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# DANARAJ CHELATHURAI 2 2011

Num. 1 2 Part I Part II ~ Question 1 ~ Question 2 (a) ~ Question 2 (b) ~ Question 2 (c) ~ Question 3 (a) ~ Question 3 (b) ~ Question 3 (c) 3 4 Part III Further Exploration Question Page

PART I

History of cake baking and decorating Although clear examples of the difference between cake and bread are easy to find, the precise classification has always been elusive. For example, banana bread may be properly considered either a quick bread or a cake.The Greeks invented beer as a leavener, frying fritters in olive oil, and cheesecakes using goat's milk. In ancient Rome, basic bread dough was sometimes enriched with butter, eggs, and honey, which produced a sweet and cake-like baked good. Latin poet Ovid refers to the birthday of him and his brother with party and cake in his first book of exile, Tristia.Early cakes in England were also essentially bread: the most obvious differences between a "cake" and "bread" were the round, flat shape of the cakes, and the cooking method, which turned cakes over once while cooking, while bread was left upright throughout the baking process. Sponge cakes, leavened with beaten eggs, originated during the Renaissance, possibly in Spain. Cake decorating is one of the sugar arts requiring mathematics that uses icing or frosting and other edible decorative elements to make otherwise plain cakes more visually interesting. Alternatively, cakes can be moulded and sculpted to resemble three-dimensional persons, places and things. In many areas of the world, decorated cakes are often a focal point of a special celebration such as a birthday, graduation, bridal shower, wedding, or anniversary. Mathematics are often used to bake and decorate cakes, especially in the following actions: Measurement of Ingredients Calculation of Price and Estimated Cost Estimation of Dimensions Calculation of Baking Times Modification of Recipe according to scale

PART II 1) 1 kg = 3800 cm3 h = 7 cm 5 kg = 3800 x 5 = 19000 cm3 V = r2h 19000 = 3.142 x r2 x 7 r2 = 19000 3.142 x 7 r2 = 863.872 r = 29.392 cm
.

d = 2r d = 58.783 cm 2) Maximum dimensions of cake: d = 60.0 cm h = 45.0 cm h/cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 d/cm 155.526251 9 109.973667 4 89.7931233 9 77.7631259 4 69.5534543 63.4933264 5 58.7833978 3 54.9868336 8 51.8420839 6 49.1817191 9 46.8929293 2 44.8965616 9 43.1352212 2 41.5661392 3

40.1567055 15 6 a) h/cm d/cm 38.8815629 16 7 37.7206567 17 1 36.6578891 18 2 35.6801692 19 1 34.7767271 20 5 33.9386105 21 6 33.1583083 22 1 32.4294652 23 8 31.7466632 24 3 31.1052503 25 7 30.5012074 26 3 27 29.93104113 29.3916989 28 1 28.8804999 29 4 28.3950788 30 1 h/cm d/cm 27.9333394 31 4 27.4934168 32 4 27.0736453 33 7 26.6725321 34 5 35 26.2887347 25.9210419 36 8 25.5683583 37 1 38 25.2296896 24.9041315 39 8 24.5908595 40 9

41 42 43 44 45

## 24.28911983 23.9982216 7 23.7175310 6 23.4464646 6 23.1844847 7

b) i) h < 7 cm , h > 45 cm This is because any heights lower than 7 cm will result in the diameter of the cake being too big to fit into the baking oven while any heights higher than 45 cm will cause the cake being too tall to fit into the baking oven b) ii) I would suggest the dimensions of the cake to be 29 cm in height and approximately 29 cm in diameter. This is because a cake with these dimensions is more symmetrical and easier to decorate.

c) i)

V = r2h V = 19000 cm3 r = d/2 19000 = 3.142 x (d/2)2 x h d2 = 19000 4 3.142 x (d2/4)
.

d2 =

76000 3.142 x h

## d = 155.53 x h-1/2 log10 d = -1/2 log10 h + log10 155.53 log10 h

1 2 3 4

log10 d
1.6918 14 1.1918 14 0.6918 14 0.1918 14

c) ii) a) When h = 10.5 cm, log10 h = 1.0212 According to the graph, log10 d = 1.7 when log10 h = 1.0212 Therefore, d = 50.12 cm b) When d = 42 cm, log10 d = 1.6232 According to the graph, log10 h = 1.2 when log10 d = 1.6232 Therefore, h = 15.85 cm

3) a) 14.44 cm

h = 29 cm r = 14.44 cm

29 cm

## Diagram 1: Cake without Cream

1 cm 15.44 cm 1 cm

## Diagram 2: Cake with Cream

To calculate volume of cream used, the cream is symbolised as the larger cylinder and the cake is symbolised as the smaller cylinder. Vcream = 3.142 x 15.442 x 30 19000 = 22471 19000 = 3471 cm3

## 3) b) i) Square shaped cake

Estimated volume of cream used = 30 x 27.6 x 27.6 - 19000 = 22852.8 19000 = 3852.8 cm3

## b) ii) Triangle shaped cake

Estimated volume of cream used = x 39.7 x 39.7 x 30 19000 = 23641.4 19000 = 4641.4 cm3 b) iii) Trapezium shaped cake

Estimated volume of cream used = x (28+42.5) x 22 x 30 - 19000 = 23265 19000 = 4265 cm3 * All estimations in the values are based on the assumption that the layer of cream is thick at 1 cm uniformly

c) Based on the values I have obtained, the round shaped cake requires the least amount of fresh cream (3471 cm3) PART III Method 1: By comparing values of height against volume of cream used

h/cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

volume of cream used/cm3 19983.61 10546.04 7474.42 5987.37 5130.07 4585.13 4217.00 3958.20 3771.41 3634.38 3533.03 3458.02 3402.96 3363.28 3335.70 3317.73 3307.53

h/cm 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

volume of cream used/cm3 3303.66 3304.98 3310.62 3319.86 3332.12 3346.94 3363.92 3382.74 3403.14 3424.89 3447.80 3471.71 3496.47 3521.98 3548.12 3574.81 3601.97

h/cm 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

volume of cream used/cm3 3629.54 3657.46 3685.67 3714.13 3742.81 3771.67 3800.67 3829.79 3859.01 3888.30 3917.65 3947.04 3976.46 4005.88 4035.31 4064.72

According to the table above, the minimum volume of cream used is 3303.66 cm3 when h = 18cm. When h = 18cm, r = 18.3 cm

Method 2: Using differentiation Assuming that the surface area of the cake is proportionate to the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake.* Formula for surface area = r2 + 2rh h = 19000 / 3.142r2 Surface area in contact with cream = r2 + 2r(19000 / 3.142r2) = r2 + (38000/r) The values, when plotted into a graph will from a minimum value that can be obtained through differentiation. dy = 0 dx dy = 2r (38000/r2) dx 0 = 2r (38000/r2) 0 = 6.284r3 38000 38000 = 6.284r3 6047.104 = r3 18.22 = r When r = 18.22 cm, h = 18.22 cm The dimensions of the cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate is approximately 18.2 cm in height and 18.2 cm in radius. I would bake a cake of such dimensions because the cake would not be too large for the cutting or eating of said cake, and it would not be too big to bake in a conventional oven. * The above conjecture is proven by the following When r = 10, ~ the total surface area of the cake is 4114.2 cm2 ~ the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake is 4381.2 cm3 ~ the ratio of total surface area of cake to amount of fresh cream needed is 0.94 When r = 20, ~ the total surface area of the cake is 3156.8 cm2 ~ the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake is 3308.5 cm3 ~ the ratio of total surface area of cake to amount of fresh cream needed is 0.94 Therefore, the above conjecture is proven to be true.

FURTHER EXPLORATION

a) Volume of cake 1 = r2h = 3.142 x 31 x 31 x 6 = 18116.772 cm3 Volume of cake 3 = r2h = 3.142 x (0.9 x 0.9 x 31)2 x 6 = 3.142 x (25.11)2 x 6 = 11886.414 cm3

Volume of cake 2 = r2h = 3.142 x (0.9 x 31)2 x 6 = 3.142 x (27.9)2 x 6 = 14676.585 cm3 Volume of cake 4 = r2h = 3.142 x (0.9 x 0.9 x 0.9 x 31)2 x 6 = 3.142 x (22.599)2 x 6 = 9627.995 cm3

The values 118116.772, 14676.585, 11886.414, 9627.995 form a number pattern. The pattern formed is a geometrical progression. This is proven by the fact that there is a common ratio between subsequent numbers, r = 0.81. 14676.585 = 0.81 18116.772 9627.995 = 0.81 11886.414
.

## 11886.414 = 0.81 14676.585

b) Sn = a(1-rn) = 18116.772 ( 1-0.8n) 1-r 1-0.8 15 kg = 57000 cm3 57000 > 18116.772(1-0.8n) 0.2 11400 > 18116.772(1-0.8n) 0.629 > 1-0.8n -0.371 > - 0.8n 0.371 < 0.8n log 0.371 < n log 0.8 log 0.371 < n log 0.8 4.444 <n