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ASIA PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APIIT Diploma Part II

INCOURSE ASSIGNMENT UBUNTU 10.10 MAVERICK MEERKAT


Prepared By A.N.Ahamed Nishadh (CB004081) S.D.Ilangakoon (CB004041) M. Harin D. Fernando (CB004134) Module Code & Title AICT004-3-2 Operating Systems Cohort DF10A1ICT Date of Submission 3rd January 2011 Instructor Mr.Kolitha Gunarathne

Submitted in partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Science (Hons) in Computing

Word Count [3940 words]

WORKLOAD MATRIX

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PROJECT GNATT CHART

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Firstly we would like to thank our lecturer Mr.Kolitha Gunarathne for all the help and guidance given to us while doing this assignment. Especially for teaching us this module in such a way that we were able to learn this highly technical module very easily. Also there are many individuals who have helped us in numerous ways directly and indirectly so that we were able to complete this assignment. APIIT Lanka for providing us with resources and the Tech Team at APIIT Lanka for their assistance at required times. And last but not least our friends, parents and the well-wishers without whose moral support and encouragement, we would not have been able to do a good job. Finally, if there are any shortcomings in this project, then we request to excuse us for all those and accept this documentation. Ahamed Nishadh Deshan Ilangakoon Harin Fernando

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION ...............................................................1 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO UBUNTU 10.10 MAVERICK MEERKAT ........... 1 1.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS .................................................................. 2 1.3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS .................................................................... 3 1.3.1 KERNAL .................................................................................................. 3 1.3.2 SHELL ...................................................................................................... 4 1.3.3 BOOTLOADER ....................................................................................... 5 2.0 INSTALLATION .................................................................................................6 3.0 ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................14 3.1 USER INTERFACE ...................................................................................... 14 3.2 PROCESS CONTROL MANAGEMENT .................................................... 15 3.2.1 - PROCESS CONTROL DIAGRAM ........................................................ 16 3.3 DEADLOCK MANAGEMENT ................................................................... 16 3.4 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ....................................................................... 18 3.5 VIRTUAL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ..................................................... 19 3.6 SECONDARY DISK SCHEDULING MANAGEMENT ............................ 20 3.7 SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT ....................................... 21 3.7.1 USER CONTROL .................................................................................. 21 3.7.2 OTHER ADMINISTRATOR SETTINGS ............................................. 23 3.8 RECOVERY STRATEGIES ......................................................................... 24

3.8.1 RECOVERING FROM DEVICES AND MEDIA ................................. 24 3.8.2 BACKUP AND RESTORE .................................................................... 24 3.9 SECURITY STRATEGIES ........................................................................... 25 3.10 STANDARD SUPPORT ............................................................................. 27 LIMITATIONS AND EXTENSIONS ........................................................................31 LIMITATIONS ...................................................................................................... 31 EXTIONSIONS ...................................................................................................... 31 BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................32 TABLE OF FIGURES ................................................................................................34 APPENDIX .................................................................................................................36 1.0 MEETING MINUTES .................................................................................. 36 1.1 1st MEETING ............................................................................................. 36 1.2 2nd MEETING ............................................................................................ 38 1.3 3rd MEETING ............................................................................................ 40 1.4 4th MEETING ........................................................................................... 41 1.5 5th MEETING ............................................................................................ 43 1.6 6th MEETING ............................................................................................ 45

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1.0 RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION


In this section we have written the findings on the research we have done on the Operating System we chose, which is Ubuntu 10.10 and the Hardware and Software Requirements of the Operating System that is required before the Operating System can be installed for usage by any user.

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO UBUNTU 10.10 MAVERICK MEERKAT


Linus Torvalds and friends developed a free and open-source operating system in August 25, 1991. Linux is a freely available multitasking and multi-user operating system. The system can be distributed, used and expanded free of charge. In this way, developers have access to all the source codes, thus being able to integrate new functions easily or to find and eliminate programming bugs quickly. Thereby drivers for new adapters (SCSI controller, graphics cards, etc.) can be integrated very rapidly. Presently, Linux is successfully being used by several millions of users worldwide. The composition of user groups varies from private users, training companies, universities, research centers right through to commercial users and companies, who view Linux as a real alternative to other operating systems. (Linux Online Inc., 2007) In the year 2004, Mark Shuttleworth and a few other developers got-together and developed an easy to use Linux desktop Operating System named Ubuntu and released it to the world on the 20th of October 2004. Ubuntu comes from an African word which means humanity to others. This follows the ideas that it should be free, usable by anyone in their native language, regardless of disabilities, and that people should be able to freely customize and alter the software.

The first version of Ubuntu was the Ubuntu 4.10 - Warty Warthog. Since the release of the first version of Ubuntu, the user base has been increasing with every new release and also with different variants being released such as the KUbuntu which uses the KDE shell rather than the GNOME shell, EDUUbuntu which is customized for schools, XUbuntu which again has a different shell intended to run on low-end computers and a few others. Ubuntu releases 2 versions every year since the year they started. And every two years Ubuntu releases a version with a tagline LTS. This means Long Term Support. That is, this specific version will be supported for a long time. By default, all normal versions are supported only till the next two versions are released after which support for that version will be stopped unless they are tagged LTS. Ubuntu 10.10 codenamed Maverick Meerkat was released on the 10th of October 2010. This is a major upgrade from other version with some major updates to the system. (www.ubuntu.com, 2010)

Figure 1 - Ubuntu Logo (Canonical Ltd, 2010)

1.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS


Given below are the minimum hardware requirements that a computer about to have Ubuntu installed in it should have. Without these specifications it is not recommended to install Ubuntu as maximum performance may not be achieved.

Processor Disk Space: RAM CD-ROM drive VGA Graphics interface Monitor resolution Motherboard

700MHz x86 or better 4GB available disk space 256MB Yes Yes 800 x 600 32 bit or 64 bit Figure 2 - Hardware Requirements

The Ubuntu operating system has some requirements like it will not work on older Intel compilers and thus will require a newer version to be available on the computer that you wish to install Ubuntu on. The Ubuntu operating system will accommodate both 32-bit and 64-bit processors but it is recommended that you use a 64-bit processor as this will help to increase the performance of the system. They are ADM, Intel and VIA processors. However the following 64 bit processors are not supported by Ubuntu, these being Itanium, S/390, PowerPC, SPARC, MIPS, and etc. processors. (www.ubuntu.com, 2010)

1.3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 1.3.1 KERNAL


A kernel is the central portion of a Unix-based operating system, responsible for running applications, processes, and providing security for the core components as well as the hardware. The kernel also manages the system resources in an effective manner. The kernel also is the software that provides services for the shell of the Operating System to function. (H.M.Deitel, 1990, p.575) Linux based Operating Systems uses the Monolithic kernel which is the primary kernel used in many Linux based operating systems. The monolithic kernel is where all the device drivers and services of the computer runs as part of the kernel rather

than as external kernel modules as in some other kernels which makes the operating system relatively faster than the others. (www.osdev.org, 2008) Ubuntu 10.10 uses the 2.6.35-22.33 version Kernel which is a modified version of the Linux Kernel version 2.6.35.4. The modifications to the original Kernel have been done in order to improve support for the certain newer systems not supported in the Kernel or for better support. (Barcet, 2010)

1.3.2 SHELL
The shell is the software the Operating System uses to communicate between users and the system itself. The user communicates to the system via the Command Line Interface and the shell interprets the commands and does the necessary execution requested for. The shell is also an application program like any other and requires the Kernel to run but is not part of the Kernel. (H.M.Deitel, 1990, p.573) It should be noted in here that newer developments in computing have made it possible for a Graphical User Interface possible which is also another kind of Shell. Ubuntu uses the Graphical User Interface type of Shell and uses the GNU Network Object Model Environment (GNOME) as its primary interface. Ubuntu 10.10 uses the GNOME Version 2.32 which is the latest version of the GONME Interface. (Barcet, 2010) Some of the application and utility softwares that come preinstalled with Ubuntu are also developed using the GONME Application Framework. The GNOM Environment provides facilities such as task and process launching and management, file handling as well as user management. (GNOME Project, 2010)

1.3.3 BOOTLOADER
The bootloader is the initial software that is loaded into the memory which in turn then loads the Operating System. This software is a vital piece of software that is available in all operating systems. When there are more than one operating system installed in the computer, the bootloader will prompt the user to select the operating system to be loaded. Ubuntu 10.10 uses the Grand Unified Bootloader also known as GRUB as its bootloader. (The Ubuntu Manual Team, 2010, p.135)

Figure 3 - GRUB Bootloader Screenshot (SF007, n.d.)

2.0 INSTALLATION
To install Ubuntu, the user has to first boot the computer through the Ubuntu Live/Installation CD ROM. When the CD ROM boot up is complete, the user will be shown the screen as shown in Figure 4. In this section, the user can select the language in which they require the Operating System to run and then press the Install Ubuntu button.

Figure 4 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 1 After the user presses the Install Ubuntu button, the screen shown in Figure 5 will be shown to the user. In this screen the user will be shown the optional requirements for the installer to work such as a connection to the internet etc. Also the user can select optional options like download latest updates of the Operating System while installing the OS and installing developer recommended Third Party Applications to the OS while the OS is being installed. After this, the user has to press the Forward button to go to the next step.
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Figure 5 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 2 In the next step, the installer will ask the user about the storage devices as shown in Figure 6. At this point, the user can either erase and use the entire disk by selecting the first option or use the partition manager and partition the disk according to the need and then install Ubuntu on it. The first option is usually recommended for normal users while the second option is recommended for advanced users only.

Figure 6 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 3 In the next step, the partition manager is shown to the user as shown in Figure 7. This step is where the user can manage their storage devices. In the next step the user will be shown the screen shown in Figure 8. This is another section of the Partition Manager.

Figure 7 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 4

Figure 8 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 5

After the Install Now button has been pressed, the required system files start getting copied to the storage disk. The progress of the files being copied is shown in the bottom of the screen as pictured in Figure 9 below. Also to reduce the time spent on doing settings after the installation, Ubuntu makes the users set the settings while the installation is being done. As shown in Figure 9 below, first it will ask for the country that the user lives in. Ubuntu installer will use the internet to automatically detect the country the user lives in. If the auto detected country is wrong, the user can select it manually by clicking on the map or by choosing it from the list below it.

Figure 9 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 6 In the next screen as shown in Figure 10, the user is prompted to enter the keyboard layout that they use. They can select it from the lists shown or type in the textbox below and automatically find out the layout.
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Figure 10 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 7 In the next screen, the user will be prompted to enter the username, password, the computer name and some other details as shown in Figure 11. These are to set up the primary user account of the Operating System. It should also be noted that after the files have finished coping, the system will wait for the user to finish enter the settings to complete installation.

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Figure 11 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 8 After all necessary settings have been entered and the system will next finalize the installation as shown in Figure 12. After all that is finished, the system will show the screen as shown in Figure 13 indicating that the installation is complete and requesting the user to reboot the system. This is the end of the installation process. After the reboot, the system will boot the Operating System and show the login screen to the user.

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Figure 12 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 9

Figure 13 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 10

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3.0 ANALYSIS
3.1 USER INTERFACE
User Interface is the place where the user interacts with the computer. There are 3 main types of user interfaces. They are Graphical User Interface (GUI), Command Line Interface (CLI) and Menu Driver Interface. Users can use the User Interface and give instructions to the computer which in turn are converted into machine language by the Operating System and then executed. (Gunarathne, 2010) In Ubuntu 10.10, the default user interface is a Graphical User Interface. A Command Line Interface is also available in Ubuntu which can be accessed by the user if required to perform any advanced work in the operating system.

Figure 14 - Ubuntu Desktop

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Figure 15 - Ubuntu Terminal / Command Line Interface

3.2 PROCESS CONTROL MANAGEMENT


A process is a unit of work with unique process identification. It requires resources like memory, CPU time and files to complete its task, resources are allocated when a process is created or while in execution. In the Linux Operating System there are processes that include in it. They are:o Program counter o Stack o Data section Process control Block Threads o Ready State o Standby State o Running State o Waiting State o Transition State o Termination state

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3.2.1 - PROCESS CONTROL DIAGRAM


Each process is represented in the operating system as a Process Control Block. In every operating system the process control management is almost the same. As processes enter the system, they are put on the job queue. A new process is put on the ready queue. The process waits until it is selected for execution or dispatched and given CPU resources. Once CPU is allocated the process then runs.

Figure 16 - PROCESS CONTROL DIAGRAM (Gunarathne, 2010)

3.3 DEADLOCK MANAGEMENT


When one or more processes are trying to access the same resource both the processes might get blocked. This situation is called a Deadlock. A deadlock occurs when all four necessary conditions are held. Four ways in which deadlocks take place are: Mutual Exclusion Hold and Wait No Preemption Circular wait

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When carrying out a process it should take place in sequential manner as the manner stated below: Obtain resource/Request for resource Utilize resource Release resource

Deadlock Prevention is the steps we follow in order to avoid deadlocks. There are three methods in which deadlocks can be handled. They are: Use a protocol to avoid all deadlocks and to prevent the occurrence of deadlocks in the future. Allow system to go through a deadlock position, perceive it, and pull through from it. Ignore the problem.

Deadlock detection is the process where the Operating System detects a deadlock situation and tries to recover from it. There are two methods which Operating Systems use to recover from deadlocks. Either the user recovers from the deadlock manually or the system recovers itself from the deadlock automatically. When recovering from the deadlock automatically there are 2 options which are: Process extinction o Terminate all the deadlock processes. o Terminate one process at a time. Resource preemption o Victim selection o Rollback o Starvation

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Ubuntu 10.10 is well equipped with deadlock detection methods & avoids causing deadlocks as we mentioned above.

3.4 MEMORY MANAGEMENT


Memory management of a computer deals mainly with the allocation of space to processors in the Random Access Memory (RAM) of the computer. This memory management process is an extremely vital part of the computer because the effective management of the memory of the computer is what helps the computer work at great speeds and effectively execute multiple tasks without the problem of a system overload and failure. The memory is divided into two main components; this is the physical memory and the logical memory. The physical memory is the memory available in the RAM and is divided into multiple memory blocks with a physical address that are used to load processes. The Logical memory is where the Operating system of the computer has to assign more than one physical memory blocks from the RAM for a particular process. In this situation the process will have more than one physical address and this will cause problems in situations where paging is done. Therefore the operating system gives the process a logical memory block which is a combination of the physical memory blocks of the system and this logical memory block contain a logical address that will assigned to this logical memory block. (Gunarathne, 2010) Ubuntu along with all other Linux systems use a feature called Cached Memory when it comes to handling the memory in the RAM. It uses a tool called top which at any given time attempts to keep the free memory in the system to a minimum. This is because if RAM is not used it has a tendency to get wasted. The way that this happens is the top tool takes up the space by filling it with what is known as cached space. This cached memory though appears to be occupied is actually free and available for the system to load any new programs that come up.

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Another reason Linux uses this method is because it faster to access information from the cached space than from the hard disk itself. (sapphirecat, 2004)

3.5 VIRTUAL MEMORY MANAGEMENT


Virtual memory is a segment of the hard disk that has been partitioned off so that the large processors which require more memory than that is available in the RAM (Random Access Memory) have to be run. The method employed is a basic tactic where a segment of the secondary storage, usually a drive, is allocated for this large process to load and a small segment on the RAM is given where the files load on to at run time for each particular task. This way in which this operates is when a large process needs to be executed the system will have a problem where the memory available on the RAM is insufficient. In this case what the system does is it allocates a segment of the secondary storage device for this process to load its files. After which the pages that are required to by the process to run will be loaded when needed using a technique known as Paging or Swapping. This is where a page is loaded on to the RAM when the process requires it and then after the process is done with that particular page the process will remove the page from the memory and load a new page. This method of creating a virtual memory is extremely valuable as this method allows for large processors to be loaded in to the system without having the problem of the memory being overloaded. The most preferred method of transferring pages is the Swapping technique. The reason being is that this method allows for more than one file to be loaded at a time and thus making a far more effective system that will operate at greater speeds. (Gunarathne, 2010) Ubuntu OS uses a feature called Swap Space for managing the memory. This is a space on the hard disk which is a part of the Virtual Memory. This space is used by the system to store file that are currently inactive and create space for new files to be loaded. The Swap Space temporally stores the file until either the file is needed again or the process is terminated. This method allows for faster speed on the system.

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However the process will not directly use files stored in the Swap Space as this would cause the system to operate slower. (Ubuntu Documentation, 2010) Another method used to manage the virtual memory is a technique known as Demand Paging. The way in which demand paging works is as follow. When the system is required to run a process that is too big to be loaded to the physical memory completely, then the system loads only the file immediately required. The remaining files get transferred to the virtual memory. Here after when the process requires a page to work with it is loaded from the virtual memory. This process is known as demand paging. The way in which the Linux operating system handles demand paging works is similar in most Linux operating systems. When a process starts to execute the operating system will load the files into the virtual memory. Then the when a command to execute is give the file containing it is opened and the content mapped to the virtual memory. The way this is carried out is by changing the data structure that describes the processes memory map. This is known as memory mapping. However the entire file is not brought up, only the first part is brought up. This will create a page fault and then the operating system will search the memory map to determined which remaining part of the file to bring up to be executed. (Rusling, 1999)

3.6 SECONDARY DISK SCHEDULING MANAGEMENT


The secondary data storage disk is the hard drives that are installed in your computer. This is where data that you want store for a prolonged period of time is stored. This is a vital component of any computer and the effective management of it is essential if the user is to achieve the maximum out of the computer. (Florentyna, n.d.) The Secondary Disk Manager is the feature that allows the user to either partition the drives as he wishes or it will partition using a default method. The disk manager show to the user the partitions that have been created and are available for each and every storage disk, the file systems that the system uses, the path to access the files in the partitions, the size of the free space and the accessibility of the files.
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Figure 17 - Disk Utility

3.7 SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT 3.7.1 USER CONTROL


The administrator can control other user accounts in Ubuntu by going to the Users Settings panel. In this panel, the Administrator can add, delete, and modify user accounts, assign and remove privileges of users etc.

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Figure 18 - User Settings Panel

Figure 19 - Advanced User Settings Panel

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3.7.2 OTHER ADMINISTRATOR SETTINGS


Apart from Users Settings, there are other control panels that are available for administrators for controlling the Operating System. Most of these control panels can be accessed by going to the Administration menu under the System menu as shown in Figure 20 below.

Figure 20 - Administration Options

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3.8 RECOVERY STRATEGIES


Ubuntu has many recovery strategies that are in place so as to protect the data of the users and also to recover the lost data if anything happens to them.

3.8.1 RECOVERING FROM DEVICES AND MEDIA


There are three utilities that Ubuntu recommends users to use to recover lost data. The three utilities that Ubuntu recommends are GNU Parted Testdisk and Gpart

All three of these programs can be used to recover lost data from devices by recreating the partition table and then recovering the data in it but use different algorithms to work. All three of these utilities use the Command Line Interface as it is a very safe and easy procedure to use. Also it is recommended that advanced users use these utilities as they involve complex procedures that if done wrong will mess up the system. (Stock, 2010) More on data recovery and how to do it can be found at the official Ubuntu Help site at https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DataRecovery

3.8.2 BACKUP AND RESTORE


By default, Ubuntu has two tools built in the Operating System for backing up the system and to restore it. They are rsync dump/restore

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Both these tools are Command Line Interface based tools. Once again it is recommended that only advanced users handle the Command Line Interface. But since backing up is such an important procedure, Graphical Interfaces for the above tools have also been developed by developers which can be freely downloaded and used by normal users even but these interfaces do not provide advanced technical techniques like they are available in the Command Line tool. (Buser, 2010) More on how to perform backup and restore options with other additional tools can be found at the official Ubuntu Help site at

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BackupYourSystem

3.9 SECURITY STRATEGIES


Ubuntu has various security strategies inbuilt into the Operating System. One feature is the password protection of user accounts. User accounts can be protected using passwords so that other users cannot access the account. Users are prompted to enter the proper username and password to login to the system when they start the operating system. This is done so that no unauthorized person can access the account.

Figure 21 - Login Screen

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When a critical system component is to be changed or when software is to be an installed or uninstalled, an administrator user have to provide authorization else the system will not allow the action to be performed. This is done so that no unauthorized changes are done to the system.

Figure 22 - Authorization Box

It is usually said that Linux Operating Systems are completely immune from viruses. But the truth is that it is actually difficult to infect Linux Operating Systems with viruses but it still can be done. (Pot, 2010) For this reason Linux Operating Systems usually dont come pre-equipped with antivirus softwares or even firewall systems. If any users require these softwares, they are available for installation from the Ubuntu Software Center. Apart from this, Ubuntu periodically releases security updates for the Operating System which can be downloaded from the Update Manager in Ubuntu. These security updates make sure that the system is up to date and secure against any known threats.

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Figure 23 - Update Manager

3.10 STANDARD SUPPORT


Ubuntu is an Operating System that has one of the largest amounts of support compared to various other Operating Systems. There are various places that users using Ubuntu OS can gain support from and below given are some of them. In newer versions of Ubuntu, a built in Help and Support section is available in the Operating System where users can look up if they need any help. Basic topics such as adding applications, file and folder organization, customization etc. are available

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in this support. This support feature can be accessed by going to System > Help and Support. Ubuntu has a wide range of online support options. From their support website to chat rooms, help lines, user forums, training materials and online documentations that users can use to get help from. The main website where Ubuntu provides official support is located at http://help.ubuntu.com. This website provides support for versions of Ubuntu that support is available for. Ubuntu usually provides support for the current version, the previous normal version as well as for any Long Term Support enabled versions which are still in the support timeline.

Figure 24 - Ubuntu Help Center

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Figure 25 - Ubuntu Online Documentation Site The main user forum where Ubuntu users can get help from is located at https://answers.launchpad.net/ubuntu and at http://ubuntuforums.org/. In here, users can register themselves and ask questions from other users. Technical experts from the Ubuntu development team also answer queries from time to time. This is the official user forum for Ubuntu users. Moreover there are lots more public forums available on the internet where users can get help from which are not officially supported by Ubuntu. Ubuntu also provides training for corporate users. This is another type of support that they provide for those users who are willing to shift from one Operating System to another. Training can be gained in a customized manner depending on the requirement of the user. To get training, users have to contact Ubuntu support team in person and request for it. Another type of community based support that Ubuntu gives users is the localized support. Currently Ubuntu provides support in 28 different localized languages from Bengali language to Urudu. In addition more localized support is given through local user communities in countries. These localized communities are called LoCos by Ubuntu and are officially endorsed by the Ubuntu developers.

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More support is available for users through Internet Relay Chat (IRC) where professionals provide support to users. Mailing lists are also available where users can subscribe and get updates on new developments and fixes etc.

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LIMITATIONS AND EXTENSIONS


There are certain limitations and certain extensions to this report. They are listed below.

LIMITATIONS
As Ubuntu 10.10 was released only around 2 months before this report was made, information specific for this particular version is not available at all times. In instances like these, we have written generally on that topic and tried our best to relate them with the information available with the closes available version. Due to the restriction on the WORD LIMIT we have not been able to extensively write on certain topics and in all possible situations like this, we have written whatever possible within the restriction. Although Ubuntu is an Open Source operating system, there are still certain information that the developers do not share publicly.

EXTIONSIONS
There are two more ways in which the Operating System can be installed which is as a software inside Microsoft Windows Operating System and on a dual boot basis. We have not explained extensively on these two options due to the word limit restriction as well as since many do not use these options. More information on certain sections such as Deadlocks, Memory Management, User Interface, System Administration and Recovery Strategies can be written if word limit is increased. A comparison on different Operating Systems can be included into the report.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Barcet, N., 2010. MaverickMeerkat ReleaseNotes. [Online] Available at: https://wiki.ubuntu.com/MaverickMeerkat/ReleaseNotes [Accessed 27 November 2010]. Buser, M., 2010. BackupYourSystem. [Online] Available at: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BackupYourSystem [Accessed 12 December 2010]. Canonical Ltd, 2010. Ubuntu Logo. [Online] Available at: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9d/Ubuntu_logo.svg/500p x-Ubuntu_logo.svg.png [Accessed 12 December 2010]. Florentyna, K., n.d. Types of Data Storage: Primary and Secondary Storage. [Online] Available at: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/types-of-data-storage-primaryand-secondary-storage.html [Accessed 12 December 2010]. GNOME Project, 2010. What is GNOME? [Online] Available at: http://www.gnome.org/about/ [Accessed 27 November 2010]. Gunarathne, K., 2010. Operating Systems. AICT004-3-2, Memory Management. Presentation. Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology. Gunarathne, K., 2010. Operating Systems. AICT004-3-1, Process Control Management. Presentation. Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology. Gunarathne, K., 2010. Operating Systems. AICT004-3-1, User Interface. Presentation. Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology. H.M.Deitel, 1990. An Introduction to Operating Systems - Second Edition. U.S.A: Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co. Pot, J., 2010. The 4 Best Free Linux Anti-Virus Programs. [Online] Available at: http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/free-linux-antivirus-programs/ [Accessed 22 December 2010]. Rusling, D.A., 1999. Chapter 3 - Memory Management. [Online] Available at: http://tldp.org/LDP/tlk/mm/memory.html [Accessed 10 December 2010].

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sapphirecat, 2004. Linux Memory Management or 'Why is there no free RAM?'. [Online] Available at: http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-175419-postdays-0postorder-asc-start-0.html?sid=619cda6e4dae2a0651c474f9f5e4dfcf [Accessed 12 December 2010]. SF007, n.d. GRUB screenshot. [Online] Available at: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/GRUB_screenshot.png [Accessed 12 December 2010]. Stock, B., 2010. DataRecovery. [Online] Available at: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DataRecovery [Accessed 12 December 2010]. The Ubuntu Manual Team, 2010. Getting Started with Ubuntu 10.04. Second Edition ed. USA: The Ubuntu Manual Team. Ubuntu Documentation, 2010. SwapFaq. [Online] Available at: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SwapFaq [Accessed 10 December 2010]. www.osdev.org, 2008. Monolithic Kernel - OSDev Wiki. [Online] Available at: http://wiki.osdev.org/Monolithic_Kernel [Accessed 27 November 2010]. www.ubuntu.com, 2010. About Ubuntu The Ubuntu story. [Online] Available at: http://www.ubuntu.com/project/about-ubuntu [Accessed 15 December 2010].

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TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1 - Ubuntu Logo (Canonical Ltd, 2010) ......................................................... 2 Figure 2 - Hardware Requirements ............................................................................. 3 Figure 3 - GRUB Bootloader Screenshot (SF007, n.d.).............................................. 5 Figure 4 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 1................................................................ 6 Figure 5 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 2................................................................ 7 Figure 6 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 3................................................................ 8 Figure 7 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 4................................................................ 9 Figure 8 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 5................................................................ 9 Figure 9 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 6.............................................................. 10 Figure 10 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 7............................................................ 11 Figure 11 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 8............................................................ 12 Figure 12 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 9............................................................ 13 Figure 13 - Ubuntu Installation Screenshot 10.......................................................... 13 Figure 14 - Ubuntu Desktop ...................................................................................... 14 Figure 15 - Ubuntu Terminal / Command Line Interface ......................................... 15 Figure 16 - PROCESS CONTROL DIAGRAM (Gunarathne, 2010) ...................... 16 Figure 17 - Disk Utility ............................................................................................. 21 Figure 18 - User Settings Panel ................................................................................. 22 Figure 19 - Advanced User Settings Panel................................................................ 22 Figure 20 - Administration Options .......................................................................... 23 Figure 21 - Login Screen ........................................................................................... 25 Figure 22 - Authorization Box .................................................................................. 26

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Figure 23 - Update Manager ..................................................................................... 27 Figure 24 - Ubuntu Help Center................................................................................ 28 Figure 25 - Ubuntu Online Documentation Site ....................................................... 29

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APPENDIX
1.0 MEETING MINUTES 1.1 1st MEETING
Project Planning Date: Time: Venue: 5th of November 2010 03.30 pm APIIT Canteen Ashan Wijewardane Deshan Ilangakoon Ahamed Nishadh Harin Fernando Minutes: The first meeting for the Operating System project was conducted to plan the outline of the project and also to make plans on how the group would handle the project and how best to allocate the tasks. Ashan Wijewardane started by making sure that everyone present had no objection about the Operating System that the group had selected. This would be the Windows 7 Operating System. Deshan Ilangakoon suggested that for the initial documentation process the work should be divided into topics and then be divided among the members equally. The group agreed on this as the best way to go about the project. After this Ahamed Nishadh suggested that special attention be made to algorithms involved in the running of Windows 7. It was decided afterwards that this would be the first area of the project that we would give our attention towards.

Members present:

36

Finally Ahamed said that he would go and talk to sir to get more specifications about what should be in the project. After this as there was nothing further to discuss the meeting was adjourned.

. Group Leader

. Lecturer

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1.2 2nd MEETING


Project Planning Date: Time: Venue: 29th of November 2010 03.30 pm APIIT Canteen Ahamed Nishadh Deshan Ilangakoon Harin Fernando Minutes: The main matter that was in the agenda for the second meeting was the allocation of the tasks for each of the team members. It was decided that the first stage of the project would be divided among the three members. This section was the Research and Investigation section of the assignment. This section as specified was broken down into three segments as given in the guide lines, these being the Introduction, System Software Requirements and the System Hardware Requirements. The Introduction section was handed over to Harin Fernando, the System Hardware requirements section was allocated to Deshan Ilangakoon and finally the Software Requirements section was taken up by Ahamed Nishadh. It should also be noted that the Operating System chosen in the previous meeting which was Microsoft Windows 7 will be changed to Ubuntu 10.10 after advice given from the lecturer. This decision was unanimously taken by all the group members. After this it was also brought to the notice of the group that Ashan Wijewardane had left the group since he had decided to leave APIIT and thus the work would from now onwards have to be handled between the three remaining members.

Members present:

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After this as there was nothing left to be discussed the meeting was adjourned until the next meeting with the advice from Ahamed Nishadh that none of the guys should fall back on the section that was assigned to them.

. Group Leader

. Lecturer

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1.3 3rd MEETING


Progress Review Date: Time: Venue: 7th December 2010 03.30 pm APIIT Canteen Ahamed Nishadh Deshan Ilangakoon Harin Fernando Minutes: The main reason for this meeting to be called was to check on the progress of the work that has so far been done. Here all the work done so far was presented and Ahamed Nishadh checked on the work to see if the work done was accurate and adequate so that after the work has been completed the sections that had been done so far could be review by Mr. Kolitha as well. Ahamed told all the members present that the work done so far was in his opinion satisfactory and no further change was needed and that he would be handing it over to Mr. Kolitha for him to go over and approve. The meeting was after this, adjourned until Mr. Kolitha was able to review the work done so far and give us his feedback.

Members present:

. Group Leader

. Lecturer

40

1.4 4th MEETING


Progress Review and Work Allocation Date: Time: Venue: 9th December 2010 02.30 pm APIIT Canteen Ahamed Nishadh Deshan Ilangakoon Harin Fernando Minutes: This meeting was held to make know the remarks that Mr. Kolitha had made regarding the work that we had shown him after the last meeting. Ahamed Nishadh told the group that Mr. Kolitha had been pleased with the overall result and only a few changes needed to be made. This was said regarding the section covered by Harin, the Introduction section. In this section Mr. Kolitha had requested that we remove several parts as it was unnecessary and emphasize on the key areas a bit more. After this Ahamed said that we should start on the next segment of the project, which is the Analysis segment of the project, and wanted the members to select a section that they would feel comfortable doing. Thereafter Harin selected to do the first three sections, namely the User Interface, Process Control Management and Deadlock Management. Deshan selected the next three which are Memory Management, Virtual Memory Management and Secondary Disk Scheduling Management. Ahamed selected the final four sections which are System Administration and Support, Recovery Strategies, Security Strategies and Standard Support.

Members present:

41

Once the sections had been selected Ahamed gave the deadline for the completion of these sections as the 27th of December 2010 and said that he wanted to see the work as it progressed and also to make sure that we always keep several up to date backups. After this the meeting was adjourned.

. Group Leader

. Lecturer

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1.5 5th MEETING


Progress Review Date: Time: Venue: 21st December 2010 02.30 pm Level One - Lab 4 Ahamed Nishadh Deshan Ilangakoon Harin Fernando Minutes: This meeting was called with the main purpose of checking on the progress of the work that had been carried out so far. The work being, sections that had been allocated for each of the group members to do at the previous meeting. The meeting started off with Deshan showing documents of the work done so far. It was noted that he had completed the majority of the work. He however complained that there was very little or no information on the topic Secondary Disk Scheduling Management and wanted to know if the others could help him out here. It was agreed that if the other during their research came upon any relevant information about related to the topic it would be passed on to Deshan. Afterwards Harin said that he also had completed most of the work and was struggling with Deadlock Management section. The other again offered to help him out if they came upon any relevant information. Finally Ahamed said that he had completed two out of his four topics and that he would finish his sections soon.

Members present:

43

Finally it was agreed to meet up again after all members had completed their allocated sections to compile their work. It was decided to meet up Ahameds place as this would be the most convenient location and also since APIIT would be closed during the Christmas Vacations. After this the meeting was adjourned.

. Group Leader

. Lecturer

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1.6 6th MEETING


Work Compilation Meeting Date: Time: Venue: 29th December 2010 10.00 am Ahamed Nishadhs house Ahamed Nishadh Deshan Ilangakoon Harin Fernando Minutes: Todays meeting was held with the purpose of compiling all the documentation work that had been done so far. All three of the members brought along their work and Ahamed started to add the work done into a pre-made document which had been preset with the standard format. Also a demonstration on the installation process of Ubuntu was done by Ahamed and the screenshots were taken for the use in the project at this meeting. After this Ahamed congratulated on a job well done so far and said that he would be mailing a copy of the final project to all the members once it was completed. Afterwards the meeting was adjourned.

Members present:

. Group Leader

. Lecturer

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