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*Brinda S Final CSE brindasoundar@gmail.


*Sindhuja R Final CSE

Abstract CLOUD COMPUTING IN AIRCRAFT DATA NETWORK *Sri Sairam Engineering college,Chennai The introduction of data networks within an aircraft has created several service opportunities for the air carriers. Using the available Internet Internet service within the aircraft is one of the connectivity, the carriers could offer services like Introduction services the airline industry is pushing forward, Advances in wireless infrastructure and satellite Video-on-Demand (VoD), Voice-over-IP (VoIP), and especially in long-distance flights. Apart from Over the communication have made Aircraft Data Networks decade, the gaming-on-demand within the aircraft. One of the (ADNs) simpler and more efficient. A typical Internet service, aircraft carriers are trying to aircraft major road blocks in implementing any of these aviation network has a transceiver which is used to introduce various other services to be more customerindustry has services is the additional hardware and software communicate with the ground PDAs, laptops, oriented. Wireless devices likestation through a and requirements. Each service requires dedicated seen a satellite link are now in Figure 1. This satellite smart phonesas shown ubiquitous and allowing link considerable hardware resources to run appropriate software can be leveraged them in an aircraft will be a passengers to useto provide passenger services like increase in components. It is not possible to accommodate every VoIP and VoD. One way to provide these services is competitive advantage. Existing Internet service can passenger hardware component within the aircraft due to space, to host used to provide other an centric services also be the servers directly onuseraircraft using the travel and power, and ventilation restrictions. Also, it is wireless link for minimal [1], Video on Demand like Voice over IP (VoIP)communication. However, economically not viable to install and maintain cargo implementation of these services on an services. (VoD) [2], enterprise email and gamingaircraft would hardware components for every aircraft. One solution require expensive infrastructure be installed on each traffic. As competition is to use cloud computing. aircraft. In addition to this installation expense, increases, carriers would have to deal with significant additional Cloud computing aircraft costs associated with operating and maintaining the carriers are allows the organizations to consolidate several infrastructure. looking at hardware resources into one physical device. The various options to Cloud computing concept helps organizations in make air travel more convenient to passengers. reducing the overall power consumption and maintenance costs. The cloud computing concept could be extended to the Aircraft Data Network Figure 1. Typical Aircraft Data Network environment with every aircraft subscribing to the Framework cloud resources to run their non mission-critical applications. In this paper, the authors explore the possibility of using cloud services for Aircraft Data Networks. The authors evaluate the performance issues involved with the aircraft mobility and dynamic resource transfer between servers when the aircrafts point-of-attachment changes. The authors predict that using cloud computing concepts would encourage many carriers to offer new services within the aircraft.


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A feasible way to provide the above mentioned services without significant costs is to host them on a task of providing data-intensive services like VoIP, ground server and provide those services as needed. VoD etc. over an aircraft. computing in ADN is Framework for cloud Once in place, the infrastructure will be available to for shown Computing in ADN ground stations are Figure 2. Typical Framework Cloud in Figure 2. All the provideComputing all the aircraft in range through a services to connected securely over high speed links and the Cloud services-hub, reducing the overallbased service authors assume there is enough redundancy with Cloud computing is a demand infrastructure costs. This set-up would onlythe Internet.SaaS respect to Internet connectivity between the ground provided to the user Service (SaaS): In a The a. Software as a through require minimal infrastructure upgrades to aircraft and in-air and stations. Details regarding cloud computing, virtual services can include Infrastructure, Platform, platform, the applications are offered to ensures that end users have access to the operating usersmaintenance costs would managedis to Software. and primary goalSoftware computing the The on demand. of cloud is be minimized machines and migration of virtual machines are latest software always. while centrally atimproved computing resources and providing the server and no maintenance discussed in theas a Service (PaaS): PaaS is a provide scalable access to flexibility. This paper b. Platform following sections. proposes using cloud computing to accomplish the IT services [3-8].from the user perspective. This is required highly scalable solution where hardware is provided as a virtualized entity to the end users. End users can always gain access to additional resources or relieve resources based on necessity. c. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): In IaaS based service, a set of hardware like servers, routers, and storage is provided to users to run custom applications. End users are not liable for the infrastructure as such

but have administrative control over the devices and software running over them. The proposed cloud architecture for ADNs is the combination of all threeto be used by ADNs is a from The proposed cloud types of services. Apart being differentiated based on thein uses public offer, Virtual Private Cloud (VPC). VPC ADNs: Advantages of using VPC services they cloud clouds areto create a cloud of its own. Typically in a resources also use of Bandwidth their Effective defined based on implementation. Types include private cloud, public VPC Scalable,interchangeable,remotelyconnected to network, the customer network is Though VPC provides a secure way to access cloudmanaged, and easilyIPSEC due to security & hybrid clouds. The main difference between the cloud services via an upgradeable [9-14]. cloud, it reduces throughput tunnel these Industry standard is that public clouds are more implementations products running on the overhead. Not every application can be used generic and open in passenger network needs more similar to office cloud, especially where as private clouds are a high tweakedsecurity. In suchextended as Hybrid Cloud of and personalized based on client level Easily modified or cases, Virtual requirements. be used in the Aircraft network,of both requirements change with combination (VHC) could Hybrid cloud is athe addition ofwhich public andapplications public and private cloud. are new private clouds is a combination of the where partial resources managed internallyaand others externally. and the Standard interfaces or workload burst Whenever there is spikeprovide a wide variety ofnetworkconfigurationswhile private cloud resources are exhausted, public cloud minimizing installation costs Minimal impact on aircraft installation and certification Noncomplex architecture and overcomes space constraints in aircrafts

resources can be used and then relinquished back to the public cloud when it is no longer needed. Migration of Virtual Machines A virtual machine (VM) contains all the components machine is a replication of an actual A virtual of a physical machine. However, a physical machinetied to physical hardware, a virtual machine, it is notiscan support multiplerunning on a Since which actually a program VMs, providing first method involves and applications and host. Eachflexibilityrun the own operating system or machine can be can in from one physical machine The VM moved its size two virtual available another without proposedover themethods. is capableonvendors support bothstorage space or server to of VMs. In applicationsofschema,installed machines sharing the same Several running the any interruption toone these the more andresearch,onflexibility areis shifted. Both VMs can support applications a a moving OS. this running theofThere have chosen separate services the controlit. the VM runningforXen For This gives the authors of two ways of single aircraft. each specific service offered over an main VMvirtual machine:andthe same path for theirADN. the for machines refer Hypervisor [15,16] to VMWare [17,18]. A data. criterion for migrating VMs is to save the running of the VM on one node and transfer it the another state The second method involves moving to virtual machine completely along with its transparent to the user [19-21]. XEN provides these storage files through server to another. migration options from oneXM restore and XM migrate commands respectively. VMware provides these two types of migrations using vMotion and Storage vMotion. In vMotion, the execution state and the active memory of the virtual machine are transmitted over a high speed network from one physical server to another and the access to the disk storage is instantly switched to the new physical host. In storage vMotion, all the virtual machine disk files are moved across storage locations. Both these

methods do not have any interruption to the applicationsis one of on the VMs. The user is not Security running the major concerns in VM involved inIn a cloud, security has to be implemented migration. Schema Proposed the migration of the VMs. both at hardware and software level. For this to Considering a flight path from location A paper, authors assumeauthors propose to implement a cloud location B, the that all possible security which are located around that geographical network. implementations are in place andFigure 3. will beis VM migration at each geographical location. Each cloud VM MigrationWhen ADN Cloud in an an aircraft moves from one geographical happening to a Storageenvironment. (SAN) and connected Replication Area Network location to other, the aircrafts VM will be moved Real time in a secure there could be more than one node in fromcloud from one node on a cloud to a node on the different When an aircraft moves far away that a node cloud in as showngeographic4. Replication will help it is connected to, performance degradation occurs SANs the new in Figure location of the aircraft. Ifmaintain similar copies of data atin theor more the aircraft is moving to a place two same in the VM and this issue increases as the aircraft geographic location, its VM can be moved around moves farther from the node. Moving the VM and locations. This can be done synchronously, so that from one node to other node insimultaneously. The its disk storage from one cloud to another at that every write will be executed the same cloud. VMs can bestored for the application is expectedsame moment is not a feasible option since the copy data moved in between nodes within the to be cloud to facilitate proper resource management and would take too long and be too disruptive to the relatively constant while in flight making avoid overloading on any physical node. All the services. To reduce this performance degradation, replication a feasible solution. nodes on a cloud will be connected to a SAN through the authors propose to use live replication across the a high speed link over which the VMs will be running. Figure 3 explains the proposed architecture of VM migration for ADNs.


Figure 4. Migration between Clouds with Real Time SAN starts at a location, a VM will When an aircraftReplication be created in theover IP Multi-Services node located near it. As the aircrafts path is already set, an instance of original VM will be created on each SAN along the aircrafts path and theflightstorage for eachrouting the voice VoIP in disk is achieved by of these VMs (VM States)the Internet orsignal, itreal time be It traffic over will be synced using based network. As voice is an analog any IP needs to replication. When an aircraft this digital board an is the servicea digital signal; moves from one is converted to provided to passengers on signal locationthatthe other, the VM will not be moved aircraft to overthem call switched networkor any transmitted lets a packet other passengers which completely. As the world at a low cost. and the data is already the signals other person in enhances the speech quality while in sync memory already allocated, onlythe use of codecs. efficiency is improved through the control of the VM is are three types of one node to another codec, There transferred from codecs: Waveform through an Internet connection. The bandwidthalso employs source codec, and hybrid codec. VoIP consumed at any point will be minimized because all the changes two types of protocols for signal control: Call done in the VM will be updated dynamically. The downtime of the VMs will be insignificant even if latency is taken into account. When the aircrafts virtual machine is contacting a particular node, all the VMs on other nodes will be locked out.

controlling and signaling protocols, and Carry voice payload protocols. Examples of call controlling and A VoIP implementation in aircrafts requires signaling protocols are H.323, sessionainitiation the installation of a call manager and separate protocol,to transfer voice control protocol, and network media gateway data. The infrastructure skinny client control protocol. is an overhead used to support VoIP in aircraft which can be overcome by using cloud computing. In our proposed schema, the VM running on the ground would route the call, and the aircraft itself would just have the call manager (CM), thus decreasing the infrastructure overhead. The for Figure 5. Proposed Network Architecture infrastructure framework forin an ADN Voice Communication VoIP in ADNs is Video-on-Demand shown in Figure 5. movies from a large Passengers choose database using Video-on-Demand (VoD). Storing movies on the flight digital media server (i.e. on local cabin servers) has a limitation in that the servers storage capacity is usually limited. While current aircraft broadband antennae are enough to provide Video on Demand and live TV, the authors recommend using Ku band (11-14 GHz) for broadband services which offers more bandwidth compared to L band [2].

To implement video on demand, the authors propose to first download user-requested movies from online movie rental companies to the cloud servers. Then get the movies from ground station web-servers and store them on local HDD servers on the aircraft. If any other passenger requests the same movie, he can directly watch the movie from the copy saved on the local server. After every flight, the local movie copies on the aircrafts HDD will be deleted. Infrastructure framework for VoD in ADNs is shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6. Proposed Network Architecture for Video-on-Demand in an ADN The down-link and up-link frequency sharing is done using just stream the video will reduce the Having to a technique similar to Time Division Duplex (TDD).Setupturn allowing carriers to to be number of servers inup-link bandwidth needs Experimental The and Results greater to allow for with a wider variety of downprovide passengers movie downloads while and Two base stations were setup to implement link the proposed architectures. Both nodeschannels entertainment. We can implement live TV were test bandwidth could be less since only requests and bywith the Ubuntu operatingbe accommodated. too acknowledgements need to system and IP setup streaming the channels through satellite Bandwidth allocation can be for VoD. using the same antenna used dynamically changed using TDD.

appropriate hypervisors. The Ubuntu image used to start the virtual environment we have in size with a In the same machine was 4.1 GB tried a block RAM size ofwere able toWe all files the virtual migration of the VM where moved are transferred Authors 1.068 GB. implement proposed machine from node. With theanother, where and a to destination one system VoIP by implementing architecture for VoIP inof to same ram size the Table 1. Summary ADNs Setup Results control was shifted. The virtual the migration files 6 withmanager on one of of 4GB, machine disk took total disk call the Parametersize the VMs running on the were stored seconds. It clearlyshared to communicate minutes This callstorage area indicates that the aircraft. 50 on a manager was able by both the Value machines and thiscall managers at39 seconds. time taken for moving the control tookground successfully with migration took ms (G.723) 604 the less time than moving the virtual machine completely. station. There were two setups; one with IPSEC 610 ms (G.711) Similar behavior is voiceas RAM sizes and disk In running (VPC) and seenwithout (hybrid cloud). Average delay for one sizes are (for 10 calls) calls were successfully the hybrid cloud setup, packets changed. 656ms (G.723 with placed. No major issues were seen in (G.711 with IPSEC call 698ms performance while the VM was migrated from one IPSEC) PSQM Scores node to another. With IPSEC running, initial calls Call setup time were placed without any issues, but new calls were 4-5 (Acceptable) unable to get established while the VM migration was in progress. Existing calls7-15 sec affected. were not Table 1 displays the summary of VoIP setup results. It was observed call performance stats were similar to the results published in [1].

Implementing VoD was challenging since proper IFE equipment was not present. The authors simulated the setup by streaming video from ground station to the users aboard the aircraft. A multicast streaming server was setup on a VM running on the aircraft. One interesting observation was that when a new movie was requested by user while VM migration was in progress, buffering didnt start until the VM migration was complete.

[2] Arumugam Murali, VOD and Live TV Channels for Aircraft Broadband Networks, [3] WhatisCloudComputing?, Wichita State Libraries, [4] R. Buyya, C. S. Yeo, S. Venugopal, J. Broberg, I. Brandic,Computing: Today and [5] W. Kim, Cloud Cloud computing and emerging IT platforms:A Berkeley View ofvol. 8,for Tomorrow,the Clouds: Object Technology,reality [6] Above Journal of Vision, hype, and Cloud delivering computing as 2009, pp. 65-72. no. CloudComputing,Oracle,Inc., Computing,http://www.eecs.berkeley Future [7] 1, January-February the 5th utility, Generation Computer Systems, vol 25, June 2009, .edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html [8] Eucalyptus, pp. J. Kirch, September 2007, Virtual machine _computing_final_new.pdf [9] 599-616. SecurityHyde, April 2009,Center for Internet [10] D. Guidelines, The A Survey on the Security.of Virtual Machines. Security [11] J. Carr, February 2008, Two vulnerabilities found in VMware virtualization products, [12] K. Owens, Securing Virtual Computer Shacham, S. Infrastructure in the Cloud, SavvisCorp. [13] T. Ristenpart, E. Tromer, H. Savage, November SecureHey,Mobile Cloud?, [14] How Will We 2009, the You, Get off My Cloud: ExploringDhawan, B. Chandreshekaran, [15] T. Ables, P. Information Leakage in ThirdPartyXEN,HowdoesXEN An Overview of XEN Virtualization, Dell Inc. on [16] Compute Clouds, 16th ACM Conference Computer and Communication Security. Work?, December 2009.

Conclusion and Future Work Cloud computing in aircraft data networks could revolutionize commercial aircraft VM The failure to establish calls during passenger service bywe couldnt test aadd more services at migration might becarriers IPSEC ACLs and While helping due to complete VoD minimal incrementalTroubleshootingable to the is asymmetric routing.bethe experimental setupprove scenario, resultscan costs. We were this issue Future work from aimed at minimizing with the thatiswork. Also, impact of switchingalsoand leftSecurity the live migration that QoS can as future to delays in transferring the VMs indicate help of cloud major with the and impact be downtime due another along concern replication control ofbetterresults toHowbetter performance than studied a protocolsgreat migrateon how can be and VMs could have work. impact VMs. Also, will be finding as VM ways in VM changing signaling of secure future a over far migration IFE this References movingprotocols work. Thanthry, andsynchronizing control asinwholecanN. on reliably R. Pendse, delivered future VM. be studied. work is highlyShah, also studied theA. dependent [1] Bhatia, future. data betweenServices andextended distances, an 2007, Voice SANs over Aviation Data Networks, area which could be studied further. In the Proceedings of 26th Digital Avionics Systems Conference, Dallas, TX.