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Material & Energy Balances : Refresher 2011 Tutorial Problems and Solutions 1. 1 hp + 300 Watt = ?

kcal/hr

2. 20 inch Water Column = ? mm Hg

3. Air conditioner of 1 Ton capacity operated for 6 hrs everyday . Electric Charge= Rs. 7/kW Hr monthly (30 Days) Contribution from air conditioner.

4. Commercial Sulphuric acid is 98% H2SO4 and 2 % Water. What is the mole ratio of H2SO4 to water? Basis: 100 g of solution

5. Coal Analysis Component S N O Ash Water Wt % 2 1 6 11 3 Remaining is C & H in mole ratio, H/C =9. What is the wt. Fraction of coal omitting ash and moisture ? wt % of C and H put together = 100 -23 = 77 Let wt fraction of C is a and wt fraction of H is b. Equation (1) ............ Mole ratio of H to C is given as (H/C) = 9 Let us convert this to wt fraction. wt by wt of H to C is Equation (2) ...............

6. A water solution containing 10% acetic acid is added to 20 kg /min of a water solution containing 30% acetic acid. The production P of the combination leaves at the rate of 100kg/min. How many independent MB can be written? How many unknown variables? Composition of P Stream A: 20 kg/min with 30 % Acetic acid Stream B: unknown amount with 10 % Acetic acid Stream P: 100 kg/min with unknown amount One mass balance and one component balance Unknown variables: 2 variables A+B=P Amount of B = P A = 100 20 = 80 Wt fraction of acetic acid in P = [20 x 0.3 + 80 x 0.1] / 100 = 0.14

7. Gas contains 10% H2, 40% CH4, 30% CO, 20% CO2. Find the Average molecular weight? Component H2 CH4 CO CO2 Total Molecular Wt 2 16 28 44 Mole fraction 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.2 xi x MWi 0.2 6.4 8.4 8.8 23.8

Average Molecular wt = 23.8 8. Write the set of independent material balance equations for the system shown. The liquid streams are A, B, C, D, and E. The components are 1, 2 and 3 A B C D 1 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.8 2 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.2 3 0.2 0.5 0 0

Equation (1) . A + B + C D E = 0 Equation (2) . x1,A x A + x1,B x B + x1,C x C - x1,D x D - x1,E x E = 0 Equation (3) . x2,A x A + x2,B x B + x2,C x C x2,D x D x2,E x E = 0

9. A two stage separation unit is shown in the Figure. Given That the input stream F1 is 1000 lb/hr. Calculate the value of F2 and composition of F2?

Unknown variables: P1, P2D, F2, P2B, xT,F2, xB,F2, xX,F2 (Total : 7) Equation (1) . F1 = P1 + F2 Equation (2) . F2 = P2D +P2B Equation (3) . xX,F1 x F1 = xX,F2 x F2 Equation (4) . xB,F1 x F1 = xB,F2 x F2 + xB,P1 x P1 Equation (5) . xX,F2 x F2 = xX,P2B x P2B Equation (6) . xB,F2 x F2 = xB,P2B x P2D Equation (7) . xT,F2 + xB,F2 + xX,F2 = 1

10. Stiochiometric Equivalence The electrolyte manufacture of Cl2 gas from a sodium chloride solution is carried out by the following reaction 2 NaCl + 2 H2O 2 NaOH + H2 + Cl2 How many kg of Cl2 can one produce from 10 m3 of a brine solution containing 5 % by wt of sodium chloride ? The specific gravity of solution relative to water at 4 deg C is 1.07.

11. Calcium oxide (CaO) is formed by decomposing limestone (pure CaCO3 ). In one kiln, the reaction goes to 70 % completion. What is the composition of the solid product with drawn from the kiln ? What is the yield in terms of kg of CO2 produced per kg of limestone charged? CaCO3 CaO + CO2 Basis : 1 kg CaCO3 MW of CaCO3 = 40.88+12+16x3=100.88 MW of CaO = 40.88 + 16 = 56.88 Initial kmoles of CaCO3 = 1/100.88 kg of CaO produced = 0.7 x 1/100.88 x 56.88 kg of CaCO3 unreacted = 0.3 x 1/100.88 x 100.88 kg of CO2 produced per kg of CaCO3 = 0.7 x 1/100.88 x 44

12. Calculate the volume occupied by 88 lb of CO2 at a pressure of 32.2 ft of water and at 15 deg C. 88 lb ------> (state 1) cu.ft. at standard condition ------> (state 2) cu.ft. at 32.2 ft water and 15 deg C State 1 (standard condition): P1 = 33.91 ft water V1 = 359 cu.ft /lbmol T1 = 273 K State 2: P2 = 32.2 ft water V2 = ? T2 = 273 + 15 =288 K

13. A steel cylinder of volume 2 m3 contains methane gas (CH4) at 50 deg C and 250 kPa absolute. How many kg of methane are in the cylinder?

n = PV / RT n = [(250 kPa) x 2 m3]/[8.316 (kPa.m3)/(K.gmol) x (273 +50) K] gmols kg of methane = n x 16 / 1000 14. A flue gas analyses 14 % CO2, 6 % O2, and 80 % N2. It is at 400 deg F and 765 mm Hg pressure. Calculate the partial pressure of each component. Basis : 1 lbmol of flue gas Total pressure : 765 mm Hg Component CO2 O2 N2 Total lbmol 0.14 0.06 0.8 1.0 p (mm Hg) 765 x 0.14 =107.1 765 x 0.06 = 45.9 765 x 0.8 = 612.0 765

15. Use Antoinne equation to find vapour pressure of n-Octane at 50 deg C.

P* is in mm Hg, T is in K A n-octane 15.9798

B 3127.6

C -63.633

ln (VP in mm Hg) = 15.9798 [3127.6/{(273+50)-63.633}] 16. What is the minimum number of m3 of dry air at 20 deg C and 100 kPa that are necessary to evaporate 6 kg of ethyl alcohol if the total pressure remains constant at 100 kPa? Assume that the air is blown through the alcohol to evaporate it in such a way that the exit pressure of the air-alcohol mixture is at 100 kPa. Vapor pressure of alcohol at 20 deg C = 5.93 kPa, MW ethyl alcohol = 46.07

Basis : 6 kg of alcohol

Pair = Ptotal - VPalcohol = 100 5.93 = 94.07 kPa

17. A liquid mixture of 4 % n-hexane and n-octane is vaporised. What is the composition of vapour formed if the total pressure is 1 atm?

P* is in mm Hg, T is in K A n-hexane 15.8737 n-octane 15.9798 Sum of vapor pressures = total pressure Basis : 1 kmol of liquid Step 1: estimate bubble point temperature

B 2697.55 3127.6

C -48.784 -63.633

T = 393.3 K VP of hexane = 3114 mmHg VP of octane = 661 mmHg Mole fraction of hexane in vapor = 3114/760 x 0.04 = 0.164 Mole fraction of octane in vapor = 661/760 x 0.96 = 0.836 18. By absorption in the silica gel you are able to remove all (0.93 kg) of H20 from moist air at 15 deg C and 98.6 kPa. The same air measures 1000 m3 at 20 deg C and 108 kPa when dry. What is the relative humidity of moist air?

Step 1: calculate amount of water vapor and dry air in original air. W = 0.93 kg 0.93 kg water x 1 kmol water / 18 kg of water = 0.0517 kmol water Dry air: 1000 m3 x 273 K / 293 K x 108.0 kPa / 101.3 kPa x 1 kmol / 22.4 m3 = 44.35 kmol of dry air p.p. of water = Ptotal x ywater = 98.6 x [0.0517/(44.35 + 0.0517)] = 0.1147 kPa The vapor pressure at 15 deg C for water is 1.70 kPa and hence fractional relative humidity of the original air was 0.1147/1.70 = 0.067

19. One thousand m3 of moist air at 101 kPa and 22 deg C with a dew point of 11 deg C enters a process. The air leaves the process at 98 kPa with a dew point of 58 deg C. How many Kg of water vapour are added to each kg of wet air entering the process? Dew point Temp (deg C) 11 58 VP water (mmHg) 9.84 136.1 VP water (kPa) 1.31 18.14

Inlet: p.p. of dry air = Ptotal p.p. water = 101 -1.31 = 99.69 kPa Outlet: p.p. of dry air = Ptotal p.p. water = 98 -18.14 = 79.86 kPa Basis: 1000 m3 at 101 kPa and 22 deg C Unknown: W and P 1000 m3 x 101 kPa/101.3 kPa x 273 K/295 K x 1 kmol / 22.4 m3 = 41.19 kmol wet air Dry air is the tie component Dry air balance: 41.19 x (99.69/101) = P x (79.86/98) P = 49.87 kmol Total balance : F + W = P W = 49.87 41.19 = 8.68 kmol water Water balance: 41.19 x (1.31/101) + W = 49.87 x (18.1/98) W = 8.68 kmol of water Total amount of wet air entering : 41.19 x [99.69/101 x 29 + 1.31/101 x 18] =1188.6 kg Water added per kg of wet air is = 8.68 x 18 / 1188.6 = 0.131 20) Helium contains 12 % by volume ethyl acetate. Calculate the percentage relative saturation, the % absolute saturation of the mixture at a temp of 30 deg C and a pressure of 98 kPa. P* (EtOH) at 30 deg C = 15.9 kPa PEtAc = Ptotal yEtAc = Ptotal x (nEtAc/ntotal) = Ptotal x (VEtAc/Vtotal) = 98 x 0.12 = 11.76 kPa PHe = Ptotal - PEtAc = 98 - 11.76 = 86.24 kPa at 30 deg C: (a) percent relative saturation = 100 x PEtAc/ VPEtAc = 100 x 11.76/15.9 = 74.0 % (b) Percent absolute saturation = 100 x [PEtAc/( Ptotal - PEtAc)]/[ VPEtAc/( Ptotal - VPEtAc)] = 70.4 %