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Dominik M. Brunner

Term Paper

18.12.2008

Dominik M. Brunner

Abstract

In this thesis a passive shunt damping simulation of a at plate with Comsol Multiphysics is presented. The geometry of the propfan blade was simplied to a at plate in order to reduce the complexity of the model at this early stage of the project. A couple of static analyses were conducted and a comparison with the analytical results performed so as to validate the Comsol simulations. In this model the piezoceramic was integrated to investigate the inuence of the boundary conditions on the static deformation. A modal analysis was carried out with Comsol and compared to the analytical solution. Then the models for the modeling of an open and a closed circuit piezoelectric system were set up and the eigenfrequencies determined. Using those results the analytical solution for the investigated resistive shunt and the resonant RL shunt were obtained. In a further Comsol model the piezoelectric element was coupled with a passive damping shunt by using the 'SPICE circuit editor' and the optimal shunt damping parameters were identied. Apart from small deviations a good correlation with the analytical solution was noted. Furthermore a model for the uid-structure model in Comsol is presented but was not possible to complete within the given time frame.

iv

Dominik M. Brunner

Zusammenfassung

In dieser Semesterarbeit wird die Modellierung eines 'passive damping shunts' mit Comsol Multiphysics vorgestellt. In diesem frhen Stadium des Projektes wurde Einige

die komplexe Geometrie des Rotorblattes auf eine ebene Platte reduziert.

statischen Analysen wurden durchgefhrt und die Ergebnisse mit den analytischen Berechnungen verglichen, um die Simulationen von Comsol zu verizieren. In diesem Modell wurde das Piezoelement in die Struktur integriert, um den Einuss der Randbedingungen auf die statischen Verschiebungen zu bestimmen. In der Modalanalyse wurde wie bei der statischen Analyse ein einfaches Comsol Modell mit den analytischen Ergebnissen verglichen. Dann wurden die Modelle fr den oenen und geschlossenen piezoelektrischen Schaltkreis erstellt und die Eigenfrequenzen bestimmt. Mit diesen Resultaten wurden die analytischen Ergebnisse nach Hagood und von Flotow fr den untersuchten 'resistive shunt' und den 'resonant RL shunt' bestimmt. In einem weiteren Comsol Modell wurde das Piezoelement mit dem 'passive damping shunt' unter Verwendung des 'SPICE circuit editor' verbunden und die optimalen Dmpfungsparameter bestimmt. Abgesehen von einer kleinen Abweichung war eine gute bereinstimmung mit den analytischen Berechnungen festzustellen. Darber hinaus wurde ein Modell fr die Fluid-Struktur Interaktion erstellt, jedoch nicht fertiggestellt da dies den Rahmen dieser Arbeit sprengen wrde.

vi

Contents

Abstract Zusammenfassung 1 Introduction

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 DREAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMSOL Multiphysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fundamentals of piezoelectricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Passive shunt damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.5 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resistive shunt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iii v 1

1 2 3 5 5 6 7 9

Resonant RL shunt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Thesis outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1 2.2 2.3 Analytical calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEM calculations with Comsol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

10 10 12

3 Modal analysis

3.1 3.2 Analytical calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEM calculations with Comsol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Eigenfrequency analysis 3.2.1.1 3.2.1.2 Aluminum plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

14 15 15 15 15

GFRP plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii

Contents

3.2.1.3 3.2.1.4 3.2.2 Open circuit system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

viii

15 16 16 16 19 19 19 20

Resonant RL shunt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3

Frequency response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Fluid-structure interaction 5 General conclusion and outlook Bibliography Appendix A Piezoelectric Equations

A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 Charge-Strain Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field-Strain Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charge-Stress Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field-Stress Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23 25 27 28 28

28 28 28 29

B Material Properties

30

List of Figures

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 3 6 6 8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Resistive shunt

[7]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Resonant RL shunt

[7]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1 2.2

GFRP plate and piezoelectric element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Static deformation of GFRP fabric and PIC 255 . . . . . . . . . . . .

11 13

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16 17 18 22

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Frequency response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1

Fluid-structure interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

ix

List of Tables

2.1 Static deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

. . .

19 20 20 21 21

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 DREAM

vali Dation of

Radical Engine Architecture

The project

syste Ms

is about developing new engine technologies and concepts for aerospace application. The main goals of the program are to reduce fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, air pollution and to keep the noise levels within an acceptable range. The project focuses on engine technology integration and validation, conducted on component and system levels. It's emphasis lies in testing alternative fuels, passive and active control of aerodynamics and vibrations, contra-rotating open rotors with variable pitch, innovative engine structures with added functionality and other new turbo machinery. The participating Swiss consortium consists of the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), the Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), which are looking at three concepts of passive vibration damping. As shown in gure 1.1, this is part of SP3 Direct Drive Open Rotor Snecma

direct open rotor. The ETH Zurich-ST research contribution for DREAM is carried out by Florian Bachmann within his dissertation. It includes the simulation of the passive, shunted damping of propfan blades using piezoceramics and the experimental validation. Previous research on this topic was performed by B. Bratschi within his master's thesis at ETH Zurich. In his thesis he tried to solve the uid-structure 1

interaction with ANSYS. The coupled eld simulations with the propfan blade could not be conducted, since, due to a bug in the ANSYS licensing system. Thus it was decided to solve the problem with Comsol Multiphysics which is accomplished in this thesis. It was agreed to reduce the complexity of the propfan blade and to model a at plate in the beginning. The main goals of this term paper were to model a shunted damping system in Comsol and to integrate the piezoelectric element and the electric circuit in the uid-structure interaction.

1.2

COMSOL Multiphysics

Comsol Multiphysics is a nite element software package for a variety of engineering and physics applications. Apart from nite element calculation the implementation of coupled or multiphysic phenomena is possible in a simple manner. Comsol is based on the partial dierential equation (PDE) toolbox of MATLAB and an interface between the programs exists. Several application-specic modules are available for COMSOL Multiphysics:

AC/DC Module

1.3

Acoustics Module

Material Library

MEMS Module

RF Module

Fundamentals of piezoelectricity

Piezoelectricity is dened as a change in electric polarization with a change in applied mechanical stress (direct piezoelectric eect), or the change in strain of a free crystal when the applied electrical eld varies (inverse piezoelectric eect)

[2]

. The direct

eect can be used to convert mechanical into electrical energy, and vice versa for the indirect eect. respectively. These eects are displayed in gure 1.2(b), (c) and (d), (e)

The tension along the direction of the polarization or the compression perpendicular to the polarization generates a voltage with polarity opposite to that of the poling voltage. The direct eect is also used in sensing applications, where deformations of the material results in a change of voltage that can be detected. The

inverse eect is used in actuation applications, such as in motors and devices that precisely control positioning, and in generating sonic and ultrasonic signals. Fur-

thermore this property can be taken advantage of for damping purposes, where the produced energy is dissipated in an electric circuit. In the following paragraph, the governing equations of linear piezoelectricity are

D T d = S dT s E

where

E T [S] ([])

the

[D] ([C/m2 ])

vector of strains,

[4] ical stress . The four complete forms of the equations can be found in Appendix

A. In piezoelectric materials stress and strain are related through the mechanical compliance matrix

sE

, where

()E

E [s ] =

The permittivity matrix

sE 11

sE 12

sE 13

0 0 0 sE 44 0 0

0 0 0 0 sE 55 0

sE sE sE 12 22 23 sE sE sE 33 23 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 . 0 0 E s66

T 1

0 T 2 0

T = 0 0

0 T 3

relates the electrical eld and the electrical displacement, where the superscript

()T

stands for values that are taken under constant stress. The subscript

()t

denotes are

T /0 , []

considered, or the values

5

.

The matrix

T ,

F m

couples the mechanical and electrical equations.

1.4

1.4.1

Introduction

In lightweight structures the integration of piezoceramic materials for passive shunt damping is becoming popular, as it is an eective way to suppress vibrations

[8]

The piezoelectric device transforms mechanical deformation energy into electrical energy. This electric potential is then connected to an electrical impedance, which is dissipating energy during vibration and thereby damps the overall system. There exist various ways to build resonant shunt damping circuits. They consist of standard electrical elements as resistors, capacitors, inductors, operational ampliers and switches. An overview is depicted in gure 1.3. The advantage of a passive shunt is that the structure can be integrated into the system together with the piezoceramic itself. No sensor or actuator devices or power supplies are needed and therefore the system is operating completely autonomously.

[8]

1.4.2

Resistive shunt

In the case of a resistive shunt, the electrical inductance comprises only a resistor as displayed in gure 1.4.

[7]

Upon loading the structure with a force electrical potential dierence

7

Tj

the inicted strain

Sj

results in an

Vi .

Res max jj =

with a nondimensional frequency of

2 kij 2

2 1 kij ,

S i = Rij CP i =

The square of the coecient

2 1 kij .

kij

that is converted into electrical energy and indicates the eciency of the energy transduction. The coecient is dened as

kij =

dij s E T jj i

S 2 T CP i = (1 kij )CP i

T CP i =

A i T i L3

denotes the capacity under constant stress. Given the material parameters and the geometry of the structure, the resistor for optimal damping at the frequency

is

R= AT

1.4.3 Resonant RL shunt

L 1

d2 sE T

A resonant RL shunt is similar to a pure resistive shunt. The dierence is that the piezoelectric's inherent capacitance is connected in parallel with a shunting resistor

R and a shunting inductance L, thus creating a resonant circuit.

8

The circuit is then

tuned to maximize the energy dissipation of the resistor and the modal damping for the desired mode.

[7]

The optimal circuit damping is found to be using an electrical damping ratio and an optimal tuning parameter

ropt

opt

of

ropt =

2 Kij

1+

2 Kij

and

opt =

2 1 + Kij

S E r = Ri Cpi n

and

e , n

where

S e = 1/ Li Cpi

Kij

D n

can be described as

2 Kij = D n E n

E n

E (n )2

where

and

circuit respectively. These two frequencies can either be obtained through experi-

K+

D n =

where

E Kp 2 1kij

E n =

E K + Kp , M

2 Ropt =

2 Kij

2 (1+Kij ) S E Cpi n

and

Lopt =

2 n Cpi

1 . 2 1 + Kij

1.5

Thesis outline

In chapter 1 there are given some background information on the project DREAM, followed by a short introduction on the fundamentals of piezoelectricity. Then the principle of passive shunt damping is explained. In the following chapter a static analysis of a at plate was done, including a comparison between the analytical calculation and the simulation using Comsol Multiphysics. Subsequently a piezo-

electric element is included in the model, setting up the needed boundary conditions. In chapter 3 an analytical modal analysis and a Comsol simulation of a

simply supported plate was done likewise. A model including the piezoelectric element was built and an eigenfrequency analysis of an open and closed circuit system conducted. Based on these models and the theoretical foundations, two models for passive shunt damping were created and analyzed. In chapter 4 the Comsol model of a Fluid-Structure interaction is presented. In the last chapter the conclusion and a summary are given, as well as future prospects on how the project could continue.

2.1 Analytical calculations

The rst analytical calculation was performed with a glass bre reinforced plastic (GFRP) beam with the length loaded with a force by

l = 200mm[6] .

Fz = 10N

wzmax =

Fz l 3 . 3EIy

2.2

200mm 60mm 2mm was

used. Unless noted otherwise these dimensions were used and are further referred to as a plate. The material data of the GFRP fabric was implemented in the

Comsol material library. A 3D model of the structural mechanics module was chosen, selecting the 'solid, stress-strain' feature for static analysis. After setting up the

geometry, a new coordinate system was created and rotated, so that the new z-axis was looking in the according direction of the GFRP fabric. In the subdomain settings, the previous implemented material data for GFRP fabric was selected. The adequate material model for the bre orientation was

11

Within the boundary settings, one side was considered to be xed, whereas the other side was loaded with a force

Fx = 10N .

For the free mesh parameters a predened coarse mesh was applied before solving the model. In a second approach the 'piezoelectric eects' of the 'structural mechanics model' were selected. For this model the same plate was used again. In addition a piezoelectric element with the dimensions

was integrated.

To achieve a maximum electrical potential dierence, the piezoceramic was placed at the xed end of the GFRP plate. At this point the greatest strains occur during an excitation at the rst bending mode. Prior to choosing the subdomain settings, a user dened material for the piezoelectric material PIC 255 (see Appendix B) was applied in the materials library for further use. In the Comsol 'piezoelectric eects' module, it is only possible to use decoupled, isotropic or anisotropic materials. The orthotropic material data for the GFRP plate was implemented in the anisotropic form. Furthermore a new coordinate system was set up to link the structure with the according material direction. In the subdomain settings the piezoelectric material model was selected for the piezoceramic PIC 255. Similarly for the GFRP fabric the material model and the

2.3. Results

according coordinate system were applied.

12

The poling direction for the Comsol

'piezoelectric eects' is the 3 direction as within the IEEE standards. Within the boundary condition the same clamping and the loading conditions were set up as in the previous model. To realise the electrode layers of the piezoelectric element, a second Comsol module for 'AC/DC - statics' was used. The

dependent variables were set to be the same in both modules. Apart from the two electrodes, all other faces were set inactive within this module. The upper and the lower face of the piezoceramic are marked in gure 2.1. For these two faces shell elements made of copper were used. Supplementary the electric boundary conditions were set up. All faces of the piezoceramic were assumed 'Zero charge/Symmetry' except the upper and lower face. These were set to be 'Ground' and 'Continuity' respectively. For the free mesh parameters a predened extra coarse mesh was applied before solving the model for static deformation. To get an estimation of the impact of the additional material of the piezoceramic at the highest loaded point, another model was created without any piezoelectric eects, selecting the GFRP fabric for both geometries.

2.3

Results

The analytical calculations of the beam model resulted in a total tip displacement of 25.64mm, whereas the Comsol model without the piezoelectric element calculated a displacement of 25.57mm. The dierence between the two results was explained by the plate used in Comsol opposing to the perfect beam that was assumed in the analytical calculations. The output of the model with the piezoelectric element is depicted in gure 2.2. The left gure represents the earthed upper face, the right gure the face with the 'Continuity' boundary condition.

2.3. Results

13

In the following table 2.1 the total tip deformations of the three dierent models are given. It was observed that by adding another small piece of GFRP near the clamping, the deformation was reduced by 12%. A far higher reduction of the tip displacement was noted by adding the piezoceramic. Also the inuence of the electric boundary conditions was observed in this model.

model GFRP plate GFRP plate and piezoelectric element PIC 255 GFRP plate and piezoelectric element GFRP

3.1 Analytical calculations

An eigenfrequency analysis of an aluminum plate was carried out. The plate was assumed simply supported along all edges and it had the same dimensions of

200mm

60mm 2mm

[5] Appendix B. Starting from the classical plate equation for thin plates

pz = D

4 4 4 +2 2 2 + 4 x4 x y y

w0

D=

the following equation is derived:

Et3 , 12 (1 2 )

2 wmn =

4D h

m2 n2 + 2 a2 b

The value a/b denotes the length to width ratio of the plate.

14

3.2

3.2.1

15

Eigenfrequency analysis

For the eigenfrequency analysis of an aluminum plate the structural mechanics module for 'solid, stress-strain' was used. The material was picked from the library and all boundaries were chosen to be free. No damping was assumed as in the analytical calculations. After creating a predened coarse mesh the model was solved for an eigenfrequency analysis.

Another eigenfrequency analysis was carried out for a GFRP plate. The material was changed from aluminum to GFRP and a xation as depicted in gure 3.1 was added. At this stage an undamped eigenfrequency analysis was conducted. Then a structural damping with a loss factor of 0.01 was applied for the GFRP plate for this and all following models unless noted otherwise.

The eigenfrequencies of the open circuit and the closed circuit system were required, to calculate the optimal shunting parameters. The basis for the model used in this section was the model from chapter 2, where the static deformation of a GFRP plate and a piezoelectric element PIC 255 was studied. In gure 3.1 the geometry settings are shown. In the boundary settings all parameter remained the same,

in the subdomain settings the structural damping was added. The eigenfrequency analysis was then carried out using an extra coarse mesh.

16

In the 'AC/DC - statics' module all faces of the piezoceramic were set to active in order to change the existing model of an open circuit system to a closed circuit system. The thereby applied copper shell elements connected the upper and lower electrode. Another way of realizing the closed circuit system was investigated: Instead of adding more shell elements to the structure, the electric boundary conditions of these faces were changed from 'Zero charge/Symmetry' to 'Ground'.

3.2.2

Frequency response

The model in this section is based on the open circuit system model in section 3.2.1.3. At rst the value of the resistor was calculated according to the theory in chapter 1, to maximize the obtained damping. From the open and closed circuit

33 [Hz] . In Comsol

the 'SPICE circuit editor' was used to simulate the electric circuit and to connect the two electrodes of the piezoelectric element with the resistor. SPICE is a generalpurpose circuit simulation program for nonlinear dc, nonlinear transient, and linear

[10] ac analyses. It originates from UC Berkeley . The circuits may contain resistors,

capacitors, inductors, voltage and current sources, switches and diodes. SPICE editor the following commands were implemented:

17

In the

The potential at node 0 was set to 0 by default. A resistor R0 was created to connect the nodes 0 and 1 and another resistor R1 to connect the nodes 1 and 2. A subcircuit was created labeling node 1 top and node 2 bottom. At the end, the circuit was connected with the Comsol le. On conrmation, Comsol created the according constants, global expressions and equations. The Comsol SPICE circuit editor is depicted in gure 3.2.

The upper and lower face's electrical boundary conditions of the piezoelectric element were then changed to 'oating potential'. The group index was changed to top for the upper face and the value for the charge

according to the equations of the SPICE circuit. The same settings were performed with the lower face for the parameter bottom. In the following gure (gure 3.3) the electric boundary settings for the top face are shown.

18

Several steps were then used to obtain a frequency response for a pure resistive shunt with maximum damping of the rst eigenmode. At rst a value for the resistor R1 was chosen and an eigenfrequency analysis conducted. Because Comsol set the frequency of the SPICE circuit to

1000 [Hz]

by default, this value was iteratively set to the resulting eigenfrequency within the constants. This way the eigenfrequency for a predened resistance was obtained.

A second model was then produced based on the rst one in order to conduct the harmonic analysis. A force

F = 0.1[N ]

shown in gure 3.1. Thereby the bending and torsional eigenmodes were excitated. The frequency denition of the SPICE circuit was moved from the constants to the global equations. There it was coupled with the frequency 'smpz3d' of the

structure, which was being varied during the harmonic analysis. The evaluation of the deformation was then conducted at the opposing tip point of the excitation, see gure 3.1. There both types of natural oscillations were detectable at a phase

. Having two models, one for the eigenfrequency analysis and one for the 2 opt harmonic analysis, the value of the resistor R1 was varied. This way Rcomsol could

shift of be obtained with a minimal deformation when the plate was excitated with the rst eigenfrequency. domain After

opt Rcomsol

0 200 [Hz]

was performed.

Another model was created leaving all parameters identical but omitting the structural damping.

19

The procedure for the resonant RL shunt was the same as described for the pure resistive shunt. Therefore only the changes that were made are listed in this section, assuming that all other parameters stayed identical. The analytical values for the resistor and the inductor were calculated in order to search for the optimal values of the Comsol simulation nearby. In the SPICE editor the inductor between the nodes 1 and 2.

L1

was added

3.3

3.3.1

Results

Eigenfrequency analysis

In the following table (table 3.1) the eigenfrequencies of the analytical calculations (section 3.1) and the Comsol simulation (section 3.2.1.1) were contrasted:

[Hz]

[Hz]

Table 3.1: Analytical and simulated eigenfrequencies of an aluminum plate Apart from small deviation of less then 0.1% the corresponding frequencies matched very well. The Comsol simulation of the eigenfrequencies for this simple case was valid. The results of the open (section 3.2.1.3) and closed circuit systems (section 3.2.1.4) are presented in table 3.2. When the mesh size was varied, small changes in the resulting eigenfrequencies were noticed with a maximum deviation of 1.5%. Both alternatives of modeling the closed circuit system yielded exactly the same

3.3. Results

20

results. The thickness of the applied copper shell elements showed no inuence on the solution.

[Hz] [mm]

33.210 23.52

Table 3.2: Comparison open/closed circuit system Using the presented frequencies the generalized electromechanical coupling coefcient

Kij

can be calculated:

Kij =

3.3.2

Frequency response

To check whether the damping of the added resonant RL shunt was working, the model of the simple plate (3.2.1.2) and the model of resonant RL shunt were compared. In both cases the structural damping of the plate had been set to zero. When excitated with the rst eigenfrequency, the resulting displacement was expected to go to innity for the simple plate. The resistive shunt was expected to contribute some damping. The ndings are given in table 3.3. In the undamped case the

displacement was going to innity. Due to the fact that the eigenfrequencies were only determined with nite accuracy the amplitude of the oscillations increased but stopped at some point. The displacements of the resonant RL shunt are three orders of magnitude smaller. Clearly the simulated deformations of the plate are far beyond the material limits, but the inuence of the shunt damping could be demonstrated.

[mm]

1.6 106

3085

3.3. Results

21

Table 3.4 comprises the optimal shunting parameters of the analytical calculations and the Comsol simulations.

Comsol simulation

Table 3.4: Optimal shunting parameters for maximal damping Between the analytical and the Comsol solutions dierences of up to 20% occurred. The reason for this deviation was not identied so far. One way to check the results would be to conduct some experiments. Especially for the generalized electromechanical coupling coecient

Kij

was used for calculating the analytical results, although it was obtained through simulations. For the following simulations the optimal shunting parameters were used. The maximal deformations of the plate, when excitated with the rst eigenfrequency, are presented in table 3.5.

tip deformation plate without piezoceramic pure resistive shunt resonant RL shunt 24.8 7.5 1.5

[mm]

Table 3.5: Tip deformation at rst eigenfrequency The tip deformation was reduced signicantly by including the piezoelectric element and the pure resistive shunt. With the resonant RL shunt an even higher

damping was achieved as it was expected from the theory. In gure 3.4 the frequency response of the models without the piezoceramic, with resistive shunt damping and with resonant RL shunt damping is depicted.

3.3. Results

22

Due to the increased stiness of the structure, the eigenfrequencies changed to higher values when the piezoelectric element was added. The damping of the two shunts at the rst eigenfrequency is clearly visible.

The next step towards a comprehensive simulation of the overall system was to couple a simple plate with a uid ow. The Comsol module for 'Fluid-Structure

Interaction' was used in which all parameters are already linked. The module comprises three parts: 'Solid, Stress-Strain', 'Incompressible Navier-Stokes' and 'Moving Mesh'. The rst part is to describe the structural deformations which are solved

using an elastic formulation and a nonlinear geometry formulation to allow large deformations. The uid ow is described by the Navier-Stokes equations, solving

for the velocity eld and the pressure. The motion of the deformed mesh is modeled

[11] using Winslow smoothing . The used geometry is depicted in gure 4.1. Around

the GFRP plate a cube with the dimensions

was con-

structed to contain the uid ow. For both geometries and the three parts of the module, the subdomain and boundary settings were applied: Within the subdomain settings of the part 'Incompressible Navier-Stokes', the plate was selected inactive (solid domain) and the material parameters for the uid implemented (uid domain). Accordingly in part 'Solid, Stress-Strain' the material parameters of the GFRP plate were implemented (solid domain) and the uid domain selected inactive (uid domain). In the part 'Moving Mesh' the uid and solid

23

domains were dened.

24

In the boundary settings of the part 'Incompressible Navier-Stokes' all faces of the surrounding cube were set to 'Wall - No slip'. The reverse side was changed to 'Outlet - Pressure with the velocity

p0 = 0 ,

no viscous stress', and the front side to 'Inlet - Velocity' Stress-Strain' for all faces 'Fluid loads' were

selected except the lower surface which was xed to the surroundings. In the part 'Moving Mesh' all active boundaries were selected to be xed for the surrounding cube, all other boundaries were set to 'Structural displacement'. The presented model did not converge in a reasonable time. Either the utilized computational power and mesh size were too low or the used solver was inappropriate for this problem. Further investigations were abandoned due to the time limitations of this term paper.

The static analysis of a at plate was conducted. It was shown that displacements simulated by Comsol matched the analytical calculations. Then a Comsol model

for the piezoceramics was set up and run. The eects of the boundary conditions were noted and the inuence of the piezoelectric material on the tip deformation displayed. A modal analysis of a simply supported plate was performed and the Comsol model was compared to the analytical results. Here too the results corresponded. Furthermore the models of the open and closed circuit systems were set up and the electromechanical coupling coecient was calculated using these ndings. It was then displayed how to integrate and couple an electric network with a piezoceramic element in Comsol for the use of passive shunt damping. This was

carried out for a pure resistive shunt and a resonant RL shunt and the optimal shunting parameters were obtained. Both simulations showed some deviation from the analytical calculations conducted by Hagood and von Flotow. This may be due to the fact that the Comsol model was excitated and analysed in a single point. In a more exact simulation the displacements of several points would have to averaged to get better results. The plate's inherent damping might have an inuence on the overall system as well. The main reason is undetermined at the moment and has to be further investigated. A model for the uid-structure interaction was built and the subdomain and boundary conditions applied. The solver for the uid ow showed a very slow 25

26

convergence. Resolving this problem was not possible within the time frame of the thesis. For the proceeding project DREAM several investigations need to be accomplished. The ndings of this work and the presented model have to be veried, Some optimization of the

simulation might be necessary, probably including the Matlab interface that is available in Comsol. In addition more powerful and complex shunts need to be simulated to obtain an even higher damping. The model of the piezoelectric element and the coupled electric network needs to be integrated in the model of the uid-structure interaction. When these steps have been accomplished, it is possible to complete

the model by replacing the at plate with the spatial and complex geometry of the propfan blade.

Bibliography

[1] http://www.ecare-sme.org/plus/download/DREAM.pdf

Piezo-actuated adaptive structures for vibration damping and shape control - modeling and testing, Fortschritts-Berichte Standard on Piezoelectricity Piezoelectric Transducers

[5] E. Mazza,

Methods of Structural Analysis, Lecture Notes, ETH Zurich Ingenieurmechanik 1 und 2, Vieweg + Teubner in GWV

Fachverlage GmbH

[7]

Damping of Structural Vibrations with Piezoelectric Materials and Passive Electrical Networks, Piezoelectric Transduc-

[8]

[9] ANSI-IEEE 177 (1966),

[10] http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/Classes/icbook/SPICE/

27

A.1

D S T

Charge-Strain Form

= =

1 T d d T sE

E T F m T 1

+ dcE dt d

As Vm m2 N

C Vm

s E = cE

= sD + dt

T

d = esE =

m V

C N

A.2

E S

Field-Strain Form

=

T g gt sD T 1 T 1 D T m F

T = s D = cD

1

Vm As m2 N

Vm C

= s E + dt

T 1

d

Vm N

g=

m2 As

m2 C

A.3

D T S

Charge-Stress Form

= =

1 T e et cE

E S F m S 1

dcE dt d

As Vm N m2

C Vm

cE = s E

= cD et

S

e = dcE =

N Vm

C m2

28

A.4

E T

29

Field-Stress Form

=

S h ht cD S 1 S 1 D S m F

S = cD = s D

1

Vm As N m2

Vm C

= cE + e t

S 1

e

N As

h=

N C

GFRP fabric (glass/epoxy fabric prepreg)

unit

kg m3

Shear modula

Poisson ratios

Aluminum

unit

= 2700 E = 70 = 0.33

kg m3

[GP a] []

30

Piezoceramic PIC 255

31