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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong

Chng 4: Phng php nghin cu kinh t nh lng EFA



4.1. Cong dung cua phan tch EFA

Phan tch nhan to kham pha la mot phng phap phan tch nh lng dung e rut gon mot
tap gom nhieu bien quan sat phu thuoc lan nhau thanh mot tap bien (goi la cac nhan to) t
hn e chung co y ngha hn nhng van cha ng hau het noi dung thong tin cua tap bien
ban au (Hair & ctg, 1998).

V du: Tho & ctg (2005) a o lng c s ha tang au t cua tnh Tien Giang thong qua 12
bien quan sat (ien on nh, nc on nh chi ph lao ong re). 12 bien quan sat nay c rut
gon thanh 3 nhan to. Ba nhan to mi c at ten la: c s ha tang, mat bang, lao ong.

Nhan to
Stt Bien quan sat C s ha tang Mat bang Lao ong
1 ien on nh .59 .09 .31
2 Nc on nh .69 .06 .16
3 Thoat nc tot .65 -.01 -.11
4 Gia ien hp ly .62 .26 .10
5 Gia nc phu hp .59 .18 .17
6 Thong tin lien lac thuan tien .58 .21 -.01
7 Giao thong thuan li .59 .22 .11
8 Gia thue at hp ly .27 .65 .07
9 Chi ph en bu, giai toa thoa
ang
.13 .86 .09
10 Mat bang sap xep kp thi .14 .83 .08
11 Lao ong doi dao .16 .16 .80
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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
12 Chi ph lao ong re .08 .04 .86
Nguon: Tho &ctg, 2005, 49

Mac du ng dung cua phan tch EFA chu yeu nam trong lnh vc quan tr, tuy nhien trong lnh
vc kinh te khi ma mo hnh khai niem rut ra t cac ly thuyet kinh te nhng nha kinh te lai ri vao
cac trng hp a) khong tm c cac nghien cu trc e o lng cac khai niem trong mo hnh
nghien cu khai niem cac bien ai dien (proxiers), hoac b) cho du co the quan sat cac khai niem
bang cac bien ai dien nhng that bai trong viec thu thap d lieu trong thc te.

Trong cac trng hp neu tren th cac nghien cu kinh te phai tm ra mot tiep can thang o nham
o lng cac khai niem trong mo hnh nghien cu ly thuyet, trong cac trng hp nay th cac nha
kinh te co mot la chon la thay v s dung d lieu thc te thong qua cac bien ai dien th cac nha
nghien cu kinh te se s dung EFA e:

a) o lng cac khai niem cua mo hnh ly thuyet
b) Sau o tiep tuc s dung cong cu kinh te lng e c lng cac moi quan he kinh te nh a
trnh bay trong chng 2.

Gii han cho tiep can EFA khi cac nha nghien cu kinh te s dung la: a) cac khai niem trong mo
hnh ly thuyet phai trai qua them mot bc phng phap phan tch nh tnh nham cu the hoa cac
khai niem trong mo hnh ly thuyet thanh cac phat bieu, va moi phat bieu tr thanh mot bien khi
gan thang o Likert vao, b) cac moi quan he kinh te trong mo hnh ly thuyet se ch c kiem
nh thong qua quan sat thai o (hoac cam nhan perception) cua cac ca nhan

4.2 Thu tuc thao tac EFA trong SPSS
4.2.1 Tnh huong ng dung phan tch EFA
S dung file chat /aong khoa hoc thac s/ ra sa ha/ /ong caa hoc r/en.sar. ay la mot phan
d lieu khao sat chat lng khoa hoc thac s va s hai long cua hoc vien cao hoc cua mot trng
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
ai hoc khoi kinh te TPHCM cua Nguyen Khanh Duy va cong s (2007). Nguyen Khanh Duy
va cong s a ng dung mo hnh nghien cu khai niem e ngh ban au cho d lieu v du nay la:
Mc o hai long chung = f( Muc tieu/tieu chuan ao tao, chat lng sinh vien tot nghiep,
kha nang giang day, phat trien ky nang, to chc khoa hoc, thuc ay tri thc khoa hoc, moi trng
cong ong hoc tap, nguon lc hoc tap, khoi lng cong viec hoc tap). Nh vay mo hnh ly thuyet
nay co tat ca 9 bien oc lap va 9 bien oc lap nay thong qua bc phan tch nh tnh a co tat ca
khoang 51 bien kem theo thang o tng ng. Chung ta mac du co d lieu nhng do co qua nhieu
bien nh vay nen khong the thc hien hoi quy trc tiep ma phai thong qua phan tch EFA e lam
thu tuc tom tat d lieu trc khi tien hanh hoi quy.
Nhom nghien cu nay a da tren nen tang ly thuyet ve thang o CEQ (Course
Experience Questionnaire) do Ramsden e xuat trong anh gia chat lng khoa hoc cua nen giao
duc Uc va a c hieu chnh thong qua nghien cu nh tnh. Tat ca cac bien trong mo hnh
c o lng bang thang o LIKERT vi mc o t 1 en 7.
4.2.2 Trnh t thao tac EFA trong SPSS
Bc 1: m file d lieu a c nhap trong SPSS
Hnh 1. Cac bien a c khai bao
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong


Bc 2: thao tac tren menu SPSS ve EFA
T thanh menu cua SPSS. Chon
Analyze
Data Reduction
Factor







Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
Hnh 3


Hnh 4

Khi hop thoai Factor
Analysis xuat hien.
+ a cac bien can phan tch
nhan to vao khung Variables
+ Sau o lan lt chon cac
nut
Descriptives
Extraction
Rotation
Options
Scores
va anh dau chon cac muc
phu hp (khi can)
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
Hnh 5
Khi chon Descriptives. Hop
thoai nh Hnh 5 xuat hien.
anh dau chon KMO and
Bartletts test of sphericity
(neu can).



Hnh 6.

Khi chon Rotation. Hop
thoai nh Hnh 7 xuat hien.

Danh dau chon Varimax
neu phng phap trch la
Principal components

anh dau chon Promax neu
phng phap trch ma ban
chon Hnh 6 la
Principal axis factoring
Khi chon Extraction. Hop
thoai nh Hnh 6 xuat hien.

Trong bai hoc, ta s dung
phng phap trch mac nh
cua SPSS la
Principal components

Mot phng phap hay c
s dung khac la
Principal axis factoring
Hnh 7


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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
Hnh 8



Hnh 9



Bc 3: Phan tch ket qua
Hnh 10. Bang Ma tran nhan to a xoay trong ket qua EFA lan 1

Rotated Component Matrix(a)

Component

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
gss5 .763
gss2 .708
gss6 .708
gqs4 .705
gss1 .697
gss4 .660
Khi bam nut Scores, hop thoai Factor
Analysis: Factor Scores xuat hien.

Chon Save as variables neu ban muon
lu lai nhan so (a chuan hoa) cua tng
nhan to

Khi bam nut Options, hop thoai Factor
Analysis: Options xuat hien. Trong hop
thoai nay:
+Chon Sorted by size e sap xep cac
bien quan sat trong cung mot nhan to
ng gan nhau
+Chon suppress absolute value less
than neu khong the hien cac trong so
nhan to co tr tuyet oi nho hn mot gia
tr nao o (v du: 0.3)
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
gqs5 .641
gqs3 .624
gqs6 .620
gss3 .579
gqs2 .574
gqs1 .535
lcs5 .668
lcs3 .646
lcs2 .644
cgss1 .625
cgss4 .620
cgss2 .601
lcs1 .589
cos1 .570
lcs4 .568
cos2 .545
cgss3 .518
cos7 .727
cos8 .724
cos6 .723
cos5 .658
cos3 .645
cos9 .567
cos4 .486
lrs5 .473
gts6 .689
gts4 .633
gts3 .615
gts2 .596
gts5 .580
gts1 .555
lrs1 .743
lrs2 .706
lrs3 .656
lrs4 .596
aws3 .805
aws1 .795
aws2 .743
aws4 .569
ims3 .671
ims2 .655
ims1 .575
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
ims4 .493
gss7 .769
gss8 .766
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
a Rotation converged in 7 iterations.

Trong bang ket qua Hnh 10, co bao nhieu cot tc la co bay nhieu thanh phan chnh
(nhan to) c rut ra. Nh vay trong v du nay a co 8 nhan to c rut ra t 51 bien trong file
d lieu v du.
Cac con so trong bang Rotated Component Matrix (a) goi la cac Factor loading, hay he
so ta/ nhan to, hay trong so nhan to.
Tieu chuan quan trong oi vi Factor loading ln nhat can c quan tam: no phai ln
hn hoac bang 0.5
1
.
Trong v du nay, Hnh 10 ch hien th Factor loading ln nhat cua moi bien quan sat tai moi
dong (e n gian). Tren mot dong nhat nh, ch co 1 con so. Con so nay chnh la factor loading
ln nhat cua bien quan sat nam dong o. Bien quan sat var
i
co factor loading ln nhat nam tai
cot nao th bien quan sat var
i
thuoc ve nhan to o. Bien gss7 co factor loading ln nhat bang
0.769 va bien gss8 co factor loading ln nhat bang 0.766; hai con so nay v tr cua cot so 8, nen
nhan to th 8 gom co hai bien quan sat la gss7 va gss8. Nhan to th 4 bao gom 6 bien quan sat la
gts1, gts2, gts3, gts4, gts5,gts6 v Factor loading ln nhat cua tng bien quan sat nay nam cot so
4. Tng t nh vay, ban se biet c moi nhan to gom co nhng bien quan sat nao. Hay noi
cach khac, ban se biet c bien quan sat bat ky se nam nhan to th may (cung co trng hp
Factor loading mang dau am, luc nay ban nh lay tr tuyet oi cua no)


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Theo Hair & ctg (1998,111), Multivariate Data Analysis, Prentice-Hall International, Inc, Factor loading la ch tieu
e am bao mc y ngha thiet thc cua EFA (ensuring practical significance). Factor loading > 0.3 c xem la at
c mc toi thieu, Factor loading > 0.4 c xem la quan trong, > 0.5 c xem la co y ngha thc tien. Hair & ctg
(1998,111) cung khuyen ban oc nh sau: neu chon tieu chuan factor loading > 0.3 th c mau cua ban t nhat phai la
350, neu c mau cua ban khoang 100 th nen chon tieu chuan factor loading > 0.55, neu c mau cua ban khoang 50
th Factor loading phai > 0.75
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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
Hnh 10 cho thay, Factor loading ln nhat cua ba bien bien quan sat cos4, lrs5, va ims4
eu nho hn 0.5. V vay, cac bien nay khong thoa man tieu chuan tren. Ban co nen loai cung luc
3 bien nay ra khong? Khong nen. Ban nen loai t tng bien quan sat mot. Bien nao co factor
loading ln nhat ma khong at nhat se b loai ra trc. Factor loading ln nhat cua lrs5 bang
0.473; nho hn hai con so con lai (0.486 va 0.493). Loai bien lrs5 ra, se co the tnh hnh c cai
thien hn. Thc hien EFA tng t nh cac bc tren, nhng khong co bien lrs5, bang ket qua se
nh Hnh 11.
Hnh 11 cho thay sau khi loai bien lrs5. Cac bien quan sat eu co factor loading ln nhat
t 0.5 tr len.
Cung co tac gia quan tam en tieu chuan khac biet he so tai nhan to cua mot bien quan
sat gia cac nhan to 0.3 e am bao gia tr phan biet gia cac nhan to
2
.

Hnh 11. Bang Ma tran nhan to a xoay trong ket qua EFA lan 2
Rotated Component Matrix(a)

Component

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
gss5 .760
gss2 .716
gss6 .707
gqs4 .706
gss1 .700
gss4 .668
gqs5 .646
gqs3 .625
gqs6 .618
gqs2 .580
gss3 .578
gqs1 .537
lcs5 .670
lcs2 .644
lcs3 .643
cgss1 .624

2
Jabnoun & Al-Tamimi (2003) Measuring perceived service quality at UAE commercial banks, International
Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, (20), 4
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
cgss4 .620
cgss2 .598
lcs1 .588
cos1 .571
lcs4 .571
cos2 .543
cgss3 .514
cos7 .735
cos8 .729
cos6 .720
cos5 .659
cos3 .652
cos9 .581
cos4 .509
gts6 .695
gts4 .637
gts3 .621
gts2 .603
gts5 .575
gts1 .546
lrs1 .753
lrs2 .706
lrs3 .642
lrs4 .555
aws3 .805
aws1 .792
aws2 .747
aws4 .569
ims3 .685
ims2 .666
ims1 .594
ims4 .510
gss8 .769
gss7 .764
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
a Rotation converged in 7 iterations.

Nh vay cac bien quan sat a vao EFA c rut gon thanh 8 nhan to. Chung ta cung biet
c moi nhan to gom co nhng bien quan sat nao. Ngi phan tch se xem cac bien quan sat
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
trong moi nhan to la nhng bien nao, co y ngha la g, va cung can da tren ly thuyet t o at
ten cho nhan to. Ten nay can ai dien c cho cac bien quan sat cua nhan to.

Ngoai ra, khi phan tch nhan to, ngi ta con quan tam en cac ket qua cua KMO va kiem nh
Bartlett; Phng sai trch (% bien thien c giai thch bi cac nhan to).

Hnh 12. Bang KMO va kiem nh Bartlett sau khi EFA lan 2
KMO and Bartlett's Test
.946
7711.045
1225
.000
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling
Adequacy.
Approx. Chi-Square
df
Sig.
Bartlett's Test of
Sphericity


KMO la mot ch tieu dung e xem xet s thch hp cua EFA, 0.5KMO1 th phan tch nhan to
la thch hp. Kiem nh Bartlett xem xet gia thuyet Ho: o tng quan gia cac bien quan sat
bang khong trong tong the. Neu kiem nh nay co y ngha thong ke (Sig 0.05) th cac bien quan
sat co tng quan vi nhau trong tong the (Trong & Ngoc, 2005, 262)











Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
Hnh 12


Trong hnh Hnh 12, ban quan tam en mot con so cot cuoi cung cua dong so 8 (v co 8 nhan to
c rut ra). Con so nay la 66.793. Ngi ta noi phng sai trch bang 66.793%. Con so nay cho
biet tam nhan to giai thch c 66.793% bien thien cua cac bien quan sat (hay cua d lieu)

Co mot tieu chuan oi vi phng sai trch. Hair & ctg (1998) yeu cau rang phng sai trch
phai at t 50% tr len
3
.


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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong

Bc 4: Giai thch cac nhan to sau khi co ket qua EFA
Trong tnh huong cua file chat /aong khoa hoc thac s/ ra sa ha/ /ong caa hoc r/en.sar can
c vao ket qua phan tch EFA bang SPSS chung ta rut ra c 8 nhan to vi cac giai thch ve noi
dung cua tng nhan to nay va t o can c vao ban chat cua cac bien cu the ma nhan to bao gom
se tm ra ten mi cho nhan to, tnh chat nay c goi la tnh chat kham pha, o laa mot ac trng
noi troi cua EFA:
a) Nhan to th nhat gom co 12 bien quan sat sau:

gss1 Khoa hoc a phat trien ky nang giai quyet van e cua toi
gss 2 Khoa hoc a lam cho ky nang phan tch cua toi c sau sac hn
gss 3 Khoa hoc a giup toi phat trien kha nang lam viec nhom
gss4 Nh tham d khoa hoc, toi cam thay t tin trc nhng van e ang can tr, hay nhng van e mi
gss5 Khoa hoc cai thien ky nang viet trong khoa hoc cua toi
gss6 Khoa hoc phat trien kha nang lap ke hoach cong viec cua ban than toi

gqs1 Trng khuyen khch toi say me, am me trong viec hoc sau hn na, vi bac hoc cao hn na
gqs2 Khoa hoc cung cap cho lnh vc kien thc cua toi mot quan iem rong hn
gqs3 Qua trnh hoc khuyen khch toi anh gia c nhng the manh, nhng kha nang cua toi
gqs4 Toi a hoc e ap dung nhng nguyen tac, kien thc c hoc vao nhng tnh huong mi
gqs5 Khoa hoc giup toi t tin e kham pha nhng van e mi
gqs6 Toi cho rang nhng g toi c hoc co gia tr cho tng lai cua toi

Di goc o ly thuyet, cac bien quan sat nay thuoc thanh phan Phat trien nhng ky nang chung
(Generic Skills Scale) va Chat lng tot nghiep (Graduate Qualities Scale). Chung ta co the at
ten cho nhan to th nhat la Chat lng tot nghiep & phat trien cac ky nang chung hoac co
the mot ten khac nh phat trien kien thc ky nang thai o vi nghe nghiep Cach at

3
Gerbing & Anderson (1988), An Update Paradigm for Scale Development Incorporing Unidimensionality and Its
Assessments, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.25, 186-192 cung yeu cau phng sai trch phai ln hn hoac
bang 50%.
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
ten nay se phu thuoc vao mo hnh nghien cu khai niem va ban chat cua nhom bien cha trong
nhan to a trch ra sau EFA.

b) Nhan to th hai gom co 11 bien quan sat

lcs1 Toi cam thay mot bo phan hoc vien, giang vien, nhan vien cam ket thc hien tot viec viec hoc tap, nghien cu,
giang day va phuc vu viec day - hoc
lcs2 Toi co the tm hieu nhng van e hng thu trong khoa hoc vi oi ngu giang vien, va cac hoc vien trong trng
lcs3 Toi cam thay tin tng nhng ngi khac trong trng khi cung ho kham pha nhng y tng
lcs4 Nhng y tng va nhng e ngh cua hoc vien c s dung trong qua trnh hoc
lcs5 Toi cam thay mnh cung thuoc ve cong ong ai hoc


cgss1 Cac tieu chuan, yeu cau cua viec hoc tap/nghien cu c biet en mot cach de dang
cgss2 Toi thng biet ro nhng ky vong cua toi ve khoa hoc, va ieu ma toi can lam
cgss3Toi tch cc kham pha va thc hien nhng g ngi ta mong i toi trong khoa hoc
cgss4 oi ngu giang vien lam ro nhng g ho ky vong va yeu cau hoc vien t buoi hoc au tien cua mon hoc
cos1 Nhng hoat ong lien quan en viec to chc khoa hoc c thc hien tot
cos2 Toi nhan c nhng thong tin, li khuyen hu ch e len ke hoach hoc tap nghien cu cua mnh

Cac bien quan sat cua nhan to th hai lien quan en thanh phan Cong ong hoc tap
(Learning Community Scale), Muc tieu & tieu chuan ro rang (Clear Goals and Standards
Scale), va hai bien quan sat cua thanh phan To chc khoa hoc (Course Organisation Scale). No
lien quan en van e van hoa hoc tap; trng ai hoc can tao ra mot moi trng e hoc vien co
the cam nhan c ni ay thc s la cong ong hoc tap va nghien cu. Ban co the at ten nhan
to la Cong ong hoc tap v ten nay phan anh kha ro cac bien quan sat trong nhan to, va van gi
c mot khai niem mang tnh ly thuyet cua thang o CEQ, hoac ban cung co the s dung mot
ten khac nh Van hoa hoc tap

Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
c) Nhan to th ba bao gom 7 bien quan sat (t cos3 en cos9), va co the c at ten la chng
trnh ao tao

cos3 Cac mon hoc trong chng trnh c to chc mot cach co he thong
cos4 Khoa hoc co s linh hoat, mem deo hp ly e ap ng c nhu cau cua toi
cos5 Toi co u cac la chon ve cac mon hoc ma toi muon hoc
cos6 Cac mon hoc hien ai, nang cao trong chng trnh rat a dang
cos7 So lng cac mon hoc trong chng trnh rat phu hp
cos8 Cac mon hoc trong chng trnh at c o sau ve kien thc
cos9 Khoa sau ai hoc ap ng c cac yeu cau cua toi

d) Nhan to th t bao gom 6 bien quan sat cua thanh phan giang day tot, va ten cua no van la
giang day tot (Good Teaching Scale)

gts1 oi ngu giang vien (GV) cua khoa hoc ong vien, thuc ay toi thc hien tot nhat cong gts2 viec hoc tap
nghien cu cua mnh
gts2 oi ngu GV danh nhieu thi gian bnh luan, gop y ve viec hoc tap nghien cu cua toi
gts3 oi ngu giang vien a no lc e hieu c nhng kho khan ma toi co the gap phai trong qua trnh hoc tap,
nghien cu
gts4 oi ngu GV thng cho toi nhng thong tin hu ch ve viec toi nen lam g tiep tuc
gts5 Cac giang vien giai thch ieu g o eu rat ro rang, de hieu
gts6 oi ngu GV a lam viec tan tuy, nghiem tuc e lam cho cac chu e cua ho tr nen hng thu

e) Nhan to th nam bao gom cac bien quan sat cua Nguon lc hoc tap (Learning Resources
Scale)

Mc o ong y
Nguon tai lieu trong th vien ap ng c nhu cau cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Thiet b cong nghe thong tin phuc vu giang day &hoc tap hoat ong co hieu qua 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Nha trng lam ro nhng tai lieu nao a san co e ho tr viec hoc tap cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
Tai lieu hoc tap ro rang va suc tch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Cac tai lieu hoc tap cua khoa hoc thch hp, va c cap nhat 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

f) Nhan to th sau bao gom cac bien quan sat cua thanh phan Khoi lng cong viec hp ly
(Appropriate Workload Scale)

aws1 Tai lng hoc tap khong qua nang ne
aws2 Toi khong ch u thi gian e hieu nhng ieu toi buoc phai hoc, ma con co the danh aws3 thi gian e
nghien cu them cac tai lieu tham khao khac
aws4 Khong co qua nhieu ap lc trong hoc tap, nghien cu
aws5 Khoi lng cong viec trong khoa hoc hp ly e co the lnh hoi c kien thc

g) Nhan to th bay bao gom cac bien quan sat cua thanh phan Thuc ay tri thc khoa hoc
(Intellectual Motivation Scale) nh thang o CEQ ly thuyet. Ten cua no van la Thuc ay tri
thc khoa hoc

ims1 Toi nhan thay qua trnh hoc tap, nghien cu cua toi rat hng thu ve mat tri thc khoa hoc
ims2 Toi cam thay co ong c hoc tap tot khi tham d khoa hoc
ims3 Khoa hoc a khien toi hng thu hn trong lnh vc khoa hoc
ims4 Noi chung qua trnh hoc tap, nghien cu cua toi rat ang gia

h) Nhan to th tam bao gom hai bien quan sat va c at ten la phat trien ky nang ngoai ng
& tin hoc

gss7 Khoa hoc phat trien ky nang s dung ngoai ng cua toi
gss8 Khoa hoc phat trien ky nang tin hoc cua toi




Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
Hnh 13 Cac bien mi c t ong tao ra e lu lai nhan so


Trong hnh 13, sau khi thc hien cac thao tac a neu cua EFA th SPSS se lu t ong tam nhan
to a gom c t 51 bien trong file d lieu. Chung ta co the de dang thay ten cac ky hien
FAC1_1 thanh ten mot bien mi trong mo hnh khai niem, tng t nh vay chung ta cung thay
ten cac FAC1_2,3,4,5,6,7,8. Ten cac nhan to c trch rut c at ten trong hnh 14 ben di.
Sau o da vao ket qua nay th nha nghien cu se hieu chnh mo hnh nghien cu khai niem ban
au.

Mo hnh nghien cu hieu chnh sau EFA se la:
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
MC O HAI LONG = FUNCTION(PHAT TRIEN KIEN THC, CONG ONG HOC TAP,
CHNG TRNH AO TAO, GIANG DAY TOT, NGUON LC HOC TAP, KHOI LNG
CONG VIEC HP LY, THUC AY TRI THC KHOA HOC, PHAT TRIEN KY NANG TIN
HOC VA NGOAI NG).

Ve nguyen tac nghien cu, nha nghien cu se tien hanh (a) kiem nh moi quan he gia mc o
hai long vi cac nhan to va khang nh tam quan trong cua tng nhan to vi mc o hai long
e t o co nhng gi y chnh sach tac ong cu the va xap xep th t u tien trong viec ra quyet
nh ve chnh sach. Viec phan tch nay se c thc hien bang ky thuat hoi quy a bien.
Tay nh/en traac kh/ /am d/ea nay chang ta nen qa/ do/ /a/ thang do cho cac nhan to ma/
daac tr/ch rat bang cach t/nh trang bnh cong.
Gia s ban muon tnh nhan so bang phng phap trung bnh cong cua cac bien quan sat
thuoc nhan to. V du, ban biet rang nhan to th t -giang day tot - gom co 6 bien quan sat t
gts1 en gts6. Tnh nhan so cua nhan to nay va lu vao bien F4. Bien F4 co the s dung e ai
dien cho 6 bien quan sat gts1, gts2, gts3, gts4, gts5, gts6.
T thanh Menu cua SPSS, chon transform\compute variable sau o khai bao nh Hnh 14

Hnh 13.a. Tnh nhan so cua nhan to th t - giang day tot
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong


Hnh 13.b. Nhan so cua nhan to bon c tnh bang cach trung bnh cong


Tng t, ban se tnh nhan so cua nhan to 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 va lu vao cac bien tng ng F1, F2,
F3, F5, F6, F7, F8. Ket qua EFA trong phan cau hoi thc hanh cho thay cho oss1, oss2, oss4 c
nhom thanh 1 nhan to. Gia s rang ban lu nhan so cua nhan to s hai long trong bien OS
Hnh 16. Nhan so tnh bang phng phap trung bnh
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong



4.3 Phan tch hoi quy sau EFA
T ket qua cua EFA, ban co the tiep tuc thc hien nhieu phan tch khac. V du nh
Cronbachs Alpha, T-test, ANOVA, Hoi quy, o lng a hng, phan cum
8 bien F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8 co the ai dien c cho rat nhieu bien quan sat e
o lng chat lng khoa hoc thac s. Sau khi thc hien phan tch nhan to, ban co the s dung
cac bien F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, OS e thc hien cac phan tch khac.
Hnh 14.
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong


Nghien cu cua Ostergaard va Kristensen (2005) cho thay mc o hai long chung cua
sinh vien chu anh hng bi nhieu yeu to, trong o co chat lng phan cng, va chat lng
phan mem cua chng trnh hoc. Trong lnh vc giao duc ai hoc
4
, chat lng ao tao anh
hng en s hai long (Thurau, 2001). Kabanoff (2003) cung cho rang 5 nhan to cac ky nang
chung, giang day tot, muc tieu va tieu chuan ro rang, khoi lng cong viec hp ly, anh gia hp
ly anh hng ty le thuan en mc o hai long. Gia s bang phng phap hoi quy tuyen tnh boi,
ban muon xem xet trong cac yeu to t F1 en F8, yeu to nao thc s tac ong en OS mot cach
trc tiep. Ket qua hoi quy sau cung nh sau:

Hnh 15.
Model Summary
b
.856
a
.732 .727 .68894
Model
1
R R Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of
the Estimate
Predictors: (Constant), F7, F3, F2, F1 a.
Dependent Variable: OS b.



4
Bao gom ca bac ao tao ai hoc, thac s, tien s
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
ANOVA
b
267.611 4 66.903 140.954 .000
a
97.776 206 .475
365.387 210
Regression
Residual
Total
Model
1
Sum of
Squares df
Mean
Square F Sig.
Predictors: (Constant), F7, F3, F2, F1 a.
Dependent Variable: OS b.


Coefficients
a
-.313 .213 -1.469 .143
.211 .067 .188 3.148 .002 .214 .113 2.736
.177 .068 .151 2.616 .010 .179 .094 2.575
.437 .055 .436 7.882 .000 .481 .284 2.356
.189 .057 .193 3.293 .001 .224 .119 2.639
(Constant)
F1
F2
F3
F7
Model
1
B Std. Error
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Beta
Standardize
d
Coefficients
t Sig. Partial Part
Correlations
VIF
Collinearity
Statistics
Dependent Variable: OS a.


Trong ket qua hoi quy hnh 15 bang th ba cho chung ta thay rang, trong 8 nhan to tien hanh
kien nh th cac nhan to F1, F2, F3, va F7 la thc s co y ngha tac ong en mc o hai long
vi mc y ngha 10% (significant level). Vi thong tin nay th chung ta a thc s tien hanh kiem
nh 8 gia thuyet lien quan en tng nhan to e cap trong tnh huong. Ngoai ra can c vao he so
beta a chuan hoa (standardized coefficients) th th t u tien cua cac nhan to thc s tac ong
co y ngha en mc o hai long c xap xep t cao en thap nh sau: F3, F7, F1, va sau cung
laF2. Cac nhan to F4, F5, F6, va F8 tac ong len mc o hai long thc s khong co y ngha thong
ke nen a b loai ra khoi mo hnh hoi quy a bien.


Tai lieu tham khao
AUN_The Australian National University (2005), Graduate Destination Survey And Course
Experience Questionnaire 2004
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
SPSS Inc (2006), SPSS 15.0 Base Users Guide
Nguyen Khanh Duy, Nguyen Van S, Vu Th Phng Anh, Le Thanh Nhan (2007), Khao sat
s hai long cua hoc vien trng H Kinh te TPHCM ve chat lng ao tao thac s, e tai
NCKH, Trng H Kinh te TPHCM.
Hair, Anderson, Tatham, Black (1998), Multivariate Data Analysis, Prentical-Hall International,
Inc.
Harris K.L, James R. (2006) The Cource Experience Questionnaire, Graduate Destinations
Survey and Learning and Teaching Performance Fund in Australia higher education, The
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, san co tai www.unc.edu/ppaq/docs/CEQ-final.pdf
(20/09/2006)
Ostergaard Dean Peder, Kristensen Kai (2005), Drivers of student satisfaction and loyalty at
different levels of higher education (HE) cross-institutional results based on ECSI methodology,
The Aahus School of Business, Denmark, san co tai
http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/ddf/rec.external?id=hha9903 (01/03/2006)
Ramsden (1991), A performance indicator of teaching quality in higher education: the Course
Experience Questionnaire, Studies in Higher Education, 16, 129-50
Ramsden (1999), The CEQ-looking back and forward. In: The Course Experience Questionnaire
Symposium 1998, eds T Hand and K Treambath, DETYA, Canberra.
Roger Gabb (2004), The CEQ, SES, and SET questionnaires, Victoria University. San co tai:
http://ceds.vu.edu.au/set/pdf/CEQ%20SES%20and%20SET.pdf (28/04/2006)
Schumacker Randall E. & Lomax Richard G. (2006), A biginners guide to Structural Equation
Modeling, Lawrence Erlbaum associates, publisher, London
Nguyen nh Tho, Pham Xuan Lan, NguyenTh Bch Cham, Nguyen Th Mai Trang (2005),
ieu tra anh gia thc trang moi trng au t tnh Tien Giang va e xuat cac giai phap huy ong
nguon lc xa hoi au t phat trien, e tai NCKH, S Khoa hoc & cong nghe Tnh Tien Giang
Hoang Trong & Chu Nguyen Mong Ngoc (2005), Phan tch d lieu nghien cu vi SPSS, NXB
Thong Ke
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
Thurau T. H., Langer M., F. Hansen U. (2001), Modeling and Managing student loyalty an
approach based on the concept of relationship quality, Journal of Service Research, Vol 3, No.4,
May 2001



Phu luc 1: BAN PHONG VAN HOC VIEN CAO HOC
Theo nghien cu Nguyen Khanh Duy va cong s (2007)
Than gi quy anh/ch hoc vien,
Chung toi la nhng thanh vien nhom nghien cu ve chat lng ao tao thac s cua nha trng, rat mong anh/ch
danh t thi gian e ien vao ban phong van nay. Nhng thong tin ma anh/ch cung cap se giup ch cho nha trng
rat nhieu trong viec nang cao chat lng ao tao thac s.
Xin chan thanh cam n; va cho phep chung toi c gi en quy anh/ch li chuc sc khoe, thanh cong, va hanh
phuc!
I. CHAT LNG KHOA HOC THAC S
Anh/ch/ ra/ /ong danh g/a mac do mac do dong y caa anh/ ch/ do/ ra/ mo/ phat b/ea daa/ day. Qay aac
rang ai t toi trong cac cau hoi (cac phat bieu) la anh/ch, va iem cua cac thang o nh sau:
Thang o mc o ong y
1. Rat khong ong y
2. Khong ong y
3. Hi khong ong y
4. Phan van, khong biet co ong y hay khong (trung lap)
5. Hi ong y
6. ong y
7. Rat ong y (phat bieu hoan toan ung)

Giang day tot (Good Teaching Scale) Mc o ong y
oi ngu giang vien (GV) cua khoa hoc ong vien, thuc ay toi thc hien tot nhat cong
viec hoc tap nghien cu cua mnh
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
oi ngu GV danh nhieu thi gian bnh luan, gop y ve viec hoc tap nghien cu cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
oi ngu giang vien a no lc e hieu c nhng kho khan ma toi co the gap phai trong
qua trnh hoc tap, nghien cu
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
oi ngu GV thng cho toi nhng thong tin hu ch ve viec toi nen lam g tiep tuc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Cac giang vien giai thch ieu g o eu rat ro rang, de hieu 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
oi ngu GV a lam viec tan tuy, nghiem tuc e lam cho cac chu e cua ho tr nen hng
thu
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Phat trien nhng ky nang chung (Generic Skills Scale) Mc o ong y
Khoa hoc a phat trien ky nang giai quyet van e cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoa hoc a lam cho ky nang phan tch cua toi c sau sac hn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoa hoc a giup toi phat trien kha nang lam viec nhom 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Nh tham d khoa hoc, toi cam thay t tin trc nhng van e ang can tr, hay nhng
van e mi
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoa hoc cai thien ky nang viet trong khoa hoc cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoa hoc phat trien kha nang lap ke hoach cong viec cua ban than toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoa hoc phat trien ky nang s dung ngoai ng cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoa hoc phat trien ky nang tin hoc cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7





Chat lng tot nghiep (Graduate Qualities Scale) Mc o ong y
Trng khuyen khch toi say me, am me trong viec hoc sau hn na, vi bac hoc cao hn
na
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoa hoc cung cap cho lnh vc kien thc cua toi mot quan iem rong hn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Qua trnh hoc khuyen khch toi anh gia c nhng the manh, nhng kha nang cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Toi a hoc e ap dung nhng nguyen tac, kien thc c hoc vao nhng tnh huong mi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoa hoc giup toi t tin e kham pha nhng van e mi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Toi cho rang nhng g toi c hoc co gia tr cho tng lai cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong

Muc tieu &tieu chuan ro rang (Clear Goals and Standards Scale) Mc o ong y
Cac tieu chuan, yeu cau cua viec hoc tap/nghien cu c biet en mot cach de dang 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Toi thng biet ro nhng ky vong cua toi ve khoa hoc, va ieu ma toi can lam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Toi tch cc kham pha va thc hien nhng g ngi ta mong i toi trong khoa hoc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
oi ngu giang vien lam ro nhng g ho ky vong va yeu cau hoc vien t buoi hoc au
tien cua mon hoc
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoi lng cong viec hp ly (Appropriate Workload Scale) Mc o ong y
Tai lng hoc tap khong qua nang ne 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Toi khong ch u thi gian e hieu nhng ieu toi buoc phai hoc, ma con co the danh thi
gian e nghien cu them cac tai lieu tham khao khac
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khong co qua nhieu ap lc trong hoc tap, nghien cu 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoi lng cong viec trong khoa hoc hp ly e co the lnh hoi c kien thc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Nguon lc hoc tap (Learning Resources Scale) Mc o ong y
Nguon tai lieu trong th vien ap ng c nhu cau cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Thiet b cong nghe thong tin phuc vu giang day &hoc tap hoat ong co hieu qua 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Nha trng lam ro nhng tai lieu nao a san co e ho tr viec hoc tap cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Tai lieu hoc tap ro rang va suc tch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Cac tai lieu hoc tap cua khoa hoc thch hp, va c cap nhat 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Cong ong hoc tap (Learning Community Scale) Mc o ong y
Toi cam thay mot bo phan hoc vien, giang vien, nhan vien cam ket thc hien tot viec viec
hoc tap, nghien cu, giang day va phuc vu viec day - hoc
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Toi co the tm hieu nhng van e hng thu trong khoa hoc vi oi ngu giang vien, va cac
hoc vien trong trng
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Toi cam thay tin tng nhng ngi khac trong trng khi cung ho kham pha nhng y
tng
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Nhng y tng va nhng e ngh cua hoc vien c s dung trong qua trnh hoc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Toi cam thay mnh cung thuoc ve cong ong ai hoc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Thuc ay tri thc khoa hoc (Intellectual Motivation Scale) Mc o ong y
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
Toi nhan thay qua trnh hoc tap, nghien cu cua toi rat hng thu ve mat tri thc khoa hoc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Toi cam thay co ong c hoc tap tot khi tham d khoa hoc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoa hoc a khien toi hng thu hn trong lnh vc khoa hoc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Noi chung qua trnh hoc tap, nghien cu cua toi rat ang gia 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


To chc khoa hoc (Course Organisation Scale) Mc o ong y
Nhng hoat ong lien quan en viec to chc khoa hoc c thc hien tot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Toi nhan c nhng thong tin, li khuyen hu ch e len ke hoach hoc tap nghien cu cua
mnh
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Cac mon hoc trong chng trnh c to chc mot cach co he thong 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoa hoc co s linh hoat, mem deo hp ly e ap ng c nhu cau cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Toi co u cac la chon ve cac mon hoc ma toi muon hoc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Cac mon hoc hien ai, nang cao trong chng trnh rat a dang 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
So lng cac mon hoc trong chng trnh rat phu hp 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Cac mon hoc trong chng trnh at c o sau ve kien thc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoa sau ai hoc ap ng c cac yeu cau cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
II. MC O HAI LONG CHUNG
Anh/ch vui long anh gia mc o ong y cua mnh vi cac phat bieu sau.
Quy c: 1 la Rat khong ong y, , 7 la Rat ong y

Mc o hai long chung (Overall Satisfaction Scale) Mc o ong y
Noi chung, toi a cam thay hai long ve chat lng cua khoa hoc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Khoa hoc a ap ng c nhng c nhng hy vong cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hien nay, trng la ni hoan hao ve ao tao thac s theo suy ngh cua toi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

III. THONG TIN CA NHAN. Anh ch vui long cho biet cac thong tin ca nhan sau:
1.Gii tnh: Nam N
2.Tuoi: 26 27-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51
3.Mc thu nhap trung bnh mot thang (trieu ):
3,0 3,1- 5,0 5,1-7,0 7,1- 10,0 >10
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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Trich trong de tai Ngien cuu khoa hoc cap truong
4.C quan cong tac:
Cha i lam Doanh nghiep nha nc
Trng THCN, Cao ang, ai hoc Doanh nghiep ngoai quoc doanh trong nc
Vien nghien cu Doanh nghiep co von au t nc ngoai
C quan quan ly nha nc Khac (xin ghi ro):
5. V tr cong tac (neu anh/ch a i lam)
nhan vien Trng/pho phong hoac tng ng Giam oc/pho giam oc hoac tng ng
Khac (xin ghi ro) .
Nguyen Trong Hoai, Nguyen Khanh Duy

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