 Roof to column connection

Flexible end plate Beam to UC column

Figure4.3 Front elevation of connection of bottom chord to UC column

Figure4.4 Plan view of connection of bottom chord to UC column

Design information: Bolts: M16 8.8

End Plates: 200x90x10 Welds: 6mm fillet

Material: All S355 steel Tie force=126kN< 215kN The beam side of the connection is adequate.
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4.4 Column to foundation connection

Column to foundation connection

M Ed ! 157.01kN m VEd ! 101.5kN VEd ! 101.5kN


Connected structural elements Figure4.5 Actions on column footing

Column level1 UKC 366x368x202 taken from dead loading Primary sizing: 650x450x50 base plate with four M24, Class 8.8 bolts each side. The foundation is to be in C30 concrete. Check whether there is no tension in the bolts.

b ! M / N ! 157 v 103 / 2400 ! 65.4mm


Distance to edge of compressive stress block. x / 2 ! 650 / 2  65.4 ! 259.6 mm
xmax ! 2 h ! 383.3mm 3

Compression ! 383.3 v 450 v18 v10 3 ! 3105 kN " 2400 , OK. And there is no tension in the bolts.

c ! 2400 kN and T ! 0 .
T shape stress block

L1 ! (650  374.6) / 2 ! 137.65mm A ! (2 v137.65  27) v 450  [383.7  (2 v137.65  27)] v374.7 !166 536mm2
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Required design stress =

2400 v1000 =14.41N / mm 2 166536

e ! L1  0.8S w ! 137.65  0.8v 10 ! 129.65mm


mc ! 14.41v 129.652 / 2 ! 121110N mm
586kN, 157kN m combine.

Check whether there is no tension in the bolts.


b ! M / N ! 157 v10 3 / 586 ! 268 mm

Distance to edge of compressive stresses block

x / 2 ! 650 / 2  268 ! 57 mm
Compression ! 114 v 450 v18 v10 3 ! 923.4 " 586 kN No tension in bolts. Base plate thickness The required plate thickness is the larger value resulting from (a) or (b) below: (a) Compression side bending tp ! 4mc 4 v 121110 ! ! 43.6 mm Pyp 255

(b) Tension side bending tp ! 4mT where T=0, hence mT ! T m ! 0 Pyp bp

Therefore, t p ! 0 Use 45mm plate. Holding down bolts and anchorage Use two M24, Class 8.8 bolts, but no tension in the bolts. (Bolt spacing=300mm)

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The overall embedment depth in the concrete (Excluding the grout beneath the base plate) is 450mm (min requirement) Shear Transfer to concrete Check if the horizontal shear is transferred by friction. Available shear resistance =0.3c (min) ! 0.3v 586kN ! 175.8kN " VEd , OK. Welds: 10mm fillet weld both sides of the web.

5. Foundation
The site is located at the city centre and the site condition is shown as below Table4 Site conditions Description Sand and Clay Rock Depths Ground level - 16.0 m Below 16.0 m Soil data C = 40 kN/m2 Allowable pressure = 2500 kN/m2 The max load which transferred for the column to the foundation is 2400KN for the corner column of the building and if the pile designed as friction pile the allowable pile bearing load is not enough to bearing the column load. In terms of this situation, the end bearing pile with a diameter of 600mm and depth of 16m should be used under this building. In this case, allowable pile bearing load is 2600KN, so it designed as single pile for each column is enough to carry the load from upper structure. Addition to that, the building is constructed nearby an existing highway and over an existing 5.0m wide x 2.0m deep canal. So during the construction of the foundation, the 1.0m thick impermeable clay lining must not be damaged during construction of the foundation and this process also should not influence use of the existing highway. In consideration of that, bored and cast-in-place pile can be used in this case in order to minimise the impact to nearby cannel and highway. Besides that, the pile which located along the canal should be eccentric and make sure there no adverse effect on the waterproof layer during the buildings construction and using.
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bearing

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Figure5.1 Construction process of castin-place pile The figure above demonstrated the main construction process of the cast -in-place pile. It is clear that during the construction process, the pile hole is achieved by drilling in to the soil rather than hammering into the soil, therefore it makes little vibration and compaction effect during the construction process and protect the waterproof layer and highway from damaging.

6. Method statement

Figure6.1 The progress schedule of the construction work


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Generally, it will take 80 to 100 days from the beginning of excavate and construct of the foundation to the end of the clear site. The typical progress schedule (in days) is shown as above. After the construction of the foundation finished, several works would be undertook in parallel and significant on-site time could be saved. Besides that, by manufacturing the frame in the factory can also reduce the risk of delay caused by bad weather or insufficient or inadequate construction resources in the locality of the site.

6. Slimdek Some typical for the installation method of the decking should be noticed and the graph below shows that the connection of the decking and the ASBS.
B

Figure6.2 fixing of end diaphragms at ASB The diaphragms are fixed to the edges of the lower flanges of the beams on both sides (except for edge beam situations) using two fixings at pre -marked positions for each length. The 1800 length equates to three sections of ComFlor 225 decking. Each length should be positioned and abutted accurately so that the 600mm pitch of decking sections is located as shown on the layout drawings. After the decking is placed, props should be positioned and it also should not be removed until the concrete has achieved 7 5% of its specified strength (normally 7 days).

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Figure6.3 Propping during the construction

A temporary bridge should be built on the cannel during the construction in order to make the construction work convenience and easy to convey materials across the canal.

6.2 Method for the safety during the construction 1. A protection shutter should be laying 1m away aside the cannel to protect the canal and the waterproof layer from damaging during the construction process. 2. Protection net also should be provided along the edge of each floor to minimise the risk of the falling materials from the upper floors. 3. Scaffold cannot be removed until the construction process all completed and it should also provide enough stability for works to st nd and walk. The construction a workers should educated about the adequate construction method before they start their work and some safety criterion should be observed by the worker and engineer.

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7. Letter to Client
Dear Customer,

Having considered experimental equipment will be accommodated in the laboratories of the building, in the initial stage of slab design, the structure is designed to has high frequency floors (freq.10 Hz). (in accordance with Appendix G of Vibration serviceability of post-tensioned concrete floors provided by University of Sheffield) Generally speaking, equipment could be installed in the laboratories and it is suggested to set this equipment in the area near lift shaft core which has a relative high stiffness which means the effects of vibration could be minimised. Also, lateral embrace of the whole structure is provided by the lift shaft core. Further vibration investigation could be carried out by using finite element method and modal shape of the slab is expected to be analysed. For each nodal points of nth mode, the equipments are advised to be set on as the deflection and acceleration would be the minimum, which indicates the impacts on equipments are relative smaller. Normally, the critical nodal point of 1st mode of the slab is on the midpoint of span.

Sincerely yours, Group 1

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Reference
BCSA SCI. (2009). Joints in Steel Construction - Simple Connections. Ltd.Corus. (2009). Slimdek Mannual. OwensW.Graham. (1994). Steel Designer's Mannual. Blackwell.

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Appendix

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