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Announcements

Today’s Objectives

• Understand the difference between scalars and vectors

• Resolve a 2-D vector into components

• Perform vector operations Class Activities

• Applications

Scalar and vector definitions

Triangle and Parallelogram laws

Vector resolution

• Examples

Applications There are four concurrent cable forces acting on the bracket.

How do you determine the resultant force acting on the bracket?

Scalars and Vectors

Scalars

 o Magnitude - positive or negative o Addition rule - simple arithmetic o Special Notation - none o Examples – speed, mass, volume

Vectors

 o Magnitude and direction – positive or negative o Addition rule – parallelogram law o Special notation - Bold font, line, arrow, or “carrot” o Examples – force, velocity

Vector Operations

Multiplication and division  Vector Subtraction Resolution of a Vector

“Resolution” of a vector is breaking it up into components. It is kind of like using the parallelogram law in reverse. Triangle Laws Textbook Problem 2-4

Determine the magnitude of the resultant force F R = F 1 + F 2 and its direction, measured counterclockwise from the positive u axis.

= 85.4° Textbook Problem 2-16

Resolve the force F 2 into components acting along the u and v axes and determine the magnitudes of the components.

Answer: F 2v = 77.6N F 2u = 150N Summary

• Understand the difference between scalars and vectors

• Resolve a 2-D vector into components

• Perform vector operations

Announcements

Cartesian Vector Notation

Today’s Objectives

• Resolve 2-dimensional vectors into x and y components

• Find the resultant of a 2-dimensional force system

• Express vectors in Cartesian form Class Activities

Cartesian Vector Notation

• Examples

Cartesian Vector Notation • We ‘resolve’ vectors into components using the x and y axes system

• Each component of the vector is shown as a magnitude and a direction

• The directions are based on the x and y axes. We use the “unit vectors” i and j to designate the x and y axes, respectively.

Cartesian Vector Notation - continued

 For example, F = F x i + F y j F' = F' x i + F' y j  The x and y axes are always perpendicular to each other. Together,they can be directed at any inclination.  • Step 1 is to resolve each force into its components.

• Step 2 is to add all the x components together and add all the y components together. These two totals become the resultant vector.

Addition of Several Vectors - continued  • Step 3 is to find the magnitude and angle of the resultant vector. Magnitude and Angle

You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and an angle.   Example A Given: Three concurrent forces acting on a bracket.

 Find: The magnitude and angle of the resultant force. Plan:

a) Resolve the forces into their x and y components

b) Add the respective components to get the resultant vector

c) Find magnitude and angle from the resultant components

Example A - continued

F 1 = { 15 sin 40° i + 15 cos 40° j } kN

= { 9.642 i + 11.49 j } kN

F 2 = { -(12/13)26 i + (5/13)26 j } kN

F 3

= { -24 i + 10 j } kN

= { 36 cos 30° i – 36 sin 30° j } kN

= { 31.18 i – 18 j } kN

Example A - continued Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get,

F R = { (9.642 – 24 + 31.18) i + (11.49 + 10 – 18) j } kN

= { 16.82 i + 3.49 j } kN

F R = ((16.82) 2 + (3.49) 2 ) 1/2 = 17.2 kN

= tan -1 (3.49/16.82) = 11.7° y
F R

x

Example B Given: Three concurrent forces acting on a bracket.

 Find: The magnitude and angle of the resultant force. Plan:

a) Resolve the forces into their x and y components

b) Add the respective components to get the resultant vector

c) Find magnitude and angle from the resultant components

Example B - continued

F 1

= { (4/5) 850 i - (3/5) 850 j } N = { 680 i - 510 j } N F 2 = { -625 sin(30°) i - 625 cos(30°) j } N = { -312.5 i - 541.3 j } N F 3 = { -750 sin(45°) i + 750 cos(45°) j } N { -530.3 i + 530.3 j } N

Example B - continued Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get,

F R = { (680 - 312.5 - 530.3) i + (-510 - 541.3 + 530.3) j }N

= { - 162.8 i - 521 j } N

F R = ((162.8) 2 + (521) 2 ) ½ = 546 N

= tan 1 (521/162.8) = 72.64° or

From the positive x axis: = 180 + 72.64 = 253° y
F R

x

Textbook Problem 2-55

If F 2 = 150 lb and = 55º, determine the magnitude and orientation, measured clockwise from the positive x axis, of the resultant force of the three forces acting on the bracket.

Answer: F R = 161 lb

= 38.3° Summary

• Resolve 2-dimensional vectors into x and y components

• Find the resultant of a 2-dimensional force system

• Express vectors in Cartesian form

Announcements

• Homework feedback

– Graph paper

– Problem statements

• Week of prayer schedule

3 Dimensional Vectors

Today’s Objectives

• Represent a 3-D vector in a Cartesian coordinate system

• Find the magnitude and coordinate angles of a 3-D vector

• Add vectors is 3-D space Class Activities

• Applications

Unit vector definition

3-D vector terms

• Examples

Applications Many problems in real-life involve 3-Dimensional space.

How do you represent each of the cable forces in Cartesian vector form?

Applications - continued

Given the forces in the cables, how do you determine the resultant force acting at D, the top of the tower? Applications - continued Right–Handed Coordinate System A Cartesian coordinate system is

said to be right-handed provided the thumb of the right hand points

in the direction of the positive z

axis when the right-hand fingers

A Unit Vector

For a vector A with a magnitude of A, a unit vector U A is defined as

U A = A / A

Characteristics of a unit vector:

a) Its magnitude is 1

b) It is dimensionless

c) It points in the same direction as the original vector (A) The unit vectors in the Cartesian axis system are i, j, and k. They are unit vectors along the positive x, y, and z axes respectively. 3-D Cartesian Vector Terminology Consider a box with sides A X , A Y , and A Z meters long.

The vector A can be defined as A = (A X i + A Y j + A Z k) m

The projection of the vector A in the x-y plane is A´. The magnitude of this projection, A´, is found by using the same approach as a 2-D vector: A´ = (A X 2 + A Y 2 ) 1/2 .

The magnitude of the vector A can now be obtained as:

A = ((A´) 2 + A Z 2 ) ½ = (A X 2 + A Y 2 + A Z 2 ) ½

Terminology - continued

The direction or orientation of vector A is defined by the angles , , and .

These angles are measured between the vector and the positive x, y and z axes, respectively. Their values range from 0° to 180°.

Using trigonometry, “direction cosines”, and coordinate direction angles are found using the formulas:    Terminology - continued

These angles are not independent. They must satisfy the following equation:

cos ²

This result can be derived from the definition of coordinate direction angles and the unit vector. Recall, the formula for finding the unit vector is:

+ cos ²

+ cos ² = 1 or written another way: u A = cos

i + cos j + cos k

Cartesian Vector Math

Once individual vectors are written in Cartesian form, it is easy to add or subtract them. The process is essentially the same as when 2-D vectors are added.

For example, if

A = A X i + A Y j + A Z k and

B = B X i + B Y j + B Z k then

A + B = (A X + B X ) i + (A Y + B Y ) j + (A Z + B Z ) k

and

A B = (A X - B X ) i + (A Y - B Y ) j + (A Z - B Z ) k

Important Notes

Sometimes 3-D vector information is given as:

a) Magnitude and coordinate direction angles, or b) Magnitude and projection angles

You should be able to use both types of information to change the representation of the vector into the Cartesian form, i.e.,

F = {10 i – 20 j + 30 k} N   G

Example A

Given: Two forces F and G are applied to a hook. Force F is shown in the figure and it makes a 60° angle with the x-y plane. Force G is pointing up and has a magnitude of 80 lb with = 111° and = 69.3°.

 Find: The resultant force in Cartesian vector form. Plan:

1) Using geometry and trigonometry, write F and G in Cartesian vector form 2) Add the two forces together

Example A - continued

Solution : First, resolve force F.

F z = 100 sin 60° = 86.60 lb F' = 100 cos 60° = 50.00 lb

F x = 50 cos 45° = 35.36 lb F y = 50 sin 45° = 35.36 lb Now, you can write:

F = {35.36 i – 35.36 j + 86.60 k} lb

Example A - continued

Next, resolve force G. We are given only and . We need to find the value of . Recall the formula cos ² ( ) + cos ² ( ) + cos ² ( ) = 1. Now substitute what we know. We have cos ² (111°) + cos ² (69.3°) + cos ² ( ) = 1. Solving, we get = 30.22° or 120.2°. Since the vector is pointing up, = 30.22° G

Now using the coordinate direction angles, we can get U G, and determine G from the formula: G = 80U G lb.

 G = {80 ( cos (111°) i + cos (69.3°) j + cos (30.22°) k )} lb G = {- 28.67 i + 28.28 j + 69.13 k } lb

Finally, find the resultant vector R = F + G or

R = {6.69 i – 7.08 j + 156 k} lb

Example B Given: The screw eye is subjected to two forces.

 Find: The magnitude and the coordinate direction angles of the resultant force. Plan:

1) Using geometry and trigonometry, write F 1 and F 2 in Cartesian vector form 2) Add F 1 and F 2 to get F R 3) Determine the magnitude and , , and of F R

Example B - continued F 1z

First resolve force F 1 .

F 1z = 300 sin 60° = 259.8 N

F´ = 300 cos 60° = 150.0 N

F´ can be further resolved as,

F 1x = -150 sin 45° = -106.1 N

F 1y = 150 cos 45° = 106.1 N

Now we can write :

F 1 = {-106.1 i + 106.1 j + 259.8 k } N

Example B - continued Force F 2 can be represented in Cartesian vector form as:

F 2 = 500{ cos 60° i + cos 45° j + cos 120° k } N

= { 250 i + 353.6 j – 250 k } N

F R = F 1 + F 2

= { 143.9 i + 459.6 j + 9.81 k } N

F R = (143.9 2 + 459.6 2 + 9.81 2 ) ½ = 481.7 = 482 N

= cos -1 (F Rx / F R ) = cos -1 (143.9/481.7) = 72.6°

= cos -1 (F Ry / F R ) = cos -1 (459.6/481.7) = 17.4°

= cos -1 (F Rz / F R ) = cos -1 (9.81/481.7) = 88.8°

Questions

1. What is not true about the unit vector, U A ?

A) It is dimensionless

B) Its magnitude is one

C) It always points in the direction of positive x axis

D) It always points in the direction of vector A

2. If F = {10 i + 10 j + 10 k} N and G = {20 i + 20 j + 20 k } N, then F + G = {

A) 10 i + 10 j + 10 k

B) 30 i + 20 j + 30 k

C) -10 i - 10 j - 10 k

D) 30 i + 30 j + 30 k

} N

Textbook Problem 2-68

Determine the magnitude and coordinate direction angles of the resultant force.

F R = 369 N = 19.5° = 20.6° = 69.5° Textbook Problem 2-78

Two forces F 1 and F 2 act on the bolt. If the resultant force F r has a magnitude of 50 lb and coordinate direction angles = 110º and = 80º as shown, determine the magnitude of F 2 and its coordinate direction angles.

F 2 = 32.4 lb 2 = 122º 2 = 74.5º 2 = 144º Summary

• Represent a 3-D vector in a Cartesian coordinate system

• Find the magnitude and coordinate angles of a 3-D vector

• Add vectors (forces) in 3-D space

Announcements

Review

Vector: A = (A X i + A Y j + A Z k) Direction cosines: Trig. Law: cos ²

+ cos ²

+ cos ² = 1

Unit vector: or written another way: u A = cos

i + cos

j + cos k

Position and Force Vectors

Today’s Objectives

• Represent a position vector in Cartesian vector form using given geometry

• Represent a force vector directed along a line Class Activities

• Applications

Position vectors

Force vectors

• Examples

Applications Wing strut

How can we represent the force along the wing strut in a 3-D Cartesian vector form?

Position Vector

A position vector is defined as a fixed vector that locates a point in space relative to another point.

Consider two points, A & B, in 3D space. Let their coordinates be (X A , Y A , Z A ) and (X B , Y B , Z B ), respectively. The position vector directed from A to B, r AB , is defined as r AB = {( X B – X A ) i + ( Y B – Y A ) j + ( Z B – Z A ) k } m Note that B is the ending point and A is the starting point. Always subtract the “tail” coordinates from the “tip” coordinates.

Force Vector Along a Line If a force is directed along a line, then the force can be represented in Cartesian coordinates by using a unit vector and the force magnitude. So we need to:

a) Find the position vector, r AB , along two points on that line

b) Find the unit vector describing the line’s direction, u AB = (r AB /r AB )

c) Multiply the unit vector by the magnitude of the force, F = F u AB Example A

Given: 400 lb force along the cable DA

 Find: The force F DA in Cartesian vector form Plan:

1. Find the position vector r DA and the unit vector u DA

2. Obtain the force vector as F DA = 400 lb u DA

Example A - continued We can find r DA by subtracting the coordinates of D from the coordinates of A. D = (2, 6, 0) ft and A = (0, 0, 14) ft r DA = {(0 – 2) i + (0 – 6) j + (14 – 0) k} ft = {-2 i – 6 j + 14 k} ft We can also calculate r DA by realizing that when relating D to A, we will have to go -2 ft in the x-direction, -6 ft in the y-direction, and +14 ft in the z-direction.

= (2 2 + 6 2 + 14 2 ) 0.5 = 15.36 ft

u DA = r DA /r DA and F DA = 400 u DA lb F DA = 400{(-2 i – 6 j + 14 k)/15.36} lb = {-52.1 i – 156 j + 365 k} lb

r DA

Example B Given: Two forces are acting on a pipe as shown in the figure Find: The magnitude and the coordinate direction angles of the resultant force Plan:

1) Find the forces along CA and CB in Cartesian vector form 2) Add the two forces to get the resultant force, F R 3) Determine the magnitude and the coordinate angles of F R

Example B - continued F CA = 100 lb{r CA /r CA }

F CA = 100 lb(-3 sin 40° i + 3 cos 40° j – 4 k)/5

F CA = {-38.57 i + 45.96 j – 80 k} lb

F CB = 81 lb{r CB /r CB }

F CB = 81 lb(4 i – 7 j – 4 k)/9

F CB = {36 i – 63 j – 36 k} lb

F R = F CA + F CB = {-2.57 i – 17.04 j – 116 k} lb F R = (2.57 2 + 17.04 2 + 116 2 ) 1/2 = 117.3 lb = 117 lb = cos -1 (-2.57/117.3) = 91.3°, = cos -1 (-17.04/117.3) = 98.4° = cos -1 (-116/117.3) = 172°

Questions

1. Two points in 3-D space have coordinates of P(1, 2, 3) and Q (4, 5, 6) meters. The position vector r QP is given by

A) {3 i + 3 j + 3 k} m

B) {- 3 i – 3 j – 3 k} m

C) {5 i + 7 j + 9 k} m

D) {- 3 i + 3 j + 3 k} m

E) {4 i + 5 j + 6 k} m

2. P and Q are two points in 3-D space. How are the position vectors r PQ and r QP related?

A)

C)

r PQ = r QP

r PQ = 1/r QP

B) r PQ = - r QP

D) r PQ = 2 r QP

Textbook Problem 2.90

Determine the magnitude and coordinate direction angles of the resultant force.

F R = 52.2 lb = 87.8º = 63.7º = 154º Summary

• Represent a position vector in Cartesian vector form using given geometry

• Represent a force vector directed along a line

Announcements

Homework

– Excuses. Not!

– Due date and time

– Graph paper

– Do solutions on one side only

– Problem statements

Dot Product

Today’s Objectives

• Determine the angle between two vectors

• Determine the projection of a vector along a specified line Class Activities

• Applications

Dot product

Angle determination

Projection determination

• Examples

Applications For this geometry, can you determine angles between the pole and the cables?

For force F at Point A, what component of it (F 1 ) acts along the pipe OA? What component (F 2 ) acts perpendicular to the pipe?

Dot Product Definition The dot product of vectors A and B is defined as AB = AB cos Angle is the smallest angle between the two vectors and is always in a range of 0 º to 180 º

Dot Product Characteristics:

1. The result of the dot product is a scalar (a positive or negative number) 2. The units of the dot product will be the product of the units of the A and B vectors

Dot Product Definition - continued

Examples:

i j = 0 i.e. (1)(1)cos(90°)

i i = 1 i.e. (1)(1)cos(0°)

A • B

= (A x i + A y j + A z k) (B x I + B y j + B z k)

= (A x B x (i i) + A x B y (i j) + A x B z (i k) + ….)

= A x B x + A y B y + A z B z

Angle Between Two Vectors For two vectors in Cartesian form, one can find the angle by:

a) Finding the dot product, A • B = (A x B x + A y B y + A z B z )

b) Finding the magnitudes (A & B) of the vectors A & B

c) Using the definition of dot product and solving for , i.e.

= cos -1 [(A • B)/(A B)], where 0 º

180 º

Projection of a Vector You can determine the components of a vector parallel and perpendicular to a line using the dot product.

Steps:

1. Find the unit vector, U aa´ along the line aa´

2. Find the scalar projection of A along line aa´ by A || = A • U = A x U x + A y U y + A z U z

Projection of a Vector - continued 3. If needed, the projection can be written as a vector, A || , by using the unit vector U aa´ and the magnitude found in step 2.

A || = A || U aa´

4. The scalar and vector forms of the perpendicular component can easily be obtained by

 A = (A 2 - A || 2 ) ½ and A = A – A || (rearranging the vector sum of A = A + A || ) A

Example A

Given: The force acting on the pole

 Find: The angle between the force vector and the pole, and the magnitude of the projection of the force along the pole OA. Plan:

1. Find r OA

2. = cos -1 {(F • r OA )/(F r OA )}

3. F OA = F • u OA or F cos

Example A - continued A

r OA = {2 i + 2 j – 1 k} m

r OA = (2 2 + 2 2 + 1 2 ) 1/2 = 3 m

F = {2 i + 4 j + 10 k} kN

F = (2 2 + 4 2 + 10 2 ) 1/2 = 10.95 kN

F • r OA = (2)(2) + (4)(2) + (10)(-1) = 2 kN·m

= cos -1 {(F • r OA )/(F r OA )}

= cos -1 {2/(10.95 × 3)} = 86.5° u OA = r OA /r OA = {(2/3) i + (2/3) j – (1/3) k}

F OA = F • u OA = (2)(2/3) + (4)(2/3) + (10)(-1/3) = 0.667 kN

or F OA = F cos = 10.95 cos(86.51°) = 0.667 kN Example B

Given: The force acting on the pole.

 Find: The angle between the force vector and the pole, and the magnitude of the projection of the force along the pole AO. Plan:

1. Find r AO

2. = cos -1 {(F • r AO )/(F r AO )}

3. F OA = F • u AO or F cos

Example B - continued r AO = {-3 i + 2 j – 6 k} ft

r AO = (3 2 + 2 2 + 6 2 ) 1/2 = 7 ft

F = {-20 i + 50 j – 10 k} lb

F = (20 2 + 50 2 + 10 2 ) 1/2 = 54.77 lb

F • r AO = (-20)(-3) + (50)(2) + (-10)(-6) = 220 lb·ft

= cos -1 {(F • r AO )/(F r AO )}

= cos -1 {220/(54.77×7)} = 55.0°

u AO = r AO /r AO = {(-3/7) i + (2/7) j – (6/7) k}

F AO = F • u AO = (-20)(-3/7) + (50)(2/7) + (-10)(-6/7) = 31.4 lb

or F AO = F cos = 54.77 cos(55.0°) = 31.4 lb

Questions

1. The dot product of two vectors P and Q is defined as

 A) P Q cos B) P Q sin C) P Q tan D) P Q sec P

Q

2. The dot product of two vectors results in a quantity.

 A) scalar B) vector C) complex D) zero

Questions

1. If a dot product of two non-zero vectors is 0, then the

two vectors must be

A) parallel (pointing in the same direction)

B) parallel (pointing in the opposite direction)

C) perpendicular

D) cannot be determined

to each other.

2. Find the dot product of the two vectors P and Q. P = {5 i + 2 j + 3 k} m Q = {-2 i + 5 j + 4 k} m

 A) -12 m B) 12 m C) 12 m 2 D) -12 m 2 E) 10 m 2

Textbook Problem 2-127

Determine the angle the sheet-metal bracket.

between the edges of 