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FYP Display and Presentation: Past, Present, and Future

In the summer of 1990, fresh from their trainings at Portsmouth Polytechnic (now University of Portsmouth) in the United Kingdom, Engr. Jocelyn A. Mabaylan and Dr. Edilberto L. Tadulan, then faculty members of the College of Engineering, introduced the concept of exhibiting Final Year Projects to the public. The purpose of this activity is to inspire engineers and scientist to perfect existing technologies, as well as to engage partnership with industries on research and development. On February 14, 1994, with the efforts of two other trainees from Portsmouth, Engrs Mary Jean O. Apor and Eliseo B. Linog, Jr. organized a display that showcased various projects and laboratory equipment of the Electrical, Electronics and Communications, and Mechanical Engineering units in celebration of the Power Engineering Day. Years later, as other units of the College advanced in research capabilities, then Dean Engr. Antonio C. Sevillano, Jr. institutionalized the showcasing of student projects as an annual activity of the College of Engineering. Consequently, with the spearheading endeavors of Engrs. Maria Theresa I. Cabaraban, Maria Isabel R. Dumlao, Shierlyn S. Paclijan and Dexter S. Lo, faculty members of the then combined Chemical-Civil-Industrial Engineering Department, the course Final Year Project Study (FYPS) was integrated to the curriculum of all engineering programs. Today, the FYP Display and Presentation is a way of a peer review of the completed Final Year Project Studies of the graduating seniors of the College of Engineering. It primarily showcases, promotes and exposes the atmosphere of healthy competition among the students and of constructive interaction between students and professionals from other institutions and industries. Several others are upshots of collaborative ventures between and among the local industries, the partner outreach communities, the faculty, and the students. The objectives of the researches at the College of Engineering are: to create new knowledge in the engineering disciplines and in computer science, to foster an active learning environment for students to acquire the tools for lifelong learning, and to make science and technology matter to the pressing needs of society. To date, many of the Colleges FYPS have garnered recognition outside the walls of the University. Many are continuously presented in various professional technical conferences and conventions in the local, national, and international arenas. To be sustained, the College has steadily collaborated with self-same industries, institutions, and agencies that stand firm with the academe in its pursuit toward the training and development of the Christian Engineer.

XAVIER UNIVERSITY
ATENEO DE CAGAYAN
Corrales Avenue, 9000 Cagayan de Oro City Philippines
In Consotium with ATENEO DE DAVAO UNIVERSITY ATENEO DE ZAMBOANGA UNIVERSITY
Tels: Local: Fax: Email: (+63 8822) 723116 (trunk) (+63 88) 8583116 (trunk) 2037/2038 (+63-88) 72-6356 op@xu.edu.ph

OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT

MESSAGE
I have always looked forward to this annual gathering of the College of Engineering where you show your final year projects as a way to demonstrate the result of many years of formation you received as XU warriors. This year's theme focuses on being at the front lines of development and environment. It is a fitting theme as we realize the price we have had to pay for development. I hope that your being at the frontier will always bring these two (development and environment) to bear on each other. Too often, we see these as two mutually exclusive, warring factions. There should be a better way. Help us find a third way, particularly for Mindanao which is blessed with natural resources and yet broken by conflict. Whether or not engineering becomes your life, you will be asked to step up and lead. Mindanao (and our country) is this way because many of our good people choose to disengage. They are educated people, good and accomplished professionals, but they are not warriors who risk the front lines. You however are of Xavier, an Atenean, called to greater things for the greater glory of God. Engage the frontier. Take the perimeter to defend the center. And go win battles for those who look to your power.

XAVIER UNIVERSITY
ATENEO DE CAGAYAN
PO Box 24, 9000, Cagayan de Oro City Philippines

Office of the Vice-President for Research and Social Outreach

MESSAGE

Phone Nos. (63 8822) 72-3116 (trunkline) (63 88) 858-3116 trunkline) Local 3209 Telefax Email Add hquiaoit@xu.edu.ph rso@xu.edu.ph

I find the 2011 theme timely but ambivalent as well, Frontliners of development, vanguards of nature. It expresses the complementation as well as contradiction of development and protection of nature. Our natural landscape has been changing with time, by our patterns of use and by natural processes. Finding the delicate balance to satisfy the four cardinal points in our lives (nature, society, economy and well-being) has been difficult to the point of being evasive; usually we skew to one direction at the expense of the other. Has engineering changed our landscape? Technological advancements and increase in population have led to developments. The sentiment of education is that Engineering as science is to help solve human problems. But the recent emphasis in developed countries has been Engineering as design. Apparently, the issue now is not on protecting nature because it is given that we need to. In fact, nature development at present is of two minds: the politics of segregation or integration (Jozef Keulartz, 1999). Segregation is for those who believed that nature is intolerable to human intervention. They are the nature developers who will let nature be by shielding from man and his technology. On the other hand, integration is for those who believed that human intervention is indispensable to nature. They are the nature conservationists who will integrate nature conservation and environmentally-friendly processes of utilization. Which side do we take? Being an archipelagic country, let us take our coastal frontiers. The trend now has been the establishment of networks of no-access ecological maritime corridors (example is Sulu-Sulawesi), linked by smallermanaged areas. The matching of these smaller efforts (nature conservation) with large marine ecosystem (nature development) interweaves both approaches. It is in these smaller efforts of management that would require high degree of engineering development. The coast is very dynamic because of the interplay of human impacts and interventions, as well as, natural systems confounded by a changing climate. The vulnerability of coastal areas to sea level rise, coastal erosion and wave action- is buffered by the natural stands of mangroves and highly-complex coral reefs. However, the deteriorating condition of most of these natural ecosystems puts the community at risk to consequences of increase intensity of storms and wave energy. As vanguards of nature, hard engineering innovations and designs (examples are wave dissipaters, artificial reef structures, seawalls, etc. ) can support the ecological processes of these naturally-designed systems and strengthen the resilience to climate-change associated risks, thus, protect nature and the community. We hope that the Engineering students and faculty continue to develop innovative designs that will support and supplement nature. Congratulations to this undertaking!

Dr. Hilly Ann Roa-Quiaoit, PhD Vice President Research and Social Outreach

XAVIER UNIVERSITY
ATENEO DE CAGAYAN
Corrales Avenue, 9000 Cagayan de Oro City Philippines
In Consotium with ATENEO DE DAVAO UNIVERSITY ATENEO DE ZAMBOANGA UNIVERSITY
Tels: Local: Fax: Email: (+63 8822) 723116 Local 2036 (+63 88) 8583116 Local 2036 2037/2038 (+63-88) 72-6356 lgkwong@xu.edu.ph

ACADEMIC VICE PRESIDENTS OFFICE

MESSAGE
Twenty One years after the conceptualization of the Final Year Projects Study (FYPS) on inspiring students with the presentation and display, the XU Warriors continued publication of the FYP Journal through this years theme: XU WARRIORS: Front liners of Development, Vanguards of Nature. This project gives students opportunity to present

their research work, gain new and powerful skills to do research that will compliment them vanguard nature and the opportunity to be peer reviewed. You are encouraged to continue with this annual publication.

Congratulations!

Dr. Academic Vice President

Research Center h r
XavierUniversityAteneo odeCagayan n
9000Caga ayandeOroCity y PHILIPPINES S

MESSAGE
Congrat tulations again to another milestone fo the Eng a or gineering w with this 2 2011 edition of the FYP Journal! P We at K KRC join the whole universit in recog e ty gnizing th exempla role of the he ary f College of Engin e neering. A practitio As oners of so olution-sci ience, you have bro u ought more m meaning to the quest o knowled - it be of dge ecame a qu for the bettermen of uest e nt life. Yo have op ou ptimized the academ stint o your stu mic of udents by bringing t them along w the fac with culty in en ngagement that resp ts pond or of solutio to conc ffer ons crete problem of the co ms ommunitie es. This is t mantra of our un the a niversity, especially th Researc and Out he ch treach clus ster to make more mea e aningful th universit role in knowledg producti Hence the he ty's n ge ion. e, knowled produ dge ucts and services we produce help shap a bette community, e pe er better humanity an better w nd world. More po ower for th Kumbat he ti!

Kin naadmanResea archCenterT Telefax:+63(8 88)8583116local2045ema ail:kinaadman n@xu.edu.ph

XAVIER UNIVERSITY
ATENEO DE CAGAYAN
Corrales Avenue, 9000 Cagayan de Oro City Philippines

In Consotium with ATENEO DE DAVAO UNIVERSITY ATENEO DE ZAMBOANGA UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Tels: Local: Fax: (+63 8822) 723116 (trunk) (+63 88) 8583116 (trunk) 1207 (Secretary)/1203 (CE) (+63-88) 8583116 local 1209

MESSAGE
To the College of Engineering Community, Warriors! Be Bold! This is a call to arms! We are at the threshold of a monster economic difficulties exacerbated by the worsening climactic conditions; from torrential rainfalls to severe droughts that may result in disasters. Yet, Ateneans as we are, we rise up! We gather our weapons and face this adversary of development. With God on our side, who can be against us? Warriors! We are the frontliners of development; we are the vanguards of nature. As an academic institution, we train hard to master the elements earth, fire, wind, water for in times like this we shall be capable of trampling our enemies. We work with nature and not against nature. The battle is not against flesh and blood but against principalities and forces of this dark age; and the battlefield is in our minds, thus we transform ourselves by the renewing of our minds. Going Green is not the trend but a must! We are stewards of Gods creation. As we dawn the Engineering Days 2011, I thank everybody for continuing to be engaged in the frontiers. The activities are designed to infect others with our message. I pray that God continues to bless us with wisdom, knowledge and understanding as we acknowledge Him in all our ways. Let our message be loud and clear; and let our fervor be contagious. Warriors! Ahooo!

Overall Chair Engineering Days 2011

XAVIER UNIVERSITY
ATENEO DE CAGAYAN
Corrales Avenue, 9000 Cagayan de Oro City Philippines

In Consotium with ATENEO DE DAVAO UNIVERSITY ATENEO DE ZAMBOANGA UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Tels: Local: Fax: (+63 8822) 723116 (trunk) (+63 88) 8583116 (trunk) 1207 (Secretary)/1217 (ME) (+63-88) 8583116 local 1209

MESSAGE
Every year, I take time to look ahead to what our Engineering Days has in store for the faculty, staff, and most especially for our students. This years activities are meaningful, with this years theme of XU Warriors: Frontliners of Development, Vanguards of Nature. As students, we are taught and trained in the classroom, in the field and in the laboratory, how to design new structures, create new products, and harness energy in order for the advancement of our nation and sustenance of our people. But earth is finite, and so we must teach also our students how to protect and preserve our environment. Likewise, even the faculty must serve as models on how to be stewards of Gods creation. From the Fun Run on the first day of the Engineering days, to the Final Year Projects Display and Presentation on the last day of our celebration, let us not lose focus of this years message. Let us celebrate and let us make all the activities successful. Lastly, I thank everyone who helped achieve our Engineering Days this kind of success.

Engr. Maria Isabel R. Dumlao, MSEnvE Assistant Dean College of Engineering

XAVIER UNIVERSITY
ATENEO DE CAGAYAN
Corrales Avenue, 9000 Cagayan de Oro City Philippines

In Consotium with ATENEO DE DAVAO UNIVERSITY ATENEO DE ZAMBOANGA UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Tels: Local: Fax: (+63 8822) 723116 (trunk) (+63 88) 8583116 (trunk) 1207 (Secretary)/1217 (ECE) (+63-88) 8583116 local 1209

MESSAGE
Once again it is my great pleasure and distinct honor to spearhead as such activity like this for the second time around as chairman of the Final Year Projects Display and Presentation (FYPDP) 2011. The FYPDP is an annual activity of the College of Engineering to showcase various researches and projects by our Senior Engineering Students. This years theme is XU WARRIORS: Frontliners of Development, Vanguards of Nature. I believed that we shall expand our scope of our field of nature for the benefits of human kind not only in technology but as well as the needs of our communities to address and monitor our fragile Natural Environment through Engineering researches and innovation of our Students. To the GRADUATING CLASS of 2011, as you travel your journey as an Engineering Students, you encounter the rough and rugged experience in our school, as all students of XU - ENGG have done, who have gone this way before. Your labor and hardwork are the key to your success and to become successful Engineers soon. To their PARENTS for the financial support and inspire them to do more and to give more for the greater glory of GOD. Congratulations to all and let us enjoy the Engineering Days 2011 celebration. Best regards!

Ian Giovanni R. Pabillaran, PECE, MEngg. Chairman, FYPDP 2011

Xavier University College of Engineering

Contents
MESSAGES 2011 Best Project Finalists:
1. Automated Monitoring and Early Warning System for Possible Occurrence of Flood 2. Bioethanol Production from the Batch Fermentation of Brown Sargassum Seaweeds Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae 3. Micropower Generation Using Wind from Exhaust Fans 4. Modified Laptop Cooler Using Mini Air Conditioning System 5. Proposed Groundwater Monitoring Well Sites in Selected Urban Areas of District 1, Cagayan de Oro City 6. Standardization of Work in the Milo Packaging Area of COFIPAC Corporation 7. Water Level Monitoring System for Cagayan de Oro River

Community Development:
1. Assessment of Urban Drainage System of Scions Elite and NHA Subdivisions in Barangay Kauswagan, Cagayan de Oro City 2. Design of Rain Shelter for the CRS Farms in Impasug-ong, Bukidnon 3. Development of a Road Condition Assessment Tool for Portland Cement and Asphalt Concrete Roads: A Basis for Road Condition Assessment of Selected Roads in Poblacion, Cagayan de Oro City 4. Proposed Project Worth Php 300,000.00 H.E. Room and School Clinic of Baluarte Elementary School, Sitio Baluarte , Barangay Lumbia, Cagayan de Oro City 5. Proposed Water System in Barangay Pagalungan, Cagayan de Oro City

Disaster Risk Management:


1. Disaster Risk Reduction Program of Poblacion Area in Cagayan de Oro City: Earthquake and Fire 2. Forest Fire Monitoring and Detection System Using GSM Technology for Malasag Forest Area 3. Rapid Investigation of Cracks in Selected Buildings of Xavier University

Xavier University College of Engineering

Innovative Designs:
1. A Design of a Water Clarification System Using Powdered Moringa Oleifera Seeds as Coagulant 2. A Feasibility Study on Vertical Gardening in the Xavier University Engineering Building 3. Adaptive Radar Device 4. Automated Electric Metering System with Prepaid Service 5. Coefficient of Heat Transfer of a Mini Condenser 6. Electric Power Automatic Transfer Switch of the College of Engineering Building 7. GIS-Based Soil Moisture Mapping 8. Performance of Mini Evaporator of Varying Tube Diameters 9. Pressure Drop in a Micro Expansion Valve of a Mini Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle 10. Sound Level Monitoring System with Wireless Transmission Applied to Videoke Machines 11. Termite Detection Through its Acoustic Emission

Renewable Energy and Alternative Materials:


1. An Experimental Study of Electric Motor Aided Trisikad 2. Anaerobic Digestion of Human Feces from Urine-Diversion Dehydration Toilets: Effect of Heat Pretreatment on Methane Generation and Digestate Utilization for Agriculture 3. Charcoal Briquettes from Rice Hull Through Closed-Vessel Carbonization 4. Simultaneous Charging of Car Battery and Delivering Power to the Solar Car 5. Wind Power Generation of the College of Engineering Building for One Room Lighting Load

Systems Analysis and Design:


1. 2. 3. 4. A Context Identification System for Affidavit of Loss Documents (Contextus) A System for Generating GIS MAPS of Spatial Demographic Data A System Study on the Center for Integrated Technologies of Xavier University A System Study on the Production of Handmade Paper and Facility Layout of San Roque Handmade Paper Products Multi-Purpose Cooperative 5. An SMS-Based Book Query and Reservation System for the Xavier University Library

Web-based Development:
1. GIS-based Contour Mapping of Iponan River Watershed through Google Earth Images 2. Secure Gateway for Online Transactions 3. Species Mapping System for the XU MMC Using Google Maps Technology

SPONSORS

Xavier University College of Engineering Final Year Projects Display and Presentation & Engineering Days 2011 Committees
Chair of the 2011 Engineering Days: Peter Daniel S. Akut Over-all Chair of the FYPDP 2011: Ian Giovanni R. Pabillaran

Review and Competition Journal Chair: Co-Chair Jolou F. Miraflor Edwin Richard R. Ortiz Elmer B. Dollera Chair Co-Chair Dexter S. Lo Donah Marie D. Achas Jim Croce B. Nabua

Awards and Certificates Chair: Co-Chair Eliseo B. Linog, Jr. Noreen Angelie T. Ras Lecture Series Chair Co-Chair Program Chair Co-Chair Megan M. Magallona Maria Lourdes M. Abao Dexter S. Lo Jim Croce B. Nabua Christien Joy T. Ipanag

Food Chair Co-Chair Estrella L. Gadian Shierlyn S. Paclijan

Logistics , Physical Arrangement and Dcor Chair Co-Chair Jose S. Mag-abo II Patrick L. Kee-e Joel Camilo M. Haos

Evaluation Chair Elmer B. Dollera

FYPS Unit Coordinators: Ways and Means Chair Co-Chair Maria Isabel R. Dumlao Eliseo B. Linog, Jr Richel A. De Villa CHE CE EcE EE IE ME CS Shierlyn S. Paclijan Peter Daniel S. Akut Franklin Rey A. Pacquiao Dondanon A. Bajarla, Jr. Glenn B. Paclijan Elmer B. Dollera Maria Ramila R. Jimenez

Documentation/Secretariat Chair Co-chair Jafe Alyssa M. Aquino Dondanon A. Bajarla

AUTOMATED MONITORING AND EARLY WARNING SYSTEM FOR POSSIBLE OCCURRENCE OF FLOOD
Yves Clent O. Llausas, Keith John Reymart G. Magsayo, Mauriz E. Boyles and Irene U. Gomez Electronics Engineering Department Email: scenob@gmail.com Mary Jean O. Apor Faculty Adviser
ABSTRACT: This study is about utilizing the GSM technologys SMS application in river monitoring and early warning system. This system was composed of several distinct components; the monitoring system, the central station, and the alarm system. The proponent aimed; first, to design and implement water level and rain gauge sensors; second, to develop a microcontroller-based data transmitter that will acquire and transmit the data read from the sensor devices to the central station using SMS over GSM technology; third, to develop visual and audible alarms that is controlled via SMS by the central station; and lastly, to develop a computer program for acquisition of the data received by the HSPDA USB modem and store into an MS Access. This study employed text message to transfer the data from water level station and rain gauge station to the central station. Monitoring the river needs water level sensors and transmitters to acquire and get data and transmit them to the central station. The rain gauge sensed the amount of rainfall and transmitted the number of tips the bucket makes, and then forwarded this information to the central station. The central station collated the data gathered by the remote sensors and displayed using Visual Basic program, while it calculated the risk of the possible occurrence of flood. The lights and siren were actuated when the central station calculates the possible occurrence of flood. This early warning and monitoring system were able to transmit data prior to laboratory testing. The results indicated a relative increase of rivers water level in a certain period of time base on the rate of rise of its upstream tributary. This study will give advance knowledge to the concerned entities about behavior and condition of the river and its upstream sources in order to reduce the dilemma due to sudden flooding.

KEYWORDS: SMS, Water Level Sensor, Rain Gauge Sensor, Microcontroller, Central Station, Early warning, Automation, GSM Technology

1. THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING 1.1 INTRODUCTION An automated monitoring and early warning system is a system composed of monitoring system, a central station, and an alarm system. The entire block is linked together by a form of communication medium and it is usually done so that data from the monitoring system is sent directly to the central station and eventually to the alarm station. The monitoring system of this project monitored the water level and the amount of rainfall by using water level sensors and rain gauge sensors. The physical dimensions of the sensors were designed by the project requirement and from standard sizes. The water level sensors were located at the tributary and the Cagayan River, as these are the places where a change of water level is critical. The rain gauge on the other hand was located at the house university, as well as the central station. For the alarm system, it was located at Barangay 13 where people are directly affected by the possible occurrence of flood. The individual stations were linked together by the application of SMS. The automation was done by the microcontroller, a small chip programmed to do the task of acquiring the data from the sensors to the controlling of the mobile phones to send the current data to the central station. Using the ubiquitous technology of GSM the system will be virtually linked together. The central station was also programmed to send data to the alarm system where the audio and visual alarms were actuated, depending on the predetermined alarm levels. 1.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK SMS is one of the GSM featured application where data in the form of alphanumeric are stored, sent, and received by means of a mobile phone. This data is decipherable only when the medium by which it is used could decode and encode SMS messages. The mobile phone can be controlled to send alphanumeric data from its remote location to a number designated at the central station. The mobile phone used in this project has special protocols that can be controlled by the microcontroller so that the mobile phone itself can send and delete SMS all by itself. This combination of mobile phone and microcontroller can stand alone without human control. 1.3 CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND

Figure 1.1: The block diagram for the warning system. 1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Flooding in the coastal plain areas of Cagayan de Oro River is usually associated with high tide level at the rivers delta and heavy rainfall and large volume of water concentration in the upland sections of the

river. Upon answering the following questions, the researchers had be able to explain how the monitoring of the said factors will help mitigating calamities brought by flood: 1)Where should the water level, tide level and rain gauge sensors be strategically located? 2)Where should the data logger station, central station and alarm station be strategically located? 3)How should the system devices and sensors be powered for steady operation? 4)How should these measured parameters be connected to generate warnings? 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OR PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT The study was intended to aid the entities concerned in developing a flood detection and early warning system. For a flood hazard prone community, such as Isla de Oro, a greater attentiveness on the future behavior and condition of the river and its upstream sources is needed to protect its assets and people, and to minimize the magnitude of risk of the river flooding Moreover, it will advance the knowledge on electronics circuitry, instrumentation, wireless transmission, and programming. 1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS It is possible to automate the entire monitoring and alarm system using microcontrollers and mobile phones 1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study focuses mainly on the technical design and implementation for a flood warning system. The project uses existing sensing methods and devices in measuring the said parameters. From the data logger station, it will be interfaced with a mobile unit which then send data to the central station through SMS. Also, the consideration of other tributaries as part of the contributing factors in terms of the water discharge to Cagayan de Oro River will be limitted to Kalawaig River. 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY Related Literature According to Manusthiparom (2005), the occurrence of flooding is usually in the aftermath of meteorological events that includes intense and prolonged rainfall, and unusually high costal and estuarine waters due to storm surges. Water flow along a stream is controlled by a lot of factors. These factors are, namely, the water discharge on the river, rain precipitation, and the intensity of precipitation, duration of precipitation, interception and infiltration of the soil. We consider using Tipping bucket rain gauge to measure rate of rainfall. According to Ahrens (2007), this gauge has a receiving tunnel leading to two small metal collectors (bucket). The bucket beneath the tunnel collects the rain water. When it accumulates the equivalent of one-hundredth of an inch of rain, the weight of the water causes it to tip and empty itself. For the acquisition of the water level, we used the electrode type sensor where two terminals are made to conduct current at the water Data collection is the recording of data items concerning an event of events, at the place where the event occurs and at the time of its occurrence (or thereabouts). The use of automated data collection system eliminates the manual way of collecting and storing information from the raw data; there are several good reasons why we much prefer to computerize the process. There are reasons why automated collection is

required and are as follows: time and total quality management. The time needed to collect data and process it will increase if the manual process is eliminated. Total quality management is a prime element in the continual effort to improve operations. (Cohen, 1994) GSM (Global System for Mobile communications or Groupe Speciale Mobile) communications, initiated by the European Commission, is the second generation mobile cellular system. GSM was created in 1982 to have a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a panEuropean mobile cellular radio system operating at 900MHz. The main objective of GSM is to remove any incompatibility among the systems by allowing the roaming phenomenon for any cell phone. 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The sensed rate and level measurement was collected automatically and conveyed through wireless transmission at a defined time interval and frequency. More frequent data acquisition during rain periods was considered. Data analysis and flood prediction was done using both mathematical concepts and historical data approach. The relationship between the measured parameters was determined and automatically calculated using a defined computer program. The magnitude of flooding, categorized depending on the results of calculation, was further inspected for conclusion using the data gathered on the previous events of flood. 3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES This River Monitoring and Alarm project was a microcontroller based system with the mobile phones and an HSDPA USB Stick as data transceivers. The Nokia 3310 mobile phones were for the Remote Stations, while the HSDPA Smart Bro modem was for the Central Station. The Zilog microcontrollers from the family Z8F042A automated the data logging and communicated with the mobile phones SMS-related events.

4. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Water Level Sensor (Cagayan de Oro River and Tributary) Trials Number 1,2,3 Table 4.1 Shows the data of the water level sensor output from the circuit.
Water Level (inches) 2 8 16 22 30 36 44 52 58 66 72 82 88 96 102 108 Expected Output Level Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 Level 8 Level 9 Level 10 Level 11 Level 12 Level 13 Level 14 Level 15 Level 16 Actual Output Level Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 Level 8 Level 9 Level 10 Level 11 Level 12 Level 13 Level 14 Level 15 Level 16

Table 4.2. Shows the level category with the corresponding alarm activation
Level 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Expected Output white light on green light on orange light on Red light and buzzer on white light on green light on orange light on Red light and buzzer on Actual Output white light on green light on orange light on Red light and buzzer on white light on green light on orange light on Red light and buzzer on Time elapsed (s) (4 bars signal) 2.22 3.07 3.34 2.70 2.17 3.14 3.04 2.04 Time elapsed (s) (1 -2 bars signal) 3.88 3.57 10.08 14.72 3.77 2.91 3.19 2.30

5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Basing the data gathered from the tests conducted, the monitoring system was able to acquire and sent data from the sensors to the central station. The table on the water level sensors, both for Cagayan de Oro River and Talakag, Bukidnon showed consistent reading using a calibrated meter steel and the water sensor itself. The test was done with an interval of six (6) inches every level, a two (2) inches water increment was divided for the entire length. The water level sensor detected water at the present level. The output from the circuit was an eight (8) bit codes that represent the actual water level.

The researchers were also able to establish a data that shows the time delay encountered when the central station sends the alarm messages to the alarm station. They found out that the time range varied between 2 to 14 seconds. The researchers were able to develop a working automated early warning and monitoring system. The microcontroller is able to automate the acquiring and sending of the needed parameters. The researchers recommend the use of solar power to power the remote sensors as well as to give a back-up power supply in case of power interruption. Also, it is recommended that an instantaneous water level should be installed so that the actual water level can be recorded to the millimeter scale. REFERENCES Elumba, Jr. E., Fuentevilla, C., and Ty, R. Wireless Transmission for River Monitoring March 2007 Using SMS,

Manusthiparom, Flood Forecasting and River Monitoring System in the Mekong River Basin, February 10, 2006 Jil, Jungle; Big Flood Going On In Cagayan De Oro ,January 3, 2009; http://junglejil.blogspot.com/2009/01/big-flood-going-on-in-cagayan-de-oro.html 07/23/2010 Stanffordshire Country Council; River Flooding - What is the impact on people and places?; Staffordshire County Council 2010, http://www.sln.org.uk/geography/enquiry/we30.htm, 07/23/2010

BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM THE BATCH FERMENTATION OF BROWN SARGASSUM SEAWEEDS USING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE
Christylene S. Balagtas and Maria Nia C. Baares Chemical Engineering Department E-mail: christyleneb@yahoo.com Melba T. Mendoza Faculty Adviser
ABSTRACT: Due to formidable changes in our environment, the price increase of petroleum in the market, population groweighth and the occurrence of circulating brownouts in the Philippines due to power supply shortages, alternative sources of energy are gaining much consideration. Solar and wind have great potential, but neither will replace the gasoline and diesel used in generators, and motors. Add to this the food versus fuel dispute which has been a concern when food sources are being utilized for fuel production, and agricultural lands are being transformed into massive plantations of land-based biofuel crops. Previous studies proved that using marine biomass as feedstock addresses the above-mentioned concerns Sakuo (2008). Brown Sargassum seaweed is a macroalgae that exist abundantly in the Philippine coastal areas. According to Hai (2007), it has the highest carbohydrate content compared to Eucheumaand Gracilariaspecies with a value of 58% carbohydrates dry weight. However, it was noted that some parameters should be identified to optimize production of bioethanol such as pH adjustments Adams J., et. al. (2008). This study aimed to examine the effect of pH 4 and 6 during fermentation on the amount of ethanol produced. Slurries prepared from mixing 450 g powdered Sargassum seaweeds with 2 L water was adjusted to pH 4 and 6 using 0.1 M HCl and 0.1 M NaOH, while a control run was also conducted. Peaks generated by Atenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR/SB-ATR) Spectrometer, after a calibration run with standard ethanol/water mixtures, gave results that there is a maximum ethanol concentration at pH 6 after 36 hrs with a value of 374.88mg/mL ethanol from 450 g of powdered dry seaweeds added with 2 L of deionized water. Furthermore, using the same instrument, it was found that the main component of the dried seaweed powder was octyl-beta-Dglucopyranoside.

KEYWORDS: Bioethanol, Biofuels, Sargassum, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

1. INTRODUCTION As an early effort to compensate for some of changes in the environment and lessen the countrys dependency on foreign oil, the Philippine government passed in 2006 RA 9367 or the Biofuels Act of 2006. The mandate for a minimum 5% blend of bioethanol by volume to substitute for gasoline started in February 2009 in accordance with the above-mentioned RA 9367. Currently, the maximum tolerable blend for gasoline-ethanol is 10% and researches are being conducted to improve these conditions. Algal fuels do not impact fresh water resources because algae can grow in ocean or even in wastewater. Sargassum seaweeds belonging to the family of brown macroalgae exist in the Philippine coastal areas and considered the one of the largest species. Locally, they grow in coastal areas with 42% found in the sites of Mambayaan, Balingasag, Misamis Oriental (McKeough Research Centers Ecological and Fisheries Profile of Macajalar Bay 2008).The bioethanol produced from these seaweeds may prove to be a sustainable fuel alternative. The process design involved in this study aims to [a] produce higher yield of bioethanol from brown Sargassum seaweeds by determining which pH (4, 6, and 7) per batch gives the maximum yield, and [b] designing a pilot-scale plant which has the capacity to produce 300 liters of bioethanol per operation. In line with this, the study aimed to answer the following questions: 1. What are the characteristics (density, moisture content, and active component) of the Sargassum seaweed? 2. What pH (4.5, 6 or control) during the fermentation period produces the highest amount of ethanol? What is the relationship between the pH and the amount of bioethanol produced in the fermentation of Brown Sargassum seaweeds? 3. How much profit will be generated for designing a pilot- scale plant for the bioethanol production from Brown Sargassum seaweeds using the batch fermentation process? The study was bounded by the following conditions: 1. Fermentation period to consider is only three days; 2. The pH to consider 4.5 and 6 only; optimization in terms of pH is not covered due to numerous runs required; 3. The temperature during the experiments will be controlled at 37 0C; 4. The yeast strain used is the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae due to its availability in the locality and lowcost price. 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Fermentation may be conducted on nearly any carbohydrate-rich substrate. The absence of lignin and the low content of cellulose in brown algae make them a better material for bioconversion than land plants according to study conducted by Toshitsugo (2008). Seaweed contains a high percentage of water, possessing a lower production rate compared to land crops, but ethanol production potential is high since seaweeds grow on a shorter span of time. Brown Sargassum seaweeds contain approximately 48% dry weight carbohydrates (Hai et al., 2007), a value higher than other known brown seaweed specie such as Gracilaria (45% dry weight), Kappaphycus (35% dry weight), and Eucheuma (45% dry weight). In order to have an efficient extraction, previous studies (Horn 2000; Percival and McDowell 1967) proposed a reduction in pH and an increase in temperature to increase solubility of laminarin, thus theoretically

providing more glucose for yeast fermentation. Horn et al. in (2000) suggested operating at pH between 4.5 and 5. 3. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Seaweed Sample Approximately 6 kg of Sargassum seaweeds was harvested from the coast of Mambayaan, Balingasag, Misamis Oriental. Foreign materials (e.g. sand) were removed by washing the sample with water. 3.2 Enzymes, Reagents, and Chemicals The -amylase used for enzymatic pretreatment and AR grade HCl, NaOH, Ca(OH)2, and absolute ethanol (as standard for analysis) were obtained from the Chemical Engineering Laboratory. 3.3 Substrate preparation Sargassum seaweed samples were oven-dried at 105oC for 24 hours until constant weight was achieved. This material underwent size reduction by using a conventional blender, producing a fine powder. Then, 450 g of the dried seaweed (SW) powder was transferred into a 2-L fermenter containing 2 L of deionized water mounted on a water bath maintained at 60oC for 1 hour, and the impeller speed was set to 350 rpm to allow complete mixing. The water bath temperature was then maintained at 37C for the whole of the fermentation period. After equilibrium temperature was obtained, the slurry was then added with aamylase. The setup was left for 30 min. 3.4 Preparation of Inocula A solution of 10 g dried yeast in 20 ml pre-warmed distilled water was prepared (37C) for 3060 min prior to use. After this the required amount of inocula must be immediately added to the fermenter. 3.5 Fermentation Following the preparation, sufficient amounts of NaOH and HCl were added to reach the desired pH of 4.5 and 6 respectively. Then the inocula was added to the slurry to initiate fermentation. The fermenter was cleaned using absolute ethanol to eliminate pre-contamination. Then, the pre-treated slurry was transferred to the fermenter. Fermenter outlet for gaseous products was connected to lime water solution to precipitate out the calcium carbonate. 3.6 Fermentation Progress and Analyses Aliquots of 1.0 mL slurry were removed six times during the whole fermentation period, with samples taken at 0 h, then every 12 hrs for the rest of the fermentation period. The samples withdrawn were centrifuged. Clear supernatant liquids obtained by centrifugation were stored in clean 10-mL test tubes covered with rubber stopper and stored at approximately 13-15oC.Final ethanol concentrations were measured using the FTIR/ATR spectrometer available at the Chemistry Department. A calibration run at varying known concentrations of ethanol/water mixtures was conducted. The peak generated at 33003500 cm-1 wave number/wavelength versus concentration plot generated after a linear regression analysis was used to project the actual values for the concentration of each sample. 3.7 Mode of Data Analysis One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed and followed by T-test with comparisons against a control run and Dunnetts test. A value of P<0.05 was used to indicate significant differences.

4. RESULTS 4.1 To determine the physical characteristics of the Sargassum seaweed samples Table 1. Characteristics of Sargassum Seaweed Parameter Value Density (dried SW), g/mL 0.6326 Moisture Content 92% Main Component Octyl-Beta-D(dried SW) Glucopyranoside

Figure 1.FTIR/ATR Spectra for SW Powder.


(Top: SW sample; Middle: Thioglycerol; Bottom: Octyl-D-Glucopyranoside)

4.2 To determine at which ph (4.5, 6 or control) and fermentation time will give the highest ethanol produced

Figure 2. FTIR/ATR Spectra for (a) Ethanol Standard, (b) Batch 1, (c) Batch 2, and (d) Batch 3. The curvature in 3300-3500 cm-1 wave number signifies OH bond (typical for an alcohol) The ethanol concentration trend when the pH was not controlled was decreasing. This is mainly attributed to the unneutralized salts present in the substrate as the seaweed may still contain them from the seawater. This causes abnormalities in the activity of the yeast as higher salt concentrations hinder their groweight. The curvature of the line in batch 2 represents the decay of ethanol in the solution as it may be further consumed by microorganisms inside the fermenter to produce other products, or may have volatilized consequently. Thus, the fermentation period is crucial to the production of bioethanol from the said biomass. The negative values obtained for the pH 4.5 signifies that the amount of ethanol produced is very small compared to the increasing salt concentration in the broth, causing inversion of peaks or drifts, and alteration in the spectral baseline.

5. CONCLUSION From the results generated by the FTIR spectra, it is evident that ethanol production from brown Sargassum seaweed is possible. Furthermore, controlling the pH plays a significant role in the

fermentation of these seaweeds as there is a significant difference in the concentrations at the different pH considered. Among the three runs conducted, pH 6 after 36 hrs gives the optimum yield of ethanol with 374.88 mg/ml as presented in Fig.4. REFERENCES Adams, J., et al (2008) Fermentation Study on Saccharina Latissima for Bioethanol Production Considering Variable Pre-Treatments. J Appl Phycoldoi: 10.1007/s10811-008-9384-7 Aresta, M., et al (2005) Utilization of Macro-Algae for Enhanced CO2 Fixation and Biofuels Production: Development of a Computing Software for an LCA Study. IAMC, Department of Chemistry and CIRCC, University of Bari, Campus Universitario, 70126 Bari, Italy. Fuel Processing Technology 86 1679 1693 Horn SJ, et al (2000a) Production of Ethanol from IndMicrobiolBiotechnol 24:5157, doi:10.1038/sj.jim.2900771 Mannitol ByZymobacterPalmae. J

Hai, Truong Nam (2007) Seaweed: Potential Biomass for Ethanol Production. Fourth Biomass BiomassAsia Workshop.Institute of Biotechnology. 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam, Malaysia, Horn SJ, et al (2000b) Ethanol Production From Seaweed Extract. J IndMicrobiolBiotechnol 25:249254, doi:10.1038/sj.jim.7000065

MICROPOWER GENERATION USING WIND FROM EXHAUST FANS


Mark Daryll R. Abadies, Jan Roy B. Amparo, Alexander S. Estrella and Cedric C. Velasco Electrical Engineering Department E-mail: asestrella89@gmail.com Gunnar Marc Shane C. Cabaraban Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT: The demand for the electrical power is steadily increasing. Despite the recent enactment of Renewable Energy Act of 2008, the gap between required and available power is still increasing. Thus, there has been a great deal of interest lately in utilizing power generation from renewable energy sources and one of these possible energy sources is wind. Wind coming from exhaust fans is frequently ignored and sometimes neglected on its possibility to be a source of electric power. Its wind produced has both speed and velocity enough to create a torque that may turn a blade of a small generator. The purpose of this study is to propose the concept of utilizing power and develop a design on how to use the wind coming from exhaust fans to produce electricity. In this study, six small-scale dc dynamos with a rated output of 12V, 2400 rpm will be tap in front of the exhaust fans. Therefore, this paper will venture the study of the proper connection of the dc dynamos, thus the wind velocity that will deliver a 12V, 1A output to the battery. The measured data will be the voltage and current output of each dynamo, the speed of the exhaust fans, as well as the time required to fully charge the battery. KEYWORDS: dc dynamo, exhaust fans, electric power, battery

1. INTRODUCTION There has been a great deal of interest lately in utilizing power generation from renewable energy sources. In a recent situation, global warming and the scarcity of nonrenewable energy sources has resulted to the abruptly increased of power cost and power shortage especially on the island of Mindanao. The enactment of the Renewable Energy Act of 2008(Republic Act No. 9531) that seeks to promote the development of renewable energy resources has resulted in the studies on how to harness and utilize these renewable sources and one of these renewable energies is the wind energy. Wind energy is a valuable resource utilized for electric power generation. The use of this technology is the most cost competitive of the environmentally clean and safe renewable energy sources in the world. Due to the rising gap between required and available power which is still increasing, interest in wind energy as an alternative power-generating source has been explored extensively. Its uses have been studied to extend to commercial, industrial and residential applications.

Focusing on this type of energy, the wind coming from the exhaust fan produces wind. These winds are being deserted and its use is not being maximized to produce power. This wind can be used to turn the blade of a small wind generator positioned in front of the exhausts fans. And taking the possibility that it can be a source of energy, this research therefore anticipates harnessing the energy coming from the wind given off by the exhaust fans. 1.1 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK Air coming from exhaust fans served as the dependent variable of the study in front of which a turbine blade coupled to a micro power generator which generated power. As the wind from the exhaust fans turned the blades, the latter rotated the shafts with magnets that created an alternating magnetic field in the stationary coils. According to Faradays law, any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause a voltage (emf) to be induced in the coil. No matter how the change was produced, the voltage will be generated. The change was produced by changing the magnetic field strength, moving a magnet toward or away from the coil, moving the coil into or out of the magnetic field, rotating the coil relative to the magnet. Thus, generator created electricity by the wire windings inside a magnetic field, called an armature. As the armature was spun inside this magnetic field, voltage was generated in those windings of wire and electricity was transferred. This study used several micro-turbines to be able to generate at least 12 volts DC and stored the power generated to a rechargeable battery. The battery was connected to an inverter that has an input of 12 volts DC and had an output of 220 volts, 60 hz ac to supply common low power household appliance and lighting. The power in the wind hitting a wind turbine with a certain swept area was given by the equation given below.

PW = 0.5 x rho x A x V3

(1)

where: PW = power in watts , Power in the area swept by the wind turbine rotor rho = air density (about 1.176 kg/m3 at sea level, less higher up) A = rotor swept area, exposed to the wind (m2) V = wind speed in meters/sec 1.2 CONCEPTUAL ACKGROUND

Fig. 1 Circuit Diagram

Fig 2. Block Diagram of the Project 1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROLEM With the rising of electric power cost and the global drive to lessen the dependence on nonrenewable energy sources, the proponents wished to propose an alternative source of power which utilizes a renewable source in the form of wind from exhaust fans. The study was aimed to answer the question: Will the wind produced by exhaust fans supply sufficient wind speed to be used as an alternative power source? 1.4 OJECTIVES The study wished to implement the following specific objectives: 1. To create a system design of a micro-power wind generator that harnesses the flow of air coming from the exhaust fans in generating power. 2. To determine if these micro wind power generators be able to have a significant effect in the power consumption. 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The result of this study can be a basis to prove the possibility of harnessing the wind coming from exhaust fans as an alternative energy source to power electrical loads. The proponents wished to prove that the project is feasible and it can significantly help communities in remote windy areas far from the reach of electric utility companies. The study plays its role in the global effort of reducing the use of nonrenewable energy sources by utilizing wind which is an abundant renewable source. Wind generators

simply convert the kinetic energy of wind in contact with the blades that rotate a shaft converting the rotational energy into electrical energy, thus giving no emissions, harmful gases nor wastes in any form. Furthermore, the result of this study can serve as a framework for future researches especially on largescale power generation using wind. 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE According to Martin LaMonica, there was a study called Warwick Microwind Trial project it was a yearlong survey on the performance of roof-mounted turbines done in the U.K. done by Encraft, a low-carbon technology consulting firm. Encraft study, found that many of the turbines didn't meet manufacturers claims for power generation. Some turbines needed to go offline at times because of technical problems or complaints over noise. The survey doesn't conclude that small wind turbines, in general, are uneconomical or unsuitable for the U.K. Instead, the data points to the need for accurate wind measurements before installing micro turbines, particularly in cities. There was also a study by an Italian inventor Lucien Gambarota, developed a micro wind turbine that generates electric power at wind speeds as slow as two meters per second. By combining micro-sized gearwheels small diameter rotors measuring just 26 centimeters, the group has created an attractive rooftop or home installation wind power option. Gambarota claims a rooftop or balcony turbine installation could provide up to 40% of a small familys electric power needs by storing the turbine created energy in batteries. In a design of Philippe Starck, the blades of the micro turbines are made of transparent plastic, which is great, as it will be virtually invisible up on the roof. The turbines were officially debuted after a lengthy 2 years of research in collaboration with the Italian company Pramac. The micro wind turbine is revolutionary for two reasons: the innovative shape and the ability to be used at home. 3. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design Evaluation was employed as the research design wherein the assessment of the feasibility of the micro wind power generator was focused upon. The feasibility of micro wind power as an alternative had been studied with consideration to the wind characteristics of exhaust air. The micro wind power system that had been outsourced consists of the small wind turbines connected in groups of series and parallel, battery to store power produced by the dynamo, and a regulator circuit to prevent power from the batteries being wasted by spinning the motor/generator. The systems setup was that the micro wind turbines were connected to the battery charger then the charger was then connected to the battery. Then the battery stored the power generated by the wind turbines to light up to a load. 3.2 Materials Small DC motors or dynamos, with their rotations reversed, would act as generators. In order to make the DC motors or dynamos generate voltage, small turbines out of plastic were utilized to propel the rotor when wind strikes through the blades. 3.3 Research Settings

Average wind speed from exhaust fans was measured in locations where there was enough and sufficient wind. The researchers then recorded the average voltage generated from the wind coming from exhaust fans. 3.4 Data Gathering Procedure and Analysis An analog Anemometer was used for measuring the wind speed from exhaust fans and the voltage generated was also recorded. Then from the data gathered, the results were evaluated for feasibility of the wind power generator based on research for minimum requirements of wind characteristics. The micro generators were tested at different speeds and the generated voltage output were recorded. Wind speed in the exhaust fans and its corresponding generated voltage output were evaluated. The micro generators were tested at certain speed by applying loads on it to produce a graph of the maximum power output. 4. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Table 1 Minimum and Recommended Air Velocity in Ductwork

Table 2 Data results of the dc dynamo prototype

SPEED POWER(mW) HIGH MEDIUM LOW

WIND SPEED (m/sec) 8.10 6.24 4.91 21.45 15.70 10.86

VOLTAGE (V) AMPERES (mA) 8.96 6.01 3.63 192.19 94.37 39.42

The researchers were able to design a sufficient generation system that can provide enough power and store it for usage. The small scaled wind power generation was able to supply the amount of power to a battery. The design adapted a conventional wind turbine operating horizontally against the wind. A study on a better design like vertical turbines and its effect on the system were recommended. Protecting the load and the generator unit at the same time performing regulation was also a concern. Thus a Battery Controller Circuit study for the system will be a good study extension on the design. A combination of sources can also improve the capacity of the system aside from using wind power. A study on Small

Scale Hybrid Power Generation design utilizing multiple input sources from other alternative sources is also recommended. REFERENCES Grondzik, Walter T. (2007) Air-conditioning Grouping Organization Manual, Edition: 2, ButterworthHeinemann, p 306-315 Drouilhet, S. et al. (1995) Optimizing Small Wind Turbine Performance in Battery Charging Applications.Washington D.C.

MODIFIED LAPTOP COOLER USING MINI AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


Paolo Gringo P. Gamboa, Kym V. Jamero and Kenneth G. Abellanosa Mechanical Engineering Department Email: gamboapaolo@yahoo.com Rogelio C. Golez Jr. Faculty Adviser
ABSTRACT: Modern electronics are becoming smaller, lighter and faster. But they also heat up faster which reduces performance, efficiency and reliability. Most advancements in the electronics sector are incorporated in modern laptops. Smaller and high performance laptops tend to heat up faster thereby prompting the need for an external laptop cooler to maintain its temperature. Internal laptop cooling systems often fall short of the required thermal design power needed by its main components mainly the Central Processing Unit (CPU), Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), Random Access Memory (RAM) and hard drive. This study aimed to demonstrate the potential applications of mini air conditioning (MAC) system in modern electronic applications. A modified laptop cooler using a 60 Watt MAC system was used to decrease the air temperature being induced by the laptop. The general objective of this study was to construct a laptop cooler using MAC system and evaluate the laptop overall performance with and without the MAC system. A fabricated air handling casing was fitted with a miniaturized evaporator and four ventilation fans, a water dispensers refrigerating system was attached to the evaporator to demonstrate the needed 80 watt cooling effect. Three Laptops were operated for 60 and 120 minutes with and without the MAC system while simultaneously running the trial version of SiSoftware SANDRA Home 2011. Hardware performance evaluation was done on each unit. Based from the data results, the heat dissipation capacity of the laptop had an average increased from 34.44 to 48.56 Watts (41.1% increased). With the MAC system, there was an increase on the performance of the processor arithmetic and multimedia up to 2.25% , hard drive data transfer up to 19.64% and video display performance up to 5.6%. Therefore, in using the MAC system, there was an overall increase of 4.76% on the laptop performance. KEYWORDS: Mini Air Conditioning (MAC) system, evaporator, performance

1. INTRODUCTION Modern applications in the electronics industry have seen an increasing demand for faster and more compact components such as microchips and processors. These components tend to produce more heat which is one of the main limiting factors in designing them to be even faster and smaller. In this case, an increase in temperature also reduces performance and lifespan as well. Conventional methods for cooling these components such as the use of fans and heat sinks are being left behind since the components require more cooling. One way to approach this problem is to incorporate a mini air conditioning system on these electronic devices. This makes them the ideal solution for cooling high heat electronic devices such as laptops. However, designing a compact thermal management system has its own set of challenges. Performance was not only the key factor in the design. Air conditioning system is done by using a refrigeration cycle the heat exchanger or evaporator is important in this study. The researchers wanted to determine the potential application of modified laptop cooler using a mini air conditioning (MAC) system. A deeper and further study of mini air conditioning system can supplement this project study. 1.1 Statement of the Problem This study aimed to construct a laptop cooler using MAC system and evaluate the laptop overall performance with and without the MAC system. 1.2 Objectives of the Study Moreover, the following are the specific objectives of this study. 1. To determine the mean temperature difference (T) of the air before and after the evaporator of the cooler MAC system. 2. To determine the mass flow of air at an exact fan speed setting. 3. To measure the mean outlet temperature of a laptop, operating for 60 and 120 minutes usage of performing heavy graphic application and operating with and without the cooler MAC system. 4. Use a trial version of SiSoftware SANDRA Home 2011 (System Analyzer, Diagnostic and Assistant) to evaluate the overall performance of the laptop operating with and without the cooler MAC system.

1.3 Significance of the Study The study explored the possibility of having a highly efficient MAC system that will address the heating problems experienced by electronic devices such as laptops.

1.3 Scope and Limitations of the Study Modifying the smallest water dispenser with a capacity of 80W locally available to be used as an air conditioning system was the scope of this study and used 2mm inner diameter copper tube as the new installed evaporator. R134a was used as the primary medium in the MAC system. The study was only limited on the external cooling of an air conditioning system and a contiguous test running time of 120 minutes only. 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2.1 The Research Design The modified laptop cooler using MAC system study was started by closely examining practical applications for a miniaturized refrigeration system. One practical application of MAC system is for the use in cooling electronic components and devices like laptops. Continuous demands for computer applications have prompted the need for enhanced mobility and performance and as laptops become smaller, lighter and faster, they also become hotter. Upon fabrication of the prototype, a series of test had been conducted so as to gather relevant data in order to determine the performance of the modified air conditioned cooler and to evaluate laptop performance comparatively with and without the use of the cooler. 2.2 Materials Specifications The materials used in the development of the MAC system were the following: water dispenser major components (compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator), copper tube (2mm and 3mm inner dia) for the evaporator coil, copper tube (1/2in dia) for copper fins, two (2) low pressure gauges, G.I. sheet, eight (8) hose clamps, 3ft 3mm inner dia. rubber tube, four (4) 6cm 12V DC exhaust fan, electrical tape, tie wire, two (2) flare knots, AVR casing, bolts and knots and spray paints. The equipments used in this study were oxy acetylene, surface grinder, hand drill, air compressor and vacuum pump. The tools used were anemometer, sling psychrometer, thermocouple, wrench, pliers, bench vise, long nose, hack saw, flaring tool, tester, screw driver and scissors. The study basically used 3 laptops for the data gathering. 2.3 Set-up Design The proposed design was conceptualized through AutoCad drawing program. The size of the laptop cooler was based on the most commonly used size of laptops which is 13.3 inches to 14 inch. Installation of fans and evaporator coil that would fit inside the air handling unit was also part of the system. The water dispenser was disassembled. Evacuation and charging of refrigerant was done to ensure the supplied refrigerant must compensate to the capacity of the whole MAC system. 2.4 Project Testing and Data Gathering Before the three laptops performances were tested, the software which indicates the laptop performances was displayed and the ambient temperature was measured using a sling psychrometer. The project testing was started when the temperature and pressure stabilized at 22C and 40psi, respectively. A thermocouple and two monitoring software were used for the data gathering, the thermocouple was used to monitor the exhaust temperature of the laptop at 1 minute intervals. Windows performance

monitored which measures the system state and usage of the entire system. It generated a graph in real time plotting the percentage of usage, and the Sisoftware SANDRA (System Analyzer, Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant) which analyzed the individual performance of the computer hardware. The applications ran for simulating laptop usage requiring moderate to high CPU and GPU usage were AutoCAD, FIFA 11, Windows Media Player 4, and Modern Warfare 2.
With and Without Cooler Start-up Initial System Evaluation

Start Monitoring Programs

1st Hour Run 1st Hour System Evaluation, Usage, CPU and GPU Temperature graphs

Start Monitoring Programs

2nd Hour Run 2nd Hour System Evaluation, Usage, CPU and GPU Temperature graphs End Trial

FIGURE 1. TEST FLOW CHART Data Gathering was then performed based on Figure 1. The performance of the laptop had be assessed based on the following criteria as evaluated by the SiSoftware SANDRA: Processor Arithmetic: GOPS (Giga operations per second ) Processor Multimedia: Mpix/s (Mega pixels per second) Memory Bandwidth: Gb/s (Gigabytes per second) Physical Disks: Mb/s (Megabytes per second) Video Display: fps (frames per second) Video Card Rendering: Mpix/s (Mega pixels per second) Overall score - A defined score calculated by SANDRA based on the previous criteria, the higher the score, the higher the performance.

3. PRESENTATION OF DATA AND ANALYSIS Specific Objective 1: According to the data gathered, an average drop of ambient temperature from 28 C to 22 C was achieved with the use of the evaporator. Specific Objective 2: With an average voltage of 9.51V from the adaptor, the average speed per fan measured using an anemometer was 0.76m/s. This speed indicated for a total of 4 fans used in this

research, the speed was directly proportional to the capacity of the fan to induce the air from the evaporator into the laptop. With a result of Qt = 76.36 Watts for the total of four fans. Specific Objective 3: The results presented in Table 1 indicated that the laptop cooler had an effect and dramatically reduced the exhaust temperatures from the three laptops being tested at a 120 minute time frame.

SAMPLE ACER 1 ACER2 ASUS

Table 1. Temperature Gathered AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (C) without the MAC System With the MAC System 1ST Hour 2ND Hour 1ST Hour 2ND Hour 58.54 60.72 38.7 40.30 57.28 60.76 38.46 40.02 48.55 52.51 43.65 44

Specific Objective 4: The two monitoring software used were the Windows performance monitor which measures the system state and usage of the entire system, it generated a graph in real time plotting the percentage of usage, and the other software used is the trial version of Sisoftware SANDRA (System Analyzer, Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant) Home 2011. This software analyzed the individual performance of the computer hardware and used the on-board temperature measuring devices of the Laptop and use it to generate a Graph defined at certain intervals. 4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS There was a substantial increase on the performance of the laptop and had a sustainable 6C T at the evaporator, indicating that the entering air temperature to the laptop was lesser with the aid of the MAC system. With the mass flow rate, the cooling capacity of the cooler was obtained to be partially induced by laptop. Based from exhaust temperature from the laptop, there was a large average temperature difference from using and without using the laptop cooler. Hence, this showed that the exhaust temperature from the laptop decreased indicating a positive note that can increase the performance and life of such electronic device. Lastly, Windows performance monitor which measures the system state and usage of the entire system and the downloaded trial version Sisoftware SANDRA Home 2011 were the programs used to evaluate the performance of the laptop. This MAC system can be improved by also focusing on the fabrication of the system's evaporator. Sizing of the components will be more innovative if these sizes will be miniaturized. Future study must developed and extend the time frame of the laptop usage, with and without the MAC system. Hence, this will clearly show the difference of the laptop performance and the temperature difference between the exhaust of the laptop. On the other hand, future study must use a thermostat while conducting the test for this study to save the components from damage.

REFERENCES Stoecker, W. F., Jones, J. W., (1982). Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Tordillo, J. (2002) Mechanical Engineering Formulas. Air Conditioning. DMC Busa Printers. Cebu, Philippines. (p 252) Piquepaille, R. (2008). A refrigerator inside your laptop

PROPOSED GROUNDWATER MONITORING WELL SITES IN SELECTED URBAN AREAS OF DISTRICT 1, CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
Fritzi Anne G. Gironella, Junaid C. Amintao, Mark Vincent S. Borong, Jiemar James C. Tolitol and John Bryan S. Young Civil Engineering Department Email: fritzi@gironella-cdo.com Jan Taat, Dexter S. Lo, Peter Daniel S. Akut Faculty Advisers ABSTRACT: As of 2010, the city of Cagayan de Oro extracts from the aquifer as primary source of municipal water; however there is no existing monitoring of this resource. The study located proposed monitoring well sites in selected urban areas in Cagayan de Oro City between Iponan River and Cagayan River through the determination of: potentiometric levels, recharge, evaluation of groundwater quality compared to Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water, and identification of land use and other factors affecting groundwater (i.e. geology, land use and proximity to pollutants). Properties of deep wells, agriculture, and industries were obtained by means of survey of data from 2000-2010. Recent static levels were determined by sounding equipment, and collaborating teams conducted chemical and bacteriological analyses in November-December 2010. Maps were drawn using UTM Zone 51N. Results showed that flow was estimated 10m/km gradient from the citys dumpsite to Canito-an wells. It was assumed that groundwater recharge is higher in rural areas than in highly urbanized areas due to vast areas of concrete. Salinity, Hardness and Conductivity tests showed that there is no saltwater intrusion in the sampled wells, but with a possibility of river intrusion of the banks of Carmen. Exceeding values for Total Dissolved Solids suggested influence of leachate or riverwater in lower Carmen. Biological Oxygen Demand test suggested influence of leachate in wells near the dumpsite. Wells near and directly below the dumpsite had minimal values of fecal matter. Only one well from Canito-an was tested positive for E. Coli. Monitoring wells were suggested to be installed near potential sources of pollutants, since no alarming contamination had been found in the extraction wells. Monitoring wells should also be installed in lower Canito-an. Finally, for seawater intrusion monitoring, observation wells were suggested to be installed in Bulua and Kauswagan. KEYWORDS: Groundwater, Monitoring Well, Deep Well, Hydrology, Water Resource

1. INTRODUCTION As of 2010, the city of Cagayan de Oro extracts from the aquifer as primary source of municipal water, however there is no existing monitoring of this resource. Although there are some studies conducted on the groundwater of the city, insights about the behaviour of the groundwater is lacking, and they are not groundwater preservation and conservation in nature. With this study, a monitoring system of the groundwater in Cagayan de Oro will finally be institutionalized. The researchs main objective was to locate monitoring well sites in selected urban areas in Cagayan de Oro City between Iponan River and Cagayan de Oro River for groundwater level and quality. Specifically, it aimed to determine the potentiometric levels of the aquifer in meters above sea level; to describe the recharge of the aquifer; to compare the quality of groundwater as drinking water to Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW) and Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Administrative Order No. 34 (DAO 34); to determine the land use to aid in prioritizing locations of monitoring wells; and to identify factors affecting groundwater quality such as geology, land use and proximity to the sea and rivers. Monitoring wells are generally located near polluted sites and near extraction wells. Wells that monitor possible pollution sources could identify if a source contaminates the groundwater and can evaluate safety measures in the area. If monitoring wells nearby extraction wells detect contamination, wells extracting water should be shut off to protect the water supply and its consumers. 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Groundwater Assessment in the Philippines In a 2004 Metro Manila study done by Piquero, it was quoted from National Irrigation Authority (NIA) (1995) that 97% of the water supplies in the Philippines came from groundwater. Piquero tried to formulate and integrate approach to aquifer recharge and protection in Metro Manila, then assessed water resources in Metro Manila which will later be used as a tool for water use regulation. The researcher collected, reviewed and critiqued available data and information; defined the aquifer geometry and characteristics; and made a model for groundwater. Eight sites in Metro Manila were considered wherein the researcher identified the critical areas, the main cause of contamination, and identified illegal wells. Public awareness of sanitation practices should be a relentless campaign particularly in the less urbanized areas. 2.2 Groundwater Monitoring in Disposal Sites In the study conducted by Hudak (2000), the researcher made a model out of two five-well monitoring networks designed for a rectangular landfill oriented oblique to regional groundwater flow. All wells were spaced with the same distances that were measured parallel to groundwater flow from the down-gradient boundary of the landfill; and equal spacing that was measured perpendicular to groundwater flow between wells in each network. A simulation model was used to compute the detection efficiency of each monitoring network. In the non-linear network, wells clustered near the down-gradient corner of the landfill registered 100% detection efficiency. This study suggests that distorted hydraulic head fields induced by partial cut-off walls should be considered when designing detection monitoring networks at landfills.

3. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Data Gathering Procedure

Figure 1. Prioritization of Groundwater Monitoring Well Sites 3.1.1 Potentiometric Levels

Recent potentiometric levels were determined by 2010 data from the identified wells, provided that the well should remain unused for a standard of 8 hours during the time of measurement. Otherwise, potentiometric levels were measured in situ, following the same standard and using the electrical sounding device. Levels that were recorded as static levels at the time of well construction were also recorded for establishing a trend. 3.1.2 Geologic Profile

Boring logs from well drillers were used to create a more specific geologic profile of the district. The soils were summarized as percent clay for every 10 metres below ground level (mbgl). Clay, as one of the least permeable sediments ranging from 1.0 E-09 to 1.0E-11 m/s of permeability (USGS, 2002) and one of the dominant soils in the boring logs, was used to estimate the resistivity of the aquitard or covering layers against contamination from the surface. This was a much generalized interpretation of the equation: C = D/Kv; where, C = resistance of the aquitard (s) Kv = vertical permeability (m/s) D = thickness (m) 3.1.3 Possible Groundwater Contaminants (1)

Determination of possible groundwater contaminants was done by locating known industries, establishment and housing projects in the district with the aid of satellite images. Industries were qualitatively rated as High, Medium or Low following a general rating system of groundwater contamination sources by UNESCO (2002). Agriculture was represented as the percentage of the total area dedicated for agriculture provided by the Cagayan de Oro City Agriculturist, with the total area of the barangay. Subdivisions were further categorized by Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB)X. Population per barangay was determined by the latest census published by National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB)-X.

3.1.4

Groundwater Bacteriological and Chemical Analyses

Groundwater quality analyses were done in consortium with Xavier University Jose P. Rizal School of Medicine and Xavier University Chemistry Department. Total Coli form, Fecal Coli form and E. Coli count of 10 wells in District 1, Cagayan de Oro City were taken from the study of Santiago, et. al. (2011). Determination of pH level, temperature, conductivity, salinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, biological oxygen demand (BOD), total hardness, sulphates, sulphides, copper and lead were analyzed by Arancon, et. al. (2011). 10 wells were analyzed in these research projects, in which sampling took place once between the last week of November to the first week of December 2010. Values were compared according to the Philippine National Drinking Water Standards by LWUA, or to DENR Administrative Order No. 34 for parameters not found in the former standard. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Groundwater potentiometric levels were determined. Table 1. Deep wells of District 1, Cagayan de Oro City Well Well Well Diameter Years of Source of Designation Depth (m) (mm) Operation Data 1005 216.00 250.00 ?-present 1008 186.98 250.00 ?-present D 2009-present 1001 104.30 250.00 ?-present 1002 132.00 250.00 ?-present M P 112.00 250.00 X 139.00 ?-2006 Y Z 1011 137.16 203.20 1996-? from Speedrill F L N 28.04 1997-present O 70.00 152.40 Q 60.96 152.40 2002-present R 207.00 300.00 W1 45.72 ?-1992 W2 60.96 203.20 1994-2010 from Speedrill J 63.40 203.20 1940-present

Barangay Balulang Bulua Canito-an

Carmen

Patag

The sampling wells found in Cagayan de Oro City are presented in Table 1, grouped per barangay. Comparison recent static levels of Wells W1 and W2 with Wells X, P, 1002, 1001 and Z indicated that there was a possibility of flow from the citys Open Dumpsite to the wells located in Canito-an, even if land elevations says otherwise. The down gradient flow was calculated to be about 0.01 meter change of static level for every 1 meter of distance. However, the wells had variable depths and the levels obtained may be from different aquifers. For flow to be determined as accurately as possible, a monitoring well with screens at the depths of W1, W2, X, P, 1002 and 1001 should be installed.

Wells 1008, and 1005 exhibited recent static levels below sea level. Since their locations are far from the sea then there was no flow from the sea to the pumping wells. Their proximity to Cagayan River indicated a possibility of flow from the river to the extraction wells, and monitoring wells of 200 m. depth should be installed near the river and near these wells to determine if this possibility is correct. 4.2 Groundwater quality was analyzed. Wells Q, F, N and O had exceeded PNSDW requirement of 500 mg/L for TDS. This may be due to a possibility of flow from the dumpsite, or from Cagayan River, and monitoring wells should be installed near these wells. However, Hardness, Conductivity and pH levels suggested that this may be due to limestone found naturally in the districts soil. Results for BOD yielded low values, and no sampling wells exceeded the DAO 34 requirement of 5 mg/L. Wells Q and L had higher values than other wells, and may be influenced by leachate. Wells D and F had tested positive for Turbidity, may be because of a drain located beside the well. Salinity yielded similar results, although the possibility of saltwater intrusion could not be ruled out. Monitoring wells in Bulua and Kauswagan were proposed to be installed in determining saltwater intrusion. Only Well P tested positive for E. Coli. Because some parts in Canito-an have concentrated agricultural lands, fecal matter may have contaminated the groundwater. This possibility was the basis of proposed monitoring wells near this well. Well N, which is directly below the dumpsite, had exceeded permissible amount of Fecal Coliform, and could be suggested that monitoring wells should be installed in areas directly below the citys dumpsite. 4.3 Possible locations for groundwater monitoring wells were determined. Table 2. Locations of Groundwater WELL NO. MP1001 W2 1011 MP1002 MP1003 MP1004 MP1005 MP1006 MP1007 MP1009 MP1010 MP1008 MP1012 MP1013 Depth (mbgl) 80.0000 60.9600 137.1600 120.0000 120.0000 220.0000 65.0000 200.0000 200.0000 60.0000 207.0000 80.0000 207.0000 60.0000 Location of Screens (mbgl) Screen 1 Screen 2 30.0000 80.0000 48.7680 77.7240 21.3360 128.0160 30.0000 120.0000 30.0000 120.0000 30.0000 220.0000 30.0000 65.0000 30.0000 200.0000 30.0000 200.0000 30.0000 60.0000 30.0000 207.0000 30.0000 80.0000 30.0000 207.0000 30.0000 60.0000 X Coordinate 124.622340121 124.620852800 124.637775610 124.611461768 124.600198590 124.637913661 124.624605886 124.611245587 124.598147845 124.607653625 124.639049405 124.640582659 124.628548000 124.612951000 Y Coordinate 8.512738394 8.473100000 8.484440427 8.475166291 8.479596475 8.442567678 8.481016178 8.467304293 8.464315072 8.500789153 8.472883963 8.494539056 8.474983000 8.495807000 Elevation (masl) 0.0000 63.0000 10.0000 25.0000 10.0000 11.0000 31.0000 76.0000 43.0000 7.0000 11.0000 6.0000 57.0000 43.0000

5. CONCLUSION Groundwater monitoring wells were proposed to be placed near the sea since there is insufficient data to determine saltwater intrusion. The possibility of intrusion from Cagayan River should be checked by installing monitoring wells along the banks of the river. Possible contamination from leachate would be addressed by monitoring wells located around the dumpsite, particularly in areas directly below it. Monitoring wells along the banks of Iponan River are also suggested to be installed. Finally, monitoring wells are proposed to be installed near the wells of Canito-an. REFERENCES Arancon, R.A.D.; et.al. (2011). Report of Chemical Analysis. XU Chemistry Dept.. Driscoll, F. G. (1989). Groundwater and wells. St. Paul, MN: Johnson Filtration Systems, Inc. Fulton, A., Dudler, T., & Staton, K. (n.d.). Groundwater level monitoring: What is it? How is it done? Why do it? University of California Agriculture & Natural Resources (4). Hudak, P. (2001, February 05). Locating groundwater monitoring wells near cutoff walls. Retrieved from Science Direct. Santiago, M.C.; et.al. (2011). An analysis of the quality of groundwater of areas surrounding the Zayas Dumpsite in Carmen, Cagayan de Oro City, Misamis Oriental. XU Jose P. Rizal School of Medicine UNESCO. (2002). Groundwater contamination inventory: A methodological guide. IHP-VI, Series on Groundwater , pp. 23-38, 63-74. USGS. (2002). Documentation of spreadsheets for the analysis of aquifer-test and slug-test data. United States Geological Survey.

STANDARDIZATION OF WORK IN THE MILO PACKAGING AREA OF COFIPAC CORPORATION


John Louie Ablanque, Harold Fontiveros, Dustin Khu, Laurina Lupango and Jowee Ann Galleron Industrial Engineering Department Email: khu_nitsud@yahoo.com Glenn B. Paclijan Faculty Adviser
ABSTRACT: Market competition in a capitalist environment is a growing concern of every establishment in their respective industries. To date, it becomes a tough zero-sum game: players win at the loss of others. The study aimed to reduce the accumulated processed Milo in the packaging area. This goal was achieved by doing a time study and getting the standard time of each process to determine capacity of each packaging line per shift. Also a two-hand process chart was constructed to determine whether the worker has unnecessary operations. The independent factor considered in this study was the number of sachets each machine in the filling area produces per minute while the dependent variable was the packaging area itself. Construction of a new setting in the packaging workstation had been done in order for the goods to move a lot more smoothly and to make the workers a lot more comfortable in their workplace. The quantifiable current processing time in this study showed that in the present situation, there was the presence of bottlenecks in the sealing of polybags. Causes of these bottlenecks were lack of work measurement of the workers and the inability to manage workforce. In the modifications made in the setting of the workplace, proper designation of workers and applying the standard times calculated, it was observed that there was elimination of bottlenecks and unnecessary gaps. Also, there was a reduction of two workers per line in each shift which means reduction of labor cost. A simulation model had been created to prove that actual reduction of bottlenecks was accomplished and thus to show that even with the reduction of two workers per line, flow of the entire process remained smooth.

KEYWORDS: bottleneck, standardization, discrete-events simulation


1. INTRODUCTION In the Philippines, chocolate drinks are regarded as one of the fastest developing sectors in terms of offtrade volume from non-audited channel and current value sales growth in 2007. A major contributory factor is the marketing campaigns run by the sector leader Nestle Philippines Incorporated, which particularly targeted younger consumers and highlighted the various health benefits of chocolate drinks.

According to an industry player, the total powdered chocolate drink market was around 26,000 tons valued at about P6 billion as of September 2008. Milo and Ovaltine dominate the powdered market with 84% and 10%, respectively. Chocquik followed in the third place with 3%. On the other hand, Nestle Chuckie is the leader in the RTD category. In 2007, total RTD chocolate drink was valued at roughly P2.25 billion, as revealed by an industry source. The source also noted a decline in consumption volume while value remained constant as of April 2009. COFIPAC CORPORATION is an independent company and the leading co-manufacturer of Nestle Philippines, Incorporated-Region 10. The company co-manufacture products of Nestle Philippines, Incorporated such as the 14.0 grams Nescafe (coffee) 3 in 1, 2.0 grams Nescafe (coffee) Classic sticks, 5.0 grams Coffee-mate (non-dairy creamer), 20.0 grams Milo (Cocoa with milk), 20.0 grams Milo (Cocoa with milk) with cereals, Litro pack Nestea (Tea) and 45.0 grams Nestea (Tea). Furthermore, the company follows the best practices of Nestle Philippines, Incorporated, making it a quality service provider. COFIPAC Corporation started operating on 05 September 1994 at Tan-Tiong Building, Osmea Street, Cagayan de Oro City with just about twelve employees and having only two machines with a maximum production of 6,000 cases per month. In May of 1997, the company added six machines and transferred to a larger site at TTT International Warehouse, Julio Pacana Street, Puntod, Cagayan de Oro City. The production increased to 20,000 cases per month and soared manpower. In less than five years the company has grown from two machines to twenty four machines and with more than seven hundred employees. At present, COFIPAC CORPORATION corporate office and production warehouse has finally nested in the 16-hectare location at Agripino Neri Sr. Street, Tablon, Cagayan de Oro City. COFIPAC has experienced smooth growth in the co-manufacturing industry for almost two decades. The COFIPAC Corporation is increasing their production speed due to the great demand of their products; because of that, their sales increased. On the other hand, COFIPAC Corporation encounters problems such as quality, cost, and the backlog of products in the packing workstation. The COFIPAC Corporation and the researchers seek to study the reduction, if not elimination, of backlogs in the Milo packing workstation, and improve the workplace. Backlogs are the accumulation of jobs not done or materials not processed that are yet to be dealt with. Technically known as bottleneck effect, backlogs are disturbing problems in manufacturing industry rooting its cause in organizational policies, externalities, and production operations. The prevalence of this effect in productions can cause quality deterioration of the products, and increase in storage costs. Both the COFIPAC Corp.s and the researchers challenge is to find out ways to lessen the effects of backlogs in Milo packaging area. 2. METHODOLOGY The methodology presented here comprised of two parts. The first was the methodology in conducting time study in Milo packaging workstation. By doing this time study, standard time had been determined in each process which resulted to getting the capacity of each packaging line per shift. . The second was the methodology of constructing two-hand process chart to determine whether the worker had unnecessary operations. The study period started from June 2010 until March 2011. The data was obtained from the six (6) working days from Monday to Saturday or as necessary. The proponents performed time study at two Milo packaging lines. Total numbers of workers observed of the two lines in the Milo packing workstation per shift was 40. The total number of machinery, tools and equipments involved in the packaging operation is shown in Table 1. Since its a highly repetitive

operation, two-hand process chart was constructed to show movements and delays made by the right and left hands, and to evaluate what were the necessary motions in the packaging operation. The independent factor considered in this study was the number of sachets each machine in the filling area produces per minute while the dependent variable was the packaging area itself. Table 1. Machinery, Tools, and Equipment Summary

Name of Equipment

Quantity

Filling Machine Ishida Conveyor

18 2

Name of Equipment Taping Machine Carton Printer Box Checkweigher Steel Tables Wood Tables Manual coder

Quantity

2 2

Container Weight Box Box Stand Polybag Checkweigher

6 4 4 2 Steel Chairs 2

2 3 2

Name of Equipment Plastic Chairs Wrapping Machine Hand Pallet Truck Coding Machine Basket 7

Quantity

3 1

1 4 4

Table 2. Capacity of all Operations in the Packing Workstation

3. RESULTS AND FINDINGS


Standard times had been calculated. The shown standard times at Table 2 were standard times derived from the time and motion study conducted. Results showed that the problem was reduced by combining some tasks in single personnel so as to maximize their working time. Table 2 shows the actual idle time of

the workers during one shift. There was also a reduction of two workers; from 18 workers, reduced to 16 workers. Also, from 9 major operations cut down to 6 due to the combination of some tasks having big idle time. Table 3 presents the additional job descriptions for the merged operations performed. Table 3. Job Descriptions

Work Title Box Maker Packing & Lifting Code, Arrange Pallets, & Wraps Pallet

Functions Makes boxes to cover the boxes needed by the two (2) lanes Packs the polybags to the boxes then lifts the filled boxes to the conveyor Codes and palletizes the boxes due for pallet lift ups then wraps the arranged pallets due for distribution

Because there was a reduction of workers, visible signs of non congestion in the workplace were expected. Present system for two hand process charts also showed abnormal movements. This resulted to the development of a new or proposed system which will lead to a more systematic movement in the operation process. Also, through proper scheduling of breaks, bottlenecks had been minimized thus letting the workers cope it up a lot more easily than the present way of having breaks. 4. DISCUSSIONS Through getting or calculating standard times of each individual operation (applying allowances) capacity was determined. Proper designation of tasks and cost-cutting plans had been identified basing on the capacities. Nevertheless, using the two-hand process chart, identification of non-normal movements of the hands were identified and then eliminated to make workers more comfortable throughout their shift. This was also because workers in the area were doing things just the way they wanted to do it. Also, workers go for a break unscheduled in batches, causing the line to lose manages with the products arriving through the conveyor. 5. CONCLUSION Using different tools in engineering perspectives, the researchers were able to pinpoint aspects that were found to have been influential at the increasing backlogs in production. This includes: (Management) Lenient Workforce Management (Man) Nonsystematic Designation of Task (Machine) Age and Condition of the Machines (Machine) No Appropriate Responses to Equipment Repairs and Fixtures Thorough analyses and tests were conducted to look for alternatives for the resolution of these problems. And according to the results of the study, the following options were highly commended to reduce or eliminate the systems problem in bottlenecks: Equal assignment of labor force number characteristics to achieve equal manpower productivity, and systematic scheduling to avoid sacrificing peak production intervals. Modification of the present system to eliminate unnecessary gaps among workers and equipment by reducing the number of workers by 15% given the modified lane staffing.

Replacing unproductive or redundant equipment with manpower as much as possible to reduce the magnitude of equipment maintenance. Strengthen the engineering task of the people responsible in checking the conditions of the machines and equipment to avoid neglecting the need of maintenance.

REFERENCES Euromonitor , (2007), Hot Drinks in the Philippines Market Report , <www. euromonitor.com> Niebel, B. and Freivalds, A. (2003), Methods, Standards, and Work Design (International Ed.), McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA.

WATER LEVEL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR CAGAYAN DE ORO RIVER


Nenette Jane P. Victoria, Jose Mari L. Lumanlan and Frane Y. Ong Computer Science Department E-mail : njpv78@yahoo.com Engr. Maria Ramila I. Jimenez Faculty Adviser
ABSTRACT: Flooding is a recurring problem. It may be caused by natural phenomenon or destructive human activities; it's undeniable that floods damage both people and the environment. Though the concern is currently part of political and policy debate, an early warning system for an impending flood can be practical for the residents so that they will have enough time to salvage their valuables before it hits them and leaves them with nothing. Great inventions are those that can help people and the environment. Technology today can be used along with programs to fix and improve a lot of things, including natural environmental problems. One of the major problems that have caused tremendous disasters and losses all over the world is flooding. Floods do not only destroy the environment, it also affects the lives of millions of people who have lost their homes or even the lives of friends and family. Notifications that could be sent directly to cellular phones to warn people of an impending flood would be very useful and convenient. Also accessing the current water level through the internet and checking data online anywhere is widely conventional. KEYWORDS: Water Level Monitoring System, Flood Notification, SMS Notification
1. INTRODUCTION Great inventions are those that can help people and the environment. Technology today can be used along with programs to fix and improve a lot of things, including natural environmental problems. One of the major problems that have caused tremendous disasters and losses all over the world is flooding. Floods not only destroy the environment, it also affects the lives of millions of people who have lost their homes or even the lives of friends and family. One of the recent disasters caused by a flood happened here in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines last January of 2009. The city was whipped with non-stop heavy raining due to a typhoon and caused two flashfloods to take place consecutively in just a weeks time. Based on the Regional Disaster Coordinating Council (RDCC 10) report, more than 6,180 families were affected by the flashflood that wrecked havoc in Cagayan de Oro City. The flashfloods left at least 230 totally damaged houses and 552 and more partially damaged houses.

Striking as this may be, early warning devices of raised water levels are still not in place. In order to try and avoid the same tragedy, there is a need to make a device that can send early notifications about a particular areas water level. Notifications that could be sent directly to cellular phones would be very useful and convenient. Also accessing the current water level through the internet and checking data online anywhere is widely conventional. 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The two flash floods that occurred in January 2009 marked the third major flood incident in Cagayan de Oro City. It hit six villages (starting with Lapasan, that's somewhere along the national highway, Barangay 26, Patag, Bulua, Canitoan and Pagatpat) and forced the evacuation of more than 2,500 families and swept millions of pesos for the damages and repair. However, in communities along the Cagayan de Oro River (like Carmen), flooding is a recurring problem. May it be caused by natural phenomenon or destructive human activities; it's undeniable that floods damage both people and environment. Though the concern is currently part of political and policy debate, an early warning system for an impending flood can be practical for the residents so that they will have enough time to salvage their valuables before it hits them and leaves them with nothing. Data collected from the Office of Civil Defense in Region 10, Cagayan de Oro City under the Department of National Defense responsible for monitoring the log of the incidents under the whole region also shows that not only Cagayan de Oro City was affected by that incident but also other cities close by namely Iligan, Gingoog, Oroquieta, Ozamiz, Misamis Oriental and Lanao del Norte. A total of 1,812 houses were damaged, while 6,104 houses were partially damaged. A number of 42,956 families, all in all 213,806 persons were affected. 22 were found dead while 4 injured, and 2 went missing. The National Remote Sensing Agency under the Department of Space, Government of India, Hyderabad wrote that flood information or data and experience or intuition developed during the earlier floods may help in future events. The primary method for enhancing the knowledge of a particular flood event is through flood disaster surveys, where results such as damage assessment, lessons learned and recommendations are documented in a report. Flood risk zone map is of two types: (1) A detailed mapping approach, that is required for the production of hazard assessment for updating (and sometimes creating) risk maps. The maps contribute to the hazard and vulnerability aspects of flooding. (2) A larger scale approach that explored the general flood situation within a river catchment or coastal belt, with the aim of identifying areas that have greatest risk. In this case, remote sensing may contribute to mapping of inundated areas, mainly at the regional level. This system started with a survey and chose Carmen River in Cagayan de Oro as the targeted location due to knowledge that risk of flood was high in the location. Like the system above, this system uses a map but is used only to show the location of the placed device. 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The water level monitoring system design for this study emphasized on three components namely; the sensory device placed at assigned designation under the bridge at Carmen River, Cagayan de Oro City;

the SMS message notifications automatically sent when critical level is reached; and the web application containing a map to view the water levels in the river. Each component had its own different way of working function and each had a major role for the whole system to be effective and efficient. The three components needed to work together in order for the entire system to function and run properly, as well as to give full service to the community as a notification for any incoming flood. Upon implementation of the project, a series of tests had been conducted in order to assess whether or not the objectives are properly met and satisfied. The tests will include: Unit testing - testing each unit or component of the system, including the sensory device, the sending and receiving of the messages to and from cellular phones, and the web application. Functional testing ensuring proper behavior of the sensory device when gathering data and passing it to the cellular phone, retrieving and sending of information of both cellular phone and computer, and functionalities in the user interface. Integration testing testing the components when they are integrated or used together like the connection of the sensory device to the cellular phone, and the cellular phone to the computer. System testing testing the whole system after finishing everything. After the system had been developed, evaluation had been drawn based on a set of criteria like availability of the system for usage, functionality in accordance with the projects objectives, performance of the designed system, quality of both hardware and software, and the user-friendliness of the system. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The project was composed of the frontend and backend of the system. The frontend allowed users to directly interact with the system. The frontend of the system were the webpage and the cellular phones where messages were forwarded as notifications for an upcoming flood. The backend was responsible for the functionalities and proper deliveries of the data. The backend for the system were the device, the database, as well as the Ozeki Message Server. The device had three sensory probes below it. When water touched the probe, information can be gathered of the current water level which will either be low, normal, or critical. The information was sent to a cellular phone, and passed the date to a computer via Bluetooth. Automatic SMS messages had been sent by the computer as a notification to some sample numbers for multiple users to be warned once the water level reaches critical level. With computers connected with the public internet, users had accessed the web to view the current water level on the specific location like Carmen River. The system focused on collecting data for the current water level. Once data was collected, the backlog gathered by Ozeki Messaging Server transferred and inserted into another database created for storing incoming messages. Current water level had been recorded as well as the time data was sent from the device and received by the computer. The map from the website was done with the help of Google Map API. Google Map is a web mapping service application and technology provided by Google that powers many map-based services. With the use of Google Maps API, embedding of the map in the website was possible to do for this project. PHP was used to code for the website. PHP is a scripting language use for developing web pages. It is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted by a web server to generate the web page.

Passed information from the cellular phone to the computer was possible with the help of Bluetooth. Bluetooth is an open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances using short wavelength radio transmissions. Sending and receiving of messages through cellular phone was made possible with available functionalities provided by the Ozeki Message Server which is a powerful and flexible SMS gateway application. Functionalities used for this project are simple receiving and sending of messages from cellular phone to computer. Forwarding messages to multiple numbers were also available on Ozeki Message Server. The gathered data collected into a backlog was also usable in Ozeki. The data from the backlog are transferred to a database. Handling database for the project was managed through the use of MySQL and easily accessible with XAMPP. 5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK The proponents therefore conclude that this project had met the objectives, gathering and showing of data had been implemented, and sending notifications to people during critical times of water level had become possible. This project will greatly help prevent the people from being surprised by floods and help them be prepared for any upcoming disaster. For future researchers, the proponents recommend future developers to conduct research on how to make components of the system more independent from external dependencies like the cellular phones dependence on the electricity and signal from the network provider. Once a heavy storm occurs, electricity might go out and signal from the service provider might be weak or worse, it may be gone. It might be possible to find a way for the cellular phone not to be plugged at all times to ensure battery and still have the system continuously gathering of data. Research may also be conducted on finding ways to improve computers dependence on the wired or Bluetooth connection to the cellular phone wherein both devices should be located at the same place or only within a short distance apart in order to function correctly. Future researchers may collect information on having both devices separated and far away yet still continue transferring of data between each other. Being able to have the cellular phone at any place away from the computer, and still receive data from the device wherever it is carried may give more advantages. This project would also do great with more features like showing pictures and videos of the location where water level is taken. Future researchers may also probe on other kinds of SMS servers of their choice to manage and manipulate SMS, add graphs, and improve the interface for the web application for showing the logs of the collected data. For the benefactor, being able to check the water level on many more location, and not only on the Carmen River, would give advantages to more people. In order to do this, the device developed could be made in mass production. Benefactors may also contribute into the registration for a full version of the Ozeki Message Server. The proponents only used the Free Trial Version for the development of the Water Level Monitoring System for Cagayan de Oro City which will only be valid to use for 15-days.

REFERENCES Jeyaseelan A.T., Droughts & Floods Assessment and Monitoring Using Remote Sensing and GIS <http://www.wamis.org/agm/pubs/agm8/Paper-14.pdf> Lentz, A. and Schumacher, R. (2010) Dispelling the Myths. <http://dev.mysql.com/techresources/articles/dispelling-the-myths.html> Microchip Technology Inc. (2001) 18-pin Enhanced FLASH/EEPROM 8-bit Microcontroller. <http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/devicedoc/35007b.pdf> National Weather Service Forecast Office NOAA/USGS Demonstration Flash-Flood and Debris-Flow Early Warning System. <http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/lox/main.php?suite=hydrology&page=debrisflow_project> Ozeki Informatics Ltd (2000) <http://www.ozeki.hu/index.php?owpn=673&page_name=sms_Home> Pondent, C.S. (2010) Instruments Used to Monitor Flash Floods. <http://www.ehow.com/list_7430027_instruments-used-monitor-flash-floods.html> Vieux, B.E. and Vieux, J.E. Operational Deployment of a Physics-based Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Model for Flood Forecasting in Taiwan. <http://iahs.info/redbooks/a282/iahs_282_251.pdf> Ozeki Informatics Ltd, 2000, http://www.ozeki.hu/index.php?owpn=673&page_name=sms_Home

ASSESSMENT FOR URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEM IN SCIONS ELITE AND NHA SUBDIVISION IN BARANGAY KAUSWAGAN, CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
Ian Retchie G. Awing, Princess Maye Y. Co, Christy Anne Marie C. Colanse, Allister F. Nacalaban and Jerry June T. Noval Civil Engineering Department E-mail: camcolase@yahoo.com Peter Daniel S. Akut Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The Philippines is experiencing an increase in the frequency and depth of flooding because of the continued changing weather patterns. Cities, including Cagayan de Oro, have experienced flash floods affecting a lot of areas including Scions Elite and the National Housing Authority (NHA) Subdivision in Barangay Kauswagan. These storm waters should be discharged as close to its source as possible. That is why the concept of drainage system was introduced. Although drainage systems are present in the areas, flooding still occurs even on light rainfall. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the existing drainage system of Scions Elite and NHA Subdivision with the average to worst case scenario that occurred in these areas. The study will determine the present drainage design, volume of runoff, generate the contour map of the area and plot the buffer zones of the drainage lines. Data presented by Google Earth was used to generate the contour map using a GIS application. For the volume of runoff, the Mannings Formula was utilized and for the catchment area, the Rational Method was applied. The results indicate that Scions Elite is relatively low compared to the National Housing Authority Subdivision. Accordingly, there is a great tendency that the water from parts of the NHA area will flow to Scions Elite. The results also show that on average rainfall intensity, the drainage design for both areas is still capable of channeling storm water. However, on actual conditions the drainage lines are not capable of channeling surface water run-offs due to the damage in facilities. Also, the presence of sediments and garbage in the main drains, where the drainage lines outfalls, caused the reduction of the efficiency to channel surface water run-offs.

KEYWORDS: Drainage, Rational Method

DESIGN OF RAIN SHELTER FOR THE CRS FARMS IN IMPASUG-ONG BUKIDNON


Renaissance C. Candia, Esther Jane P. Flores, Ivan S. Lui and Mikhail Alan A. Olavides Civil Engineering Department E-mail: rcc0410@yahoo.com Gerardo P. Apor Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
This study was a joint collaboration of Xavier University-Ateneo de Cagayan and Catholic Relief Services. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential of bamboo as a structural material and to improve the design of the existing rain shelter of the farmers in Impasug-ong, Bukidnon. This will enable the improved capacity of producing onions to meet the requirements of the countrys largest food chain, Jollibee. The rain shelter was designed in such a way that it would withstand the gust of wind using bontong or the Dendrocalamus Asper specie of bamboo which is abundant in their locality. Bamboo samples were taken from Impasug-ong, Bukidnon and were tested using Universal Testing Machine to gather data and determine the tensile, compression and flexural strength in accordance with the American Societies for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications and also using other related literature and studies. The other design loads such as wind load was determined using Section 207 of the National Structural Code of the Philippines. The improved design of the rain shelter was modeled and structurally analyzed using structural analysis software. It was determined that bamboo, specifically the Dendrocalamus Asper specie, has potential to be used as structural material in terms of its tensile, compression and flexural strength but depending on what part of the stem it was taken, whether it was taken on the bottom, on the middle or on the top of the stem. Detailed plans and specifications were produced as an output of the improved designed rain shelter.

KEYWORDS: Rain, Shelter, Onions, Bamboo

DEVELOPMENT OF A ROAD CONDITION ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR PORTLAND CEMENT AND ASPHALT CONCRETE ROADS: A BASIS FOR ROAD CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED ROADS IN POBLACION, CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
Manuel D. Almanzor, Melvin M. Ando, Rodil B. Barbas, Brian R. Bautista and Aaron R. Pamatong Civil Engineering Department E-mail: brianbautista37@yahoo.com Peter Daniel S. Akut Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Good roads are essential for the economic development of a country. Most of the road networks today are of Asphalt Concrete Pavements (ACP) or Portland Cement Concrete Pavements (PCCP). These pavements, resulting to the occurrence of distresses on the pavement surface, deteriorate in time. The distresses affect the serviceability, performance, and appearance of the pavements. Proper pavement condition monitoring, which is essential for road maintenance, is necessary in order to minimize the effects of distresses. This serves as a vital basis for road maintenance strategies and project prioritization. This study developed a tool/method that determines the condition rating of a pavement rapidly and precisely. The tool uses an objective approach by quantifying the distresses and determining the condition rating through a Pavement Condition Index (PCI). The PCI is taken as a function of the type, severity, and density of the distresses present on the pavement surface. The developed tool was applied on 19 selected roads in Poblacion, Cagayan de Oro City. A map was generated showing the condition ratings, location, and profile of the assessed roads. The assessment have shown, regardless of the roads location and profile, that almost all of the condition ratings of PCCP ranged from fair to good and for ACP mainly all were bad. The most common distresses found in ACP were potholes, patches, crocodile cracking, and wearing surface; and for PCCP spalling and joint sealant distress were usually encountered. Only a portion of PCCP located in Corrales avenue was rated bad. Aside from the common distresses, shattered slabs and several cracking were spotted in the latter. There are still numerous road segments in Poblacion having bad condition. It is highly recommended to give these segments prompt attention and maintenance in order to reduce road accidents and increase road user satisfaction. KEYWORDS: ACP, PCCP, PCI, Road Segment, Tool

PROPOSED PROJECT WORTH PHP 300,000 H.E. ROOM AND SCHOOL CLINIC OF BALUARTE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, SITIO BALUARTE, BARANGAY LUMBIA, CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
Timmy Ann N. Baguio and Edlyn M. Echem Civil Engineering Department E-mail: timmy24_dar4ever2000@yahoo.com Joel Camilo M. Haos Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study is to provide the applicable plans and specifications to secure the required building permit of a 40 sq. m. one-storey building H.E Room and Clinic. The computation of the Overall Total Cost of the structure, which is a voluntary work for Pedro Calungsods PEACE Project that shall be constructed at Baluarte Elementary School, Sitio Baluarte of Barangay Lumbia, Cagayan de Oro City was also determined. The project will be forwarded for completion to the Office of the Building Official along with its requirements such as the Structural Computation, Design Calculations, Analysis for Electrical Plan, Detailed Cost and Material Estimates, Technical Specifications, List of Construction Materials/Facility Equipments, Construction Logbook, Layout Plan of Temporary Facilities, Fire and Life Safety Assessment Report, and the Letter of Application for Building Permit from the said School. The approved requirements will initiate the beginning of the actual construction. A price of Php 300,000.00 will be quoted as per quota of the Japanese partners. The study used Direct Counting and Area Method to calculate and compute the Material Cost. The Labor Cost was calculated using the Man Hours per activity per day. The Total Construction Cost is the sum of the Total Material Cost, Labor Cost, and the additional 5% Contingency Cost. The project will be approved for construction not later than the end of February and shall have a completion period on the month of April this year.

KEYWORDS: PEACE Project, Baluarte Elementary School, Barangay Lumbia

PROPOSED WATER SYSTEM IN BARANGAY PAGALUNGAN, CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY


Francis Numer A. Maamo, Christian A. Caina and Lemuel L. Aguirre Civil Engineering Department E-mail: francismaamo@yahoo.com Gerardo P. Apor Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Water scarcity has been a major problem for the community of Barangay Pagalungan, Cagayan de Oro City. The said barangay has an existing reservoir and is connected to communal faucet which is strategically placed in the area. The current source of water is taken from another nearby barangay due to the experiencing water shortage. The locals of the barangay have been using the springs in the area in order to fill their water supply. The objective of this study is to create an efficient potable water system for barangay Pagalungan that would give the community the volume of water they need in their day to day living. This study is in collaboration with the officials of Barangay Pagalungan. The study includes a full water system design which will operate from the water source to the reservoir which will be located at the center of the barangay. The design would include the cost estimate of the reservoir and the layout of the pipeline. A series of surveys were conducted in the area to have the necessary data for the water system design which was identified to be Level II, Gravity fed system. A 3 x 3-meter dimension reservoir was created for the water system using the conventional Portland cement. The actual velocity and pressure of the water in the system was calculated to follow the requirements set by City Water District. A Polyethylene (P.E.) pipe was used in the design for the transportation of water from the source to the barangays reservoir. The local community of Barangay Pagalungan will be supplied with the adequate amount of water for their daily consumption from the new water system constructed in the area which will be beneficial for them.

KEYWORDS: Barangay Pagalungan, Potable Water System, Gravity Fed System

DISASTER RISK REDUCTION PROGRAM OF POBLACION AREA IN CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY: EARTHQUAKE AND FIRE
Laurimer Bernard D. Angeles, James Oliver S. Aquino, Loudane G. Curig, Ralf Joseph M. Ebua, and Frances F. La Victoria Civil Engineering Department E-mail: lbdangeles@yahoo.com Dexter S. Lo Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Cagayan de Oro, one of the fastest growing cities in the Philippines, has become a hotspot for investments and business expansions. With the growing number of infrastructures, the city has now developed rapidly into a highly urbanized area. Located at the center of the city is the Poblacion area composed of over 40 barangays where major institutions and large businesses swarm. This rapid urbanization has demanded the need for a rapid assessment on disaster risk against earthquake and fire. These hazards could cause human and financial losses. In addition, vulnerabilities such as physical, social, economic and structural factors increase the susceptibility of the area to hazards. The study has thus developed tools in quantifying these disaster risks, using the street block as unit of measurement, and recommending mitigation strategies in order to minimize if not eliminate those exposed, the population. The study found that 33 blocks are at high risk for earthquake hazards. These blocks had basically the same situation; engineered and non-engineered structures are built closely together, and are densely populated areas. Fire on the other hand, had 26 blocks that are very high in risk. These blocks are mostly residential clusters and are densely populated areas. Moreover, most of these blocks structures are not adequate to resist fire. To reduce a blocks disaster risk the study has recommended a comprehensive plan for the city to evaluate and implement to these critical areas. As such, planning the nearest evacuation sites and probable routes to be taken are recommended. Better preparedness and response programs will also aid in reducing these disasters. With all these in mind, reducing disaster risks will help in shaping the future not only for this city but for others as well. KEYWORDS: Disasters, Earthquake, Fire, Risk, Hazard, Population, Vulnerability

FOREST FIRE MONITORING AND DETECTION SYSTEM USING GSM TECHNOLOGY FOR MALASAG FOREST AREA
Jan Vincent T. Lim, Carlo C. Mion, Rodel B. Opena and Kathlyn Anne V. Ycong Electronics Engineering Department E-mail:car_min256@yahoo.com Mary Jean O. Apor Faculty Advisor

ABSTRACT
This paper describes an electronic system that will provide an early detection of forest fire in Malasag area through sending short message services (SMS) to DENR officials upon detection of fire build-up. Specifically, the main objective is to cut-off the approximately 30 minutes for information of fire to reach the DENR office. This significantly minimizes the extent of damages due to fire because of earlier response made by the system. This system uses the temperature and relative humidity environmental conditions to determine conditions of fire intensity. The sensors were calibrated by varying the temperature and humidity, and then plotting the measurements against a calibrated device. From this scatter plot diagram, a linear regression model was used to determine the best fit line equation between the sensor and device measurements. This equation was then used in programming the microcontroller. The designed prototype module is composed of a temperature and a humidity sensor, which are interfaced to a microcontroller, which is then connected to a GSM modem. This GSM modem is typically the common mobile phone which also contains a SIM card. The microcontroller is programmed to use AT commands in communicating with the GSM modem. The details of device architecture, the algorithm used for fire detection, and performance are provided. This paper also provides the mapping of the strategic placement of the modules for the entire Malasag forest area. This mapping was prepared in collaboration with Malasag forest rangers. These are the areas where recent fire activities occurred, and where future fire occurrences have a high probability of taking place.

KEYWORDS: Forest fire, GSM, Microcontroller, Remote monitoring

RAPID INVESTIGATION OF CRACKS IN SELECTED BUILDINGS OF XAVIER UNIVERSITY


Joseph J. Baja, Kieman J. Fuentes, Kristofer J. Gadian, Laser Jake C. Jalop and Rexson C. Magallanes Civil Engineering Department E-mail: kiemanxu@gmail.com Megan M. Magallona Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Building construction has developed from simple structures to complicated high rise towers and concrete has been a major component in these developments. Despite all the advancement in construction technology, concrete has somewhat remains the same. Its brittle in nature makes it susceptible for cracking despite all the reinforcements added to strengthen its durability. The study aims to determine specific solutions to the already existing visible patterns of cracks found in various buildings of the Xavier University campus. The selected buildings are basically those that deal with enormous loadings through time, in particular with the Engineering Building. With the guidance of the Japan Concrete Institute (JCI) manual, the study will sort out the cracks present in these building. The study also aims to reassess the present situation of CIT building, which was already investigated by the original authors of the study three years ago. The study is limited to the thorough assessment of the standard investigation of crack width, crack depth, crack pattern, deposits on cracks and other observations. Structural members such as the beams, columns and slabs are only considered in this study wherein various instruments and survey questionnaires were used for assessment. After a careful investigation of both Engineering and CIT Buildings, evidences of cracks are found showing possible need for repair and strengthening in order to maintain the concretes different performances namely, Functionality, Durability, Influence to third party and Reparability. These factors are of great need in order to maintain the concretes service life, aesthetic value and to prevent more costly repair works in the future.

KEYWORDS: cracks, concrete, Japan Concrete Institute

A DESIGN OF A WATER CLARIFICATION SYSTEM USING POWDERED MORINGA OLEIFERA SEEDS AS COAGULANT
Ronnie A. Sumatra and Ilea A. Verano Chemical Engineering Department E-mail: ileaverano@yahoo.com Edwin Richard R. Ortiz Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
This study involves the production of clarified water using powdered Moringa oleifera (PMO) seeds as coagulant. Conventional water clarification methods were applied, which includes coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. The performance of PMO on water clarification was compared to that of Aluminum Sulfate, the most common coagulant. American Societies for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Jar Test Procedure was followed and several water quality parameters were tested including residual turbidity, hardness, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). Floc size, sludge volume, and cost were also compared. Results of clarification with PMO shows lower total dissolved solids and sludge volume compared to the conventional clarification method using Alum. Alum, however, exhibited greater results in the reduction of turbidity, hardness, total suspended solids and total coliform. The floc size of those treated with Alum is also larger than those treated with PMO. The pH of the water is not greatly affected using PMO than Alum. The water clarification design as well as the plant facility for PMO production requires as estimated total capital investment of Php 31,858,752.16. The net present value for a projected 5-year operation is Php 16,287,904.03. The payback period is approximately 4 years with an Internal Rate of Return of 32% and a benefit-cost ratio of 1.85. The values of these financial indicators imply that the designed plant is economically justified and thus is a good investment for water clarification.

KEYWORDS: Moringa oleifera, Coagulation, Flocculation, Optimum Dosage, Natural Coagulant, Turbidity

A FEASIBILITY STUDY ON VERTICAL GARDENING IN THE XAVIER UNIVERSITY ENGINEERING BUILDING


Jofferdale Q. Gallamaso, Gerard Josen A. Santos, Kristian Jon A. Dotdot, Dale Aloysius M. Dael and Dimar Dimitrio Cabonce Civil Engineering Department E-mail: coffeetime_4pm@yahoo.com.ph Dexter S. Lo Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Urbanization and population growth have been factors for changes in land use. In recent years, growth has been in exponential terms. Urbanization needs large areas for expansion of cities, while increase of population pushes agriculture to expand for vast farm lands. This expansion can disturb the natural system of ecology. Since this rapid growth is inevitable, the field of science has made new ideas to blend the unavoidable growth and the imperative environmental sustainability. This study is an attempt to answer the global call for environmental stewardship and as a possible alternative to meet the demands for food security. Moreover, this study determines the feasibility and sustainability of a vertical garden in an existing building. Vertical gardening is a new concept of producing food in an urban landscape. The schematics in which the plants will be grown are a stacking of support structures from one storey to another. Hence, vertical gardening requires an improved system of vertical irrigation. To regulate the watering for plants, the study utilizes the drip irrigation system. The criteria of choosing plants are based on the architecture of the planters of the Engineering building. Lemon Grass and Pak Choy are chosen since these plants grow at a short length of time and have a low maintenance. This study also utilizes rainwater harvesting as a source of irrigation. The experiments yielded different amounts of water discharge; the second floor drip line yielded the highest amount of discharge, while the fourth floor drip line yielded the lowest amount. All of the Lemon Grass and the Pak Choy grew up to the point of harvest even though there was a difference in discharge on different levels. The experiment can be further improved by trying new species of plants, depending on water demand; to conform to the difference in discharge.

KEYWORDS: Vertical Garden, Drip Irrigation, Rainwater Harvesting

ADAPTIVE RADAR DEVICE


Russel Almonte, Jan Emmanuel Buenaventura, Ryan Christopher Daaca, Bryan Anthony Degoma and Christian JC Obsioma Electronics Engineering Department E-mail: muy_muy069@yahoo.com Patrick L. Ke-e Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Several car accidents which cause serious injuries, major property damages and even death are tough to avoid. There are numerous factors that root this problem such as drivers behavior, vehicle speed, and poor road maintenance and road design. The main objective of this project is to design a device that will possibly avoid car collision incidents using RADAR concept as a primary detection device. The group focused on designing an ultrasonic circuit bearing the transmission and reception of a signal as a means of detecting an incoming obstacle before a collision happens. The circuits transmitter and receiver are in balance when it operates at the same 40 KHz frequency. If there is movement in the area covered by the ultrasonic emission, the signal that is reflected back to the receiver becomes distorted and the circuit is thrown out of balance which causes the triggering of the alarm. We measured the maximum horizontal distance our device can cover as the basis of the reliability of our project. Based on the tallied results, we considered obstacles at the range of 20 meters away as the safe maximum horizontal distance that our ultrasonic circuit will detect and trigger the alarm. The results suggest that with that given distance, it is enough to alarm the driver for an incoming obstacle to avoid possible collision.

KEYWORDS: ultrasonic, detection device, car accident and RADAR

AUTOMATED ELECTRIC METERING SYSTEM WITH PREPAID SERVICE


Michael Ray M. Abrogar, Kevin John H. Bagayas and Jude Martin E. Baviera Electronics and Communications Engineering Department E-mail: kbagayas@yahoo.com Patrick L. Ke-e Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Conventional electric meters used nowadays consist of dials which are not easily understood by most consumers on how their electric consumption is being measured and thereby unaware of how much they have to pay. Also some people dont have enough money at the time of disconnection to pay their bills and as a result fall to arrears.The proponents are designing a system that will be used in loading the amount paid for electricity using automation and prepaid services. This will be done by creating a central device that is used for automating the use of electricity, and which an electric meter is attach to it via a power analyzer. The input signal is the data of each electric meter like the power consumed in kilowatts. Sending of data is used with wired transmission. Afterwards, the system will then be programmed to satisfy specific functions and commands like digital display of kilowatts used, equivalent amount to be paid and energy consumption of a specific period. With this system, users will be informed on how much more electricity they can still use. In this manner, arrears will be avoided and users can control their power consumption. Also an advantage with this system is that users dont need to go to CEPALCO or any other electric companies monthly because they can pay their electricity good for more than a month. Disconnections will be much in control by the users with this system than with the current system because they dont have to pay monthly bills.

KEYWORDS: Electric Meters, Wired Transmission

COEFFICIENT OF HEAT TRANSFER OF A MINI CONDENSER


Enrico Tomas J. Castrence, Matthew Bonn G. Chan and Kurt Luigi C. Pablo Mechanical Engineering Department E-mail: enrico_tomas@yahoo.com Elmer B. Dollera Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Electronic devices, in the present, are currently going smaller and these electronic devices discharge heat as it operates. A mini condenser is a part of an air-conditioning system that can fit in electronic devices like a computer or laptop. This study aimed at the production and experimentation of the operation of a mini condenser. The study was limited only to the operation of a mini condenser which was only a part of a refrigerating system or air-conditioning system. The mini condenser was made of a copper block manufactured with extended surfaces for enhanced heat transfer. The mini condenser was attached to a water dispenser and a wind tunnel so that data can be acquired as it undergoes operation. Measuring devices such as pressure gages, sling psychrometer and thermocouple aided in the collection of the necessary values. The mini condenser heated up as the water condenser undergoes normal operation. The air provided by fans in the wind tunnel helps the condenser cools down through forced convection, which provided a significant amount of heat transfer leading to the actual capacity of the mini condenser. The results suggested that the mini condenser was capable of making a significant drop in temperature of 5OC on the average. This study of a mini condenser will help in the development of an electronic device which is capable at operating at higher speeds and at a very small size.

KEYWORDS: Mini Condenser, Air-conditioning System, Heat Transfer

ELECTRIC POWER AUTOMATIC TRANSFER SWITCH OF THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


Kristoffer Lou M. Beltis, Ace Renly Tejada and Mark Anthony P. Flores Electrical Engineering Department E-mail: yobikram_balisanina@yahoo.com Jolou F. Miraflor Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
An Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS) is an electrical device that provides an automatic transfer of power supply from the electric utility company to a stand-by generating unit and vice-versa during power failure. In conceptualizing this device, the proponents took into consideration the reduction of operating costs while providing a safe and convenient method of power transfer for both the building users and building operators by minimizing human intervention. The area of study was focused on the electrical system of the Engineering Building of Xavier University where the current manual switching procedure was compared to the procedure when the ATS was applied. The basis of comparison ware operating costs and switching time. In establishing the areas of comparison, the above mentioned parameters were expressed in their monetary equivalence. The above-mentioned parameters from the two operating procedures were compared by implementing an economic study of the project where the operating costs of the existing condition were labor costs and maintenance costs, while the operating costs of the proposed system had an added equipment cost. The result of the economic study with the consideration of a five year economic lifespan proved that the ATS implementation is more economical. The switching time of energy transfer had been considerably reduced, therefore improving the overall reliability of the Engineering building electrical system. The reduction of the switching time was expected to provide quicker response in times of emergency. The proponents therefore recommend the integration of the ATS in the Engineering building. This procedure was expected to require additional costs in construction but would otherwise increase the reliability and safety of the buildings electrical system.

KEYWORDS: Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS), Energy Transfer, Switching Time, Operating Cost, Maintenance Cost

GIS-BASED SOIL MOISTURE MAPPING


Darryl O. Arevalo, Regina F. Cardenas, Ched Therese P. Daligdig, Noreen Angelie T. Ras and Reuel Daniel L. Tirados Electronics Engineering Department E-mail: noreenangelieras@yahoo.com Franklin Rey A. Pacquiao Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
A Vertical Gardening Project of the Civil Engineering students in Xavier University is in its course of action. Several considerations have to be made as factors for its success. Soil moisture, sunlight needed, rich soil, and a nearby water source are some of these important factors. The main objective of this project is the mapping and remote sensing of the soil moisture level in the area covered by the vertical gardening project stated above in the College of Engineering building. The group considers the determination of the soil moisture level in the area an important parameter to be measured thus making it one of the key steps in creating an efficient irrigation system for the vertical garden. These measured values are then used to develop a visual representation of the said parameter using GIS. A number of samples were taken from the site. The level of soil moisture detected by the sensor on such soil samples were forwarded to the main data logger computer through SMS transmission using the 8-bit microcontroller with quad-band GSM 850/EGSM 900/DCS 1800/PCS 1900 module. These results were tallied according to their time of sampling and were assigned a particular variable name that is used in generating a GIS representation of the data. A considerable range between 1.5v 3.3v voltage detections have been evaluated by the group to be the considerable range of values that corresponds to the level of soil moisture commonly detected for agriculturally cultivated soil. The values tallied during sampling were used to evaluate on whether which ranges of values can the soil moisture be either wet, lightly wet, dry and critically dry and on which particular range irrigation should be recommended to start.

KEYWORDS: GSM module, SMS transmission, soil moisture and GIS

PERFORMANCE OF MINI EVAPORATOR OF VARYING TUBE DIAMETERS


Karl Angelo C. Almueda, Gabriel T. Ipanag and Dan B. Clarito Mechanical Engineering Department E-mail: dbclarito.06@gmail.com Nestor G. Ipanag Faculty Advisor

ABSTRACT
Electronics and machines today are increasing in their performance due to rapid technological innovation and advancement. Along with this upgrade, utilizing the optimum performance of these gadgets would mean generating more heat from its mechanical and electronic parts. These would pose a problem in its performance and life expectancy if left as it is. Therefore a mini cooling system is needed to cope up with this heat that would be generated or emitted by these devices. An evaporator in vapour compression cycle is a device where heat is absorbed by a liquid refrigerant to reduce the temperature of a controlled space. A cooling system that has an adequate size which is small enough to fit conveniently in electronic devices could compensate excessive heat that is emitted by these devices so that the optimum performance could be utilized. The data were gathered, recorded and presented in different graphs corresponding to different tube diameters. The pressure drop, controlled air temperature, and coil temperature were the parameters that were examined during a number of trials. The results of the experiment showed that pressure drop from various mini diameters were very negligible. The cooling effect of the largest test diameter was substantially greater than that of the other mini diameters since more refrigerant flows through the evaporator. This study could lead to innovation of mini cooling systems since previous studies of mini cooling systems suggested that it offers very high heat transfer capabilities and may find applications in many emerging technologies.

KEYWORDS: Mini Evaporator, Vapor Compression Cycle, Heat Transfer

PRESSURE DROP IN A MICRO EXPANSION VALVE OF A MINI VAPOR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE
Adi W. Wasana, Carlo Van Franco Z. Ybanez and Jethro C. Bagayna Mechanical Engineering Department E-mail: francoy_32@yahoo.com Elmer B. Dollera Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Developing a compact device has become a current trend in this modern world which pertains to a lesser energy consumption. It also applies to a mini refrigeration unit to accommodate a small device being cooled where this cooling unit has to be in a smaller configuration than that of the ordinary ones. The study aimed at developing capillary tubes with six (6) different small inside diameters of 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, and 0.45 mm with 3 classifications of lengths (300, 600, and 900 mm) to create significant pressure drop of liquid refrigerant R-134A as its cooling medium needed in the system. These expanded cooling medium was also intended to absorb heat from surroundings. In crafting these six (6) different small inside diameters, stainless steel string insertions were employed. In the designed system, reduction of cross sectional area were employed and the inside diameters were determined. The pressure readings were then obtained in every 300-mm section by feeding the liquefied refrigerant R-134A from its reservoir tank through the capillary tubes. With these data, the pressure drops were then calculated. All the six (6) sets of capillary tubes were then tested and analyzed. In addition, they suggest the smaller inside diameter and the longer length of capillary tube give greater pressure drop than the bigger inside diameters and shorter lengths. It then implied that creating an inside diameter of capillary tube as small as 0.2 mm by stainless steel string insertion was possible for 300-mm section, however for the longer section it needs more skills in inserting the string.

KEYWORDS: Capillary Tube, Refrigerant R-134A, Pressure Drop

SOUND LEVEL MONITORING SYSTEM WITH WIRELESS TRANSMISSION APPLIED TO VIDEOKE MACHINES
Kenneth Andrew R. Bollozos Rodrigo E. Edyesca, Jr., Welster John P. Punay, and Joseph Anthony C. Tan Electronics Engineering Department E-mail: demolay_bantam@yahoo.com Ian Giovanni R. Pabillaran Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The Office of Regulatory and Complaint Board (RCB) in this city had taken action on the complaints of excessive sound emission from coin-operated from videoke machines that causes Noise Pollution by regulating the volume of the machines. But when the authorities are not around the operators change the setting of the volume and increase it beyond what is allowed. The proponents are designing a system that will measure and monitor the sound level emitted from the coin-operated videoke machines and send advisory to the authorities via wireless transmission whenever the sound level emitted measured in real time exceeds the specified level. This will be done by putting up a sensor outside the establishment which will measure the sound level emission in real time of the videoke bar and transmit the said information via wireless transmission to a monitoring system which comprises of led lights (green, yellow and red) indicating the danger of the noise emitted by the said establishment, the monitoring system will be located in the office or headquarters of the authorities. With this system it will prevent the videoke machine establishments from emitting excessive noise since the monitoring will be conducted 24/7 and the idea would lead to other advancements in monitoring and warning aspects.

KEYWORDS: Noise, Monitoring, Wireless Transmission

TERMITE DETECTION THROUGH ITS ACOUSTIC EMISSION


Athena V. Aguinaldo, Annael J. Domingo and Chiza C. Gaabucayan Electronics Engineering Department E-mail: tingers2000@yahoo.com Franklin Rey A. Pacquiao Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Termites become a problem not just a nuisance insect in the house, but because they feed on timber and causing structural damage. In addition to wood, termites also feed on paper, bark mulch, and dead tree roots. Because they may eat wood from the inside, there may be no visible signs of damage to structure for a certain period of time. This project has its main objective on designing a device that will detect termite activity through its acoustic emission with the use of a transducer. The main use of the transducer in this project is its ability to convert the pressure it takes up into an electrical signal. In this case, the pressure comes from the strongest vibration made by the termites which is termed as head-banging. This project is composed of different blocks; first block is the termite colony which serves as the source of the pressure that will be detected by the transducer. Second block is the transducer which converts the pressure it takes up into an electrical signal. Third block is the operational amplifier which amplifies the converted electrical signal that serves as the input to the sound card of the PC or of the laptop. Next block is the soundcard which converts the amplified signal from analog to digital signal. Finally, the laptop or PC which has installed software graphs the output signal. Aside from the output graph, different tests are made on different areas where termite activity is located for reliability of the device.

KEYWORDS: termite, detection device, acoustic emission, transducer

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTOR AIDED TRISIKAD


Carlo Angelo E. Cahoy, Karl Kevin R. Sario and Kelvin Badiang Electrical Engineering Department E-mail: carloangelocahoy@yahoo.com Eliseo B. Linog Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Transportation has become a necessity to our society. A common mode of transportation in city is the TRISIKAD. It is continually competing with the larger modes of transportation in order for operators to earn a living in this rigorous type of work. Trisikads when aided with electric motor driving system will provide convenience, efficiency, and safety for the operator and for the commuters. The aim of this study was to fabricate a trisikad with an electric motor couple in its primary driving wheel. This research was carried out from the previous study on solar vehicle. The design used a one-half horsepower, twelve volts, DC series electric motor. The study determined the electrical energy consumption of the motor. Thus, major modifications of vehicles auxiliaries were required to make it suitable for the design. These parts include the speed controller system, braking system, mechanism, structure, and shafting. When the said equipments were already prepared, the researchers determined whether the electric motor aided trisikad can lessen the threats it presents to its commuters, whether it can lessen the stress to the operator presented by rigorous physical effect of mobilizing a trisikad unit and whether it can provide an economical and a higher income gaining alternate to the citys trisikad within the premises of Cogon market and Xavier University-Main Campus. The output of our design was determined after a series of test. The vehicle run at a speed of 15 mph and increasing and carried a load of 750 pounds including the driver, 2 passengers and trisikad (unit including its auxiliaries).

Keywords: DC series electric motor, auxilliaries, horsepower

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF HUMAN FECES FROM URINEDIVERSION DEHYDRATION TOILETS: EFFECT OF HEAT PRETREATMENT ON METHANE GENERATION AND DIGESTATE UTILIZATION FOR AGRICULTURE
Dexby P. de Guzman, Ven Jordan B. Diputado and Ben Isac A. Escabarte Chemical Engineering Department Email: escabarte.benisac@yahoo.com Maria Isabel R. Dumlao Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Increase in the population entails increase production of human wastes. Nowadays, we dispose feces and urine with the use of technologies such as toilet bowls and septic tanks. However, septic tanks only provide temporary storage for these human wastes and consume a considerable volume of potable water which can be used for other useful purposes. Septic tanks may also cause danger as it may be a potential source of groundwater contamination. It is in this dilemma that UDDTs or Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets were constructed as a means to effectively manage these human wastes and to save potable water for other purposeful usage. Human feces from urine-diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs) are being evaluated as feed for anaerobic digestion. The study aims to compare the amount of methane generated using heated and unheated feces for batch anaerobic digestion. Sludge from a pig-manure anaerobic digester at Manresa Farms, Cagayan de Oro City was acclimatized for 7 days. Heat pretreatment at 70C, for 30 minutes was done on the feces feed in comparison to untreated feces. The substrate used contains 16.5% feces, 8.5% ground cornstalks, and 75.0% water. The substrate was digested for a period of 30 days in 2.6-L brown bottles at ambient conditions, sludge-substrate ratio of 2:3, and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 30:1. Methane generation was then measured by liquid displacement method. With heat pretreatment, the average methane generation is 27.7 L/kg feces compared to the 25.7 L/kg of unheated feces. Results suggest that the heat pretreated feces feed has higher methane generation than the unheated feces, however there is no significant difference between the two.

KEYWORDS: Anaerobic Digestion, Urine-Diversion Dehydrating Toilet, Human Feces

CHARCOAL BRIQUETTES FROM RICE HULL THROUGH CLOSEDVESSEL CARBONIZATION


Ruthzaida R. Bagayna, Mujette G. Godmalin and Catherine C. Lagat Chemical Engineering Department E-mail: zaide_luvz@yahoo.com Shierlyn S. Paclijan Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
In the Philippines, the primary source of energy required for vital activities such as cooking and heating is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), dried burning wood and other agricultural products. An increasing population using a dwindling resource of biomass materials will eventually result in a shortage of wood fuels which will trigger to the worsening of global warming. Since rice is the staple food for Filipinos, rice hulls are abundant and are considered as agricultural wastes. This study utilized rice hulls as an alternative raw material of making charcoal briquettes in replacement of the ordinary wood fuels. Using biomass charcoal briquetting technology, the rice hull can be used for generating an alternative fuel which is cost effective and environmentally friendly. Closed-vessel carbonization was employed in the process with an operating temperature ranging from 350oC400oC. The results showed that the carbonized rice hull charcoal briquettes has a fixed carbon content of 81.908%, 15.360% volatile matter and a heating value of 29,727.55 KJ/kg as compared to the ordinary charcoal with 26,000 KJ/kg. The results indicate that rice hull charcoal briquette has a significant difference in terms of its efficiency and heating value making it a suitable alternative fuel not only for households and establishments that require charcoal but also for industries using charcoal for heat source. The designed plant-scale operation for rice hull charcoal manufacturing has an annual working capacity of 2,300 tons of charcoal briquettes and a return of investment of 62.88 % per year a and payback period of 1.12 years.

Keywords: Rice Hull, Charcoal, Wood Fuels, Briquettes, Closed-Vessel Carbonization

SIMULTANEOUS CHARGING OF CAR BATTERY AND DELIVERING POWER TO THE SOLAR CAR
Arnan Joey A. Timogan, Cathyrine Mae C. Luarca, Kirstyn S. Butron and Richard C. Daroca Electronics Engineering Department Email: arnan_conan@yahoo.com Ian Giovanni R. Pabillaran Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
This study aims to present a solution in the efficient charging of the battery of the solar car made by the Electrical Engineering Students of Xavier University last School Year 2009-2010. Our projects main concern is by simultaneously charging the battery while also delivering the necessary power to the load. Since the car body itself is no longer available, its speed is not part of our study and that the only load were concerned about is the motor. Our design of the project focuses on three components based from the principle of the solar electric vehicle: the solar panel, the battery, and the solar charger (regulator). The solar panel was set up so that it can convert solar energy into electrical energy. Then, it was connected to a solar charger which will regulate the charging of the battery as well as delivering power to the load. Our design is to be able to charge the Li-Ion type battery to approximately 13.5 Volts. It can also simultaneously charge and discharge the battery, given that the connection of the battery to the load will be cut the moment the battery voltage drops down to approximately 11 Volts. The battery will again deliver power to the load when its voltage will near the 12.5 Volts. The results suggest that maintaining the voltage battery is important because the simultaneous charging and discharging of the battery will come to a stop the moment its voltage drops below 11 Volts. Just like any other project study, there are still rooms for improvement. This type of study is encouraged since finding renewable energy is a must nowadays.

Keywords: Charging, Battery, Solar car, Solar Panel, Solar Charger, Regulator, Solar Energy, Renewable Energy

WIND POWER GENERATION OF THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING BUILDING FOR ONE ROOM LIGHTING LOAD
Aljan P. Uson, Junas P. Basco, Christopher R. Bilar and Serge Michael R. Oracion Electrical Engineering Department E-mail: aljanuson@yahoo.com Gunnar Marc Shane C. Cabaraban Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The proponents aspired to design a cost effective power generation system that can provide enough energy to light one classroom in the Engineering building of Xavier University. Wind power generation can help minimize power consumption from power electric company. The proponents also endeavored to compare the actual cost of using electric utility from the total cost of designing, constructing and installing the system. The study maximized the wind capacity present in Xavier University that can be used to generate electricity. Installing the system started by laying out the tower for the tower base and anchors. Tower installation included assembling and lifting approaches. Wind-generator installation also involved weight, mechanical work, and electrical connections. Electrical work spanned the distance from the tower top to the power room. The parameters involved in installing the system were the blades, generator size and tower height. The blades used for the system was a vertical type wind turbine. The energy load and wind resource determined the size. The system site and wind shear determine the minimum tower height. Wind energy is a source of renewable power which comes from air current flowing across the earths surface. The wind turbines gathered the kinetic energy and converted it into usable power that provides electricity. Thus, the wind power electricity was presumed to be clean because it does not produce any pollution or greenhouse gases. It addressed both health and environmental concerns and issues. Hence, wind power generation promotes electrical energy that is safer to the environment and to the community.

KEYWORDS: Generator, Wind Turbine, Wind Power

A CONTEXT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM FOR AFFIDAVIT OF LOSS DOCUMENTS (CONTEXTUS)


Lope Chupijay H. Emano, Hansel Ian I. Lastima, and Danilo R. Punzalan Jr. Computer Science Department Email:djpunzalan@gmail.com Cristina Amor T. Cajilla Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Using the traditional file management systems in Law Regulating Sectors is a tedious task and a time consuming process. This manual organization of documents commonly results to piles of papers in their offices. Aside from the excessive effort that this system requires, there is also a lot of risk in this manual system since these documents and records could be easily lost or tampered. The Context Identification System or Contextus, as the developers call it, aims to address this problem by building a system that shall efficiently automate the traditional system. This program understands the context of an Affidavit of Loss and stores the details of the file into the database. The system is built with an algorithm that reads the context of the affidavit of loss and flags the words according to how it is understood by the system. A user can then access the information stored in the database by a search function which aims to give the user the ability to scan the system for a particular document. The search query will return documents that are similar to the keywords given by the user during the search process. In this way, the law regulating sectors would not need to stack piles of documents and record them one by one manually with the help of the Context Identification System for Affidavit of Loss Documents in a fast and efficient manner. The result of this study shows how the system could be beneficial to ease the tedious work of the traditional file management system of law sectors. From the tests made, the system scored an average of 9.7 out of 10 and is thus recommended to be used in actual affidavit of loss file management.

KEYWORDS: Context Identification, Contextus, Legal Documents, Affidavit of Loss, Documents

A SYSTEM FOR GENERATING GIS MAPS OF SPATIAL DEMOGRAPHIC DATA


Lester O. Cairel and Leoncio Cesar L. Polestico Computer Science Department E-mail: kyogenex@yahoo.com

Joseph Anthony C. Sabal Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
A significant number of businesses today are closing for the reason of wrong location. Hence, dealing with the location, community flavor and receptiveness to a new business at a prospective site are very crucial in opening up a business. The aim of this project is to make available a geographically referenced dataset of spatial demographics and its statistics for public use. The web based spatial demographic mapping system features spatial and temporal information at street level of human traffic and its attributes. Presenting the statistics in an interactive map form with graphs allows the user to identify trends, patterns and/or relationships spatially. The system enables users to interact with the database and allows them to make map polygons and perform simple query analysis. The user, for instance, can assess trends in a specific area over a given number of days at the street level. This tool allows users to integrate information, visualize scenarios, and develop effective solutions in deciding how to prioritize and allocate limited research resources to address specific business challenges.

KEYWORDS: Spatial demographic mapping system, web-based Geographic Information system

A SYSTEM STUDY ON THE CENTER FOR INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGIES OF XAVIER UNIVERSITY


Jeff Alomia, Jefferson Bautista, Lurina Andrea Lupango and Airene Mercado Industrial Engineering Department Email: lurina_andrea15@yahoo.com Glenn B. Paclijan Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
High quality education is what most people are looking for their children. Xavier University is no doubt to be one of the best schools in the region and in the country. Educational accreditations for academic programs have been adopted by a lot of schools nowadays to ensure quality education, encourage institutions to improve quality of education, ensure the accountability of educational institutions, and provide a public confidence in educational institutions. The Center for Integrated Technologies wanted to apply for the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 9001:2008, Quality Management Systems, since they are not part of the scope of the PAASCU accreditation. Incorporated with the plan is cost. The purpose of this study was to establish a strategy in creating the CITs operations manual for the faculty members of the Center for Industrial Technology of Xavier University and to identify the processes to be documented. There was no standard process for each job established yet. Nevertheless, each personnel or faculty may have different processes in doing operations. A fishbone diagram had been developed in order to see the different areas of which problems had been occurring. Also, a preliminary list of the processes which should be standardized in the institution had been established. The processes listed had been preliminary developed for one department. However, there were still many other processes not listed which had been made and other departments had to be interviewed so as to compare and create the new standard process of their operations. Further establishment of the processes had been done and full cooperation from the personnel was highly needed to complete the manual. Also, the final list of all the processes was highly anticipated from the institution for monitoring purposes.

KEYWORDS: accreditation, standardization, operations manual

A SYSTEM STUDY ON THE PRODUCTION OF HANDMADE PAPER AND FACILITY LAYOUT OF SAN ROQUE HANDMADE PAPER PRODUCTS MULTI-PURPOSE COOPERATIVE
Aime Ecaranum, Von Ryan Diango, Jowee Ann Galleron and Jessie Nangkil Industrial Engineering Department Email: Mindaanon2000@yahoo.com Glenn Paclijan Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The facility layout and production process problem are a common problem encountered in many manufacturing and service industries. A study of the plant layout at San Roque Handmade Paper Products Multi-purpose Cooperative showed that the materials are not kept in order and bottleneck occurs during the drying process since there is limited availability of G.I. sheets. San Roque Handmade Paper Multi-purpose Cooperative is a manufacturing type of industry that produces handmade paper products out of abaca fibers such as greeting cards, jewelry boxes, picture frames, calendars, penholders, gift bags, paperweights, etc. The aim of this study was to improve the process flow of making handmade paper by minimizing the process time and redesigning the facility to ensure a smoother production flow. The methodology used in the conduct of this study begins by doing time study to get standard time of each process and to determine production full capacity since they only produce when there are orders. The next step was by redesigning the facility layout in a manner that there is a smooth flow of processes. The quantifiable standard time calculated in the study showed that there was a bottleneck during drying process since they only have limited GI sheets. In the modifications made with the setting, bottleneck was eliminated by adding GI sheets. The proposed process-flow design showed that there was a reduction of time consumption from 7694.1 minutes to 6928.55 minutes. Therefore, it was concluded that the project was relatively valuable in helping the cooperative to be consistent in terms of their production processes.

KEYWORDS: Facility Layout, Handmade Paper Process, Production Full Capacity

AN SMS-BASED BOOK QUERY AND RESERVATION SYSTEM FOR THE XAVIER UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
Blessy O. Castrodes, Socrates Jose G. Del Rosario and Breisa V. Moralde Computer Science Department E-mail: wiiGenocide@gmail.com Harriet B. Fernandez Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Mobile devices have played a very vital role in the modernization of mans life. It has been utilized in a variety of purposes to simplify mans needs. In this research, the group applied the power of mobile devices; particularly the SMS (more commonly known as text messaging) capability, to bring library materials closer to its patrons. The focus is to design and develop an SMS-based Book Query and Reservation System to make the library materials accessible to students who are always on-the-go through the use of mobile phones. This project will benefit the students by providing services that would give them access to library materials anytime and anywhere. The researchers were able to develop an application that will automatically receive process and reply to the students book queries and reservation inquiries via SMS without the need for user intervention. In developing the said application, the researchers used Gammu, an open source SMS-gateway application, Nokia 3100 as the sender and receiver device, Nokia CA-42 connectivity cable for linking the device to the PC, VB.net as programming language and mySQL and ctreeACE SQL for the backend. The said system has successfully undergone testing and evaluation from ten random potential users, in this case, students, and it was able to receive positive ratings from the majority who tested it. According to the results, userfriendliness got an average of 4.6, which means the system is good enough to be called userfriendly. The commands were short and easy to remember. Convenience on the other hand received an average of 4.8, which meant that the users found the system comfortable to use. Usefulness received the same average which is 4.8, majority of the users found the system beneficial. Efficiency received an average of 4.5; they were able to find the system handy.

KEYWORDS: Library Reservation Systems, Mobile Devices, SMS-based Applications

GIS-BASED CONTOUR MAPPING OF IPONAN RIVER WATERSHED THROUGH GOOGLE EARTH IMAGES
Lester Mae Y. Bolo, Jan Philip T. Baloncio, Aizel C. Mendoza, Insirah R. Galo and Arjay P. Pacatang Civil Engineering Department Email: jptbaloncio@yahoo.com Joel Camilo M. Haos Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The watershed is considered to be the most appropriate spatial and functional unit to manage complex environmental problems. In Cagayan de Oro City, The Iponan River Watershed has experienced siltation and flooding due to excessive destruction of natural buffers in the highlands located in the area. The objective of this study is to present a contour map of Iponan River Watershed. A contour map is a preliminary data in research studies such as runoff modeling and other related studies. The data used in this study was collected from Google Earth Pro 4.2 which includes jpeg images, elevations and coordinates of the watershed. ArcGIs, a three-dimensional program used to store and interpret geographical data, was used to integrate the set of images gathered from Google Earth. The images were projected to a 3coordinate system to lessen the distortion effect of the globe. The images was first projected to WGS 1984, then to Luzon 1911 and finally to Philippine Zone V, where the study area is located. Elevations are then designated to the specified points prior to the image. The generated contour map was validated through the use of Global Positioning System (GPS). There was a 5.349 E -06% difference between the reading of coordinates from the GPS and from the contour map. The discrepancy of the coordinates could possibly be from how the data was gathered and how the data were integrated to the ArcGIS. The results showed that Google Earth was a reliable data source since less error was computed from field validations.

Keywords: Contour Mapping, GIS , Google Earth

SECURE GATEWAY FOR ONLINE TRANSACTIONS


Geophy Lawrence P. Pagaspas, Marcelo M. Pontipedra and Karen F. Pagsiat Computer Science Department Email: geo.cutielyza@gmail.com Cristina Amor T. Cajilla Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
Online Payment Gateway (OPGW) is well known today in businesses especially through online transactions. Xavier University is planning to go with the flow with this development as they might see it as a stepping stone for quality service to Filipino people and to satistify the mission of men and women for others. Secure Gateway is a system for OPGW that will soon be implemented by XU for online transactions. Secure gateway satisfied the three requirements for securing the information or data during transmission. Confidentiality is the concept of protecting sensitive data from being viewable by an unauthorized entity. Integrity is the concept of ensuring that data has not been altered by an unknown entity during its transit or storage. Authentication is the concept of ensuring that a user's identity is truly what the user claims it to be. As a result, the researchers implemented the three requirements mentioned above and through this the output of the system is encrypted and secured which cannot be seen by unauthorized attempts like hacking and network interception.

KEYWORDS: Online Payment Gateway (OPGW), Secure Gateway, Confidentiality, Integrity, Authentication, Encryption.

SPECIES MAPPING SYSTEM FOR THE XU MMC USING GOOGLE MAPS TECHNOLOGY

Jerson Calinawan, Ezra Jane Gayon and Varian Valencia Computer Science Department Email: ezra.gayon@gmail.com Joseph Anthony C. Sabal Faculty Adviser

ABSTRACT
The Mckeough Marine Center (MMC) conducts research on species in Agutayan Island found in Jasaan, Misamis Oriental. The study aims to develop a mapping application for the McKeough Marine Center to improve their species mapping research. The system is web-based and is developed using Google Maps API as its mapping technology. The database for data storage is powered by MySQL. The group was successful in creating the system and test cases were done. The finished system can successfully embed data into the map and show the species at their respective locations in the form of pin markers. The system supports Microsoft Excel files. The data in the Excel file will be transferred into the systems database and can then be shown on the map. Given the limited time and resources as non-professionals, the group has given certain recommendations for further improvement of the system.

Keywords:

McKeough Marine Center (MMC), Agutayan Island, Jasaan, Misamis Oriental, Google Maps API, MySQL, Microsoft Excel

CONGRATULATIONS!
Greetings from Xavier University

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

Parents and Faculty Association

Xavier University College of Engineering Faculty and Staff


XAVIER UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ADMINISTRATION & STAFF Eliseo B. Linog, Jr. Dean Maria Isabel R. Dumlao Assistant Dean Richel A. de Villa Administrative Assistant Estrella L. Gadian Secretary to the Dean Patricio G. Cabading Carl Angelo B. Fallares Johny A. Daculan Laboratory Technicians Rouelito Archie B. Malabanan Maximino V. Padua Physics Laboratory Technicians

CIVIL ENGINEERING Gerardo P. Apor - Chair Structures & Geotechnics Anabel A. Abuzo Transportation Alma P. Eufinado Structures & Geotechnics Dexter S. Lo Disasters, Structures & Water Resources Joel Camilo M. Haos Line and Grade & Engineering Economy Peter Daniel S. Akut Environmental Engineering Eugene Victor C. Mamawag Quantity Surveys & Appraisal Megan M. Magallona Structures Julie Ann I. Dela Cruz General Civil Engineering

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Shierlyn S. Paclijan Chair Material Science & Operations Research Maria Isabel R. Dumlao Environmental Engineering Maria Theresa I. Cabaraban Solid Waste Management Hercules R. Cascon Biotechnology Melba T. Mendoza Statistical Quality Control Edwin Richard R. Ortiz Production & Manufacturing Teasanie N. Naranjo General Chemical Engineering Rex Manuel P. Paayas General Chemical Engineering Lloyd B. Vallejos General Chemical Engineering

XAVIER UNIVERSITY ENGINEERING RESOURCE CENTER Dexter S. Lo Director Jan Taat Engineering Hydrology Expert Donah Marie D. Achas GIS Coordinator Eduardo S. Tangonan III Program Officer Jim Croce B. Nabua Research Coordinator Jofferdale Q. Gallamaso Noreen Angelie T. Ras Gerard Josen A. Santos Student Volunteers

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING Glenn B. Paclijan - Chair Production & Manufacturing Maria Lourdes M. Abao Methods Engineering & Ergonomics

Xavier University College of Engineering Faculty and Staff


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Cyril G. Fabrea Chair Thermal Power, HVAC & Refrigeration Alfredo T. Buten Heavy Equipment & Steam Power Rogelio C. Golez, Jr. Renewable Energy & Artificial Neural Network Nestor G. Ipanag HVAC & Refrigeration Elmer B. Dollera HVAC & Renewable Energy ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING Ian Giovanni R. Pabillaran Chair Electronics Mary Jean O. Apor Digital Electronics and Signal Processing Majiah S. Collado Electromagnetism Franklin Rey A. Pacquiao General Electronics Engineering Roel L. Galceran Electronics Law and Safety Jessie de Torro Jr. Digital Control System Patrick L. Kee-e General Electronics Engineering COMPUTER SCIENCE Gerardo S. Doroja Chair Database Management Systems Cynthia C. Anayron Administrative Assistant Cristina Amor T. Cajilla MIS Systems, Systems Analysis and Design Heidi O. Jaquilmac Computer Aided Instruction Maria Ramila I. Jimenez Computer Architecture, & Digital Circuits Harriet B. Fernandez Computer Networks, & IT Project Management Rhea Suzette B. Mocorro Software Engineering PHYSICS DEPARTMENT Glenmark A. Dal - Chair Optics Mary Grace P. Confessor Computational High Energy Physics Edmond B. Salomsom Semiconductors & Electricity Joseph L. Agnes Electromagnetism Henrilen A. Cubio Electricity Floramie J. Ortega Thermodynamics Francis Lee B. Mondia Operating Systems, & Network Administration Shayryl Mae L. Ramos Compiler Design, Data Structures and Algorithm Joseph Anthony C. Sabal Database Systems, & Web Programming Elvira B. Yaneza Automata Theory, Data Structures & Algorithm Fren Marlon B. Peralta Software Engineering, & Network Administration Rozaldy Gutierrez Mobile Applications, & Windows Programming

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Gunnar Marc Shane C. Cabaraban Chair Renewable Energy & Power System Eliseo B. Linog, Jr. Power System Distribution and Disaster Jolou F. Miraflor Power Engineering Ignacio B. Fabia Power System Dondanon A. Bajarla, Jr. Motor Controls Jose S. Mag-abo II Systems Protection

GREAT JOB WARRIORS!


from

Engr. Oriel Pete Waga President

Xavier University ENGINEERING ALUMNI ASSOCIATION

FERNIE J ADVERTISING CO., INC.


No. 2055-B Crossing Bolonsiri Bontong Camaman-an Cagayan de Oro City, 9000 Tel. No. (08822)71-0026 / 71-4030 Telefax: (088)858-1240 Cell: 0922-8020-578 (Mhera) / 0922-871-4030 (Karen) E-mail: mktg_ferniejad@yahoo.com

Unit B Sureshot Sportsville, 2848 Jose Abad Santos St., Tondo, Manila

(02) 741-1747 (02) 741-1958 iconmark@smartbro.net

Mr. Leonilo A. Eufinado & Engr. Alma Eufinado

Special Thanks to: Gerardo P. Apor, M.ASEP Chair, Civil Engineering Department for the GPA Award

CDO TRISTRENGTH
Lot 12 Block 14 Lourdesville Homes, Balulang Cagayan de Oro City

CONSTRUCTION

Dexter S. Lo. A.ASEP Director, Xavier University Engineering Resource Center for the Kumbati Award

Donah Marie D. Achas, MSC XUERC GIS Coordinator for the Avantgarde Award

JOBWELLDONE!
From

Engr.RolandoCortejos

Zone5,Barra(NationalHighway) Opol,MisamisOriental Tel.No:735912 Bayantel:3095789

CON RAT LAT NS! NGR TUL TION


Xav vierUniv versity College eofEngineering! ! From

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