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Announcements

2-D Vector Addition

Today’s Objectives

• Understand the difference between scalars and vectors

• Resolve a 2-D vector into components

• Perform vector operations

a 2-D vector into components • Perform vector operations Class Activities • Applications • Scalar and

Class Activities

• Applications

Scalar and vector definitions

Triangle and Parallelogram laws

Vector resolution

• Examples

Applications

Applications There are four concurrent cable forces acting on the bracket. How do you determine the

There are four concurrent cable forces acting on the bracket.

How do you determine the resultant force acting on the bracket?

Scalars and Vectors

Scalars

o

Magnitude - positive or negative

o

Addition rule - simple arithmetic

o

Special Notation - none

o

Examples – speed, mass, volume

Vectors

o

Magnitude and direction – positive or negative

o

Addition rule – parallelogram law

o

Special notation - Bold font, line, arrow, or “carrot”

o

Examples – force, velocity

Vector Operations

Multiplication and division

Vector Operations • Multiplication and division

Vector Addition

Vector Addition

Vector Subtraction

Vector Subtraction

Resolution of a Vector

“Resolution” of a vector is breaking it up into components. It is kind of like using the parallelogram law in reverse.

“Resolution” of a vector is breaking it up into components. It is kind of like using

Triangle Laws

Triangle Laws

Textbook Problem 2-4

Determine the magnitude of the resultant force F R = F 1 + F 2 and its direction, measured counterclockwise from the positive u axis.

Answer: F r = 605N

= 85.4°

1 + F 2 and its direction, measured counterclockwise from the positive u axis. Answer: F

Textbook Problem 2-16

Resolve the force F 2 into components acting along the u and v axes and determine the magnitudes of the components.

Answer: F 2v = 77.6N F 2u = 150N

along the u and v axes and determine the magnitudes of the components. Answer: F 2

Summary

• Understand the difference between scalars and vectors

• Resolve a 2-D vector into components

• Perform vector operations

Announcements

Cartesian Vector Notation

Today’s Objectives

• Resolve 2-dimensional vectors into x and y components

• Find the resultant of a 2-dimensional force system

• Express vectors in Cartesian form

force system • Express vectors in Cartesian form Class Activities • Cartesian Vector Notation •

Class Activities

Cartesian Vector Notation

Addition of vectors

• Examples

Cartesian Vector Notation

Cartesian Vector Notation • We ‘resolve’ vectors into components using the x and y axes system

• We ‘resolve’ vectors into components using the x and y axes system

• Each component of the vector is shown as a magnitude and a direction

• The directions are based on the x and y axes. We use the “unit vectors” i and j to designate the x and y axes, respectively.

Cartesian Vector Notation - continued

For example,

F = F x i + F y j

F' = F' x i + F' y j

i + F y j F' = F' x i + F' y j The x
i + F y j F' = F' x i + F' y j The x

The x and y axes are always perpendicular to each other. Together,they can be directed at any inclination.

Addition of Several Vectors

Addition of Several Vectors • Step 1 is to resolve each force into its components. •
Addition of Several Vectors • Step 1 is to resolve each force into its components. •

• Step 1 is to resolve each force into its components.

• Step 2 is to add all the x components together and add all the y components together. These two totals become the resultant vector.

Addition of Several Vectors - continued

Addition of Several Vectors - continued • Step 3 is to find the magnitude and angle
Addition of Several Vectors - continued • Step 3 is to find the magnitude and angle

• Step 3 is to find the magnitude and angle of the resultant vector.

Addition of Several Vectors - continued • Step 3 is to find the magnitude and angle

Magnitude and Angle

You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and an angle.

Magnitude and Angle You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and an angle.
Magnitude and Angle You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and an angle.
Magnitude and Angle You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and an angle.

Example A

Example A Given: Three concurrent forces acting on a bracket. Find: The magnitude and angle of

Given: Three concurrent forces acting on a bracket.

Find:

The magnitude and angle of the resultant force.

Plan:

a) Resolve the forces into their x and y components

b) Add the respective components to get the resultant vector

c) Find magnitude and angle from the resultant components

Example A - continued

F 1

Example A - continued F 1 = { 15 sin 40 ° i + 15 cos

= { 15 sin 40° i + 15 cos 40° j } kN

= { 9.642 i + 11.49 j } kN

F 2 = { -(12/13)26 i + (5/13)26 j } kN

F 3

= { -24 i + 10 j } kN

= { 36 cos 30° i – 36 sin 30° j } kN

= { 31.18 i – 18 j } kN

Example A - continued

Example A - continued Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get, F

Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get,

F R = { (9.642 – 24 + 31.18) i + (11.49 + 10 – 18) j } kN

= { 16.82 i + 3.49 j } kN

F R = ((16.82) 2 + (3.49) 2 ) 1/2 = 17.2 kN

= tan -1 (3.49/16.82) = 11.7°

y F R
y
F R

x

Example B

Example B Given: Three concurrent forces acting on a bracket. Find: The magnitude and angle of

Given: Three concurrent forces acting on a bracket.

Find:

The magnitude and angle of the resultant force.

Plan:

a) Resolve the forces into their x and y components

b) Add the respective components to get the resultant vector

c) Find magnitude and angle from the resultant components

Example B - continued

F 1

= { (4/5) 850 i - (3/5) 850 j } N

B - continued F 1 = { (4 / 5) 850 i - (3/5) 850 j

= { 680 i - 510 j } N F 2 = { -625 sin(30°) i - 625 cos(30°) j } N = { -312.5 i - 541.3 j } N F 3 = { -750 sin(45°) i + 750 cos(45°) j } N { -530.3 i + 530.3 j } N

Example B - continued

Example B - continued Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get, F

Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get,

F R = { (680 - 312.5 - 530.3) i + (-510 - 541.3 + 530.3) j }N

= { - 162.8 i - 521 j } N

F R = ((162.8) 2 + (521) 2 ) ½ = 546 N

= tan 1 (521/162.8) = 72.64° or

From the positive x axis: = 180 + 72.64 = 253°

y F R
y
F R

x

Textbook Problem 2-55

If F 2 = 150 lb and = 55º, determine the magnitude and orientation, measured clockwise from the positive x axis, of the resultant force of the three forces acting on the bracket.

Answer: F R = 161 lb

= 38.3°

positive x axis, of the resultant force of the three forces acting on the bracket. Answer:

Summary

• Resolve 2-dimensional vectors into x and y components

• Find the resultant of a 2-dimensional force system

• Express vectors in Cartesian form

Announcements

• Homework feedback

– Graph paper

– Problem statements

• Week of prayer schedule

3 Dimensional Vectors

Today’s Objectives

• Represent a 3-D vector in a Cartesian coordinate system

• Find the magnitude and coordinate angles of a 3-D vector

• Add vectors is 3-D space

angles of a 3-D vector • Add vectors is 3-D space Class Activities • Applications •

Class Activities

• Applications

Unit vector definition

3-D vector terms

Adding vectors

• Examples

Applications

Applications Many problems in real-life involve 3-Dimensional space. How do you represent each of the cable

Many problems in real-life involve 3-Dimensional space.

How do you represent each of the cable forces in Cartesian vector form?

Applications - continued

Given the forces in the cables, how do you determine the resultant force acting at D, the top of the tower?

- continued Given the forces in the cables, how do you determine the resultant force acting

Applications - continued

Applications - continued

Right–Handed Coordinate System

Right–Handed Coordinate System A Cartesian coordinate system is said to be right-handed provided the thumb of

A Cartesian coordinate system is

said to be right-handed provided the thumb of the right hand points

in the direction of the positive z

axis when the right-hand fingers

are curled about this axis and directed from the positive x toward the positive y axis.

A Unit Vector

For a vector A with a magnitude of A, a unit vector U A is defined as

U A = A / A

Characteristics of a unit vector:

a) Its magnitude is 1

b) It is dimensionless

c) It points in the same direction as the original vector (A)

It points in the same direction as the original vector ( A ) The unit vectors

The unit vectors in the Cartesian axis system are i, j, and k. They are unit vectors along the positive x, y, and z axes respectively.

Cartesian axis system are i , j , and k . They are unit vectors along

3-D Cartesian Vector Terminology

3-D Cartesian Vector Terminology Consider a box with sides A X , A Y , and

Consider a box with sides A X , A Y , and A Z meters long.

The vector A can be defined as A = (A X i + A Y j + A Z k) m

The projection of the vector A in the x-y plane is A´. The magnitude of this projection, A´, is found by using the same approach as a 2-D vector: A´ = (A X 2 + A Y 2 ) 1/2 .

The magnitude of the vector A can now be obtained as:

A = ((A´) 2 + A Z 2 ) ½ = (A X 2 + A Y 2 + A Z 2 ) ½

Terminology - continued

The direction or orientation of vector A is defined by the angles , , and .

These angles are measured between the vector and the positive x, y and z axes, respectively. Their values range from 0° to 180°.

Using trigonometry, “direction cosines”, and coordinate direction angles are found using the formulas:

° to 180 ° . Using trigonometry, “direction cosines”, and coordinate direction angles are found using
° to 180 ° . Using trigonometry, “direction cosines”, and coordinate direction angles are found using
° to 180 ° . Using trigonometry, “direction cosines”, and coordinate direction angles are found using
° to 180 ° . Using trigonometry, “direction cosines”, and coordinate direction angles are found using

Terminology - continued

These angles are not independent. They must satisfy the following equation:

cos ²

This result can be derived from the definition of coordinate direction angles and the unit vector. Recall, the formula for finding the unit vector is:

+ cos ²

+ cos ² = 1

for finding the unit vector is: + cos ² + cos ² = 1 or written

or written another way: u A = cos

i + cos

for finding the unit vector is: + cos ² + cos ² = 1 or written

j + cos k

Cartesian Vector Math

Once individual vectors are written in Cartesian form, it is easy to add or subtract them. The process is essentially the same as when 2-D vectors are added.

For example, if

A = A X i + A Y j + A Z k and

B = B X i + B Y j + B Z k then

A + B = (A X + B X ) i + (A Y + B Y ) j + (A Z + B Z ) k

and

A B = (A X - B X ) i + (A Y - B Y ) j + (A Z - B Z ) k

Important Notes

Sometimes 3-D vector information is given as:

a) Magnitude and coordinate direction angles, or b) Magnitude and projection angles

You should be able to use both types of information to change the representation of the vector into the Cartesian form, i.e.,

F = {10 i – 20 j + 30 k} N

information to change the representation of the vector into the Cartesian form, i.e., F = {10
information to change the representation of the vector into the Cartesian form, i.e., F = {10
G
G

Example A

Given: Two forces F and G are applied to a hook. Force F is shown in the figure and it makes a 60° angle with the x-y plane. Force G is pointing up and has a magnitude of 80 lb with = 111° and = 69.3°.

Find:

The resultant force in Cartesian vector form.

Plan:

1) Using geometry and trigonometry, write F and G in Cartesian vector form 2) Add the two forces together

Example A - continued

Solution : First, resolve force F.

F z = 100 sin 60° = 86.60 lb F' = 100 cos 60° = 50.00 lb

F x = 50 cos 45° = 35.36 lb F y = 50 sin 45° = 35.36 lb

50 cos 45 ° = 35.36 lb F y = 50 sin 45 ° = 35.36

Now, you can write:

F = {35.36 i – 35.36 j + 86.60 k} lb

Example A - continued

Next, resolve force G. We are given only and . We need to find the value of . Recall the formula cos ² ( ) + cos ² ( ) + cos ² ( ) = 1. Now substitute what we know. We have cos ² (111°) + cos ² (69.3°) + cos ² ( ) = 1. Solving, we get = 30.22° or 120.2°. Since the vector is pointing up, = 30.22°

G
G

Now using the coordinate direction angles, we can get U G, and determine G from the formula: G = 80U G lb.

G

= {80 ( cos (111°) i + cos (69.3°) j + cos (30.22°) k )} lb

G

= {- 28.67 i + 28.28 j + 69.13 k } lb

Finally, find the resultant vector R = F + G or

R = {6.69 i – 7.08 j + 156 k} lb

Example B

Example B Given: The screw eye is subjected to two forces. Find: The magnitude and the

Given: The screw eye is subjected to two forces.

Find:

The magnitude and the coordinate direction angles of the resultant force.

Plan:

1) Using geometry and trigonometry, write F 1 and F 2 in Cartesian vector form 2) Add F 1 and F 2 to get F R 3) Determine the magnitude and , , and of F R

Example B - continued

F 1z F´
F 1z

First resolve force F 1 .

F 1z = 300 sin 60° = 259.8 N

F´ = 300 cos 60° = 150.0 N

F´ can be further resolved as,

F 1x = -150 sin 45° = -106.1 N

F 1y = 150 cos 45° = 106.1 N

Now we can write :

F 1 = {-106.1 i + 106.1 j + 259.8 k } N

Example B - continued

Example B - continued Force F 2 can be represented in Cartesian vector form as: F

Force F 2 can be represented in Cartesian vector form as:

F 2 = 500{ cos 60° i + cos 45° j + cos 120° k } N

= { 250 i + 353.6 j – 250 k } N

F R = F 1 + F 2

= { 143.9 i + 459.6 j + 9.81 k } N

F R = (143.9 2 + 459.6 2 + 9.81 2 ) ½ = 481.7 = 482 N

= cos -1 (F Rx / F R ) = cos -1 (143.9/481.7) = 72.6°

= cos -1 (F Ry / F R ) = cos -1 (459.6/481.7) = 17.4°

= cos -1 (F Rz / F R ) = cos -1 (9.81/481.7) = 88.8°

Questions

1. What is not true about the unit vector, U A ?

A) It is dimensionless

B) Its magnitude is one

C) It always points in the direction of positive x axis

D) It always points in the direction of vector A

2. If F = {10 i + 10 j + 10 k} N and G = {20 i + 20 j + 20 k } N, then F + G = {

A) 10 i + 10 j + 10 k

B) 30 i + 20 j + 30 k

C) -10 i - 10 j - 10 k

D) 30 i + 30 j + 30 k

} N

Textbook Problem 2-68

Determine the magnitude and coordinate direction angles of the resultant force.

Answers:

F R = 369 N = 19.5° = 20.6° = 69.5°

and coordinate direction angles of the resultant force. Answers: F R = 369 N = 19.5

Textbook Problem 2-78

Two forces F 1 and F 2 act on the bolt. If the resultant force F r has a magnitude of 50 lb and coordinate direction angles = 110º and = 80º as shown, determine the magnitude of F 2 and its coordinate direction angles.

Answers:

F 2 = 32.4 lb 2 = 122º 2 = 74.5º 2 = 144º

F 2 and its coordinate direction angles. Answers: F 2 = 32.4 lb 2 = 122º

Summary

• Represent a 3-D vector in a Cartesian coordinate system

• Find the magnitude and coordinate angles of a 3-D vector

• Add vectors (forces) in 3-D space

Announcements

Review

Vector: A = (A X i + A Y j + A Z k) Direction cosines:

(A X i + A Y j + A Z k ) Direction cosines: Trig. Law:

Trig. Law: cos ²

+ cos ²

+ cos ² = 1

Unit vector:

Trig. Law: cos ² + cos ² + cos ² = 1 Unit vector: or written

or written another way: u A = cos

i + cos

j + cos k

Position and Force Vectors

Today’s Objectives

• Represent a position vector in Cartesian vector form using given geometry

• Represent a force vector directed along a line

geometry • Represent a force vector directed along a line Class Activities • Applications • Position

Class Activities

• Applications

Position vectors

Force vectors

• Examples

Applications

Applications Wing strut How can we represent the force along the wing strut in a 3-D

Wing strut

How can we represent the force along the wing strut in a 3-D Cartesian vector form?

Position Vector

A position vector is defined as a fixed vector that locates a point in space relative to another point.

Consider two points, A & B, in 3D space. Let their coordinates be (X A , Y A , Z A ) and (X B , Y B , Z B ), respectively.

Z A ) and (X B , Y B , Z B ), respectively. The position

The position vector directed from A to B, r AB , is defined as r AB = {( X B – X A ) i + ( Y B – Y A ) j + ( Z B – Z A ) k } m Note that B is the ending point and A is the starting point. Always subtract the “tail” coordinates from the “tip” coordinates.

Force Vector Along a Line

Force Vector Along a Line If a force is directed along a line, then the force

If a force is directed along a line, then the force can be represented in Cartesian coordinates by using a unit vector and the force magnitude. So we need to:

a) Find the position vector, r AB , along two points on that line

b) Find the unit vector describing the line’s direction, u AB = (r AB /r AB )

c) Multiply the unit vector by the magnitude of the force, F = F u AB

Example A Given: 400 lb force along the cable DA Find: The force F D

Example A

Given: 400 lb force along the cable DA

Find:

The force F DA in Cartesian vector form

Plan:

1. Find the position vector r DA and the unit vector u DA

2. Obtain the force vector as F DA = 400 lb u DA

Example A - continued

Example A - continued We can find r D A by subtracting the coordinates of D

We can find r DA by subtracting the coordinates of D from the coordinates of A. D = (2, 6, 0) ft and A = (0, 0, 14) ft r DA = {(0 – 2) i + (0 – 6) j + (14 – 0) k} ft = {-2 i – 6 j + 14 k} ft We can also calculate r DA by realizing that when relating D to A, we will have to go -2 ft in the x-direction, -6 ft in the y-direction, and +14 ft in the z-direction.

= (2 2 + 6 2 + 14 2 ) 0.5 = 15.36 ft

u DA = r DA /r DA and F DA = 400 u DA lb F DA = 400{(-2 i – 6 j + 14 k)/15.36} lb = {-52.1 i – 156 j + 365 k} lb

r DA

Example B

Example B Given: Two forces are acting on a pipe as shown in the figure Find:

Given:

Two forces are acting on a pipe as shown in the figure

Find:

The magnitude and the coordinate direction angles of the resultant force

Plan:

1) Find the forces along CA and CB in Cartesian vector form 2) Add the two forces to get the resultant force, F R 3) Determine the magnitude and the coordinate angles of F R

Example B - continued

Example B - continued F C A = 100 lb{ r C A /r C A

F CA = 100 lb{r CA /r CA }

F CA = 100 lb(-3 sin 40° i + 3 cos 40° j – 4 k)/5

F CA = {-38.57 i + 45.96 j – 80 k} lb

F CB = 81 lb{r CB /r CB }

F CB = 81 lb(4 i – 7 j – 4 k)/9

F CB = {36 i – 63 j – 36 k} lb

F R = F CA + F CB = {-2.57 i – 17.04 j – 116 k} lb F R = (2.57 2 + 17.04 2 + 116 2 ) 1/2 = 117.3 lb = 117 lb = cos -1 (-2.57/117.3) = 91.3°, = cos -1 (-17.04/117.3) = 98.4° = cos -1 (-116/117.3) = 172°

Questions

1. Two points in 3-D space have coordinates of P(1, 2, 3) and Q (4, 5, 6) meters. The position vector r QP is given by

A) {3 i + 3 j + 3 k} m

B) {- 3 i – 3 j – 3 k} m

C) {5 i + 7 j + 9 k} m

D) {- 3 i + 3 j + 3 k} m

E) {4 i + 5 j + 6 k} m

2. P and Q are two points in 3-D space. How are the position vectors r PQ and r QP related?

A)

C)

r PQ = r QP

r PQ = 1/r QP

B) r PQ = - r QP

D) r PQ = 2 r QP

Textbook Problem 2.90

Determine the magnitude and coordinate direction angles of the resultant force.

Answers:

F R = 52.2 lb = 87.8º = 63.7º = 154º

magnitude and coordinate direction angles of the resultant force. Answers: F R = 52.2 lb =

Summary

• Represent a position vector in Cartesian vector form using given geometry

• Represent a force vector directed along a line

Announcements

Homework

– Excuses. Not!

– Due date and time

– Graph paper

– Do solutions on one side only

– Problem statements

Dot Product

Today’s Objectives

• Determine the angle between two vectors

• Determine the projection of a vector along a specified line

Determine the projection of a vector along a specified line Class Activities • Applications • Dot

Class Activities

• Applications

Dot product

Angle determination

Projection determination

• Examples

Applications

Applications For this geometry, can you determine angles between the pole and the cables? For force

For this geometry, can you determine angles between the pole and the cables?

For force F at Point A, what component of it (F 1 ) acts along the pipe OA? What component (F 2 ) acts perpendicular to the pipe?

Dot Product Definition

Dot Product Definition The dot product of vectors A and B is defined as A •

The dot product of vectors A and B is defined as AB = AB cos Angle is the smallest angle between the two vectors and is always in a range of 0 º to 180 º

Dot Product Characteristics:

1. The result of the dot product is a scalar (a positive or negative number) 2. The units of the dot product will be the product of the units of the A and B vectors

Dot Product Definition - continued

Examples:

i j = 0 i.e. (1)(1)cos(90°)

i i = 1 i.e. (1)(1)cos(0°)

A • B

= (A x i + A y j + A z k) (B x I + B y j + B z k)

= (A x B x (i i) + A x B y (i j) + A x B z (i k) + ….)

= A x B x + A y B y + A z B z

Angle Between Two Vectors

Angle Between Two Vectors For two vectors in Cartesian form, one can find the angle by:

For two vectors in Cartesian form, one can find the angle by:

a) Finding the dot product, A • B = (A x B x + A y B y + A z B z )

b) Finding the magnitudes (A & B) of the vectors A & B

c) Using the definition of dot product and solving for , i.e.

= cos -1 [(A • B)/(A B)], where 0 º

180 º

Projection of a Vector

Projection of a Vector You can determine the components of a vector parallel and perpendicular to

You can determine the components of a vector parallel and perpendicular to a line using the dot product.

Steps:

1. Find the unit vector, U aa´ along the line aa´

2. Find the scalar projection of A along line aa´ by A || = A • U = A x U x + A y U y + A z U z

Projection of a Vector - continued

Projection of a Vector - continued 3. If needed, the projection can be written as a

3. If needed, the projection can be written as a vector, A || , by using the unit vector U aa´ and the magnitude found in step 2.

A || = A || U aa´

4. The scalar and vector forms of the perpendicular component can easily be obtained by

A

= (A 2 - A || 2 ) ½ and

A

= A A ||

(rearranging the vector sum of A = A + A || )

A
A

Example A

Given: The force acting on the pole

Find:

The angle between the force vector and the pole, and the magnitude of the projection of the force along the pole

OA.

Plan:

1. Find r OA

2. = cos -1 {(F • r OA )/(F r OA )}

3. F OA = F • u OA or F cos

Example A - continued

A
A

r OA = {2 i + 2 j – 1 k} m

r OA = (2 2 + 2 2 + 1 2 ) 1/2 = 3 m

F = {2 i + 4 j + 10 k} kN

F = (2 2 + 4 2 + 10 2 ) 1/2 = 10.95 kN

F • r OA = (2)(2) + (4)(2) + (10)(-1) = 2 kN·m

= cos -1 {(F • r OA )/(F r OA )}

= cos -1 {2/(10.95 × 3)} = 86.5° u OA = r OA /r OA = {(2/3) i + (2/3) j – (1/3) k}

F OA = F • u OA = (2)(2/3) + (4)(2/3) + (10)(-1/3) = 0.667 kN

or F OA = F cos = 10.95 cos(86.51°) = 0.667 kN

Example B Given: The force acting on the pole. Find: The angle between the force

Example B

Given: The force acting on the pole.

Find:

The angle between the force vector and the pole, and the magnitude of the projection of the force along the pole AO.

Plan:

1. Find r AO

2. = cos -1 {(F • r AO )/(F r AO )}

3. F OA = F • u AO or F cos

Example B - continued

Example B - continued r A O = {-3 i + 2 j – 6 k

r AO = {-3 i + 2 j – 6 k} ft

r AO = (3 2 + 2 2 + 6 2 ) 1/2 = 7 ft

F = {-20 i + 50 j – 10 k} lb

F = (20 2 + 50 2 + 10 2 ) 1/2 = 54.77 lb

F • r AO = (-20)(-3) + (50)(2) + (-10)(-6) = 220 lb·ft

= cos -1 {(F • r AO )/(F r AO )}

= cos -1 {220/(54.77×7)} = 55.0°

u AO = r AO /r AO = {(-3/7) i + (2/7) j – (6/7) k}

F AO = F • u AO = (-20)(-3/7) + (50)(2/7) + (-10)(-6/7) = 31.4 lb

or F AO = F cos = 54.77 cos(55.0°) = 31.4 lb

Questions

1. The dot product of two vectors P and Q is defined as

A)

P Q

cos

B) P Q sin

C)

P Q tan

D) P Q sec

P
P

Q

2. The dot product of two vectors results in a quantity.

A)

scalar

B) vector

C)

complex

D) zero

Questions

1. If a dot product of two non-zero vectors is 0, then the

two vectors must be

A) parallel (pointing in the same direction)

B) parallel (pointing in the opposite direction)

C) perpendicular

D) cannot be determined

to each other.

2. Find the dot product of the two vectors P and Q. P = {5 i + 2 j + 3 k} m Q = {-2 i + 5 j + 4 k} m

A)

-12 m

B) 12 m

C) 12 m 2

D)

-12 m 2

E) 10 m 2

Textbook Problem 2-127

Determine the angle the sheet-metal bracket.

between the edges of

Answer: 82.0°

Textbook Problem 2-127 Determine the angle the sheet-metal bracket. between the edges of Answer: 82.0 °

Summary

• Determine an angle between two vectors

• Determine the projection of a vector along a specified line