Sie sind auf Seite 1von 30

STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS

By Prof. C. Radhakrishna

CONTENTS
STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS SVCs are used for Types of SVC and Controllers SVC Control Characteristics Modelling of SVC

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS


If the system has to operate close to stability limits in steady state, (with minimum margins), fast control of reactive power is essential. In recent years, thyristor controlled static var compensators are being used for fast reactive power control.

SVCs are used for 1. 2. Increasing power transfer in long lines Stability improvement (both steady state and transient) with fast acting voltage regulation 3. Damping of low frequency oscillations (corresponding to electromechanical modes) 4. Damping of subsynchronous frequency oscillations (due to torsional modes) 5. Control of dynamic over voltages
10/17/2010 10:27 AM 3

Types of SVC and Controllers Three basic types of SVCs 1. Variable impedance type 2. Current source type 3. Voltage source type

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

10

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

11

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

12

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

13

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

14

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

15

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

16

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

17

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

18

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

19

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

20

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

21

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

22

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

23

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

24

SVC Control Characteristics The voltage is measured at the high voltage side of the transformer (or network bus) feeding the SVC and the current is the reactive current, considered to be positive when SVC is inductive (absorbing reactive power). In the control range, the SVC voltage is not maintained constant. The slope of the control characteristics is positive (3 to 5%) and helps in (a) stable parallel operation of more than one SVC connected at the same or neighbouring buses and (b) prevent SVC hitting the limits too frequently.
25

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

ES

Capacitive

Inductive

ISVC

Figure 1. Steady state control characteristics of variable impedance SVC

The reference voltage of the SVC is chosen such that, under normal operating conditions, SVC delivers close to zero reactive power so that the full control range of SVC is available for use whenever there is a transient.
10/17/2010 10:27 AM 26

Figure 2: Equivalent circuit for SVC in control range

It is to be noted that when the SVC hits the capacitive limit, it behaves like a fixed capacitor. Similarly, when it hits the inductive limit, it behaves as a fixed inductor. In the control range, the SVC can be modelled as a nonlinear voltage source Es in series with a fictitious, fixed inductor Xs. The phase angle of the voltage source is same as that of the bus voltage Vs. The value of the inductor is related to the slope of the control characteristic.
27

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

Modelling of SVC
For steady state analysis, it is adequate to model the steady state control characteristics of SVC. Even for transient stability studies, where low frequency phenomena are of interest, and AC network transients are neglected, steady state representation of SVC may be adequate as a first approximation. However to model the damping contribution of SVC, it is necessary to consider the dynamics of SVC controller. The output of SVC is a time-varying susceptance Bsvc. The inclusion of this in the network results in a time varying admittance matrix which can be problematic. This equivalent has to be updated at every time step when SVC current is to be calculated.

Figure 3: Model of SVC controller REFERENCES : [ 1 ] K.R. Padiyar : Power System Dynamics : Stability and Control , 2nd edition, BS Publications, 2002.
10/17/2010 10:27 AM 28

CONCLUSIONS

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

29

THANK YOU

10/17/2010 10:27 AM

30