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1s210:1993

Indian Standard

GREY IRON CASTINGS - SPECIFICATION ( Fourth Revision)


Second Reprint MARCH 1998

UDC 669.131.6-14

Q BIS 1993

BUREAU
MANAK i December 1993

OF

INDIAN

STANDARDS

BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002


PriceGroop5

Pig Iron and Cast Iron Sectional

Committee,

MTD

FOREWORD ( Fourth Revision ) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after the draft This Indian Standard and Cast Iron Sectional Committee had been approved by the Metallurgical finalized by the Pig Iron Rngincering DivirionCouncil. This standard was first published in 1950 and subsequently revised in 1962, 1970 and 1978. While reviewing this standard in the light of the experience gained during these years, the committee decided to reviseit to align with the present practices followed by the Indian industries and to bring it in line with the other overseas standards. The various diameters of test bar according to the section size of the castings have been replaced by a single size of test bar. Guidance on the effect of section size of the casting on the tensile strength is, however, given in Annex A. A comparison between grades is given in Annex B. It is The production of castings in the higher gr@es of grey cast iron often involve3 special techniques. recommended, therefore, that for either large or intricate castings or ;1 casting involving both these conditions or where the castings have to withstand exception conditions, the grade of grey cast iron selected and The hipher any heat treatment involved should be agreed between the manufacturer and the purchaser. grades of grey cast iron ( that is, Grade FG300, FG350 and FG400 ) present special difficulties for section 10 mm ,and thinner. For the benefit of the purchaser, typical properties of grey cast iron have been added grey iron castings from IS0 according in Annex C.

Information to be supplied is given in Annex D.

by the purchaser

while ordering

to this specification Cast Iron Specifi-

In the formulation of thir standard assistance cation issued by International Organization

has been derived for Standardization.

185 Grey

For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this otindard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a teat or analysis, shall be rounded of? in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for rouading off numerical values ( rrvisod ) . The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the apccified value in this standard.

IS 210:1993

Indian Standard

GREY IRON CASTINGS - SPECIFICATION


(Fourth Revision)
1 SCOPE
This standard iron castings. 2 REFERENCES The following Indian Standards adjuncts to this standard: IS are necessary covers the requirements for grey 6 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 6.1 The composition of cast iron shall be left to the discretion of the manufacturer, but a m&ximum limit for phosphorus and/or sulphur may be specified by the purchaser, if he so desires.
6.2

so.

Title

In case of special castings, the detailed chemical composition shall be as agreed to Eretween the purchaser and the manufacturer. 7 WORKMANSHIP AND FINISH

1387 : 1993

General requirements supply of metallurrgical ( second revision )

for the material

1500 : 1983

Method for Brine11 hardness testfor metallic materials ( second revision ) Method for tensile testing grey cast iron ( jrst revision ) Code for designation castings of

7.1 The castings shall be accurately moulded in accordance with the pattern or working drawings supplled by the purchaser, with the addition of such letters, figures or marks as may be specrfied. shall specify tolerances, purchaser 7.2 The machining location and allowances with reference to all important dimensions On other dimensions tolerances specified in IS 5519 : 1979 shall apply. 8 HEAT TREATMENT

2078 : 1979 4843 : 1968 5139 : 1969

of ferrous

procedure for Recommended repair of grey iron castings by oxyacetylene and manual metal arc welding untoleranced Deviations tor dimensions of grey iron castings ( jirst revzsion ) Guidelines for heat of cast iron OF MATERIAL treatment

5519 : 1979

Castings are generally supplied without having any heat treatment, However, if required by the purchaser, the heat treatment may be carried out in accordance with 2 of IS 13655 : 1993. 9 MICROSTRUCTURE Where so required, the microstructure of grey iron castings and the location for taking the sample shall be as agreed to between the purchaser and the manufacturer. IO FREEDOM FROM DEFECTS

13655:

1993

3 SUPPLY

General requirements relating to the supply of grey iron castings shall be as laid down in IS 1387 : 1993. 4 GRADES There shall be seven grades of grey iron castings namely, Grades FG150, FG200, FG220, FG260, FG300, FG350 and FG 400. 5 MANUFACTURE The castings shall be made by any process, as agreed between the supplier and purchaser, that will produce castings complying with the requirements of this Indian Standard and shall be in accordance with the pattern or working drawing as supplied by the purchaser.

10.1The castings shall be sound, clean and free from porosity, blow holes, hard spots, cracks, hot tears, coldshuts, distortion, sand and slag inclusions and other harmful defects. They shall be well-dressed and fettled, and shall be readily machinable.
IO.2 No welding or repairs shall be carried out without the prior permission of the purchaser. Welding referred to here includes fusion welding in accordance with the common foundry practice. The method of repair by welding ( see IS 5139 : 1969 ) and subsequent stress-relieving shall be as agreed to between the purchaser and the manufacturer.

16 210 I 1993

11 PROVISION

OF TEST BARS

13

SIZE

OF TEST BARS

11.1 All test bars shall be cast separately in sand moulds and the number of test bars required shall be as specified in 11. They shall be cast at the same time and frc,m the same melt as the castings they represent. 11.2 The test bar material shall be with that of the castings represented.
identifiable

A test bar from which the tensile test piece is machined shall be cast as a uniform cylindrical bar of 30 mm diameter. The tolerance on the diameter shall be + a mm. The minimum length of the test bar shall be 230 mm. 14 TENSILE

TEST

11.3 When castings are subjected to heat treatment, the test bars shall be heat-treated together with the castings they represent. 11.4 The test bars shall be cast in dried, baked or chemically bonded moulds made mainly of an aggregate of siliceous sand with appropriate binders. The average grain size of the sand shall be approximate to that of the sand in which the castings are poured. Moulds for the test bars shall be approximately at room temperature when poured. More than one test bar may be cast in a single mould, but each bar in the mould shall be surrounded by a thickness of sand which is not less than the diameter of the bar.

The tensile test shall be carried out in accordance with IS 2078 : 1979, using a test piece conforming to the dimensions in Fig. 1 and Table 2. The test piece shall be accurately machined, with a good surface finish. The transition between the ends and the parallel length shall be smooth, without undercutting or a sudden step down in diameter.
NOTE - Self-aligning ensure axial loading. grips are recommended to

15 TENSILE

STRENGTH

12 FREQUENCY

OF TESTING

12.1 The number of tests required for each melt or batch of castings shall be as laid down in Table 1, various classes of castings being divided into five representative groups according to mass.
12.2 In the case of large tonnage of castings being produced continuously, the minimum number of test bars to be provided shall be one tensile test representing every two hours production from a melting furnace.

When tested in accordance with the requirement of 13, the test piece shall comply with the minimum requirements specified in Table 3. The tensile strength specified is that obtained from test bars cast separately from the castings to which they refer. The test values. represent, therefore, only the quality of the metal from which the casting have been poured. 16 HARDNESS TEST

16.1 The Brine11 hardness test shall be carried out in accordance with the method given in IS 1500 : 1983. Brine11 hardness values for different grades or grey iron castings shall be as specified in Table 3. 16.1.1 The hardness test shall be conducted at specific point on the castings. These specific points shall be such that they are amenable for hardness checking in routine procedure. 16.1.2 The location of the specific point on a casting for hardness measurement shall be as agreed to between the purchaser and the manufacturer. 17 TRANSVERSE TEST

Table

1 Number of Tests ( CluuSG12.1 )


Test Reqriremeats

I) 21) 3i) 4i) 5

Up to 125 kg Over 125 kg and up to 50 kg Over 50 kg and up to 500 kg Over 500 kg and up to 1 tonne Over 1 tonne

One test for each 500 kg of castings or part thereof One test for every 1 tonne of castings or part thereof One test for every 2 tonnes of castings or part thereof One test for every 3 tonnes of castings or part thereof One test for every 4 tonnes of rastiogs or part thereof or one test for every casting weighing 4 tonnes or more

If required, the transverse test may be carried out by the manufacturer in accordance with the method given in Annex E. The minimum test requirements shall be agreed upon at the time of enquiry and order. 18 HYDROSTATIC

TEST

If specified at the time of enquiry and order the castings may be tested for the hydrostatic test t)In addition Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 all castings reprepressure. The requirements for the test pressure sented by one test shall be poured from the same ladle shall be mutually agreed to between the purchz:er or same heat as the bar or bars provided for the test. _ and the manufacturer. 2

IS 21u : 1993
Ls (SCREWED) -j----w

FIQ.

MACHINED

TENSILE

TEST PIECE

Table 2 Dimensions

of Machined ( Clause 14 )

Tensile

Test Piece

Gauge JXameter D

Machining
Tolerance im the Gauge Diameter
(2)

Minimum Parallel Length Lc

Minimum Radas

Phsii T-__--h-_ Minimum Diameter d, (5) mm 23

Ends _--_ Minimum Length


r,

Screwed
-__--A_-_,

Em& Minimum Length 4 (8) mm 30

R (4) mm 25

Minimum Dia at Root ds (7) mm 25

(1)

mm 20

mm +- 05

(3) mm 55

(6) mm 65

NOTE - With screwed-ends, any form of thread may be used provided that the thread is not less than that specified.

diameter at the root of the

Table

3 Mechanical

Test Requirements

20 INSPECTION By agreement with the manufacturer, the purchaser or his representative shall have across at all reasonable times to those parts of the manufacturers works engaged on his order, he shall be at liberty to inspect the manufacturer at any stage, to witness the required tests and to reject any material that does not comply with this standard. When the castings are to be inspected during manufacture and tested in the presence of the purchasers representative, this shall be stated on the enquiry and order. 21 TESTING

( Cf~~ses 15 and 16.1 )


Grade (su~Is4S43:196S) Tensile Strength MPa ( N/mm2 ) (1) FG 150 FG 200 FG 220 FG 260 FG 300 FG 350 FG 400 (2) 150 280 220 260 300 350 400 Brine11 Hardness HB (3) 130 to 180 160 to 220 180to 220 180 to 230 180 to 230 207 to 241 207 to 270

Min

FACILITIES

21.1 The

NOTE - Although mechanical properties are specified for Grade FG 150 the material shall be only tested if required by the purchaser.

manufacturer in supplying the test samples as required for testing shall prepare from them the necessary test pieces and supply the labour and appliances for making all tests on his premises in accordance with this standard. out the manufac-

19 RETESTS
19.1 If on being tested any test piece shows obvious signs of a casting defect, the results of the test may be discarded and a further test made. 19.2 If any sound test piece fails, two further tests shall be made, should either of these test pieces fail, the castings represented shall not comply with the requirements of this Indian Standard. 19.3 In the absence of further separately cast test bars, the manufacturer shall have the option of submitting test bars, sectioned from an agreed position in the castings. The requirements of the test shall be as agreed to between the purchaser and the manufacturer. However, the guidance mav be obtained from Annex A. 3

21.1.1 Failing facilities for carrying prescribed tests at his own works the turer shall carry out the tests elsewhere. 22 MARKING

22.1 Each casting, if feasible, shall be legibly marked with a number of identification marks which it can be traced to the melt, and the batch of heat treatment, if done, from which it was made. 22.2 By agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer, castings complying with the requirements of this standard shall be, after inspection, legibly marked with an acceptance

mark

23 STANDARD

MARK also be marked with the

The castings may Standard Mark.

1s 210 : 1993

ANNEX

( Foreword and Clause 19.3 )


APPROXIMATE VARIATION OF STRENGTH

A-l The Indian Standard grades of grey cast iron are based on the minimum tehsile strength obtained when metal is cast into test bars of 30 mm diameter. The strength developed by a given metal shall vary with the coolingrate in the mould higher strengths being obtained if the same metal is cast into smaller bars than 30 mm diameter and lower strengths if the metal is cast into bars larger than 30 mm diameter. Similarly, the cooling rate of a flat plate.is slower than that of a bar whose diameter is equal to the thickness of the plate so that the strength developed in the plate will be lower than that developed in the bar. cooling rate of a casting in a mould ( hence the strength developed in any $rticular section thickness by the metal employed for its manufacture ) is influenced also by the presence of cores, changes in section thickness, the presence of bosses projections and intersections, such as the junctions of ribs and bosses. Thus, in castings of other than simple shape and uniform thickness the cooling rate of any part can be expected to differ from that of a flat plate of similar section thickness.

A-2 Figure 2 gives a guide to the likely variation in tensile strength in different sections when a given grade of grey iron is cast into a casting of simple shape and uniform thickness or containing cored holes where the cooling rate in the mould of a given section shall differ from that in a castmg of sample shape and uniform thickness, the diagram provides only an approximate guide to the likely tensile strength in different sections and design should be based on the measured tensile strength in critical parts of the casting.

A-l.1 The

A-2.1 Table 4 gives guidance to the likely variation in tensile strength for different casting section thicknesses when a given grade of grey cast iron is cast into a casting of simple shape and uniform thickness. For casting of non-uniform section or castings containing cored holes, the table provides only an approximate guide to the likely tensile strength in different sections, and casting design should be based on the measured tensile strength in critical parts of the casting.

CROSS-SECT!ONAL 5 15 25 50-75

THICKNESS, IQ0

mm 125 159

250

15

30

50 BAR

75 DIAMETER,

100 mm

125

150

This dbam

is for guidance

and should not be used for acceptance purposes.

Fro. 2 VARIATION

OF

TENSILE

STRENGTH WITH CROSS-SECTIONAL THICKNESS OF GREY IRON CASTIKGS

IS 210 : 1993 Table 4 Anticipated Tensile Properties for the Castings ( for Information Only )

( Clause A-2. I )

Grade

Casting

Section mm ~-_---_h_-_-_-_-~ Over

Thickness,

Antidpated Tcndlc ShWgtk

Up to and Including 10 20 30 50 10 20 30 50 10 20 30 50 20 30 50 20 30 50

MPa

( N/mms )

FG 150

2.5 10 20 30

155 130 115 105 205 180 160 145 260 235 215 195 270 245 225 315 290 270

FG 200

25 10 20 30

FG 260

4.0 10 20 30

FG 300

10 20 30

FG 350

10 20 30

ANNEX B ( Foreword
GRADE FG 600 MPa (=N/mm2) 600

kgf/mm* 60

GRADE LO

FG

350

350

35

35

FG 300

300

30

30

FG 260 25@----_25 FG 220 FG 200 200--20 20 25

FG 150

150 +,5 MPa (=N/mm2) CONVERSION FACTOR 1 N/mm2 = lMPa=O.1020 kgf/mmz .

15

FIT. 3

COMPARISCNBETWEEN GRADES IN THIS EDITION AND THE PREVIOUS EDITION BASED ON MINIMUM TENSILE STRENGTH

IS 210 : 1993

ANNEX C ( Foreword)
TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF GREY CAST I RON It does Iiot form

C-1 The following information is given for the guidance of engineers and designers. part of the standard and shotild not be used for acceptance purposes:
Properties

unit
c---------FG 150

FG 200
200 56 130

FG

Grade --~-_-_------_-_ 220 FG 260 FG 300 260 73 169 0.57 020 0.37 300 84 195 0.50 022 0.28

FG 350 350 98 228 050 0.25 0.25

FG 400
4QO

Tensile strength WOl percent proof stress 01 percent stress Total strain failure Elastic failure strain proof at at

MPa ( N/mm2 ) MPa ( N/mm% ) MPa ( N/mm Percent Percent )

150 42 98

220 62 143

112 260 050 028 028

o60-o751) 0S48-O*671)O39-O*631) 0.15 017 018

Total minus elastic strain at failure Notched tensile strength ( see Note 2 ) (Circumferential 45 V-notch, root radius 025 mm or Notch depth 25 mm, notch dia 20 notch gzh 3.3 mm, notch diameter 7.6 mm ) Circumferential notch, Radius 95 mm ( Notch depth 25 mm, notch diameter 20 mm ) Compressive strength 0.1 percent stress 01 percent stress Shear strength Torsional strength Shear strain failure M;pntof at proof proof

0.45~o601) 0.3 l-0.501) 0.2 1-045~)

MPa

( N/mm2 )

120

160

176

208

240

280

320

MPa

( N/mm2 )

150

200

220

2G0

300

350

40(:

MPa ( N/mm2 ) MPa ( N/mm2 ) MPa ( N/mm2 ) MPa ( N/mm Percent )

600 84 195 173 173 >4

720 111 260 230 230 >4

768 123 286 253 253 >4

864 146 338 299 299 >4

960 168 390 345 345 Upto

1 080 196 455 403 403 Upto

1 200 224 520 460 460 Upto

MPa ( I%/mms )

elasticity

GPa GPa GPa -

100 JO0 40
c__--_-_-_---

114 114 46

120 120 48
026

128 128 51
-----_-------__-j

135 135 54

140 140 56

145 145 58

Compression Modulus of rigidity Poissons ratio Fatigue limit ( MohJer ) Unnotched mm dia ) ( 84

MPa ( N/mm* ) MPa ( N/mm )

68 68

90 87

99 94

117 108

135 122

149 129

152 127

V-notched ( Circumferential 45 with V-notch 025 mm root radius, Diameter at notch %4 mm depth of notch 34 mm )

Hardness

Refer Table 3 for hardness values

IS 210 : 1993
Piopcrtics Unit r---7---------mFG 150 Grade A-,,----FG 260 ----FG350

FG 200

FG 220

FG 300

FGMJtl

Coefficient of thermal expression 100C 20% Thermal to 20C to 2ooc


4130c

x IO-s/K x IO-s/K x IO-*/K

+-_-__-____
+__-_ f--_---_-_-____

-___
----_--_110

-_100

--_--

-____

-+ j

100 1lq))

) (&a

20C to 100C 200C 300C 400C 500C Specific heat

-_---

12.5--_-_-__+

125 ) ,Note 3) 41.4 464 454 44.4 434 460 495 505 515 535 605 7.25 45.7 447 437 42.7 417 460 495 505 515 535 605 7.30 44.0 43.0 420 410 400 468 495 505 515 535 605 7.30

conductivity W/mK W/mK W/mK W/mK W/mK capacity to 200% to 400% 525 51.5 50.5 49.5 48.5 265 355 400 425 445 490 7-05 50.8 49.8 48.8 478 468 375 435 465 480 500 555 7.10 50.1 49 1 48 1 47 1 461 420 455 465 475 495 560 7.15 48.8 478 468 458 448 460 495 505 515 535 605 720

20C 20%

20C to 300C 2OOC to 500% 20C to 600C 20C to 700% Relative density ,Magnetic and electrical prouerties Maximum magnetic permeability Remanent tism Coercive Hysteresis 50 Hz Electrical NOTES magneforce loss at

J/kgIc J/k6 J/J@ J/k+ .J/kgK .J:k$

PW/m
T A/m

c_-_-__-___-_301 f_--_ _____04

to to to

380-_-____.___-_--_-_+ 05____--_ _ _-----_~ --f

t_----__---_-560 + -_---_------2

720 ________

J/m W/k &m

500 to 3 OOO- --_--_---_-_-_-_-_-_-j to 20-g---_--_---_-_-_-+ 0760 0.730 0700 0670 0.640

.+__-----_--__-176 0.800 0.770

rcsistivity

1 The typical properties given in this Annex are the proprrties in a 30 mm diameter separately cast test bar or in a casting section correctly represented by this size of test bar. Where the tensile strength does not correspond to that given, other properties may differ slightly from those given. 2 Notched above 047. tensile strengths increase slightly as notch severity ratio, notch FG 400 radius, are for notch material diameter, in increase

3 The values quoted for coefficient of thermal expansion. of Grade Where accicular iron is used for this grade appropriate values are: 20C to 200% 20% to 400C I) Values depend on the composition 150 x 165 x 10*/K lo-s/K

pearlitic iron.

of iron.

ANNEX

( Foreword )
INFORMATION D-l BASIS FOR ORDER TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER on the sulphur and

D-l.1 FVhile placing an order for the purchase of grey iron casting covered by this standard, the purchaser should specify the following: a) Material specification; 7

11) Any required limits phosphorus content

c) Drawing or reference number of the pattern ( if supplied by the purchaser !, along with a copy of the drawing;

IS 210 : 1993 d) Tests required; of the purchaser, g) Any special requirement for example, hardness tests and locations of non-destructive testing, quality assurance, etc; and h) Test reports, if required.

e) Whether the castings are to be inspected and tested in the presence of the purchasers representative; f) Condition of delivery;

ANNEX E
( Clause 17 >
TRANSVERSE E-l OBJECT OF THE TEST TEST FOR GREY CAST IRON

E-3 PROCEDURE ~-3.1 Place the two ends qf the test bar on horizontal supports. The support and the point of application. of the load shall be rounded to a radius of 5 to 20 mm. Apply a single load vertically at the centre of the bar ( see Fig. 4 ). E-3.2 Increase the load uniformly without shock until the bar fracture. The load should be applied in such a way that the increase of stress does not exceed 3 MPa per second Find out the load at the fracture of the test bar with the accuracy indicated in Table 6. E-3.3 Determine the deflection of the test bar from the motion of the thrust relative to the fixed supports or to the supper ting table of the machine. In order to eliminate any errors in m-asuring the deflection, the measurement should be started after applying a small preload as given in Table 6. Table 6 Testing Conditions Accuracy of Readings E-3.2, E-3.3 and

The object of this test is to determine the transverse bending strength of grey cast iron by applying constantly increasing single load at the centre of a test bar arranged as a beam between two supports until fracture occurs. E-2 TEST BARS

E-2.1 The cast test bars shall have the dimensions given in Table 5. Table 5 Dimensions of Transverse Test Bars ( Clauses E-2.1 and E-2.2 )
Diameter of the Cast Test Bar Permissible Variation from Nominal Diameter ---- *--_-7 Unmachined Machined (2) mm + 12 (3) mm + 02 Length (L)

Min

(1) mm 30

(4) mm 500

E-2.2 Test bar is normally tested unmachined. The surface of the test bar shall be free from unevenness and seams which may be removed by careful grinding. The diameter shall be measured at the centre ot the test bar in two directionsperpendicular to one-anbther. The difference between two measurements shall not exceed 5 percent of the normal diameter. The mean value of the two diameters shall be the diameter do ( see E-4 ) of the test bar. For its permissible variations from the nominal diameter and the accuracy of measurement of the diameter, the values indicated in Tables 5 and 6 shall apply.

( Clauses E-2.2,

and Fig. 4 )

Nominal Distance Accuracy of Readings PreDiameter Between ,------.h_--,=~ Load d Ccntre of DiameLoadP, Deflec- Appror tion at Supports, ter of Ml%% Bar Frac1s d ture (1) mm 30 (2) mm 450 (3) mm 0.1 (4) mm 100 (5) mm 02 (6) mm 200 to 400

LOAD

POSITION I

Fra.

TRANSVERSE TEST BAR OF GREY CAST IROX

IS 210:1993
E-4 TEST RESULT where

The test report shall include: a) load at fracture in N; b) bending strength fb, to an accuracy of O-5 MPa calculated from the formula: 8 PL, fb = xd
0

P = maximum load at fracture in N,


Ls = distance between centres of supports in mm, and

do - mean diameter in mm, and


c)

deflection at fracture in mm.

:., .
,1, ,

.,

- AMENI)MENT NO. 1 AUGUST 1998 -,!! TO !.,,, ., IS 210:1993 GREY.lRON CAfINGS ..., ;,... ., ,, : SPECIFICATION
(Fourfh (Page8,Tuble6,CO14 Revision) and6 ) Substitute, N ~or mm as unit of load.

,!.

Mm 6 )
> Reprography Unit, BIS, New Delhi, India