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When a message arrives at the destination host, it is processed in the reverse order.

Removes the header attached by its peer, takes the action indicated by that header and passes the body of the message to the application. Multiplexing and Demultiplexing Multiplexing multiple flows of data over a single physical link. Functions of the OSI Layers: Physical Layer The physical layer defines the interface between the devices and the transmission medium. It also defines the type of transmission medium. Representation of bits - defines the type of encoding (how 0s and 1s are changed to signals). Transmission rate defines by the physical layer. (Number of bits sent per second) is characteristics of the

Synchronization synchronized by physical layer.

sender and receiver clock is

It defines how the machines are connected to make a network

Data Link Layer Framing - divides the stream of bits received from the network layer into manageable data units called frames. Physical Addressing - If frames are to be distributed to different systems on the network, the data link layer adds a header to the frame to define the sender and/or receiver of the frame. If the frame is intended for a system outside the sender's network, the receiver address is the address of the device that connects the network to the next one. Flow Control - If the rate at which the data are absorbed by the receiver is less than the rate at which data are produced in the sender, the data link layer imposes a flow control mechanism to

avoid overwhelming the receiver. Error Control - The data link layer adds reliability to the physical layer by adding mechanisms to detect and retransmit damaged or lost frames. It also uses a mechanism to recognize duplicate frames. Error control is normally achieved through a trailer added to the end of the frame. Access Control - When two or more devices are connected to the same link, data link layer protocols are necessary to determine which device has control over the link at any given time. Network Layer Responsible for the source to destination delivery of the packets across multiple networks. If two systems are connected to the same link, there is usually no need for a network layer. Logical Addressing - If a packet passes the network boundary, we need to distinguish the source and destination systems. The

network layer adds a header to the packet that includes the logical addresses of the sender and receiver. Routing - When independent networks or links are connected to create internetworks (network of networks) or a large network, the connecting devices (called routers or switches) route or switch the packets to their final destination. One of the functions of the network layer is to provide this mechanism

Transport Layer Responsible for process-to-process delivery of the entire message. Process application program running on a host. Service point Addressing - Computers often run several

programs at the same time. For this reason, source-todestination delivery means delivery not only from one computer to the next but also from a specific process (running program)

on one computer to a specific process (running program) on the other. The transport layer header must therefore include a type of address called a service-point address (or port address). The network layer gets each packet to the correct computer; the transport layer gets the entire message to the correct process on that computer.

Session Layer Provides a name space that is used to tie together the potentially different transport streams that are part of a single application. Presentation Layer Concerned with syntax and semantic information's exchanged between two systems. Responsible for Encryption and compression.

Application Layer

Enable the user(human or software) to access the network. Provides the user interface for services such as E-Mail, File transfer, etc

Segmentation and Reassembly - A message is divided into transmittable segments, with each segment containing a sequence number. These numbers enable the transport layer to reassemble the message correctly upon arriving at the destination and to identify and replace packets that were lost in transmission.

Connection Control

The transport layer can be either

connectionless or connection oriented. A connectionless transport layer treats each segment as an independent packet and delivers it to the transport layer at the destination machine. A connection oriented transport layer makes a connection with the transport layer at the destination machine first before delivering the packets. After all the data are transferred, the connection is terminated.

Flow Control similar to flow control in data link layer, however, transport layer performing end to end flow control.

Error Control Transport layer provides end to end error control. The sending transport layer makes sure that the entire message arrives at the receiving transport layer without error (damage, loss, or duplication). Error correction is usually achieved through retransmission.

Merits of OSI Reference Model It distinguishes very clearly between the services, interfaces and protocols. The protocols in OSI model are better hidden. So they can be easily replaced by new protocols as the technology changes. OSI model is truly a general model. It supports both connection oriented and connectionless services. Demerits Sessions and presentation layer are not of much use. This model was devised before the protocols were invented. So in real life there is a problem of fitting protocol into a model. INTERNET ARCHITECTURE

Also called as TCP/IP architecture. Alternative view of the Internet architecture. The Network layer shown here is sometimes referred to as the sub-network or link layer or Host to Network Layer

Host to Network layer Wide variety of protocols denoted NET1, NET2, . NETn implemented by a combination of hardware (eg. Network Adapter) and software (Eg. Network Device Driver). Eg. Ethernet, FDDI Internet Layer Consist of a single protocol called Internet Protocol (IP), that supports the interconnection of multiple networking

technologies into a single, logical network. Supporting protocols, ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) - Associates the logical address (IP) with a physical address.

RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) - Allows host to discover the logical address when it knows the physical address. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) - Querying and Error reporting protocol. IGMP (Internet Group Message Protocol) - Facilitate the simultaneous transmission of a message to a multiple recipients. Transport Layer Contains two main end to end protocols, TCP provides a reliable byte stream channel (Connection oriented) UDP provides a unreliable datagram channel (Connectionless) Application Layer Provides wide range of protocols for different applications. Protocols provided by this layer are, FTP (File Transport Protocol) TFTP (Trivial File Transport Protocol) SMTP (Simple Message Transfer Protocol) Telnet (Remote Login)

HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol), etc

Network Architecture Contd

Internet Protocol Graph

Three Features of Internet Architecture Does not imply strict layering - The application is free to bypass the transport layer and to directly use IP or one of the underlying layer. Hour glass shape protocol graph - Wide at top, narrow in middle and wide at bottom. - IP serves as the focal point fir architecture It defines a common method for exchanging packets among a different networks. - Above IP can be arbitrarily many transport protocols offering a different channel abstraction to application layer. It separates the Host to Host delivery with Process to Process delivery - Below IP, the architecture allows for different network technologies, ranges from Ethernet to wireless.

In order to add a new protocol to the architecture, it needs to be a protocol specification and at least one representative implementations of the specification. - The application is free to bypass the transport layer and to directly use IP or one of the underlying layer.

Framing Framing . Data link layer translates a stream of bits from the physical layer into the larger aggregate (or) discrete unit called frames. . The hardware present in the data link layer is network adaptor. It enables the nodes to exchange frames. Framing . When node A wishes to transmit a frame to node B, it tells its adaptor to transmit a frame from the node.s memory. This results in a sequence of bits being sent over the link. . The adaptor on node B then collects together the sequence of bits arriving on the link and deposits the corresponding frame in B.s memory. . Recognizing exactly what set of bits constitute a frame i.e., determining where the frame begins and ends is the issue faced by the adaptor Framing Byte Oriented DDCMP

Framing Bit Oriented Sentinel Approach BISYNC PPP Byte Count Approach HDLC Byte Oriented Protocols: . It views each frame as a collection of bytes (Character) rather than a collection of bits. a) Sentinel Approach: BISYNC (Binary Synchronous Communication) The frame format of the BISYNC protocol is, Frames transmitted beginning with leftmost field SYN - Beginning of a frame is denoted by sending a special SYN (synchronize) character STX & ETX - Data portion of the frame is contained between special sentinel character STX (start of text) and ETX (end of text) SOH (Start of Header) . Header information is start from this sentinel character Framing CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) . Used for error detection in the frame. Problems in the sentinel approach, ETX character might appear in the data portion of the frame. So it leads to the wrong end of text calculation. BISYNC overcomes this problem by .escaping. the ETX character by preceding it with a DLE (data-link-escape) character whenever it appears in the body of a frame; the DLE character is also escaped (by preceding it with an extra DLE) in the frame body. This approach is called as .character stuffing.. PPP (Point to Point Protocol)

Commonly used in dial up modem links. It also uses the .Character Stuffing. PPP Frame format as follows, Flag - Special start of text character denoted as Flag -01111110 Address, control - default values o Address . 11111111 o Control . 11000000 Protocol - Used for demultiplexing. It identifies the high level protocol such as IP / IPX. Payload . Frame data (default size is 1500 bytes) Checksum - for error detection Byte Stuffing in PPP, Whenever the flag value appears in the data section of the frame, escape byte (01111101) stuffed into the data to tell the receiver that the next byte is not a flag. Protocols used by PPP, LCP (Link Control Protocol) AP (Authentication Protocol) NCP (Network Control Protocol) LCP (Link Control Protocol) Responsible for establishing, maintaining, configuring & terminating the links. All LCP packets are carried in the payload of the PPP frame with protocol field set to .C021. in hexadecimal. Code . defines the type of the LCP packet. There are 11 types of LCP packet is available. . These 11 types of LCP packets are categorized into three category. First category . comprising the first four packet types (o01 - o04) used for link configuration during link establishment. Second Category . comprising packet types o05, o06 for the termination of the link. Third Category . comprising last five packet types (o07 - o11) used for link

monitoring and debugging. Id . value that matches the request and reply. Length . defines the total length of the LCP packet. Information . optional information. AP (Authentication Protocol) PPP is mainly designed for dial up links, where the user identity verification is necessary Authentication . validating the identity of a user. PPP uses two authentication protocols, PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) NCP (Network Control Protocol) IPCP (Internet Protocol Control Protocol) is used as a network control protocol. IPCP defines 7 types of packets distinguished by the code values. b) Byte Count Approach: DDCMP (Digital Data Communication Message protocol) DDCMP uses the count field that contains the no. of bytes in the frame to find the end of the frame. Suppose, if count field is corrupted framing error will arise. SYN . starting of the frame. count . no. of bytes in the frame. Bit Oriented Protocols . It simply views the frame as collection of bits. HDLC Earlier called as SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control) Beginning and Ending Sequence . denotes both the starting & end of the frame with the bit sequence 01111110. - This sequence is also transmitted during any times that the link is idle, so that the sender and receiver can keep their clock synchronization. Bit Stuffing Sending side: On the sending side, any time five consecutive 1.s have been transmitted from

the body of the message (i.e. excluding when the sender is trying to send the distinguished 01111110 sequence) . The sender inserts .0. before transmitting the next bit. Receiving side: On the receiving side, . Five consecutive 1.s Next bit 0 - Stuffed, so discard it 1 - Either End of the frame marker (or) Error has been introduced in the bit stream Look at the next bit If 0 ( 01111110 )End of the frame marker If 1 ( 01111111 )Error, discard the whole frame The receiver needs to wait for next 01111110 before it can start receiving again.