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NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN THE WORLD


MASSIVE DESTRUCTION
What they really are? What do they represent to the world? Why do we continue under their destruction?

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INDEX

INDEX..........................................................................................II GRAPHICS INDEX........................................................................III LINKS.........................................................................................III INTRODUCTION.............................................................................4


The Origin:..........................................................................................5 Letter to President Roosevelt (Extract):................................................5 Effects:...............................................................................................9 Nuclear - Armed Countries & Control Institutions:................................12 Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament:...................................................17 Current CND:.....................................................................................19

CONCLUSION..............................................................................22 BIBLIOGRAPHY...........................................................................24

II

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GRAPHICS INDEX

Bombs parts 1.............................................................................6 Fat man and Little boy 2...............................................................8 Injured inhabitants 3....................................................................9 Desolation 4...............................................................................11 Explosion 5.................................................................................14 Explosion 6.................................................................................15 CND 7........................................................................................21 Cartoon 8...................................................................................21

LINKS
1. INTRIDUCTION 2. CONCLUSION 3. BIBLIOGRAPHY 4. EINSTEINS QUOTE

III

5. FAT MAN AND LITTLE BOY BOMBS 6. POWER POINT PRESENTATION 7. A WORLD FREE FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS

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BAN THE BOMBS

INTRODUCTION
Through the times, the wars have been the most destructive and colossal problem in the whole world. Not even poverty has brought such misery and pain to its inhabitants. We have seen the wars quickly development, but we have ignored this just for the economical benefit and the power that it brings, especially to developed countries. These countries have taken an advantage of this fast development and have invested both time and money in them, thus creating the nuclear weapons. But what they really are? , what do they represent to the world? , why do we continue under their destruction? What we know about nuclear weapons is minimal. We just know that it brings destruction and pain but we dont know their origin or history. The Nuclear weapons are actually strong explosives that use nuclear energy, and were made thanks to the need of change because of the technological advance.

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The Origin:
The first nuclear explosion was made in the town of Alamogordo, New Mexico, United States on July 16, 1945, as part of the Manhattan Project pilot during the Second World War. The ultimate goal of the project was to develop the first atomic bomb before Germany's built it, because there was some information that indicates that the Germans has stopped selling uranium from the Czechoslovaks ore mine, being the uranium the principal element for the creation of this weapons.

Letter to President Roosevelt (Extract) :

<<In the course of the past four months, it has become possible, through the work of Joliot in France of and Fermi and Szilard in of America cause a nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium, which produce large amounts energy and new elements type radio, in the near future [...] A single bomb of this type, carried on a ship and detonated in a port, might very well destroy the whole port together with much of the surrounding territory [...] Germany has stopped selling uranium ore from the Czechoslovakian mines [...] and the son of Secretary of State von Weizscher has been hired by KaiserPgina 5 de 27

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Wilhelm Institute in Berlin where he is repeating part of the American work on uranium. >>

Bombs parts 1

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Countries that were a part of this project were United States, United Kingdom and Canada. The projects conception was done because the nuclear scientists Leo Szilard, Edward Teller and Eugene Wigner, Jewish refugees from Hungary believed that the energy released by nuclear fission could be used for the production of bombs by the Germans, so they persuaded Albert Einstein, the most famous physicist in United States, to warn the President Franklin D.Roosevelt of this danger by a drafted letter from Szilard that was sent on August 2, 1939. In response to this warning, Roosevelt increased research on the national security and the project began. The first test was successful , the device was called Trinity and it was a plutonium-bomb "Fat Man" type, the same type of bomb that would be dropped on Nagasaki in august 9, 1945 three days later from the bomb

Little boy in Hiroshima. After the detonation over Hiroshima, Einstein commented: "I should burn my fingers with which I wrote that first letter to Roosevelt."

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Fat man and Little boy 2

Even though this project was only to prevent the Germans to have the control on the Second World War, it was used as a weapon of massive destruction by the United States that was in that moment under the leadership of Harry Truman.

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Effects:
Because of this attack many people instantly died, others lay on the ground, crying in agony at the intolerable pain of their burns. Who miraculously escaped the blast burns, died at twenty or thirty days following by the effect of the deadly gamma rays. Generations of Japanese had to suffer the

consequences of deformations caused by the radioactivity. Approximately hundred thousand people died on the spot and an undetermined number were adding to them passing of days and years because of lasting effects of radioactivity.

Injured inhabitants 3

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This is a real example, but not the only one, of what we might be waiting if we still use the technology for wars. There are also studies that inform all the effects that a nuclear weapon might make in our days. In the Environmental way according to estimates, if a massive nuclear confrontation sets free 10,000 megatons of explosive force for example between United States and Russia. The ashes, smoke and other particles produced by the fire and explosions would reach and remain in the stratosphere, darkening sunlight for weeks or months, recovering just fifty percent in eight months. This will set free a lot of consequences and destruction for the human beings. The temperature would drop immediately beginning a nuclear winter in which the photosynthesis would not occur and all the plants would die, followed by animal including the humanity. This effect would be similar to the dinosaurs extinction.

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Desolation 4

The ultraviolet radiation destroys up fifty percent of the ozone layer so this will eventually kill the few creatures that survive the nuclear winter. For example the oceans life would not be affected by the blackout or the nuclear winter but the radiation would destroy the phytoplankton and the food chain will collapse. Furthermore the pressure wave underground explosions can propagate through the earth and cause minor earthquakes as well as tsunamis. On the other side in the first forty eight hours, radioactive fallout will destroy fifty percent of healthy adults. This dust accumulation in the skin is harmful itself it is not necessary to imagine the damage that represents if we breath it and it also leaves a whole generation of genetic alterations and contaminated land.
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Nuclear - Armed Countries & Control Institutions:
Currently there are eight countries that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons. Five of them are considered as nuclear armed states, a status given by the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. This agreement was open for signature on July 1 of 1968 and restricts the possession of nuclear weapons. From the 188 integrants there are only five states allowed to have nuclear weapons, in order of acquisition they are the United States, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, French Republic and the Popular Republic of China. This allowance was determined because these states had detonated a nuclear test until 1967. The treaty is based on three main laws: nonproliferation, disarmament and peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The first article means that these countries have no permission under any circumstances to transfer nuclear technology or assist in the development of such weapons to other countries.

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The second article means that non nuclear weapon states (NNWS) will not try to develop nuclear weapons. The third article means that all these countries have to follow the regulations of security of the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA). These main laws lead the nuclear armed countries to enter in good faith negotiations for the reduction of their nuclear arsenal, pitifully this remains only as a promise. The five nuclear - armed countries have made a promise not to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-armed, except in response to a nuclear attack or an attack with conventional weapons in alliance with nuclear armed countries. But there are four states out of the treaty they are India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea, even though Korea signed it, they got separated on 2003.

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Explosion 5

These countries argue that this non proliferation makes a big difference between the nuclear and non nuclear armed countries, so some will be nuclear rich and others nuclear poor. As the case of South Africa that began a nuclear weapon program in help with Israel but gave up to it after signing the treaty. These four countries are very nuclear dangerous, moreover we are totally vulnerable to an attack of any of these countries that keep on getting armed. For example it is esteemed that Israel have been developed nuclear weapons and now they have near hundred or two hundred. On the other side the United States are trying to convince the international community that Iran poses a serious threat to world peace and the need to act for the
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atomic bomb ever fall into dangerous hands. This has become clear at the Summit on Nuclear Safety held recently in which Obama expressed his intention to isolate Iran.

Explosion 6

Practically any industrialized nation nowadays has the technical capacity to develop a program of nuclear weapons in a period of a few years if so decided. The countries with significant nuclear technology and arms industry could do so within a year or two, maybe even in months or weeks, building arsenals to the level of those countries that already have nuclear weapons. The Scientifics in favor of peace in Europe love the idea that the United States and Russia signed a new Treaty on Strategic Arms Reduction that promises to reduce by thirty percent the number of nuclear warheads and
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Ukraine has said it no longer intends to develop its uranium enrichment program for military purposes. Forty of them have signed an open letter to support this idea but at the same time try to make clear its desire not to give up to nuclear power projects. These projects are new solutions for the wrong use of nuclear energy. It can be safety used as a generator of electricity or for making X rays, that as a weapon. But Russia, United States and Ukraine are not the main problem. The nonconformists such as Iran, Israel, Pakistan and North Korea are. There are between 1,600 and 2,000 tons of nuclear material in forty countries that could be used in any nuclear terrorist attack. So what should the world expect for the next generations?

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Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament:

he Campaign

for

Nuclear is that

CND was formed in 1957 and since that time has periodically been at the forefront of the peace

Disarmament (CND)

an anti-nuclear organisation advocates disarmament by Kingdom, international and arms

unilateral nuclear the United nuclear tighter regulation such as

movement in the UK. It claims to be Europe's largest single-issue

peace campaign. Since 1958, it has organised the Aldermaston March, which is held over

disarmament international through

agreements

the Easter weekend from Trafalgar Square, London, Weapons Establishment near Aldermaston. The Campaign's General to theAtomic

the Nuclear

Non-Proliferation

Treaty. It opposes military action that may result in the use

of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and of nuclear UK. the building in the

Secretary is Kate Hudson.

power stations

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Current CND :
Support for CND fell after the end of the Cold war. It had not succeeded in converting the British public to unilateralism and even after the collapse of the Soviet Union British nuclear weapons still have majority support.[20] [14] CND's policy of opposing American nuclear bases, however, was and is more in tune with public opinion[33] and an Ipsos/Mori poll in October 2005 found that 46 per cent of respondents opposed the replacement of Trident. [citation needed] CND's policy of opposing American nuclear bases is also in tune with public opinion.[34] In 2006 CND launched a campaign against nuclear power which proved popular. Its membership, which had fallen to 32,000, increased threefold after Prime Minister Tony Blair made a commitment to nuclear energy.[35] In recent years it has extended its campaigns to include opposition to U.S. and British policy in the Middle East, rather as it broadened its anti-nuclear campaigns in the 1960s to include opposition to the Vietnam War. In collaboration with the Stop the War Coalition and the Muslim Association of Britain, CND has organised anti-war marches under the slogan "Don't Attack Iraq", including protests on September 28, 2002 and February 15, 2003. It also organised a vigil for the victims of the 2005 London bombings.

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CND campaigns against the Trident missile. In March 2007 it organised a rally in Parliament Square to coincide with the Commons motion to renew the weapons system. The rally was attended by over 1,000 people. It was addressed by Labour MPs Jon Trickett, Emily Thornberry, John

McDonnell, Michael Meacher, Diane Abbott and Jeremy Corbyn, and Elfyn Llwyd of Plaid Cymru andAngus MacNeil of the Scottish National Party. In the House of Commons, 161 MPs (88 of them Labour) voted against the renewal of Trident and the Government motion was carried only with the support of Conservatives.[36] CND's current strategic objectives are: The elimination of British nuclear weapons and global abolition of nuclear weapons. It campaigns for the cancellation of Trident by the British government and against the deployment of nuclear weapons in Britain. The abolition of weapons of mass destruction, in particular chemical and biological weapons. CND wants a ban on the manufacture, testing and use of depleted uranium weapons A nuclear-free, less militarised and more secure Europe. It supports the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). It opposes

US military bases and nuclear weapons in Europe and British membership of NATO. The closure of the nuclear power industry.

CND 7

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CONCLUSION
The pitifully about this is that the humanity has forgotten the reason for what we are here. God has given us this world to cultivate it, to take an advantage of it. But now we are just destroying it slowly with wars, attacks and pollution that only prejudice ourselves. The fact that two atomic bombs have been detonated in a state of war, that there have been over 2,000 nuclear tests form which only 27 have been made for construction it is a really critical situation. A massive nuclear war literally means the end of civilization and possibly the extinction of humanity and all living things on the planet with the possibility that the biosphere not regenerate, due to the abrupt and sudden environmental changes, leaving the planet in a state similar to Mars. The worst of all of this is that we are blind to our own suffering. We are not prepared psychological of physical for this kind of destruction. There are just a few countries with bunkers or shelters, and the most striking effect of these attacks is the explosion, the whole thermal expansion that kills everything in seconds, kilometers away.

There are only few tips you can follow for trying to survive an attack like this if you are not in the red zone. First, if you hear an alert you might have a few minutes or seconds to take an anti-radiation pill , close eyes because the light could leave you blind, the face between your knees and beneath the floor, the mouth open to minimize the risk of auditory damage because of the noise generated. But these few advices cant set you free from the rest of effects of these weapons. Unfortunately the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation will remain as long as nuclear weapons exist, and to see them disappeared we will have to wait decades.

BAN THE BOMBS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campaign_for_Nuclear_Disarmament http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pa%C3%ADses_con_armas_nucleares http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arma_nuclear http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Efectos_globales_de_una_guerra_nuclear http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerra_nuclear http://www.ajzanier.com.ar/hiroshima.htm http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiroshima http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Efectos_de_las_armas_nucleares http://es.wikibooks.org/wiki/Proteccin_civil_frente_a_un_ataque_nuclear

Extract form the letter that Einstein wrote to the President Roosevelt. Campaign of Nuclear Disarmament

Potassium iodide pills to prevent the effects of radiation.