Sie sind auf Seite 1von 81

THESIS

SKYSHINE RADIATION RESULTING FROM


6 MV AND 10 MV PHOTON BEAMS FROM A MEDICAL ACCELERATOR

Submitted by
Deirdre Harris Elder
Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences

In partial fulfillment of the requirements


For the Degree of Master of Science
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, Colorado
Summer 2008

ABSTRACT OF THESIS
SKYSHINE RADIATION RESULTING FROM
6 MV AND 10 MV PHOTON BEAMS FROM A MEDICAL ACCELERATOR
Skyshine radiation scattered in the atmosphere above a radiation therapy
accelerator facility can result in measurable dose rates on locations near the facility at
roof level and on the ground. A Reuter Stokes RSS-120 pressurized ion chamber was
used to measure exposure rates in the vicinity of a Varian Trilogy Linear Accelerator at
the Colorado State University Veterinary Medical Center. The linear accelerator was
used to deliver 6 MV photons and 10 MV photons with several combinations of field
sizes and gantry angles.
The equation in NCRP publications (2005, 1977) for modeling skyshine radiation
in the vicinity of medical accelerators is not a good fit to the observed dose rates at
ground level or on the roof. A more accurate method of estimating skyshine may be to
measure the exposure rate of the radiation exiting the roof of the facility and to scale the
results using the graphs presented in this thesis.

Deirdre H. Elder
Environmental and Radiological Sciences Department
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523
Summer 2008

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT OF THESIS.............ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................iii
Introduction........................................................................................................................1
Materials and Methods......................................................................................................3
The Accelerator Facility..........................................................................................3
Radiation Detection Instrumentation.......................................................................6
Calculation of Expected Radiation Levels...............................................................8
Results...............................................................................................................................10
Roof Transmission.................................................................................................10
RSS-120 PIC Calibration and Constancy..............................................................11
Skyshine Radiation at Ground Level Locations....................................................12
Skyshine Radiation Levels for Outside Locations at Roof Level.........................16
Skyshine Radiation Levels at Second Floor Corridor Locations..........................19
Discussion.........................................................................................................................20
Conclusion........................................................................................................................25
References........................................................................................................................26
Appendix A Calibration ..............................................................................................27
Appendix B RSS-120 PIC Constancy.........................................................................30
Appendix C Exposure Rate In Beam and Roof Shielding Transmission Factors..35
Appendix D Calculation of Expected Skyshine Dose Rate
Using NCRP 151 Method........................................................................36
Appendix E Skyshine Data and Analysis for Ground Locations.............................40
Appendix F Skyshine Data and Analysis for Outdoor Roof Locations...................60
Appendix G Skyshine Data and Analysis for Second Floor Corridor Locations...71
Appendix H Comparison of Skyshine to Primary Beam..........................................78

iii

Introduction
Skyshine is the term used for radiation that originates near the surface of the earth with an
upward velocity and then is scattered back by the molecules in the atmosphere. Skyshine
radiation is of concern because it can deliver radiation dose to the public in areas beyond
the boundary of the radiation production facility, even in areas that are not in the line of
sight of the source. When the Brookhaven Cosmotron and the Lawrence Berkeley
Bevatron became operational in 1953 and 1954, the radiation levels in the vicinity of the
accelerator facilities were much higher than predicted. This was due to neutrons that had
been scattered by the atmosphere (Thomas, 2001). Also, as early as 1957, the radiation
doses around hot cells used to store large quantities of radioactive materials were
reported to be high due to photon scattering (Rindi and Thomas, 1975). Both of these
phenomena were referred to as skyshine radiation. These observations led to a large
number of empirical and theoretical studies of radiation propagation and skyshine
radiation.
Several methods for calculating the expected skyshine radiation from x-ray and
gamma radiation facilities have been developed and are described by the National
Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP 2005). These methods
include an equation for dose rate at a location based on the dose rate at isocenter, the
solid angle of the beam, and geometric considerations. McGinley (1993) measured
skyshine radiation levels in the vicinity of a medical accelerator producing 18 MV

photons. His results showed a discrepancy with the values calculated using NCRP (2005,
1977) methods.
The most common photon energies for medical accelerators are 6 MV and 10
MV. Neutron production is not a concern at these energies, but photon skyshine can
contribute a radiation dose to employees or members of the public. Even when all
radiation levels in the vicinity of the accelerator are below regulatory limits, the ALARA
principle requires that the radiation exposures be kept as low as reasonably achievable.
This requires knowledge of the radiation levels present.
The purpose of this work is to examine the skyshine radiation levels on the roof
and at ground level in the vicinity of a radiation therapy accelerator facility which
produces 6 MV and 10 MV photons. The radiation exposure rates were measured using a
pressurized ion chamber with an eight liter volume and the results were compared to the
values calculated using the equation in NCRP 151 (2005). This research shows that the
model in NCRP 151 does not fit the observed values of skyshine radiation.

Materials and Methods


The Accelerator Facility
A Varian Trilogy Accelerator (Varian Trilogy, Varian Medical Systems, Palo
Alto, CA 94304) was commissioned at the Colorado State University Veterinary Medical
Center in autumn 2007. The walls of the Edward L. Gillette Radiation Oncology Suite
are constructed of 1.5 m of concrete in the primary beam (Fig. 1). This provides
sufficient shielding from direct radiation. However, as is the case at many accelerator
facilities, the roof has minimal shielding and radiation escapes vertically. This radiation
is scattered in the atmosphere resulting in measurable levels of skyshine on the roof and
at ground level around the facility.
N

Control
Room

Scale
= 1 meter

= Axis of Gantry
Rotation

A
Ground
Locations
Outside
Facility

Fig. 1. Plan view of the radiation therapy suite. The ground locations to the west are
indicated by the arrow. Location A on the plan indicates where the constancy
measurements were taken. The axis of rotation of the accelerator gantry is in the northsouth direction at a height of 1.3 m above the floor.
3

The locations selected for skyshine measurements were at ground level along a
line to the west of the isocenter (Fig. 1) and at roof level, both outside directly south of
the isocenter and inside along a corridor (Fig. 2).

Chain Link
Fence
Isocenter
Below

Scale
= 1 meter

Outside
Roof
Locations

Inside 2nd
Floor Corridor

Fig. 2. Plan view of the roof of the radiation therapy suite. The locations for
measurements at roof level are indicated by the arrows. Measurements were taken
outside directly south of the isocenter location beginning at the second fence.
Measurements were also taken inside along the corridor as shown.
The Varian Trilogy is a linear accelerator for radiation oncology therapy. The
dose rate is calibrated at dmax in a water phantom with a source to surface distance (SSD)
of 100 cm. For 6 MV photons, dmax is at a depth of 1.5 cm and for 10 MV photons, dmax
is at a depth of 2.5 cm. The Varian Trilogy is capable of delivering 6 MV photons at
dose rates up to 1000 cGy min-1 and 10 MV photons at dose rates up to 600 cGy min-1
For the purposes of this study, the Trilogy accelerator was operated at a dose rate of 600
cGy min-1 during all measurements. The gantry rotates about the isocenter, a point 100
cm from the accelerator target (Fig 3). Data were obtained for vertical gantry (180) for
all measurement locations. Data were also obtained with gantry angle 205 for the
ground level measurements and 155 for the corridor measurements (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4).
4

The collimators can be adjusted to dimensions from 0.5 cm to 40 cm measured at


isocenter. For this project, the collimator was closed to 0.5 cm 0.5 cm beam to measure
leakage radiation. For skyshine measurements, a field size of 10 cm 10 cm at isocenter
was used because it is the most common for traditional treatment plans. Measurements
were also taken for a 40 cm 40 cm field because it is the largest field size available with
this accelerator.
Gantry angle 0

Isocenter
Gantry
270

Gantry 90

Gantry
205 (25
to west)

Gantry 155
Gantry angle 180 (25 the east)
Beam Vertical

Fig 3. The gantry of the accelerator rotates about the isocenter. The angles are defined
such that 0 is at the top with the beam directed downward. The angles increase in the
clockwise direction as viewed facing the gantry.

Figure 4. The Varian Trilogy radiation therapy accelerator set to gantry angles of 180
and 205 for skyshine measurements.
5

Radiation Detection Instrumentation


The skyshine radiation measurements were made using a Reuter-Stokes Gamma
Radiation Sensor (RSS-120-100mR, Reuter-Stokes, Inc, 8499 Darrow Rd., Twinsburg,
Ohio 44087). The calibration certificate is in Appendix A. The RSS-120 is a spherical
ion chamber with an eight liter volume containing 25 atmospheres of argon. The unit
includes an auto-ranging electrometer with a low range of zero to 500 R h-1 and a high
range from 0.5 to 100 mR h-1. A Fluke model 25 digital multimeter (Fluke Corporation,
6920 Seaway Blvd., Everett, WA 98206) was used to measure the output voltage. An
internal 300 V battery provides the sensor bias voltage and an external 12 V rechargeable
battery pack supplies DC power to the electrometer. The RSS-120 pressurized ion
chamber (PIC) and the case containing the readout multimeter and the 12 V battery were
placed on a plastic cart with a horizontal surface 0.75 meter above the ground (Fig. 5) for
all measurements.

Figure 5. The RSS-120 PIC and the case containing the 12 V battery pack and a Fluke
digital multimeter for voltage readout were placed on a plastic cart for all measurements.

To measure and document instrument drift for the RSS-120, constancy


measurements were taken before and after each set of skyshine data. The PIC on the cart
was placed at position A as indicated in Fig. 1. Measurements were made with the gantry
facing west (270) and the collimator closed (0.5 cm 0.5 cm) for 6 MV and 10 MV
photons. These conditions yielded low range measurements from the electrometer.
Measurements were then made with the gantry facing east (90) and collimator wide
open (40 cm 40 cm) for 6 MV and 10 MV photons to test the high range.
For each location measurements were taken with the accelerator off to obtain
background levels, Measurements were also taken with the accelerator on and the
collimator closed to obtain leakage radiation measurements for each energy. For each
measurement of background, leakage, constancy or skyshine, five data points were
collected and averaged. The voltage readings were converted to exposure rates using the
calibration factor. The net skyshine radiation at each location and energy was determined
by subtracting the average background radiation and the average leakage, for that
location and energy, from the exposure rate measured.
In order to determine the transmission through the roof, the exposure rate in the
beam was measured at isocenter and in the center of the beam 0.90 meter above the roof.
Two instruments were used for these measurements to provide redundancy and validate
the results. The exposure rate was measured directly using a RadCal Model 2025
Radiation Monitor (Model 2025 Monitor with Model 20X5-3 Electrometer/Ion Chamber,
RadCal Corporation 426 West Duarte Road, Monrovia, CA 91016). The 3 cm3 ion
chamber was used with a buildup cap equivalent to 0.5 cm of water. In addition, a 0.6
cm3 Farmer chamber (PTW Model N30013 Farmer Chamber, PTW-Freiburg, Lrracher

Strasse 7, 79115 Freiburg, Germany) with an aluminum buildup cap equivalent to 2.5 cm
of water was used. The collected charge was displayed with a Keithley advanced therapy
dosimeter (Model 35040, Keithley Instruments, Inc., 28775 Aurora Road, Cleveland,
Ohio 44139). The exposure rate was determined by multiplying the charge (in nC) by the
calibration factor (Appendix C).
The distance from the floor of the therapy suite to the roof is 4.88 m and the
distance from the floor to the isocenter is 1.31 m. The RadCal chamber and the PTW
chamber were mounted on a stand 0.9 m above the level of the roof. When the gantry is
at 180, the target to chamber distance is 5.47 m. The roof shielding transmission factor
for photons, Bxs, is calculated using equation 1:
X& chamber d tc2
Bxs =
X& iso

(1)

where:

X& chamber is the exposure rate at the chamber location on the roof;

X& iso is the exposure rate at the isocenter (100 cm from the target);
d tc is the distance from the target to the chamber above the roof.

Calculation of Expected Radiation Levels


The expected skyshine radiation levels at ground locations outside the accelerator facility
(Fig. 6) are calculated using the methods of McGinley (2002) as described in NCRP 151
(2005).


2m

di
+

Isocenter
Detector

Target

ds

Fig 6. A simplified schematic showing the isocenter and the geometric variables used in
equation 1 for photon skyshine calculation. (NCRP 2005).
The dose equivalent rate at a horizontal distance from the isocenter of the beam is
given by equation 2 (NCRP, 2005):

2.5 10 7 D& 0 Bxs 1.3


H& =
(d i d s )2

(2)

where:

H& is the dose equivalent rate in nG h-1;


D& 0 is the absorbed dose output rate at one meter from the source in Gy h-1;
Bxs is the roof shielding transmission factor for photons;
is the solid angle of the beam in steradians;

di is the vertical distance from the target to a point two meters above the roof;
ds is the horizontal distance of the location of interest from the isocenter.

Results
Roof Transmission

The Varian Trilogy was set to deliver a dose rate of 600 cGy min-1 at dmax for an
SSD of 100 cm. Measurements of exposure rate were taken at isocenter and at a location
0.9 m above the roof. Data were obtained for 6 MV and 10 MV photons at a gantry angle
of 180 for 10 cm 10 cm and 40 cm 40 cm field sizes. The roof shielding
transmission factors, Bxs, to be used in later calculations are highlighted in Table 1. The
data for the 10 cm 10 cm field size was used to calculate the transmission factors
because the 40 cm 40 cm field size has significantly more scatter which increases the
reading at the chamber location. There is a discrepancy in the exposure rate values due to
insufficient buildup for the RadCal 20X5-3 in the beam at isocenter and a 5% uncertainty
in calibration for both probes.
Results from RadCal 2025 with Model 20X5-3 Probe including Cobalt-60 buildup cap
Exposure Rate R min-1
Exposure Rate C kg s
Isocenter
Roof
Isocenter
Roof
Ratio
Bxs
6 MV 10x10
594.87
0.514
0.153
1.33E-04
0.0009
0.027
6 MV 40x40
655.08
1.098
0.169
2.83E-04
0.0017
10 MV 10x10
517.81
0.917
0.134
2.37E-04
0.0018
0.055
10 MV 40x40
611.73
1.881
0.158
4.85E-04
0.0031
Results from PTW Model N30013 Farmer Chamber with Aluminum Buildup Cap
Exposure Rate R min-1
Exposure Rate C kg s
Bxs
Isocenter
Roof
Isocenter
Roof
Ratio
6 MV 10x10
639.37
0.564
0.165
1.46E-04
0.0009
0.027
6 MV 40x40
673.01
1.167
0.174
3.01E-04
0.0017
10 MV 10x10
684.04
1.151
0.176
2.97E-04
0.0017
0.052
10 MV 40x40
728.09
2.005
0.188
5.17E-04
0.0028

Table 1. Exposure rates and roof transmission factors calculated based on data obtained
with the RadCal 2025 and with the PTW N30013 (Appendix C).
10

RSS-120 PIC Calibration and Constancy

The RSS-120 PIC was calibrated by K&S Associates (1926 Elm Tree Drive,
Nashville, TN 37210, 6 May 2008). The calibration factor for the low range (exposure
rates zero to 500 R h-1) is 0.554 R hr-1 mV-1. The calibration factor for the high range
(exposure rates 0.5 to 100 mR h-1) is 10.93 R hr-1 mV-1. The accuracy of the calibration
factor is plus or minus 10% (Appendix A).
Measurements were taken using the RSS-120 PIC on six different days. To verify
that the instrument response was consistent over time, constancy measurements were
taken for background and high and low range conditions (Appendix B). The
measurements of background radiation had a coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.0406.
The CV for the 6 MV low range was 0.0335 and the CV for the 10 MV low range was
0.0329. For the 6 MV high range, the CV was 0.049. The measurements taken for 10
MV high range condition had a CV of 0.137. The exposure rate for the high range
condition (gantry 90, collimator 40 cm 40 cm) was at the upper end of the operating
range of the RSS-120 and the voltage output was dependent on the electrometer bias
voltage (Fig. 9). None of the PIC readings for the skyshine data were above 4 V high
range, which is well within the operating range of the RSS-120.

11

PIC Constancy

12

6 MV Low
Range
10 MV Low
Range

PIC Output (V)

10

6 MV High
Range

10 MV High
Range
Background

6
4
2
0
10

11

12

Battery Voltage (with load)

13

Fig. 9. Average output voltages for the RSS-120 PIC during constancy measurements for
the conditions indicated previously. The 10 MV high range output was sensitive to the
voltage of the 12 V battery that provided the electrometer bias.

Skyshine Radiation at Ground Level Locations

The skyshine radiation was measured for locations beginning at the outside wall
of the radiation therapy suite and extending 50 meters to the west (Fig. 1). The exposure
rate data was placed in Appendix E. For a gantry angle of 180, the location of the peak
is 10.9 m from the isocenter. The measured radiation levels at the peak for both photon
energies and field sizes are given in Table 2.
To normalize the skyshine exposure rate to a quantity that can be measured at
most medical accelerator facilities, the net skyshine exposure rate at a given location was
divided by the exposure rate for radiation exiting the roof above the isocenter. The ratio
was calculated for both energies and both field sizes (Fig. 10).

12

Exposure Rates in mR h-1


40 cm 40 cm field

10 cm 10 cm field

Location of Peak

6 MV

10 MV

6 MV

10 MV

180

10.9 m

1.88

2.32

0.115

0.144

205

10.0 m

1.99

2.69

0.146

0.197

Gantry

Table 2. Skyshine exposure rates (mR h-1) measured at the location of the peak for both
gantry angles, both energies and both field sizes.
The transmission of photons increases with photon energy, but higher energy
photons scatter in the forward direction. The combination of these factors results in
higher net exposure rates for the 10 MV photons, but a lower ratio between the skyshine
radiation and the radiation leaving the roof above the isocenter (Fig. 10 a and b). The 40
cm 40 cm field size has sixteen times the area of a 10 cm x 10 cm field size and results
in exposure rates sixteen times as high, as expected. The size of the error bars in Fig. 10
are calculated using propagation of errors, which include the 10% uncertainty in the RSS120 PIC calibration factor and the variation in background radiation, leakage and PIC
measurements.
For a gantry angle of 205 the peak exposure rate is greater than for a gantry angle
of 180, and occurs closer to the wall. The transmission factor and exposure rate exiting
the roof were not determined for a 205 gantry angle, so ratios were not calculated.

13

Ratio of Skyshine Radiation


to the Exposure Rate Exiting the Roof
for a 40 x 40 Field with 180 Gantry

3.00E-05

6 MV
10 MV

2.50E-05

Ratio

2.00E-05
1.50E-05
1.00E-05
5.00E-06
0.00E+00
0

10

20

30

40

50

Distance from Isocenter (m)

(a)

Ratio of Skyshine Radiation


to the Exposure Rate Exiting the Roof
for 10 x 10 Field with 180 Gantry

4.00E-06

6 MV

3.50E-06

10 MV

3.00E-06

Ratio

2.50E-06
2.00E-06
1.50E-06
1.00E-06
5.00E-07
0.00E+00
0

10

20

30

Distance from Isocenter (m)

40

50

(b)
Fig. 10. The net exposure rate for skyshine radiation at a location was divided by the
exposure rate measured 0.9 m above the roof above isocenter. The gantry angle was 180
and the field sizes were (a) 40 cm 40 cm and (b) 10 cm x 10 cm.

14

The expected skyshine radiation for ground and roof locations was calculated in
Appendix D using equation (2). The calculated and measured skyshine dose rates for
ground locations are compared in Fig. 11.
Skyshine Dose Rates at Ground Locations
For 40 x 40 Field Size

Net Dose Rate (Gy/hr)

35

6 MV Calculated
6 MV Measured

30

10 MV Calculated

25

10 MV Measured

20
15
10
5
0
0

10

20

30

Distance From Isocenter (m)

40

50

(a)
Skyshine Dose Rates at Ground Locations
For 10 x 10 Field Size

Net Dose Rate (Gy/hr)

1.5

6 MV Calculated
6 MV Measured
10 MV Calculated
10 MV Measured

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

20

30

40

Distance from Isocenter (m)


(b)
Fig. 11. Skyshine dose rates measured and calculated using equation 2 for
(a) 40 cm 40 cm and (b) 10 cm 10 cm field sizes.

50

15

Skyshine Radiation Levels for Outside Locations at Roof Level

The skyshine radiation was measured on the roof beginning at the second fence
(Fig. 2) and extending 50 meters south. The exposure rate data for outside roof locations
was placed in Appendix F. Only a vertical gantry angle (180) was used for
measurements made along the line south of the isocenter. As shown in Fig. 12, for the
roof locations there is no peak in the skyshine radiation curve. The exposure rate
decreased with distance for all roof locations. The skyshine exposure rate was
normalized to the radiation exiting the roof above isocenter. The ratio of skyshine to
beam exiting the roof was calculated for both energies and both field sizes (Fig. 12).
Measurements were not obtained for locations inside the second fence (Fig. 2).
The plastic cart on which the PIC was placed for all measurements did not fit between the
inner and middle fences, and the values obtained were very different when the PIC was
set on the roof compared to on the cart. For example, at the location just outside the
second fence, the PIC sitting on the cart produced readings more than a factor of 3 higher
than when the PIC was sitting directly on the roof. At the location outside the outer
fence, the cart level readings were more than 68% higher than the roof level readings for
the same beam conditions.
Since the shape of the exposure rate curve for outdoor locations on the roof is
similar to the shape of the graph generated using equation (2), a comparison was made
between measured skyshine radiation and the calculated values (Appendix D).
The calculation of skyshine radiation using the same value of di as was used for the
ground locations (di = 6.57) resulted in estimates of skyshine that were significantly
lower than the observed radiation dose rates. (Fig. D.1). The di is the distance from the

16

target to a point 2 m above the roof, so the calculations were repeated with a di value of
2.0 m resulting in a better fit to the data (Fig. D.2). However, the calculated dose rate is
still an underestimation, and more work needs to be done to develop a model that fits the
data for skyshine radiation at roof level.

17

Ratio of Skyshine Radiation


to the Exposure Rate Exiting the Roof
for a 40 x 40 Field with 180Gantry

1.00E-03

6 MV
10 MV

Ratio

1.00E-04

1.00E-05

1.00E-06

10

20

30

40

50

Distance from Isocenter (m)

(a)
Ratio of Skyshine Radiation
to the Exposure Rate Exiting the Roof
for a 10 x 10 Field with 180 Gantry
1.00E-04
6 MV

Ratio

10 MV

1.00E-05

1.00E-06

1.00E-07
0

10

20

30

40

Distance from Isocenter (m)

50

(b)
Fig. 12. Ratio of skyshine radiation at a location on the roof to the exposure rate
exiting the roof. The net exposure rate for skyshine radiation at a location was
divided by the exposure rate measured 0.9 m above the roof above isocenter. The
field sizes were (a) 40 cm 40 cm and (b) 10 cm 10 cm.

18

Skyshine Radiation Levels at Second Floor Corridor Locations

The skyshine dose rates were determined for locations beginning at the north wall
and extending 40 meters down the second floor corridor (Fig. 2). The net dose rates in
the corridor are no more than 6% of the values at the same distance outside.

Net Dose Rate (Gy/h)

Skyshine Dose Rates in Second Floor Corridor


40 x 40 Field Size
4

10 MV G180

3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

10 MV G 155
6 MV G 180
6 MV G 155
Background

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Distance from Isocenter (m)

(a)
Skyshine Dose Rates in Second Floor Corridor
10 x 10 Field Size
Net Dose Rate (Gy/h)

0.4

10 MV G180
10 MV G155

0.35

6 MV G180
6 MV G155

0.3

Background
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1

10

15

20

25

30

35

Distance from Isocenter (m)

40

45

(b)
Fig. 14. The skyshine dose rates measured in the second floor corridor for 6 MV and 10
MV photons with gantry angles of 180 and 155. The field sizes are (a) 40 cm 40 cm
and (b) 10 cm 10 cm.

19

Discussion

The skyshine radiation observed at a location depends on the energy of the


photons, the field size and the gantry angle. As expected, the exposure rate is higher
when the gantry is pointing towards the location of the detector than when it is vertical.
At ground locations, the exposure rate increased as the detector was moved away
from the wall until a point between ten and eleven meters from the wall, then the
exposure rate decreased with r2 (Appendix E). The wall of the radiation therapy suite
shields locations near the wall from the scattered radiation. An unexpected result is that
the location of highest exposure rate for ground locations is closer to the wall when the
gantry is not vertical (Fig 15).
Gantry 180
Gantry 205

+ Isocenter

ds

Fig. 15. Skyshine radiation exposure rates at ground level locations have a peak at a
location that is closer to the wall when the gantry is tilted towards the detector.

20

A chain link fence encloses an area extending 15.5 m west from the wall of the
radiation therapy suite. An unanticipated decline in readings was observed immediately
beyond the fence (Fig. 16).

Skysine Exposure Rates - Ground Locations


Gantry 205, Field 40 x 40

Exposure Rate (uR/hr)

3000

6 MV

2500

10 MV
Background

2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

Distance from Isocenter (m eters)

Fig. 16. The exposure rate immediately outside the chain link fence was noticeably
reduced. The graphs of exposure rates for other beam conditions (Appendix E) show the
same anomaly.
McGinley (2002) obtained data for skyshine radiation at ground level outside a
facility with an 18 MV accelerator. The units have been changed and the results were
graphed to allow comparison with the results from this study (Fig. 17). In both cases, the
field size at isocenter was 40 cm 40 cm and the gantry was vertical. McGinley used a
dose rate of 400 cGy/min at isocenter and a roof transmission of 1.0 (no attenuation). In
this study, the dose rate was 600 cGy/min at dmax and the roof transmission was 0.027 for
6 MV photons and 0.055 for 10 MV photons. In spite of these differences, the shapes of
the curves are similar. It is clear from these graphs that the equation (2) from NCRP

21

(2005) does not fit the data obtained at ground level locations outside an accelerator
facility.
Skyshine Dose Rates
40 x 40 Field Size, 10 MV

Net Dose Rate (Gy/h)

30

Measured
Calculated

25
20
15
10
5
0
0

10

20

30

Distance From Isocenter (m)

50

40

(a)
McGinley (1993) Skyshine Dose Rates
40 x 40 Field, 18 MV

200

Measured

Photon Rate (Gy/h)

180

Calculated

160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

10

20
30
Distance from Isocenter (m)

40

50

(b)
Fig. 17. The calculated and observed skyshine dose rates due to medical accelerators.
The field sizes are 40 cm 40 cm. (a) Skyshine dose rates observed in this study due to
10 MV photons. (b) Skyshine from an 18 MV accelerator (McGinley, 1993).

22

The author proposes that medical accelerator facilities with 6 MV or 10 MV


photon beams measure the exposure rate in the beam at a point 0.9 m above the roof and
multiply by the values in Fig. 10 to determine the expected skyshine radiation exposure
rates at ground level locations.
On the roof, there is no evidence of a peak in the exposure rate curve. This is
reasonable since there is no vertical wall to shield roof locations from the skyshine
radiation. The shape of the curve obtained using the equation in NCRP 151 (NCRP,
2005) is similar to the data obtained outside on the roof. Nevertheless, more data is
needed from facilities with different energies and geometries to determine an appropriate
model for skyshine radiation at roof locations. The author proposes that medical
accelerator facilities with 6 MV or 10 MV photon beams measure the exposure rate in the
beam at a point 0.9 m above the roof and multiply by the values in Fig. 12 to determine
the expected skyshine radiation exposure rates at roof level locations.
In the 2nd floor corridor, the skyshine radiation is reduced to less than 6% of the
outside values at the same distance from the isocenter (with a gantry angle of 155).
When the gantry is vertical (180), the dose rates in the hallway are approximately 2% of
the rates outside at the same distance from the isocenter The curves are not as smooth as
those obtained outside because the exposure rates are the same order of magnitude as the
background radiation with similar variability. In addition, differences in shielding
material within the roof (duct work, etc.) may cause the attenuation of the skyshine to
vary with location.
It was also observed that the exposure rate in the corridor dropped by up to 50%
when people walked by. It was surprising that the radiation was attenuated to such a

23

large degree by a person in the hallway. Measurements were repeated when this
occurred, but it is clear that the measurements made in the hallway were sensitive to the
conditions at the PIC location and between the PIC and the source.
It is important to put skyshine radiation in perspective. The relative importance of
primary beam radiation, leakage, scatter and skyshine depend on the treatment protocols
in use at the accelerator facility and the shielding in the walls and the roof. At a ground
level location 10.9 m from the isocenter at the CSU VMC accelerator facility, the
skyshine radiation is a maximum. For field sizes of 10 cm 10 cm, if we assume the use
factor is the same for the roof and the wall (i.e. let U=0.25), the weekly dose due to
skyshine at that location is 5% of the dose due to the primary beam for 6 MV photons and
1% for 10 MV photons (Appendix H). In comparison, the dose from scatter is less than
4% and the dose from leakage is less than 0.1% of the dose due to the primary beam.
Scatter and leakage radiation are taken into consideration when designing the shielding
for a radiation therapy facility. Skyshine radiation should also be considered.

24

Conclusion

The dose rates due to skyshine radiation depend on the energy, the field size, the
gantry angle and the dose rate in the primary beam. They also are sensitive to the
conditions at the location of the measurement.
The equation used to model skyshine in NCRP publications (2005, 1977) is not a
good fit to the observed dose rates at ground level or on the roof outside a medical
accelerator facility. At ground level locations, there is a region in which the skyshine is
shielded by the wall. The dose rate increases to a peak location approximately 10 m from
the wall and then decreases with r2. For locations on the roof of the facility, there is no
region of shielding and thus no peak in the curve. The shape of the curve produced by
equation (2) is similar to the observed dose rates at roof level, but the parameters need to
be adjusted to obtain a good fit to the data.
The author recommends that a more accurate method for estimating skyshine
radiation in the vicinity of a medical accelerator facility is to measure the exposure rate of
the radiation exiting the roof of the facility and to scale the results using Fig. 10 for
ground level locations and Fig. 12 for locations on the roof.
Additional data is needed from facilities operating at different energies and with
different geometries in order to accurately estimate the skyshine radiation in the vicinity
of current and future medical accelerator facilities.

25

References

McGinley PH. Radiation skyshine produced by an 18 MeV medical accelerator. Radiat


Prot Manage 10, 59-64; 1993.
McGinley PH. Shielding techniques for radiation oncology facilities. 2nd ed. Madison,
WI: Medical Physics Publishing; 2002: 101-106.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Structural shielding design
and evaluation for megavoltage x- and gamma-ray radiotherapy facilities. Bethesda, MD:
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements; NCRP Report No. 151;
2005: 84-88.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Radiation protection
design guidelines for 0.1-100 MeV particle accelerator facilities. Washington, DC :
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements; NCRP Report No. 51;
1977.
Rindi A, Thomas RH. Skyshine a paper tiger? Particle Accelerators 7: 23-39; 1975.
Thomas RH. The history and future of accelerator radiological protection. Radiat Prot
Dosimetry 96:441-457; 2001.
Varian Medical Systems 3100 Hansen Way, Palo Alto, CA. [online]
http://www.varian.com/us/oncology/radiation_oncology/trilogy/. Accessed 22 April
2008.

26

Appendix A Calibration

27

Figure A.1. The calibration certificate for the RSS-120 PIC.

28

Exposure Rate (uR/h)

RSS-120 Low Range Calibration

y = 0.0554x - 2.5165

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

PIC Reading (mV)

Figure A.2. The calibration curve for the low range of the RSS-120 PIC. The calibration
factor is 0.0554 R h-1 mV-1 (18.047 mV R-1 h). The coefficient of determination, R2, is
equal to 1.0.
RSS-120 High Range Calibration

y = 10.947x - 31.324

Exposure Rate (uR/h)

90000
80000
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

PIC Reading (mV)

Figure A.3. The calibration curve for the high range of the RSS-120 PIC. The
calibration factor is 10.47 R h-1 mV-1 (0.0913 mV R-1 h). The coefficient of
determination, R2, is equal to 1.0.

29

Appendix B RSS-120 PIC Constancy

30

Table B.1. PIC Constancy Raw Data


Date:
Background:

3/5/2008
0.317
0.326
0.340
0.331
0.332 Battery No Load
0.334
0.322
0.327
Battery w/ Load
Constancy readings taken with gantry facing west (270) and collimator closed (0.5x0.5)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
0.452
0.432
0.435
0.433
0.459
10 MV
1.331
1.389
1.312
1.377
1.426

11.62
11.50

Constancy readings taken with gantry facing east (90) and collimator wide open (40x40)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
2.105
2.097
2.100
2.117
2.108 High Range
10 MV
7.870
7.880
7.870
7.880
7.880 High Range
Date:
3/12/2008
Background:
0.336
Background:
0.334

0.329
0.337

0.350
0.348

0.355
0.352

0.356 Battery No Load


0.331 Battery w/ Load

11.26
9.82

Constancy readings taken with gantry facing west (270) and collimator closed (0.5x0.5)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
0.449
0.471
0.462
0.455
0.443
10 MV
1.365
1.415
1.460
1.456
1.423
Constancy readings taken with gantry facing east (90) and collimator wide open (40x40)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
2.051
2.041
2.067
2.073
2.061 High Range
10 MV
6.940
6.940
6.940
6.930
6.930 High Range
Date:
3/27/2008
Background:
0.368
Background:
0.340

3:00 PM
0.351
0.344

0.343
0.335

0.339
0.350

0.348 Battery No Load


0.345 Battery w/ Load

12.25
11.83

Constancy readings taken with gantry facing west (270) and collimator closed (0.5x0.5)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
0.462
0.459
0.468
0.464
0.473
10 MV
1.445
1.426
1.471
1.454
1.463
Constancy readings taken with gantry facing east (90) and collimator wide open (40x40)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
2.055
2.054
2.060
2.043
2.061 High Range
10 MV
9.570
9.570
9.570
9.570
9.570 High Range
Date:
3/27/2008
Background:
0.368
Background:
0.340

3:00 PM
0.351
0.344

0.343
0.335

0.339
0.350

0.348 Battery No Load


0.345 Battery w/ Load

12.25
11.83

Constancy readings taken with gantry facing west (270) and collimator closed (0.5x0.5)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
0.462
0.459
0.468
0.464
0.473
10 MV
1.445
1.426
1.471
1.454
1.463
Constancy readings taken with gantry facing east (90) and collimator wide open (40x40)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
2.055
2.054
2.060
2.043
2.061 High Range
10 MV
9.570
9.570
9.570
9.570
9.570 High Range

31

Table B.1.
Date:_
3/27/2008
Background:
0.340
Background:
0.351

5:00 PM
0.343
0.406

0.352
0.355

0.352
0.353

0.343 Battery No Load


0.348 Battery w/ Load

12.18
11.74

Constancy readings taken with gantry facing west (270) and collimator closed (0.5x0.5)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
0.474
0.491
0.486
0.475
0.456
10 MV
1.507
1.489
1.491
1.509
1.510
Constancy readings taken with gantry facing east (90) and collimator wide open (40x40)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
2.083
2.098
2.092
2.075
2.113 High Range
10 MV
9.420
9.420
9.420
9.420
9.420 High Range
Date:
3/31/2008
Background:
0.338
Background:
0.338

3:00 PM
0.337
0.340

0.351
0.350

0.320
0.344

0.328 Battery No Load


0.330 Battery w/ Load

12.89
12.53

Constancy readings taken with gantry facing west (270) and collimator closed (0.5x0.5)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
0.454
0.467
0.450
0.460
0.454
10 MV
1.381
1.382
1.424
1.424
1.419
Constancy readings taken with gantry facing east (90) and collimator wide open (40x40)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
2.064
2.056
2.030
2.037
2.039 High Range
10 MV
10.230
10.230
10.230
10.230
10.230 High Range
Date:_
3/31/2008
Background:
0.319
Background:
0.319

5:00 PM
0.316
0.322

0.333
0.336

0.335
0.330

0.334 Battery No Load


0.318 Battery w/ Load

12.73
12.36

Constancy readings taken with gantry facing west (270) and collimator closed (0.5x0.5)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
0.452
0.459
0.471
0.452
0.466
10 MV
1.361
1.387
1.412
1.426
1.420
Constancy readings taken with gantry facing east (90) and collimator wide open (40x40)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
2.039
2.024
2.021
2.047
2.038 High Range
10 MV
10.170
10.160
10.160
10.170
10.160 High Range

Date:
Background:
Background:

4/2/2008
0.361
0.362

1:30 PM
0.352
0.336

0.339
0.328

0.335
0.337

0.349 Battery No Load


0.340 Battery w/ Load

13.01
12.94

Constancy readings taken with gantry facing west (270) and collimator closed (0.5x0.5)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
0.463
0.476
0.492
0.469
0.463
10 MV
1.450
1.435
1.460
1.476
1.456
Constancy readings taken with gantry facing east (90) and collimator wide open (40x40)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
2.033
2.071
2.032
2.030
2.035 High Range

32

Table B.1.
Date:
Background:
Background:

4/2/2008
0.327

5:00 PM
0.330

0.331

0.331

0.326 Battery No Load


Battery w/ Load

12.93
12.87

Constancy readings taken with gantry facing west (270) and collimator closed (0.5x0.5)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
0.473
0.474
0.464
0.458
0.471
10 MV
1.482
1.543
1.500
1.534
1.499
Constancy readings taken with gantry facing east (90) and collimator wide open (40x40)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
1.811
1.809
1.793
1.811
1.802 High Range
Date:_
Background:
Background:

4/2/2008
0.354

8:00 PM
0.355

0.352

0.350

0.354 Battery No Load


Battery w/ Load

12.92
12.85

Constancy readings taken with gantry facing west (270) and collimator closed (0.5x0.5)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
0.445
0.480
0.476
0.496
0.488
10 MV
1.440
1.468
1.426
1.446
1.442
Constancy readings taken with gantry facing east (90) and collimator wide open (40x40)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
1.836
1.819
1.832
1.822
1.837 High Range
Date:
Background:

4/8/2008
0.344

4:15 PM
0.361

0.338

0.351

0.353 Battery No Load


Battery w/ Load

13.01
12.92

Constancy readings taken with gantry facing west (270) and collimator closed (0.5x0.5)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
0.456
0.428
0.433
0.458
0.466
10 MV
1.438
1.404
1.427
1.434
1.403
Constancy readings taken with gantry facing east (90) and collimator wide open (40x40)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
2.065
2.083
2.054
2.074
2.059 High Range
Date:
Background:

4/8/2008
0.347

5:40 AM
0.349

0.347

0.346

0.362 Battery No Load


Battery w/ Load

12.96
12.89

Constancy readings taken with gantry facing west (270) and collimator closed (0.5x0.5)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
0.450
0.450
0.469
0.439
0.453
10 MV
1.411
1.394
1.428
1.410
1.401
Constancy readings taken with gantry facing east (90) and collimator wide open (40x40)
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
6 MV
2.078
2.069
2.067
2.043
2.087 High Range

33

Table B.2. PIC Constancy Statistical Analysis


Mean PIC Standard Coefficient
of
Reading Deviation
Variation
(V)
6 MV Low Range
0.461
0.015
0.034
10 MV Low Range
1.436
0.047
0.033
6 MV High Range
2.018
0.099
0.049
10 MV High Range
9.033
1.238
0.137
Background
0.341
0.014
0.041

34

Appendix C - Exposure Rate In Beam


and Roof Shielding Transmission Factors
Date:

5/25/2008

Pressure: 635.5 mm Hg
Temperature:
22 C

Instrument and Probe


RadCal 2025 Series
RadCal Model 20X5-3
with Cobalt Build-up cap

Rate Mode

Rel to 22 C, 101.3kPa
Temp (C) 23.4
At Isocenter
Temp Pres Factor =
1.2041995
10x10 Field:
Measured TP Corrected
6MV
494
594.87
R/min
10 MV
430
517.81
R/min
40 x 40 Field:
6MV
544
655.08
R/min
10 MV
508
611.73
R/min
Temp (C) 14.5
Location:
Roof
Temp Pres Factor =
1.168041
10x10 Field:
Measured TP Corrected
6MV
0.440
0.514
R/min
10 MV
0.785
0.917
R/min
40 x 40 Field:
6MV
0.940
1.098
R/min
10 MV
1.610
1.881
R/min
Location:

84.52 kPa

Instrument and Probe


Keithley Model 35040
1 min pulse
PTW Model N30013
Farmer Chamber w/Al Build-up cap
Calib. Factor =
5.689 R/nC
Rel to 22 C, 101.3 kPa
Temp (C) 23.4
At Isocenter
Temp Pres Factor =
1.204199473
Measured (nC)
TP Corr Exposure
93.33
639.37
R/min
99.85
684.04
R/min
98.24
673.01
R/min
106.28
728.09
R/min
Temp (C) 14.5
Roof
Temp Pres Factor =
1.168040987
Measured (nC)
TP Corr Exposure
0.085
0.56
R/min
0.173
1.15
R/min
0.176
0.302

1.17
2.00

R/min
R/min

10x10
0.027
0.052

40x40
0.053
0.085

Calculation of Roof Transmission Factor


Distance Target to roof =
Distance roof to chamber
Total distance =
RadCal
6 MV
10 MV

10x10
0.027
0.055

4.57 meters
0.98 meters
5.55 meters

Transmission Factor Bxs


40x40
Farmer
0.052
6 MV
0.095
10 MV

35

Appendix D - Calculation of Expected Skyshine Dose Rate


Using NCRP 151 Method

Equation (2) is used to calculate the expected dose equivalent rate, H& , due to skyshine
(NCRP, 2005).

2.5 10 7 D& 0 Bxs 1.3


H& =
(d i d s )2

(2)

Roof Transmission Factors used for calculations (Bxs)


6MV: Bxs = 0.027

10 MV: Bxs = 0.052

Solid Angle of the Beam =2(1-cos)

For 10 cm 10 cm field:
r = 5.64 cm (circle with area equivalent to 10 cm 10 cm square)
= arctan (5.64/100) = 3.23 degrees = 0.056 radians

= 0.010 steradians
For 40 cm 40 cm field:
r = 22.6 cm (circle with area equivalent to 40 cm 40 cm square)
= arctan (22.6/100) = 12.72 degrees = 0.222 radians
= 0.154 steradians
Dose Rate = D& 0 =360 Gy/hr (600 cGy/minute)
di = 6.57 m (from target to 2 m above the roof) for ground locations
di = 2.00 m (chosen for good fit to all roof data) for roof locations

36

Skyshine Dose Rates at Roof Locations


For 40 x 40 Field Size

100

6 MV Measured

90

10 MV Measured

Dose Rate (Gy/h)

80

6MV Calculated

70

10 MV Calculated

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

10

20

30

Distance from Isocenter (m)

50

40

(a)

Dose Rate (Gy/h)

Skyshine Dose Rates at Roof Locations


For 10 x 10 Field Size
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

6 MV Measured
10 MV Measured
6 MV Calculated
10 MV Calculated

10

20

30

40

50

60

Distance from Isocenter (m)

(b)
Figure D.1. Measured and calculated skyshine radiation at roof locations. Calculations
were made using equation (2) with di = 6.57.

37

Skyshine Dose Rates at Roof Locations


For 40 x 40 Field Size

100

6 MV Measured

90

10 MV Measured

Dose Rate (Gy/h)

80

6MV Calculated

70

10 MV Calculated

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

10

20

30

Distance from Isocenter (m)

50

40

(a)

Dose Rate (Gy/h)

Skyshine Dose Rates at Roof Locations


For 10 x 10 Field Size
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

6 MV Measured
10 MV Measured
6 MV Calculated
10 MV Calculated

10

20

30

40

50

60

Distance from Isocenter (m)

(b)
Fig. D.2. Measured and calculated skyshine radiation at roof locations. Calculations were
made using equation (2) with di = 2.0. The fit is better than with di = 6.57, but exposure
rates are still underestimated.

38

Table D.1. Calculation of Expected Dose Rate Using NCRP 151 Method
6 MV 10 x 10
Distance to
Isocenter (m)
4.52
5.44
6.35
7.27
8.18
9.10
10.01
10.92
11.84
12.75
13.67
14.58
15.50
16.41
18.24
20.07
24.64
29.22
35.31
42.63
49.95

6 MV 40 x 40
Ground
Roof
Dose Rate Dose Rate
(Sv/hr)
(Sv/hr)
4.222
45.563
2.921
31.523
2.140
23.098
1.635
17.649
1.290
13.923
1.044
11.264
0.862
9.299
0.723
7.807
0.616
6.648
0.531
5.728
0.462
4.987
0.406
4.381
0.360
3.880
0.321
3.459
0.259
2.800
0.214
2.313
0.142
1.534
0.101
1.092
0.069
0.747
0.048
0.513
0.035
0.373

10 MV 10 x 10
Distance to
Isocenter (m)
4.52
5.44
6.35
7.27
8.18
9.10
10.01
10.92
11.84
12.75
13.67
14.58
15.50
16.41
18.24
20.07
24.64
29.22
35.31
42.63
49.95

Ground
Roof
Distance to Dose Rate Dose Rate
Isocenter (m) (Sv/hr)
(Sv/hr)
4.52
25.77 278.113
5.44
17.83 192.411
6.35
13.06 140.986
7.27
9.98 107.726
8.18
7.88 84.985
9.10
6.37 68.752
10.01
5.26 56.762
10.92
4.42 47.655
11.84
3.76 40.577
12.75
3.24 34.966
13.67
2.82 30.443
14.58
2.48 26.744
15.50
2.19 23.680
16.41
1.96 21.115
18.24
1.58 17.092
20.07
1.31 14.119
24.64
0.87
9.365
29.22
0.62
6.663
35.31
0.42
4.561
42.63
0.29
3.129
49.95
0.21
2.280
10 MV 40 x 40

Ground
Roof
Dose Rate Dose Rate
(Sv/hr)
(Sv/hr)
8.70
93.88
6.02
64.95
4.41
47.59
3.37
36.36
2.66
28.69
2.15
23.21
1.78
19.16
1.49
16.09
1.27
13.70
1.09
11.80
0.95
10.28
0.84
9.03
0.74
7.99
0.66
7.13
0.53
5.77
0.44
4.77
0.29
3.16
0.21
2.25
0.14
1.54
0.10
1.06
0.07
0.77

Ground
Roof
Distance to Dose Rate Dose Rate
Isocenter (m) (Sv/hr)
(Sv/hr)
4.52
53.70
579.46
5.44
37.15
400.90
6.35
27.22
293.75
7.27
20.80
224.45
8.18
16.41
177.07
9.10
13.27
143.25
10.01
10.96
118.27
10.92
9.20
99.29
11.84
7.83
84.54
12.75
6.75
72.85
13.67
5.88
63.43
14.58
5.16
55.72
15.50
4.57
49.34
16.41
4.08
43.99
18.24
3.30
35.61
20.07
2.73
29.42
24.64
1.81
19.51
29.22
1.29
13.88
35.31
0.88
9.50
42.63
0.60
6.52
49.95
0.44
4.75

39

Appendix E Skyshine Data and Analysis


For Ground Locations

40

Table E.1. Raw Data for skyshine measurements Ground Locations to West
Date: 3/27/08

All Readings are in Volts.

Location: at wall
Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.338
0.329
0.328
0.325
0.326
0.545
0.537
0.531
0.509
0.505
0.596
0.631
0.650
0.607
0.617

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.070
10 MV Photons
0.086
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.349
10 MV Photons
1.544
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.084
10 MV Photons
0.119
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.652
10 MV Photons
2.192

0.071
0.087

0.070
0.088

0.071
0.087

0.070
0.087

1.349
1.617

1.337
1.617

1.341
1.608

1.343
1.601

0.085
0.118

0.086
0.118

0.085
0.118

0.085
0.119

1.674
2.200

1.671
2.186

1.673
2.199

1.669
2.224

Location: 3 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.333
0.342
0.344
0.326
0.325
0.477
0.478
0.490
0.476
0.467
0.578
0.584
0.593
0.587
0.567

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.096
10 MV Photons
0.119
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.578
10 MV Photons
2.037
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.113
10 MV Photons
0.154
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.120
10 MV Photons
2.789

0.097
0.118

0.095
0.119

0.096
0.120

0.096
0.119

1.600
2.059

1.602
2.027

1.593
2.055

1.589
2.035

0.114
0.155

0.113
0.154

0.112
0.155

0.113
0.154

2.171
2.805

2.130
2.790

2.118
2.821

2.110
2.847

Location: 6 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.354
0.332
0.320
0.312
0.315
0.453
0.464
0.468
0.469
0.472
0.555
0.553
0.568
0.569
0.558

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.118
10 MV Photons
0.148
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.883
10 MV Photons
2.347
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.136
10 MV Photons
0.186
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.427
10 MV Photons
3.235

0.118
0.146

0.119
0.148

0.120
0.147

0.119
0.147

1.894
2.348

1.899
2.346

1.915
2.366

1.891
2.379

0.137
0.187

0.136
0.186

0.137
0.185

0.138
0.188

2.442
3.250

2.433
3.260

2.438
3.280

2.450
3.260

41

Table E.1
Location: 9 ft from wall
Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.321
0.322
0.319
0.301
0.303
0.426
0.455
0.444
0.432
0.413
0.509
0.509
0.537
0.535
0.534

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.139
10 MV Photons
0.172
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.113
10 MV Photons
2.682
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.159
10 MV Photons
0.213
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.739
10 MV Photons
3.670

0.138
0.171

0.139
0.173

0.138
0.172

0.139
0.172

2.122
2.656

2.111
2.657

2.114
2.673

2.121
2.668

0.158
0.214

0.159
0.215

0.158
0.213

0.159
0.214

2.757
3.660

2.768
3.670

2.743
3.660

2.752
3.680

Location: 12 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.302
0.289
0.288
0.295
0.290
0.423
0.426
0.446
0.431
0.431
0.538
0.516
0.537
0.543
0.537

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.155
10 MV Photons
0.193
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.335
10 MV Photons
2.890
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.174
10 MV Photons
0.233
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.946
10 MV Photons
3.940

0.154
0.194

0.155
0.191

0.154
0.192

0.154
0.193

2.312
2.883

2.307
2.895

2.324
2.890

2.325
2.857

0.173
0.234

0.172
0.233

0.173
0.233

0.173
0.234

2.952
3.930

2.961
3.940

2.961
3.930

2.969
3.920

Location: 15 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.324
0.321
0.309
0.320
0.322
0.408
0.400
0.425
0.417
0.411
0.521
0.533
0.527
0.535
0.513

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.165
10 MV Photons
0.204
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.404
10 MV Photons
3.056
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.179
10 MV Photons
0.244
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
3.073
10 MV Photons
4.040

0.166
0.203

0.165
0.205

0.164
0.203

0.166
0.205

2.405
3.043

2.416
3.107

2.395
3.082

2.418
3.058

0.181
0.245

0.180
0.244

0.181
0.245

0.182
0.245

3.095
4.040

3.073
4.060

3.068
4.070

3.050
4.040

42

Table E.1
Location: 18 ft from wall
Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.278
0.269
0.276
0.271
0.305
0.401
0.400
0.394
0.405
0.388
0.498
0.504
0.510
0.498
0.511

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.171
10 MV Photons
0.212
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.449
10 MV Photons
3.097
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.186
10 MV Photons
0.250
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
3.073
10 MV Photons
4.080

0.170
0.214

0.172
0.213

0.171
0.212

0.172
0.213

2.453
3.111

2.439
3.131

2.458
3.127

2.463
3.130

0.185
0.251

0.184
0.249

0.185
0.250

0.185
0.249

3.090
4.110

3.081
4.100

3.109
4.120

3.100
4.130

Date: __4/2/08___________
Location: at wall
Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.330
0.327
0.321
0.324
0.319
0.509
0.497
0.512
0.517
0.517
0.610
0.616
0.621
0.597
0.588

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.073
10 MV Photons
0.091
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.390
10 MV Photons
1.677
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.088
10 MV Photons
0.119
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.678
10 MV Photons
2.222

0.074
0.090

0.073
0.090

0.074
0.090

0.073
0.091

1.354
1.669

1.362
1.691

1.379
1.667

1.375
1.699

0.088
0.120

0.088
0.119

0.087
0.120

0.089
0.120

1.680
2.224

1.681
2.243

1.680
2.233

1.677
2.224

Location: 9 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.309
0.319
0.315
0.302
0.300
0.424
0.429
0.435
0.428
0.417
0.531
0.516
0.514
0.516
0.540

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.140
10 MV Photons
0.172
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.096
10 MV Photons
2.667
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.159
10 MV Photons
0.215
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.709
10 MV Photons
3.590

0.139
0.174

0.138
0.172

0.139
0.173

0.139
0.172

2.074
2.689

2.083
2.680

2.101
2.690

2.107
2.688

0.158
0.213

0.158
0.214

0.159
0.215

0.157
0.213

2.700
3.620

2.740
3.610

2.720
3.640

2.768
3.660

43

Table E.1
Location: 18 ft from wall
Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.305
0.312
0.293
0.294
0.342
0.407
0.403
0.398
0.400
0.393
0.482
0.463
0.473
0.475
0.471

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.173
10 MV Photons
0.212
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.461
10 MV Photons
3.073
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.182
10 MV Photons
0.249
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
3.055
10 MV Photons
4.040

0.172
0.211

0.171
0.212

0.171
0.213

0.171
0.212

2.458
3.079

2.452
3.084

2.453
3.083

2.466
3.110

0.183
0.248

0.184
0.246

0.182
0.247

0.183
0.248

3.053
4.050

3.038
4.040

3.038
4.060

3.011
4.070

Location: 21 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.297
0.301
0.284
0.284
0.294
0.365
0.377
0.368
0.387
0.388
0.484
0.465
0.444
0.442
0.470

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.174
10 MV Photons
0.215
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.495
10 MV Photons
3.113
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.183
10 MV Photons
0.246
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
3.023
10 MV Photons
4.030

0.175
0.214

0.174
0.216

0.175
0.215

0.174
0.215

2.495
3.100

2.488
3.125

2.499
3.141

2.483
3.133

0.185
0.247

0.183
0.246

0.184
0.248

0.183
0.246

3.016
4.020

3.026
4.050

3.046
4.060

3.049
4.000

Location: 24 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.305
0.328
0.318
0.319
0.306
0.366
0.373
0.385
0.372
0.385
0.446
0.459
0.448
0.434
0.445

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.174
10 MV Photons
0.215
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.493
10 MV Photons
3.134
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.179
10 MV Photons
0.242
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.983
10 MV Photons
3.990

0.175
0.216

0.173
0.215

0.174
0.216

0.174
0.215

2.477
3.097

2.504
3.082

2.498
3.094

2.473
3.096

0.180
0.243

0.181
0.243

0.180
0.244

0.180
0.242

3.014
3.970

3.008
3.990

2.987
3.980

2.995
3.930

44

Table E.1
Location: 27 ft from wall
Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.306
0.316
0.306
0.298
0.289
0.342
0.341
0.324
0.337
0.377
0.433
0.436
0.430
0.424
0.429

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.173
10 MV Photons
0.212
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.452
10 MV Photons
3.050
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.176
10 MV Photons
0.236
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.891
10 MV Photons
3.790

0.172
0.214

0.173
0.213

0.173
0.214

0.174
0.212

2.435
3.062

2.451
3.061

2.449
3.069

2.430
3.059

0.176
0.237

0.175
0.235

0.176
0.236

0.175
0.236

2.935
3.820

2.944
3.830

2.925
3.840

2.913
3.830

Location: 30 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.276
0.285
0.261
0.267
0.290
0.348
0.335
0.335
0.343
0.337
0.417
0.425
0.425
0.421
0.423

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.169
10 MV Photons
0.209
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.420
10 MV Photons
2.978
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.171
10 MV Photons
0.229
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.812
10 MV Photons
3.700

0.170
0.210

0.169
0.208

0.170
0.207

0.169
0.208

2.436
2.940

2.442
3.010

2.413
3.022

2.419
3.040

0.170
0.230

0.172
0.229

0.169
0.228

0.171
0.230

2.823
3.710

2.801
3.710

2.791
3.740

2.761
3.720

Location: 33 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.299
0.285
0.277
0.279
0.280
0.319
0.322
0.332
0.331
0.335
0.408
0.406
0.414
0.401
0.395

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.166
10 MV Photons
0.203
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.357
10 MV Photons
2.945
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.165
10 MV Photons
0.222
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.712
10 MV Photons
3.600

0.164
0.205

0.165
0.204

0.166
0.203

0.167
0.205

2.382
2.952

2.383
2.975

2.366
2.949

2.359
2.952

0.166
0.221

0.165
0.228

0.164
0.221

0.165
0.222

2.733
3.590

2.704
3.610

2.702
3.620

2.723
3.650

45

Table E.1
Location: 36 ft from wall
Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.338
0.304
0.305
0.307
0.301
0.330
0.320
0.327
0.336
0.331
0.391
0.375
0.386
0.390
0.402

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.155
10 MV Photons
0.192
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.214
10 MV Photons
2.756
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.153
10 MV Photons
0.204
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.557
10 MV Photons
3.370

0.156
0.193

0.155
0.190

0.154
0.192

0.155
0.191

2.205
2.757

2.236
2.743

2.250
2.748

2.251
2.766

0.154
0.207

0.153
0.206

0.152
0.207

0.153
0.206

2.538
3.380

2.560
3.390

2.551
3.400

2.589
3.390

Location: 39 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.276
0.271
0.286
0.284
0.282
0.362
0.314
0.323
0.354
0.361
0.406
0.407
0.392
0.282
0.290

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.155
10 MV Photons
0.192
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.171
10 MV Photons
2.737
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.150
10 MV Photons
0.204
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.504
10 MV Photons
3.290

0.154
0.191

0.155
0.192

0.154
0.191

0.155
0.192

2.178
2.731

2.186
2.709

2.193
2.740

2.199
2.753

0.151
0.206

0.152
0.205

0.152
0.204

0.152
0.203

2.491
3.310

2.488
3.320

2.480
3.310

2.521
3.300

Location: 45 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.283
0.286
0.298
0.286
0.277
0.315
0.343
0.347
0.327
0.332
0.348
0.368
0.355
0.363
0.358

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.151
10 MV Photons
0.185
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.136
10 MV Photons
2.682
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.143
10 MV Photons
0.194
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.389
10 MV Photons
3.151

0.151
0.185

0.151
0.186

0.152
0.185

0.151
0.184

2.145
2.671

2.135
2.678

2.148
2.654

2.171
2.675

0.144
0.192

0.143
0.191

0.144
0.193

0.143
0.192

2.431
3.148

2.425
3.152

2.410
3.162

2.416
3.142

46

Table E.1
Location: 51 ft from wall
Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.265
0.268
0.281
0.292
0.277
0.329
0.325
0.306
0.309
0.322
0.355
0.366
0.365
0.365
0.355

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.143
10 MV Photons
0.176
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.062
10 MV Photons
2.520
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.134
10 MV Photons
0.181
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.261
10 MV Photons
2.985

0.142
0.177

0.143
0.175

0.144
0.177

0.144
0.176

2.073
2.520

2.070
2.526

2.087
2.514

2.099
2.549

0.135
0.180

0.135
0.181

0.135
0.180

0.135
0.181

2.266
2.994

2.273
2.985

2.298
2.987

2.298
2.994

Location: 66 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.324
0.310
0.305
0.290
0.306
0.354
0.332
0.328
0.349
0.343
0.338
0.361
0.338
0.335
0.340

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.121
10 MV Photons
0.150
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.798
10 MV Photons
2.195
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.110
10 MV Photons
0.149
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.938
10 MV Photons
2.504

0.123
0.149

0.121
0.149

0.122
0.150

0.121
0.149

1.792
2.224

1.809
2.224

1.810
2.242

1.845
2.226

0.111
0.150

0.111
0.147

0.110
0.149

0.109
0.147

1.946
2.495

1.968
2.501

1.942
2.501

1.953
2.511

Location: 81 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.293
0.296
0.298
0.296
0.295
0.322
0.322
0.326
0.327
0.327
0.345
0.351
0.350
0.337
0.335

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.105
10 MV Photons
0.129
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.571
10 MV Photons
1.926
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.095
10 MV Photons
0.128
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.693
10 MV Photons
2.184

0.106
0.130

0.105
0.129

0.106
0.130

0.105
0.129

1.583
1.934

1.586
1.942

1.581
1.934

1.543
1.955

0.094
0.126

0.095
0.127

0.095
0.128

0.094
0.126

1.696
2.177

1.695
2.187

1.701
2.198

1.696
2.188

47

Table E.1
Location: 101 ft from wall
Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.242
0.251
0.262
0.273
0.282
0.325
0.311
0.323
0.323
0.333
0.273
0.271
0.275
0.288
0.292

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.089
10 MV Photons
0.108
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.399
10 MV Photons
1.639
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.080
10 MV Photons
0.107
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.455
10 MV Photons
1.861

0.090
0.109

0.089
0.110

0.089
0.108

0.090
0.109

1.387
1.660

1.373
1.669

1.357
1.687

1.371
1.668

0.079
0.106

0.080
0.106

0.079
0.107

0.080
0.106

1.458
1.848

1.455
1.857

1.440
1.840

1.473
1.854

Location: 125 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.260
0.283
0.287
0.290
0.279
0.273
0.284
0.290
0.289
0.298
0.321
0.332
0.316
0.323
0.322

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.071
10 MV Photons
0.088
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.142
10 MV Photons
1.398
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.063
10 MV Photons
0.085
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.192
10 MV Photons
1.535

0.070
0.086

0.071
0.087

0.071
0.088

0.072
0.087

1.160
1.388

1.164
1.358

1.150
1.382

1.166
1.370

0.062
0.084

0.063
0.084

0.062
0.085

0.063
0.084

1.190
1.530

1.203
1.537

1.197
1.566

1.196
1.547

Location: 149 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.287
0.278
0.285
0.301
0.300

Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)


Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.063
10 MV Photons
0.077
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.043
10 MV Photons
1.238
Gantry 205 degrees (west)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.055
10 MV Photons
0.074
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.099
10 MV Photons
1.386

0.062
0.076

0.062
0.077

0.062
0.076

0.063
0.077

1.047
1.236

1.037
1.235

1.054
1.243

1.047
1.252

0.056
0.075

0.055
0.074

0.055
0.075

0.056
0.074

1.079
1.387

1.091
1.377

1.092
1.396

1.095
1.388

48

Table E.2. Analysis of skyshine measurements for ground locations to west. The
low range calibration factor is 0.018147 V/(R/h) and the high range calibration factor is
0.0000915 V/(R/h).
Average

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Location: at wall
Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.3292
0.5254
0.6202

0.0052
0.0176
0.0211

18.14
28.95
34.18

1.84
3.05
3.61

12.41
17.64

3.67
4.15

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.0704
0.0870

0.0005
0.0007

769.40
950.82

77.17
95.40

740.45
916.64

77.29
95.51

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

1.3438
1.5974

0.0052
0.0306

74.05
88.03

7.41
8.96

45.10
53.85

8.52
10.09

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.0850
0.1184

0.0007
0.0005

928.96
1293.99

93.22
129.54

900.01
1259.81

93.31
129.62

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

1.6678
2.2002

0.0090
0.0145

91.90
121.24

9.20
12.15

62.95
87.07

10.12
13.00

Average
Location: 3 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.3340
0.4776
0.5818

0.0088
0.0082
0.0099

18.41
26.32
32.06

1.90
2.67
3.25

9.78
15.52

3.36
3.84

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.0960
0.1190

0.0007
0.0007

1049.18
1300.55

105.20
130.28

1022.86
1268.49

105.28
130.36

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

1.5924
2.0426

0.0096
0.0137

87.75
112.56

8.79
11.28

61.43
80.50

9.63
12.09

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1130
0.1544

0.0007
0.0005

1234.97
1687.43

123.74
168.85

1208.65
1655.37

123.80
168.91

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

2.1298
2.8104

0.0241
0.0243

117.36
154.87

11.81
15.54

91.05
122.81

12.45
16.14

Average
Location: 6 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.3266
0.4652
0.5606

0.0171
0.0074
0.0074

18.00
25.64
30.89

2.03
2.60
3.12

9.10
14.35

3.30
3.73

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1188
0.1472

0.0008
0.0008

1298.36
1608.74

130.16
161.13

1272.73
1577.85

130.22
161.19

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

1.8964
2.3572

0.0119
0.0147

104.50
129.89

10.47
13.01

78.87
99.00

11.17
13.69

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1368
0.1864

0.0008
0.0011

1495.08
2037.16

149.79
204.10

1469.45
2006.27

149.84
204.14

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

2.4380
3.2570

0.0087
0.0164

134.35
179.48

13.44
17.97

108.71
148.59

13.99
18.47

49

Table E.2
Average
Location: 9 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.3132
0.4340
0.5248

0.0103
0.0162
0.0145

17.26
23.92
28.92

1.82
2.55
3.00

7.38
12.38

3.27
3.63

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1386
0.1720

0.0005
0.0007

1514.75
1879.78

151.59
188.14

1490.84
1850.86

151.64
188.18

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.1162
2.6672

0.0005
0.0008

116.61
146.98

11.66
14.70

92.70
118.06

12.28
15.28

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1586
0.2138

0.0005
0.0008

1733.33
2336.61

173.44
233.84

1709.42
2307.69

173.48
233.88

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

2.7518
3.6680

0.0115
0.0084

151.64
202.13

15.18
20.22

127.72
173.21

15.66
20.64

Average
Location: 12 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.2928
0.4314
0.5342

0.0058
0.0088
0.0105

16.13
23.77
29.44

1.64
2.43
3.00

7.23
12.90

3.17
3.63

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1544
0.1926

0.0005
0.0011

1687.43
2104.92

168.85
210.86

1663.66
2075.48

168.89
210.90

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.3206
2.8830

0.0111
0.0151

127.88
158.87

12.80
15.91

104.11
129.43

13.35
16.45

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1730
0.2334

0.0007
0.0005

1890.71
2550.82

189.23
255.15

1866.94
2521.38

189.27
255.19

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

2.9578
3.9320

0.0089
0.0084

162.99
216.67

16.31
21.67

139.22
187.24

16.74
22.07

Average
Location: 15 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.3192
0.4122
0.5258

0.0059
0.0094
0.0090

17.59
22.71
28.97

1.79
2.33
2.94

6.17
12.43

3.10
3.58

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1652
0.2040

0.0008
0.0010

1805.46
2229.51

180.78
223.22

1782.75
2200.53

180.82
223.26

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.4076
3.0692

0.0094
0.0254

132.67
169.13

13.28
16.97

109.96
140.16

13.79
17.46

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1806
0.2446

0.0011
0.0005

1973.77
2673.22

197.77
267.39

1951.06
2644.25

197.80
267.42

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

3.0718
4.0500

0.0161
0.0141

169.27
223.18

16.95
22.33

146.56
194.20

17.35
22.71

50

Table E.2
Average
Location: 18 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.2798
0.3976
0.5042

0.0145
0.0067
0.0063

15.42
21.91
27.78

1.74
2.22
2.80

5.37
11.24

3.02
3.47

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1712
0.2128

0.0008
0.0008

1871.04
2325.68

187.33
232.75

1849.13
2297.90

187.36
232.78

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.4524
3.1192

0.0092
0.0148

135.14
171.89

13.52
17.21

113.23
144.10

14.01
17.67

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1839
0.2487

0.0014
0.0015

2009.84
2718.03

201.54
272.29

1987.93
2690.25

201.57
272.32

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

3.0648
4.0800

0.0144
0.0333

168.89
224.83

16.91
22.56

146.98
197.05

17.30
22.91

4/2/2008
Average

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Location: at wall
Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.3242
0.5104
0.6064

0.0044
0.0082
0.0136

17.87
28.13
33.42

1.80
2.85
3.43

28.13
33.42

3.51
3.99

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.0734
0.0904

0.0005
0.0005

802.19
987.98

80.44
98.98

780.28
960.19

80.54
99.08

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

1.3720
1.6806

0.0142
0.0140

75.60
92.61

7.60
9.29

53.69
64.83

8.62
10.32

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.0880
0.1196

0.0007
0.0005

961.75
1307.10

96.48
130.85

939.84
1279.32

96.57
130.92

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

1.6792
2.2292

0.0016
0.0088

92.53
122.84

9.25
12.29

70.62
95.06

10.11
13.09

Average
Location: 9 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.3090
0.4266
0.5234

0.0082
0.0067
0.0115

17.03
23.51
28.84

1.76
2.38
2.95

23.51
28.84

3.14
3.59

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1390
0.1726

0.0007
0.0009

1519.13
1886.34

152.11
188.89

1497.22
1858.55

152.16
188.93

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.0922
2.6828

0.0135
0.0097

115.29
147.84

11.55
14.79

93.38
120.05

12.15
15.36

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1582
0.2140

0.0008
0.0010

1728.96
2338.80

173.14
234.13

1707.05
2311.01

173.18
234.17

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

2.7274
3.6240

0.0272
0.0270

150.29
199.70

15.10
20.03

128.38
171.92

15.56
20.45

51

Table E.2
Average
Location: 18 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.3092
0.4002
0.4728

0.0200
0.0053
0.0069

17.04
22.05
26.05

2.03
2.22
2.63

22.05
26.05

3.02
3.33

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1716
0.2120

0.0009
0.0007

1875.41
2316.94

187.80
231.82

1853.50
2289.16

187.83
231.86

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.4580
3.0858

0.0058
0.0142

135.45
170.04

13.55
17.02

113.54
142.26

14.03
17.47

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1828
0.2476

0.0008
0.0011

1997.81
2706.01

199.99
270.89

1975.90
2678.23

200.02
270.92

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

3.0390
4.0520

0.0176
0.0130

167.47
223.29

16.77
22.34

145.56
195.50

17.17
22.68

Average
Location: 21 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.2920
0.3770
0.4610

0.0077
0.0106
0.0179

16.09
20.77
25.40

1.66
2.16
2.72

4.23
8.86

2.97
3.41

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1744
0.2150

0.0005
0.0007

1906.01
2349.73

190.70
235.10

1884.10
2321.94

190.73
235.13

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.4920
3.1224

0.0064
0.0162

137.32
172.06

13.74
17.23

115.41
144.28

14.20
17.68

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1836
0.2466

0.0009
0.0009

2006.56
2695.08

200.89
269.69

1984.65
2667.30

200.93
269.71

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

3.0320
4.0320

0.0146
0.0239

167.08
222.19

16.73
22.26

145.17
194.40

17.11
22.61

Average
Location: 24 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.3152
0.3762
0.4464

0.0097
0.0085
0.0089

17.37
20.73
24.60

1.82
2.12
2.51

20.73
24.60

2.95
3.24

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1740
0.2154

0.0007
0.0005

1901.64
2354.10

190.32
235.49

1879.73
2326.31

190.35
235.52

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.4890
3.1006

0.0134
0.0196

137.16
170.86

13.74
17.12

115.25
143.08

14.20
17.54

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1800
0.2428

0.0007
0.0008

1967.21
2653.55

196.87
265.51

1945.30
2625.77

196.91
265.54

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

2.9974
3.9720

0.0133
0.0249

165.17
218.88

16.53
21.93

143.26
191.09

16.92
22.26

52

Table E.2
Average
Location: 27 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.3030
0.3442
0.4304

0.0101
0.0197
0.0045

16.70
18.97
23.72

1.76
2.19
2.38

18.97
23.72

2.99
3.14

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1730
0.2130

0.0007
0.0010

1890.71
2327.87

189.23
233.04

1868.80
2300.08

189.26
233.07

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.4434
3.0602

0.0102
0.0068

134.64
168.63

13.48
16.87

112.73
140.85

13.96
17.28

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1756
0.2360

0.0005
0.0007

1919.13
2579.23

192.01
258.04

1897.22
2551.45

192.04
258.07

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

2.9216
3.8220

0.0206
0.0192

161.00
210.61

16.14
21.09

139.09
182.83

16.54
21.42

Average
Location: 30 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.2758
0.3396
0.4222

0.0121
0.0057
0.0033

15.20
18.71
23.27

1.66
1.90
2.33

18.71
23.27

2.79
3.10

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1694
0.2084

0.0005
0.0011

1851.37
2277.60

185.23
228.10

1829.46
2249.81

185.27
228.13

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.4260
2.9980

0.0123
0.0395

133.69
165.21

13.39
16.66

111.78
137.42

13.83
17.07

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1706
0.2292

0.0011
0.0008

1864.48
2504.92

186.86
250.66

1842.57
2477.13

186.90
250.69

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

2.7976
3.7160

0.0237
0.0152

154.16
204.77

15.47
20.49

132.25
176.99

15.85
20.83

Average
Location: 33 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.2840
0.3278
0.4048

0.0089
0.0069
0.0072

15.65
18.06
22.31

1.64
1.85
2.27

18.06
22.31

2.76
3.05

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1656
0.2040

0.0011
0.0010

1809.84
2229.51

181.41
223.22

1787.93
2201.72

181.44
223.25

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.3694
2.9546

0.0124
0.0118

130.57
162.81

13.07
16.29

108.66
135.03

13.52
16.70

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1650
0.2228

0.0007
0.0029

1803.28
2434.97

180.49
245.62

1781.37
2407.19

180.53
245.65

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

2.7148
3.6140

0.0131
0.0230

149.60
199.15

14.98
19.96

127.69
171.37

15.37
20.29

53

Table E.2
Average
Location: 36 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.3110
0.3288
0.3888

0.0152
0.0059
0.0097

17.14
18.12
21.43

1.91
1.84
2.21

18.12
21.43

2.75
3.01

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1550
0.1916

0.0007
0.0011

1693.99
2093.99

169.58
209.77

1672.08
2066.20

169.61
209.80

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.2312
2.7540

0.0209
0.0089

122.95
151.76

12.35
15.18

101.04
123.98

12.82
15.61

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1530
0.2060

0.0007
0.0012

1672.13
2251.37

167.39
225.53

1650.22
2223.58

167.43
225.56

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

2.5590
3.3860

0.0188
0.0114

141.02
186.59

14.14
18.67

119.11
158.80

14.55
19.02

Average
Location: 39 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.2798
0.3428
0.3554

0.0062
0.0226
0.0637

15.42
18.89
19.58

1.58
2.26
4.02

18.89
19.58

3.05
4.51

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1546
0.1916

0.0005
0.0005

1689.62
2093.99

169.07
209.48

1667.71
2066.20

169.11
209.54

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.1854
2.7340

0.0112
0.0161

120.43
150.66

12.06
15.09

98.52
122.87

12.61
15.88

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1514
0.2044

0.0009
0.0011

1654.64
2233.88

165.75
223.74

1632.73
2206.10

165.79
223.79

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

2.4968
3.3060

0.0161
0.0114

137.59
182.18

13.79
18.23

115.68
154.39

14.27
18.89

Average
Location: 45 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.2860
0.3328
0.3584

0.0076
0.0128
0.0076

15.76
18.34
19.75

1.63
1.97
2.02

18.34
19.75

2.84
2.87

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1512
0.1850

0.0004
0.0007

1652.46
2021.86

165.32
202.33

1630.55
1994.07

165.36
202.36

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.1470
2.6720

0.0145
0.0108

118.31
147.24

11.86
14.74

96.40
119.46

12.36
15.15

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1434
0.1924

0.0005
0.0011

1567.21
2102.73

156.84
210.64

1545.30
2074.95

156.87
210.67

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

2.4142
3.1510

0.0162
0.0073

133.04
173.64

13.33
17.37

111.13
145.85

13.78
17.72

54

Table E.2
Average
Location: 51 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.2766
0.3182
0.3612

0.0108
0.0101
0.0057

15.24
17.53
19.90

1.64
1.84
2.01

0.99
3.36

2.75
2.87

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1432
0.1762

0.0008
0.0008

1565.03
1925.68

156.77
192.79

1543.12
1897.90

156.81
192.82

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

2.0782
2.5258

0.0147
0.0136

114.52
139.19

11.48
13.94

92.61
111.40

11.98
14.38

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1348
0.1806

0.0004
0.0005

1473.22
1973.77

147.40
197.47

1451.31
1945.99

147.44
197.50

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

2.2792
2.9890

0.0177
0.0046

125.60
164.71

12.60
16.47

103.69
136.93

13.06
16.85

Average
Location: 66 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.3070
0.3412
0.3424

0.0122
0.0110
0.0105

16.92
18.80
18.87

1.82
1.98
1.97

2.26
2.33

2.84
2.84

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1216
0.1494

0.0009
0.0005

1328.96
1632.79

133.26
163.39

1307.05
1605.00

133.30
163.43

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

1.8108
2.2222

0.0206
0.0170

99.79
122.46

10.04
12.28

77.88
94.67

10.64
12.77

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.1102
0.1484

0.0008
0.0013

1204.37
1621.86

120.78
162.85

1182.46
1594.07

120.83
162.88

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

1.9494
2.5024

0.0118
0.0058

107.42
137.90

10.76
13.79

85.51
110.11

11.32
14.23

Average
Location: 81 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.2956
0.3248
0.3436

0.0018
0.0026
0.0073

16.29
17.90
18.93

1.63
1.80
1.94

1.36
2.39

2.72
2.82

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.1054
0.1294

0.0005
0.0005

1151.91
1414.21

115.35
141.55

1130.00
1386.42

115.40
141.59

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

1.5728
1.9382

0.0176
0.0110

86.67
106.81

8.72
10.70

64.76
79.02

9.36
11.25

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.0946
0.1270

0.0005
0.0010

1033.88
1387.98

103.56
139.23

1011.97
1360.19

103.62
139.27

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

1.6962
2.1868

0.0029
0.0076

93.47
120.50

9.35
12.06

71.56
92.72

9.95
12.55

55

Table E.2
Average
Location: 101 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.2620
0.3230
0.2798

0.0161
0.0079
0.0095

14.44
17.80
15.42

1.70
1.83
1.63

1.26
-1.12

2.75
2.61

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.0894
0.1088

0.0005
0.0008

977.05
1189.07

97.89
119.26

955.14
1161.29

97.95
119.30

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

1.3774
1.6646

0.0161
0.0174

75.90
91.73

7.64
9.22

53.99
63.94

8.37
9.80

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.0796
0.1064

0.0005
0.0005

869.95
1162.84

87.20
116.44

848.04
1135.06

87.27
116.49

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

1.4562
1.8520

0.0117
0.0082

80.24
102.06

8.05
10.22

58.33
74.27

8.75
10.74

Average
Location: 125 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Background
Leakage 6 MV
Leakage 10 MV

0.2798
0.2868
0.3228

0.0118
0.0092
0.0058

15.42
15.80
17.79

1.67
1.66
1.81

-0.74
1.25

2.63
2.73

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.0710
0.0872

0.0007
0.0008

775.96
953.01

77.98
95.74

754.05
925.22

78.05
95.80

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

1.1564
1.3792

0.0101
0.0156

63.72
76.00

6.40
7.65

41.81
48.22

7.21
8.37

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.0626
0.0844

0.0005
0.0005

684.15
922.40

68.68
92.43

662.24
894.62

68.76
92.50

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

1.1956
1.5430

0.0050
0.0143

65.88
85.03

6.59
8.54

43.97
57.24

7.39
9.20

NET Exp

Stdev Exp

Average
Location: 149 ft from wall

Std Dev

Avg Exposure Stdev

Background

0.2902

0.0100

15.99

1.69

G180 Open 6 MV
G180 Open 10 MV

0.0624
0.0766

0.0005
0.0005

681.97
837.16

68.46
83.93

660.06
809.37

68.49
83.95

G180 10x10 6 MV
G180 10x10 10 MV

1.0456
1.2408

0.0062
0.0070

57.62
68.37

5.77
6.85

35.71
40.59

6.12
7.15

G205 Open 6 MV
G205 Open 10 MV

0.0554
0.0744

0.0005
0.0005

605.46
813.11

60.84
81.53

583.55
785.33

60.88
81.56

G205 10x10 6 MV
G205 10x10 10 MV

1.0912
1.3868

0.0075
0.0068

60.13
76.42

6.03
7.65

38.22
48.64

6.36
7.92

56

In Table E.2, Average and Std Dev refer to the PIC voltage measurements. The
Avg Exposure is the average exposure rate (in R/h) calculated using the appropriate
calibration factor. The Stdev is the standard deviation of the average exposure rate
taking into account the variation in the data and the 10% uncertainty in the calibration
factor. NET Exp is obtained by subtracting net leakage and average background
exposure rates from the average exposure rate for the location. Stdev Exp takes into
account the propagation of error from the measurement, the calibration factors, the
leakage and the background.

57

Skyshine Exposure Rates - Ground Locations


Gantry 180, Field 40 x 40

Exposure Rate (uR/hr)

2500
2000

6 MV
10 MV

1500

Background

1000
500
0
0

10

20
30
40
Distance from isocenter (meters)

50

(a)
Skyshine Exposure Rates - Ground Locations
Gantry 205, Field 40 x 40

Exposure Rate (uR/hr)

3000
2500

6 MV

2000

10 MV
Background

1500
1000
500
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

Distance from Isocenter (m eters)

(b)
Fig. E.1. Skyshine exposure rates obtained at ground locations for 40 cm 40 cm
field size. Locations are ground level to the west of the accelerator facility. The gantry
angles were (a) 180 and (b) 205.

58

Skyshine Exposure Rates - Ground Locations


Gantry 205, Field 10 x 10

Exposure Rate (uR/hr)

250
6 MV

200

10 MV
Background

150
100
50
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

Distance from Isocenter (meters)


(a)
Skyshine Exposure Rates - Ground Locations
Gantry 180, Field 10 x 10
160
Exposure Rate (uR/hr)

140
120

6 MV

100

10 MV
Background

80
60
40
20
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

Distance from Isocenter (m eters)

(b)
Fig. E.2. Skyshine exposure rates obtained at ground locations for 10 cm 10 cm
field size. Locations are ground level to the west of the accelerator facility. The gantry
angles were (a) 180 and (b) 205.

59

Appendix F Skyshine Data and Analysis


For Outdoor Roof Locations

60

Table F.1. Raw Data for skyshine measurements for outdoor roof locations
Date: __3/12/08___________

All Readings are in Volts.

Location: _Roof at Outer Fence_____________


Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.305
0.291
0.310
0.314
0.289
Collimator Closed 6 MV
0.425
0.424
0.432
0.470
0.456
Collimator Closed 10 MV
0.445
0.442
0.447
0.450
0.460
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.663
10 MV Photons
0.834
Collimator 10x10
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.044
10 MV Photons
0.056

0.666
0.834

0.667
0.835

0.666
0.835

0.666
0.833

0.044
0.055

0.044
0.056

0.044
0.055

0.044
0.056

Location: _3 ft from fence_____________


Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.323
0.318
0.321
0.310
0.299
Collimator Closed 6 MV
0.418
0.405
0.410
0.405
0.408
Collimator Closed 10 MV
0.485
0.464
0.451
0.443
0.461
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.569
10 MV Photons
0.718
Collimator 10x10
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.039
10 MV Photons
0.048

0.576
0.716

0.570
0.716

0.572
0.716

0.571
0.715

0.038
0.049

0.039
0.048

0.038
0.049

0.039
0.049

Location: _6 ft from fence_____________


Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.309
0.308
0.295
0.305
0.290
Collimator Closed 6 MV
0.375
0.390
0.394
0.401
0.394
Collimator Closed 10 MV
0.430
0.436
0.439
0.443
0.453
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.505
10 MV Photons
0.634
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
6.910
HIGH RATE 10 MV Photons
0.042

0.506
0.632

0.505
0.631

0.507
0.628

0.505
0.633

6.920
0.043

6.970
0.042

6.980
0.042

6.960
0.043

Location: _9 ft from fence_____________


Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.317
0.328
0.309
0.304
0.304
Collimator Closed 6 MV
0.390
0.394
0.390
0.382
0.383
Collimator Closed 10 MV
0.433
0.445
0.431
0.422
0.419
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.445
10 MV Photons
0.556
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
6.220
HIGH RATE 10 MV Photons
0.038

0.446
0.553

0.443
0.555

0.445
0.557

0.447
0.556

6.210
0.039

6.220
0.038

6.230
0.039

6.230
0.038

61

Table F.1
Location: _12 ft from fence____________
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.306
0.324
0.299
0.292
0.295
Collimator Closed 6 MV
0.369
0.383
0.380
0.376
0.370
Collimator Closed 10 MV
0.395
0.387
0.388
0.400
0.403
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.392
10 MV Photons
0.491
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
5.500
10 MV Photons
6.880

0.391
0.490

0.391
0.489

0.394
0.487

0.393
0.490

5.510
6.920

5.510
6.950

5.500
6.940

5.490
6.950

Location: _15 ft from fence_____________


Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.323
0.334
0.326
0.344
0.320
Collimator Closed 6 MV
0.366
0.367
0.355
0.353
0.354
Collimator Closed 10 MV
0.402
0.406
0.390
0.389
0.384
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.353
10 MV Photons
0.434
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
4.870
10 MV Photons
6.190

0.352
0.438

0.350
0.440

0.353
0.434

0.354
0.440

4.900
6.210

4.950
6.220

4.960
6.250

4.960
6.240

Location: _30 ft from fence_____________


Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.296
0.308
0.316
0.303
0.294
Collimator Closed 6 MV
0.342
0.315
0.310
0.328
0.342
Collimator Closed 10 MV
0.358
0.361
0.354
0.360
0.340
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.237
10 MV Photons
0.296
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
3.320
10 MV Photons
4.070

0.238
0.295

0.237
0.294

0.238
0.295

0.237
0.296

3.330
4.090

3.320
4.120

3.330
4.110

3.330
4.100

Location: _45 ft from fence_____________


Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.305
0.298
0.304
0.301
0.302
Collimator Closed 6 MV
0.365
0.341
0.337
0.350
0.341
Collimator Closed 10 MV
0.360
0.333
0.323
0.335
0.317
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.176
10 MV Photons
0.219
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.593
10 MV Photons
3.180

0.175
0.218

0.175
0.219

0.176
0.215

0.177
0.218

2.611
3.186

2.608
3.210

2.613
3.237

2.582
3.218

62

Table F.1
Location: _60 ft from fence_____________
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.275
0.284
0.288
0.286
0.279
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.137
10 MV Photons
0.171
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
2.097
10 MV Photons
2.578

0.138
0.171

0.138
0.170

0.139
0.169

0.139
0.171

2.105
2.582

2.115
2.589

2.108
2.570

2.127
2.574

Location: _75 ft from fence_____________


Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.289
0.314
0.315
0.300
0.318
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.112
10 MV Photons
0.137
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.714
10 MV Photons
2.088

0.111
0.138

0.112
0.137

0.111
0.136

0.112
0.137

1.710
2.085

1.729
2.090

1.728
2.097

1.755
2.095

Location: _90 ft from fence_____________


Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.284
0.286
0.290
0.291
0.311
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.094
10 MV Photons
0.115
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.491
10 MV Photons
1.792

0.093
0.116

0.095
0.117

0.094
0.115

0.093
0.116

1.488
1.802

1.483
1.801

1.482
1.778

1.479
1.752

Location: _105 ft from fence_____________


Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.315
0.295
0.279
0.286
0.288
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.080
10 MV Photons
0.099
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.292
10 MV Photons
1.554

0.081
0.099

0.080
0.100

0.081
0.100

0.081
0.099

1.317
1.561

1.310
1.565

1.314
1.567

1.335
1.573

63

Table F.1
Location: _120 ft from fence_____________
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.301
0.320
0.320
0.317
0.306
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.069
10 MV Photons
0.086
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.143
10 MV Photons
1.382

0.070
0.086

0.069
0.085

0.070
0.086

0.069
0.086

1.146
1.371

1.160
1.402

1.174
1.399

1.165
1.398

Location: _135 ft from fence_____________


Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.275
0.284
0.282
0.296
0.293
Collimator Closed 6 MV
Collimator Closed 10 MV
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RATE
6 MV Photons
0.060
10 MV Photons
0.076
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
1.053
10 MV Photons
1.238

0.061
0.075

0.061
0.075

0.060
0.075

0.061
0.076

1.053
1.248

1.052
1.237

1.050
1.272

1.062
1.281

Date: 4/8/08
Location: _At middle fence___________
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.312
0.308
0.297
0.295
0.299
Collimator Closed 6 MV
1.300
1.298
1.317
1.340
1.313
Collimator Closed 10 MV
1.735
1.759
1.721
1.751
1.732
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
4.360
10 MV Photons
5.500
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
0.267
10 MV Photons
0.343

4.340
5.490

4.360
5.500

4.320
5.490

4.340
5.500

0.267
0.343

0.266
0.341

0.267
0.342

0.268
0.343

Location: _9 ft from middle fence (15.5 ft from inner fence)__________


Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.284
0.268
0.305
0.295
0.288
Collimator Closed 6 MV
0.596
0.633
0.931
0.632
0.624
Collimator Closed 10 MV
0.723
0.734
0.751
0.709
0.712
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
1.555
10 MV Photons
1.964
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
0.099
10 MV Photons
0.125

1.559
1.954

1.556
1.950

1.561
1.959

1.560
1.956

0.098
0.124

0.099
0.125

0.098
0.125

0.099
0.124

64

Table F.1
Location: 14 ft from middle fence (20.5 ft from inner fence)___________
Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.294
0.300
0.305
0.309
0.289
Collimator Closed 6 MV
0.519
0.512
0.509
0.504
0.516
Collimator Closed 10 MV
0.570
0.577
0.568
0.575
0.580
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
1.043
10 MV Photons
1.302
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
0.068
10 MV Photons
0.087

1.041
1.307

1.043
1.305

1.041
1.305

1.041
1.304

0.068
0.085

0.068
0.085

0.067
0.086

0.068
0.087

Location: _Outside outer fence__________


Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5
Background Readings:
0.303
0.294
0.298
0.282
0.290
Collimator Closed 6 MV
0.439
0.430
0.440
0.428
0.424
Collimator Closed 10 MV
0.470
0.468
0.471
0.459
0.469
Gantry 180 degrees (vertical)
Collimator 40x40
HIGH RANGE
6 MV Photons
0.660
10 MV Photons
0.829
Collimator 10x10
6 MV Photons
8.790
10 MV Photons
0.055

0.657
0.828

0.659
0.831

0.664
0.833

0.662
0.832

8.820
0.055

8.800
0.055

8.790
0.055

8.810
0.055

65

Table F.2. Analysis of skyshine measurements for outdoor roof locations


The low range calibration factor is 0.018147 V/(R/h) and the high range calibration
factor is 0.0000915 V/(R/h).
Average
Std Dev Avg Exposure
Location: _Roof at Outer Fence_____________
Isocenter dist =
11.92 meters
Background
0.302
0.011
16.631
Leakage 6 MV
0.441
0.021
24.324
Leakage 10 MV
0.449
0.007
24.731

HIGH RATE
0.666
0.834
HIGH RATE
180 10x10 6 MV
0.044
180 10x10 10 MV
0.056
180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV

Stdev

NET Exp Stdev Exp

1.775
2.683
2.502

7.69
8.10

3.270
3.123

0.002
0.001

7274.317
9116.940

727.620
911.740

7249.81
9092.02

727.630
911.747

0.000
0.001

480.874
607.650

48.087
61.059

456.36
582.73

48.235
61.167

Location: _3 ft from fence_____________


Isocenter dist =
12.835 meters
Background
0.314
0.010
Leakage 6 MV
0.409
0.005
Leakage 10 MV
0.461
0.016

17.314
22.549
25.393

1.814
2.274
2.686

5.24
8.08

2.943
3.272

0.003
0.001

6246.995
7827.322

625.397
782.824

6224.94
7802.43

625.407
782.833

0.001
0.001

421.858
531.148

42.608
53.451

399.81
506.25

42.751
53.584

HIGH RATE
0.572
0.716
HIGH RATE
180 10x10 6 MV
0.039
180 10x10 10 MV
0.049
180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV

E
Location: _6 ft from fence_____________
Isocenter dist =
13.749 meters
Background
0.301
0.008
Leakage 6 MV
0.391
0.010
Leakage 10 MV
0.440
0.009

16.609
21.535
24.257

1.725
2.219
2.471

4.93
7.65

2.900
3.098

0.001
0.002

5525.683
6902.732

552.655
690.732

5503.94
6880.99

552.666
690.741

0.031
0.001

382.873
463.388

38.326
46.724

361.13
441.64

38.481
46.864

Location: _9 ft from fence_____________


Isocenter dist =
14.664 meters
Background
0.312
0.010
Leakage 6 MV
0.388
0.005
Leakage 10 MV
0.430
0.010

17.215
21.370
23.695

1.811
2.156
2.436

4.15
6.48

2.85
3.07

0.001
0.002

4865.574
6069.945

486.827
607.221

4844.60
6046.65

486.84
607.23

0.008
0.001

342.867
419.672

34.290
42.392

321.89
396.37

34.46
42.54

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV
180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV
180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

HIGH RATE
0.506
0.632
6.948
0.042

HIGH RATE
0.445
0.555
6.222
0.038

66

Table F.2
Average
Std Dev Avg Exposure
Location: _12 ft from fence____________
Isocenter dist =
15.579 meters
Background
0.303
0.013
16.708
Leakage 6 MV
0.376
0.006
20.698
Leakage 10 MV
0.395
0.007
21.745

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV
180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

HIGH RATE
0.392
0.489
5.502
6.928

180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

HIGH RATE
0.352
0.437
4.928
6.222

180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

HIGH RATE
0.237
0.295
3.326
4.098

180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

HIGH RATE
0.176
0.218
2.601
3.206

3.99
5.04

2.81
2.89

428.871
535.120

4265.53
5326.78

428.88
535.13

0.008
0.029

303.191
381.771

30.323
38.212

282.38
359.92

30.51
38.37

18.152
19.783
21.723

1.892
2.014
2.232

1.63
3.57

2.75
2.91

0.002
0.003

3851.366
4778.142

385.493
478.963

3832.92
4757.75

385.51
478.98

0.041
0.024

271.560
342.867

27.249
34.312

253.11
322.48

27.45
34.49

16.719
18.042
19.540

1.744
1.981
2.011

1.32
2.82

2.72
2.74

0.001
0.001

2594.536
3226.230

259.523
322.753

2576.40
3206.59

259.54
322.77

0.005
0.019

183.281
225.822

18.331
22.607

165.14
206.18

18.63
22.85

16.642
19.111
18.383

1.671
2.009
2.051

2.47
1.74

2.74
2.77

0.001
0.002

1921.311
2380.328

192.349
238.709

1902.03
2361.77

192.38
238.73

0.013
0.023

143.352
176.679

14.354
17.715

124.07
158.12

14.73
18.03

Location: _45 ft from fence_____________


Isocenter dist =
25.640 meters
Background
0.302
0.003
Leakage 6 MV
0.347
0.011
Leakage 10 MV
0.334
0.016

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV

1.813
2.097
2.209

4286.339
5348.634

Location: _30 ft from fence_____________


Isocenter dist =
21.066 meters
Background
0.303
0.009
Leakage 6 MV
0.327
0.015
Leakage 10 MV
0.355
0.009

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV

NET Exp Stdev Exp

0.001
0.002

Location: _15 ft from fence_____________


Isocenter dist =
16.493 meters
Background
0.329
0.010
Leakage 6 MV
0.359
0.007
Leakage 10 MV
0.394
0.009

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV

Stdev

67

Table F.2
Location: _60 ft from fence_____________
Isocenter dist =
30.213 meters
Background
0.282
0.005

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV
180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

HIGH RATE
0.138
0.170
2.110
2.579

15.562

1.584

0.001
0.001

1510.383
1862.295

151.315
186.486

1493.57
1845.48

151.36
186.52

0.011
0.007

116.295
142.095

11.646
14.215

99.48
125.28

12.24
14.71

16.928

1.824

1219.672
1497.268

122.114
149.926

1202.86
1480.45

122.172
149.973

Location: _75 ft from fence_____________


Isocenter dist =
34.786 meters
Background
0.307
0.012

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV

HIGH RATE
0.112
0.137

0.001
0.001

180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

1.727
0.018
95.178
2.091
0.005
115.226
Average
Std Dev Avg Exposure
Location: _90 ft from fence_____________
Isocenter dist =
39.359 meters
Background
0.292
0.011
16.113

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV
180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

HIGH RATE
0.094
0.116
1.485
1.785

HIGH RATE
0.081
0.099

1025.137
1265.574

102.921
126.887

1008.32
1248.76

102.938
126.901

0.005
0.021

81.810
98.363

8.185
9.903

64.99
81.55

8.396
10.078

16.124

1.782

880.874
1086.339

88.291
108.799

864.06
1069.52

88.310
108.815

72.387
86.185

7.288
8.627

55.57
69.37

7.524
8.827

17.237

1.790

0.001
0.000

758.470
937.705

76.083
93.898

741.65
920.89

76.106
93.916

0.013
0.013

63.790
76.619

6.419
7.697

46.97
59.80

6.685
7.921

0.001
0.001

180 10x10 6 MV
1.314
0.015
180 10x10 10 MV
1.564
0.007
Location: _120 ft from fence_____________
Isocenter dist =
48.505 meters
Background
0.313
0.009

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV
180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

HIGH RATE
0.069
0.086
1.158
1.390

1.717

0.001
0.001

Location: _105 ft from fence_____________


Isocenter dist =
43.932 meters
Background
0.293
0.014

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV

9.567
78.36
10.282
11.526
98.41
12.125
Stdev
NET Exp Stdev Exp

68

Table F.2
Average
Std Dev Avg Exposure
Location: _135 ft from fence_____________
Isocenter dist =
53.079 meters
Background
0.286
0.009
15.760

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV

HIGH RATE
0.061
0.075

Stdev

NET Exp Stdev Exp

1.644

0.001
0.001

662.295
824.044

66.499
82.622

645.48
807.23

66.53
82.64

0.005
0.020

58.081
69.168

5.814
7.006

41.26
52.35

6.11
7.25

Location: _At middle fence___________


Isocenter dist =
5.810 meters
Background
0.3022
0.0074
Leakage 6 MV
1.3136
0.0169
Leakage 10 MV
1.7396
0.0153

16.6529
72.3866
95.8616

1.714
7.298
9.623

55.73
79.21

7.533
9.803

47475.4098 4751.062 47467.40


60065.5738 6006.856 60057.16

4751.068
6006.864

180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

1.054
1.255

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV

4.3440
5.4960

0.0167
0.0055

180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

0.2670
0.3424

0.0007
0.0009

2918.0328
3742.0765

291.906
374.335

2910.03
3733.66

292.009
374.468

21.78
24.13

8.753
4.515

17029.5082 1703.186 17021.50


21383.6066 2139.137 21375.19

1703.209
2139.143

Location: _9 ft from middle fence (15.5 ft from inner fence)__________


Isocenter dist =
8.646 meters
Background
0.2880
0.0137
15.8704
1.758
Leakage 6 MV
0.6832
0.1393
37.6481
8.551
Leakage 10 MV
0.7258
0.0172
39.9956
4.110
180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV

1.5582
1.9566

0.0026
0.0053

180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

0.0986
0.1246

0.0005
0.0005

1069.59
1353.34

108.296
136.394

Location: 14 ft from middle fence (20.5 ft from inner fence)___________


Isocenter dist =
10.170 meters
Background
0.2994
0.0081
16.4986
1.709
Leakage 6 MV
0.5120
0.0059
28.2140
2.840
11.72
Leakage 10 MV
0.5740
0.0049
31.6306
3.175
15.13

3.399
3.684

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV

1.0418
1.3046

0.0011
0.0018

180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

0.0678
0.0860

0.0004
0.0010

Location: _Outside outer fence__________


Isocenter dist =
11.920 meters
Background
0.2934
0.0080
Leakage 6 MV
0.4322
0.0070
Leakage 10 MV
0.4674
0.0048

1077.5956
1361.7486

107.926
136.306

11385.7923 1138.642 11377.79


14257.9235 1425.931 14249.51

1138.649
1425.937

740.9836
939.8907

74.259
94.622

732.98
931.48

74.361
94.712

16.1680
23.8166
25.7563

1.676
2.413
2.589

7.65
9.59

3.051
3.193

180 Open 6 MV
180 Open 10 MV

0.6604
0.8306

0.0027
0.0021

7217.4863
9077.5956

722.352
908.042

7209.48
9069.18

722.361
908.050

180 10x10 6 MV
180 10x10 10 MV

8.8020
0.0550

0.0130
0.0000

485.0388
601.0929

48.509
60.109

477.03
592.68

48.641
60.223

69

In Table F.2, Average and Std Dev refer to the PIC voltage measurements. The
Avg Exposure is the average exposure rate (in R/h) calculated using the appropriate
calibration factor. The Stdev is the standard deviation of the average exposure rate
taking into account the variation in the data and the 10% uncertainty in the calibration
factor. NET Exp is obtained by subtracting net leakage and average background
exposure rates from the average exposure rate for the location. Stdev Exp takes into
account the propagation of error from the measurement, the calibration factors, the
leakage and the background.

70

Appendix G Skyshine Data and Analysis


For Second Floor Corridor Locations

71

Table G.1. Raw Data for skyshine measurements for second floor corridor locations
All Readings are in Volts.
Date: _3/5/08___________
Location: At wall
Background Readings:
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155
Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.343
0.339
0.352
0.356
0.345

2.122
5.290

2.146
5.300

2.170
5.320

2.175
5.300

2.158
5.290

0.450
0.676

0.457
0.659

0.439
0.649

0.460
0.668

0.453
0.670

2.882
2.898
2.897
2.895
2.887
7.530 0.037 HR 0.036 HR 0.036 HR 0.037 HR
0.038
0.037
0.036
0.036
0.037
0.506
0.808

0.515
0.828

0.499
0.837

0.486
0.832

0.492
0.810

Location: 15 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155
Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.364
0.335
0.336
0.332
0.334

1.559
3.690

1.602
3.710

1.635
3.690

1.675
3.650

1.661
3.680

0.415
0.532

0.434
0.555

0.423
0.559

0.421
0.551

0.408
0.552

2.153
5.030

2.161
5.060

2.156
5.050

2.159
5.080

2.141
5.100

0.424
0.664

0.438
0.670

0.440
0.669

0.439
0.665

0.438
0.673

Location: 30 feet from wall


Background Readings:
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155
Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.318
0.324
0.320
0.308
0.301

0.918
1.485

0.884
1.512

0.924
1.484

0.893
1.472

0.937
1.501

0.361
0.358

0.364
0.386

0.343
0.389

0.342
0.395

0.346
0.388

1.149
1.944

1.161
1.943

1.160
1.953

1.151
1.962

1.160
1.959

0.372
0.416

0.372
0.406

0.388
0.410

0.383
0.441

0.367
0.431

72

Table G.1
Location: 45 ft from wall
Background Readings:
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155
Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.307
0.310
0.305
0.306
0.297

0.678
0.935

0.687
0.917

0.693
0.910

0.709
0.900

0.708
0.903

0.327
0.348

0.344
0.347

0.320
0.348

0.315
0.351

0.318
0.343

0.325
1.129

0.819
1.143

0.812
1.144

0.802
1.125

0.808
1.122

0.342
0.387

0.351
0.382

0.356
0.407

0.374
0.406

0.367
0.381

Location: 60 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155
Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.317
0.308
0.305
0.300
0.245

0.505
0.566

0.508
0.567

0.515
0.567

0.519
0.574

0.533
0.591

0.360
0.337

0.349
0.342

0.329
0.353

0.319
0.338

0.314
0.320

0.599
0.720

0.594
0.697

0.601
0.698

0.609
0.699

0.613
0.716

0.343
0.337

0.363
0.319

0.356
0.329

0.341
0.347

0.332
0.340

Location: 75 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155
Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.308
0.315
0.328
0.349
0.341

0.547
0.601

0.550
0.596

0.550
0.607

0.532
0.599

0.544
0.590

0.320
0.325

0.346
0.386

0.338
0.344

0.326
0.332

0.344
0.331

0.630
0.696

0.628
0.716

0.624
0.716

0.637
0.707

0.657
0.697

0.379
0.342

0.345
0.350

0.338
0.361

0.342
0.349

0.330
0.335

73

Table G.1
Location: 90 ft from wall
Background Readings:
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155
Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.318
0.309
0.298
0.298
0.310

0.493
0.535

0.515
0.561

0.506
0.557

0.524
0.546

0.521
0.528

0.327
0.305

0.347
0.303

0.328
0.316

0.323
0.334

0.338
0.344

0.601
0.603

0.593
0.608

0.598
0.617

0.584
0.623

0.581
0.625

0.312
0.329

0.314
0.343

0.328
0.346

0.328
0.337

0.310
0.334

Location: 105 ft from wall


Background Readings:
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155
Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
Gantry: 180
155
Collimator 1010
Gantry: 180
155

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5


0.312
0.316
0.316
0.310
0.288

0.421
0.437

0.425
0.453

0.423
0.443

0.430
0.437

0.439
0.447

0.313
0.336

0.324
0.332

0.334
0.339

0.331
0.342

0.312
0.331

0.477
0.506

0.482
0.503

0.493
0.514

0.510
0.510

0.499
0.510

0.336
0.324

0.312
0.327

0.326
0.334

0.323
0.345

0.322
0.337

74

Table G.2. Analysis of skyshine measurements for second floor corridor locations
Avg Reading
Distance = 0 ft
Background

Std Dev

Avg Exposure NET Exposure Std Dev Exp


R/h
R/h
R/h

0.347

0.007

19.12

2.154
5.300

0.021
0.012

118.71
292.06

101.18
274.53

10.37
27.62

0.452
0.664

0.008
0.011

24.90
36.61

7.37
19.08

0.87
2.06

Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
2.892

0.007

159.35

141.83

14.33

0.037

0.001

402.11

384.59

35.06

0.500
0.823

0.011
0.013

27.53
45.35

10.00
27.82

1.16
2.96

0.340

0.013

18.75

1.626
3.684

0.047
0.022

89.62
203.01

72.10
185.48

7.91
18.81

0.420
0.550

0.010
0.010

23.16
30.30

5.63
12.77

0.70
1.43

0.008
0.027

118.70
279.05

101.17
261.53

10.26
26.48

0.007
0.004

24.01
36.82

6.49
19.29

0.78
2.06

Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
155
Collimator 1010
180
155

155
Collimator 1010
180
155

Distance=15 ft
Background
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
155
Collimator 1010
180
155

Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
2.154
155
5.064
Collimator 1010
180
0.436
155
0.668

Distance=30
Background
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
155
Collimator 1010
180
155

R/h

R/h

R/h

0.314

0.009

17.31

0.911
1.491

0.022
0.016

50.21
82.15

32.68
64.62

3.52
6.66

0.351
0.383

0.010
0.014

19.35
21.12

1.83
3.59

0.30
0.51

0.006
0.009

63.71
107.58

46.19
90.05

4.76
9.15

0.009
0.015

20.74
23.19

3.21
5.66

0.45
0.73

Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
1.156
155
1.952
Collimator 1010
180
0.376
155
0.421

75

Table G.2
Distance=45
Background
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
155
Collimator 1010
180
155

0.305

0.005

16.81

0.695
0.913

0.013
0.014

38.30
50.31

20.77
32.78

2.25
3.46

0.325
0.347

0.012
0.003

17.90
19.14

0.37
1.62

0.12
0.26

0.217
0.010

39.30
62.41

21.77
44.88

7.87
4.65

0.013
0.013

19.73
21.63

2.20
4.11

0.35
0.56

Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
0.713
155
1.133
Collimator 1010
180
0.358
155
0.393
Distance=60
Background
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
155
Collimator 1010
180
155

R/h

R/h

R/h

0.295

0.029

16.26

0.516
0.573

0.011
0.011

28.43
31.58

10.91
14.05

1.24
1.56

0.334
0.338

0.020
0.012

18.42
18.63

0.89
1.10

0.22
0.22

0.008
0.011

33.24
38.90

15.71
21.38

1.71
2.30

0.012
0.011

19.12
18.43

1.59
0.90

0.28
0.19

0.328

0.017

18.09

0.545
0.599

0.007
0.006

30.01
32.99

12.48
15.46

1.39
1.68

0.335
0.344

0.011
0.025

18.45
18.93

0.92
1.41

0.20
0.32

0.013
0.010

35.00
38.93

17.48
21.40

1.92
2.29

0.019
0.010

19.11
19.14

1.58
1.62

0.31
0.28

Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
0.603
155
0.706
Collimator 1010
180
0.347
155
0.334
Distance=75
Background
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
155
Collimator 1010
180
155

Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
0.635
155
0.706
Collimator 1010
180
0.347
155
0.347

76

Table G.2
Avg Reading

Std Dev

Distance=90
Background
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
155
Collimator 1010
180
155

Avg Exposure NET Exposure Std Dev Exp


R/h
R/h
R/h

0.307

0.009

16.90

0.512
0.545

0.013
0.014

28.20
30.05

10.68
12.53

1.23
1.43

0.333
0.320

0.010
0.018

18.33
17.66

0.80
0.13

0.18
0.08

0.009
0.009

32.59
33.90

15.06
16.37

1.65
1.79

0.009
0.007

17.55
18.61

0.02
1.09

0.02
0.21

0.308

0.012

16.99

0.428
0.443

0.007
0.007

23.56
24.43

6.04
6.91

0.73
0.82

0.323
0.336

0.010
0.005

17.79
18.52

0.26
0.99

0.09
0.19

0.013
0.004

27.12
28.03

9.60
10.50

1.12
1.18

0.009
0.008

17.84
18.37

0.32
0.84

0.10
0.18

Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
0.591
155
0.615
Collimator 1010
180
0.318
155
0.338
Distance=105
Background
Beam Energy = 6 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
155
Collimator 1010
180
155

Beam Energy = 10 MV
Collimator Wide Open
180
0.492
155
0.509
Collimator 1010
180
0.324
155
0.333

77

Appendix H
Comparison of Skyshine to Primary Beam

The primary beam measurements are from the radiation survey performed 9/17/2007.
The dose rate setting was 400 MU/min (400 cGy/min) for the radiation survey and the
maximum collimator setting was 35 cm 35 cm. In order to compare the skyshine
radiation exposure rates to the primary beam exposure rates, the primary beam was scaled
by a factor of 600 cGy min-1/400 cGy min-1 to account for the different dose rates. The
skyshine radiation was scaled by a factor of (35cm)2/(40cm)2 to account for the different
beam sizes.
Primary Beam measured with Victoreen 451 P
Gantry 270
400 cGy/min
mR/hr
Collimator
6 MV
10 MV
35 x 35
2.4
14.6
10 x 10
1.2
5.5

Primary Beam Scaled to


600 cGy/min
mR/hr
Collimator
6 MV
10 MV
35 x 35
3.6
21.9
10 x 10
1.8
8.25

Skyshine measured with RSS-120


Gantry 180
600 cGy/min
mR/hr
Collimator
6 MV
40 x 40
1.88
10 x 10
0.115

Scale 40 x 40 to 35 x 35
mR/hr
Collimator
6 MV
10 MV
35 x 35
1.44
1.78
10 x 10
0.088
0.110

10 MV
2.32
0.144

Ratios of Skyshine to Primary Beam


Collimator
6 MV
10 MV
35 x 35
0.40
0.08
10 x 10
0.05
0.01

78