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Summer 2011, BBA-III Semester

BB0014: IntroductiontoInternet Assignment Set I Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.

Q.1 Differentiate between class A, Class B, and Class C networks. Class A Network In Class A network, the first byte is assigned to the network address, and remaining three bytes are used for the node address. The Class A format is Network.node.node.node. Example in 49.22.102.70, 49 is the network address and 22.102.70 is the node address. The length of a Class A network is a byte. And the first bit of that byte is reserved as 0. Only 7 bits remain for manipulation. It is also decided that the network address of all zeros (0000.0000) is reserved. So the actual number of usable Class A network is 128 minus 1 i.e. 127 (27 = 128). Class B Network In Class B network, the first two bytes are assigned to the network address, and the remaining two bytes are used for node addresses. Format is Network.Network.Node.Node. In this class, in IP address 130.57.30.56, the network address is 130.57 and the node address is 30.56. With the network address being two bytes, there would be 216 unique combinations. But Internet designers decided that all Class B networks should start with the binary digits 1 and 0. This leaves 14 bit positions to manipulate, and therefore 214 or 16384 unique Class B networks. Class B network has two bytes to use for node addresses. This is 216 minus the two patterns in the reserved-exclusive club (all zeros and all ones), for a total of 65,534 possible node addresses for each Class B Network. Class C Network The first three bytes of a class C network are dedicated to the network portion of the address, with only one byte remaining for the node address. The format is Network.Network.Network.Node. Class C network must start with the bit pattern 110. Three bytes i.e. 24 bits, minus three reserved bits, leaves 21 positions to network address. Class C network can have 221 or 20,97,152 network addresses. Each Class C network has one byte to use for node addresses. This leads to 256 minus the two special patterns of all zeros and all ones, for a total of 254 node addresses. The following table provides a summary of the three classes of networks:

BB0014:IntroductiontoInternet

SMU Roll No. XXXXXXX


Summer 2011, BBA-III Semester

Class

Leading bit pattern

Decimal range of network address 1-127 128-191 192-223

Maximum networks 127 16,384 20,97,152

Maximum nodes per network 16,777,216 65,534 254

A B C

0 10 110

BB0014:IntroductiontoInternet

SMU Roll No. XXXXXXX


Summer 2011, BBA-III Semester

Q.2 a. What are the abbreviations of the following in safe chatting rules? i. J/K ii. IMHO iii. AFK iv. A/S/L v. BAK [5 Marks] b. Write short notes on i. TELNET ii. FTP [5 Marks] Answer: i. J/K ii. IMHO iii. AFK iv. A/S/L v. BAK : Just kidding : In my humble opinion : Away From Keyboard : Age/Sex/Location : Back at keyboard

b. Write short notes on i. TELNET : People who are in one location frequently want to use a computer in another location. Perhaps they are on a business trip and wants to read their e-mail. Perhaps they want to access data on the computer in another branch or in the main office. Telnet (short for networking over the telephone) is the Internet tool that lets you travel from your own workstation out into cyberspace to land on another computer. You can also use Telnet to get services, such Gophers, line-mode Web servers and libraries, even if you do not have clients for those servers on your host system. When you are connected to a remote host via Telnet, you interact with that computer and operating system and issue commands as if you were directly connected to that computer. Your session acts as if it were a terminal session connected to the remote host. Telnet provides a command-line interface to Internet hosts running the Telnet service. With Telnet, you can establish a remote session with an Internet host. Telnet is useful for the remote administration of Internet hosts over the Internet.

BB0014:IntroductiontoInternet

SMU Roll No. XXXXXXX


Summer 2011, BBA-III Semester

Using Telnet Telnet is one of the simplest tools on the Internet. To open a line-mode session with a remote host from a system prompt, type: telnet hostname You should see the welcome or login banner for the host. When the Telnet program connects your computer to the remote computer, the remote computer usually asks you to enter a username and a password. The remote computer usually displays a menu system at the top of the window. In most cases, you can select an option from the menu by typing the number that appears next to the option. Some Telnet sites require that you type commands at the prompt. In such cases, instructions appear at the bottom of the screen telling you what to type. If the instructions do not appear, you can often view a list of commands or instructions by typing help or ? at the prompt and pressing Enter. When you first connect, look for the command to exit or quit the Telnet session. If you cannot find a command, you can exit by typing q or exit and pressing Enter. You should exit the remote computer before you shut down your Telnet program. These sites offer products, services and/or discussions. When you Telnet to these sites, use the login name specified for the service. Be prepared to register your name, address and perhaps e-mail address on entry to these services.

Telnet Sites Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois offers an educational service called Newton. To reach it, Telnet to newton.dep.anl.gov If you need agricultural information, try Cornells Extension Network. To reach CENET, Telnet to empire.cce.cornell.edu There is a backgammon server at fraggle165.mdstd.chalmers.se You can play bridge (live!) by Telnetting to Vanderbilt.okbridge.com MichNet and its members maintain several interesting Gophers as well as other interesting services. Telnet to hermes.merit.edu and then, at the Which Host? prompt, type HELP. Some of the most interesting services include UM-Weather, which has forecasts and current information as well as educational programs and curriculum ideas for teacher; the MSU Gopher, which has a library of voice recording; the libraries of many Michigans colleges and universities; and many others. Telnet to books.com to find a bulletin board system (BBS) that is the bookstore Book Stacks Unlimited. Telnet to pac.carl.org to find book reviews and a journal article fax service. Telnet to classroom-earth.ciesin.org 2010 to find the Global change education bulletin board.

BB0014:IntroductiontoInternet

SMU Roll No. XXXXXXX


Summer 2011, BBA-III Semester

ii. FTP : Transferring a file via FTP requires two participants: an FTP client program and FTP server program. The FTP client is the program that we run on our computers. The FTP server is the program that runs on the huge mainframe (now a day, on a PC under someones desk) somewhere and stores tens thousands of files. It is similar to an online library of files. The FTP client can download (receive) or upload (send) files to the FTP server. Using Web browser you can download the files but you can not upload the files. FTP applications will help you to upload the files to the web sites, which you are maintaining. There are many FTP programs that you can download from the Internet. Windows has its own command line based FTP program. To execute it, select Run from Windows taskbar and type FTP and press enter. By typing open command you can connect to any ftp server. To connect to FTP server you must have a login name and the password. Most of the FTP servers allow anonymous connections. In this case username is anonymous and password is your e-mail address. To upload the files you can use mput command. To list the available commands you can type help. Another important FTP program, which is available as a shareware, is WSFTP. Using this window based program it is easier to maintain your web site.

BB0014:IntroductiontoInternet

SMU Roll No. XXXXXXX


Summer 2011, BBA-III Semester

Q.3 a. Bring out the functions of domain addressing and IP addressing b. Write the steps to install and configure TCP/IP Answer:

[5 Marks] [5 Marks]

As in our everyday lives we need some way of telling the people where a particular thing is located, so also on the Internet we need to tell the people where a particular resource is located. For this purpose there are two kinds of addressing. Domain Addressing IP (Internet Protocol) Addressing Domain names follow a format called the Domain Name System (DNS). Every computer on the Internet has both the Domain name and an IP address. When a domain name is used, a Domain Name Server translates that name to the corresponding IP address. Domain names describe organizational or geographic realities. They either indicate the country the network connection is in, or what organization owns it and sometimes further details. A computer that translates the domain name of another computer into an IP address, and vice versa, upon request is known as DNS server. These servers are located all over the world and automatically do this translation when a URL containing a domain name is submitted through a browser. The IP address is returned to the browser that placed the request. The browser then lands on this IP address. 1. Host Names Host name is the name of a computer. Machines on the network are given these names to make it easier to access them. A host name is a symbolic name a network administrator assigns to a machine. 2. Domain Names Domain names describe organizational or geographic realities. They indicate in which country the network connection is in, what kind of organization owns it etc. Following are examples of domain names and their meaning. com - Commercial edu Education gov - U.S. government net - An Administrative organization for a network mil - non classified military networks org - Usually private organizations and others.
BB0014:IntroductiontoInternet SMU Roll No. XXXXXXX


Summer 2011, BBA-III Semester

There are also domain names for countries. de - Germany (Deutschland) it - Italy nz - New Zealand in India For more information on domain names for countries visit: ftp://ftp.nw.com/zone/iso-countrycodes 3. IP Addressing Each computer or server is known as the host and the IP address specifies its physical network connection. An IP address is a set of four numbers (32 bits) separated by period (a dot.). A part of the address is designated as the network address, and the other part as a node address. For example an IP address looks like 202.54.15.178. Rather than the entire 32 bits being treated as unique identifier, a part of it is designated as network address and other as node address. Network address uniquely identifies each network. Each machine on the same network shares that network address as part of its IP address. Node address uniquely identifies each machine on a network (must be unique because it identifies a particular machine). In the given IP address 202.54.15.178, the 202.54 is the network address and 15.178 is the node address in case of class B network. These numbers are primarily read and managed by computers. Each part of this address that is part between the dots represents an octet (a value of 8 bits). Network classes are based on the network size. There are three classes - A,B &C. Reserved IP Addresses:
Address Network address of all zeros Network address of all ones Network 127 Function Interpreted to mean This Network Interpreted to mean All networks Reserved for loop back tests. Designates the local node allows that node to send test packet to itself. Interpreted to mean this node Interpreted to mean all nodes on the specified network.

Node address of all zeros Node address of all ones

BB0014:IntroductiontoInternet

SMU Roll No. XXXXXXX


Summer 2011, BBA-III Semester

b. Configuring TCP/IP Parameters To setup the TCP/IP protocol properties go through the following steps. Select control panel > Network. The network configuration list is seen as shown in figure below, TCP/IP Dial-up adapter.

Figure : Network dialog

Under configuration tab in the Network Components List select TCP/IP > Dial - up Adapter (irrespective of whether you have a network card or not) and click on properties.

BB0014:IntroductiontoInternet

SMU Roll No. XXXXXXX


Summer 2011, BBA-III Semester

In the TCP/IP Properties dialog box, select IP Address tab. Click the radio button next to the Obtain an IP address automatically option to select it. Under WINS configuration tab select the radio button Disable WINS Resolution. Under DNS configuration tab select Enable DNS option. In the host field, Enter your machine name [say MICE01]. In the domain field enter vsnl.net.in and enter the DNS server number. This number is provided by your ISP. Choose OK to close the Network dialog box. 4. Setting Up New Connection Under My Computer select Dial-up Networking icon and then double-click on Make new Connection icon. Enter the area code and the telephone number of VSNL (service provider) 172222 for users in Banglore/Mangalore/Udupi. Select India [91] as the Country Code. Click on Next. In the resultant dialog box enter a name to identify the icon. For e.g. if you enter VSNL then VSNL is the name of the connection you have made. Click on Finish and a new icon for the new connection is added to the Dial-up Networking folder. Right click on your new icon and select the Properties from the shortcut menu that appears. In the resultant dialog box following changes are to be made.
BB0014:IntroductiontoInternet SMU Roll No. XXXXXXX


Summer 2011, BBA-III Semester

The telephone number, area code and country will be displayed as you had filled. Do not make any changes here. Click on Configure. In the Properties dialog box, click the Options tab. Select Bring up terminal window after dialing and click on the OK button to confirm and close the window. 5. Testing Internet Connection Once configuration of Dial-up Networking connection is over the next step is to check the connection. For this the login name and the password is needed. Given below are the steps for connecting to the Internet using a terminal window to log in. Double click on the newly created icon (My connection) in the Dial-up Networking window. If you have configured Dial-up networking to display a terminal window, do not enter your login name and password in the opened dialog box. You will enter them through the terminal window itself. Click on Connect. Once you get connected the terminal window will appear and you will be prompted for your login name and you are now prompted to enter your password. To protect your password, it does not appear on the screen. Press the enter key after typing the password. The login name and password. Enter your login name and password is given by VSNL your ISP. Once your login name and password is accepted you will get a UNIX prompt. Here type PPP and press <Enter>. The screen will throw up some junky looking characters. Click on the Continue button. After a few seconds a Connected to VSNL dialog box will appear showing the connection speed and time. You can minimise this window. Launch your Web Browser (Double click on The Internet Explorer icon).

BB0014:IntroductiontoInternet

SMU Roll No. XXXXXXX


Summer 2011, BBA-III Semester

Q.4 a. Answer the questions below with proper reasons. i. Do you use E-Mail? If yes why? If no how do you exchange information? ii. Bring out the advantages of E-Mail over general mail from your own experience. [5 Marks] b. How do you manage your E-mail account if you need to compose the message offline and store until it is ready to send? [5 Marks]

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BB0014:IntroductiontoInternet

SMU Roll No. XXXXXXX