4a
where
b
2
r
b
2
z
b
2
4b
The constants A
1
, B
1
, C
2
, D
2
, A
3
, B
3
, m, b
r
, and b
z
can be
found using the boundary conditions of
E
f
ra; f; z 0 5a
The fields must be finite everywhere 5b
The fields must repeat every 2p radians in f 5c
1
This article is derived from material in Advanced Engineering
Electromagnetics, by Constantine Balanis, Wiley, NewYork, 1989,
Sect. 9.2.
CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES 643
Previous Page
According to (5b), B
1
0 since Y
m
(r0) N. In addition,
according to (5c)
m0; 1; 2; 3; . . . 6
Consider waves that propagate only in the z direction.
Then (4) reduces to
F
z
r; f; z A
mn
J
m
b
r
rC
2
cosmf
D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
7
From Eq. (7), the electric eld component of E
f
can be
written as
E
f
1
e
@F
z
@r
b
r
A
mn
e
J
0
m
b
r
rC
2
cosmf
D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
8a
where
0
@
@ b
r
r
8b
Applying the boundary condition of (5a) in (8a), we then
have that
E
f
r a; f; z b
r
A
mn
e
J
0
m
b
r
aC
2
cosmf
D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
0
9
which is satised only provided that
J
0
m
b
r
a 0 ) b
r
aw
0
mn
)b
r
w
0
mn
a
10
In (10) w
0
mn
represents the nth zero (n1, 2, 3,y) of the
derivative of the Bessel function J
m
of the rst kind of or
der m(m0, 1, 2, 3,y). An abbreviated list of the zeros
w
0
mn
of the derivative J
0
m
of the Bessel function J
m
is found
in Table 1. The smallest value of w
0
mn
is 1.8412 (m1,
n1).
Using (4b) and (10), b
z
of the mn mode can be written as
b
z
mn
b
2
b
2
r
_
b
2
w
0
mn
a
_ _
2
_
when b > b
r
w
0
mn
a
_
_
11a
b
z
mn
0 when bb
c
b
r
w
0
mn
a
_
11b
b
z
mn
b
2
r
b
2
_
j
w
0
mn
a
_ _
2
b
2
when bob
r
w
0
mn
a
_
_
11c
Cutoff is dened when (b
z
)
mn
0. Thus, according to (11b)
b
c
o
c
me
p
2pf
c
me
p
b
r
w
0
mn
a
12a
f
c
mn
w
0
mn
2pa
me
p 12b
By using (12a) and (12b), we can write (11a)(11c) as
b
z
mn
b
2
b
2
r
_
b
1
b
r
b
_ _
2
1
b
c
b
_ _
2
1
w
0
mn
ba
_ _
2
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
when f > f
c
f
c
mn
_
_
13a
b
z
mn
0 when f f
c
f
c
mn
_
13b
Figure 1. Cylindrical waveguide of circular cross section.
Table 1. Zeros w
0
mn
of Derivative J
0
m
w
0
mn
=0 (n1,2,3,y) of Bessel Function J
m
(x)
m0 m1 m2 M3 m4 m5 m6 m7 m8 m9 m10 m11
n1 3.8318 1.8412 3.0542 4.2012 5.3175 6.4155 7.5013 8.5777 9.6474 10.7114 11.7708 12.8264
n2 7.0156 5.3315 6.7062 8.0153 9.2824 10.5199 11.7349 12.9324 14.1155 15.2867 16.4479 17.6003
n3 10.1735 8.5363 9.9695 11.3459 12.6819 13.9872 15.2682 16.5294 17.7740 19.0046 20.2230 21.4309
n4 13.3237 11.7060 13.1704 14.5859 15.9641 17.3129 18.6375 19.9419 21.2291 22.5014 23.7607 25.0085
n5 16.4706 14.8636 16.3475 17.7888 19.1960 20.5755 21.9317 23.2681 24.5872 25.8913 27.1820 28.4609
644 CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES
b
z
mn
b
2
r
b
2
_
jb
b
r
b
_ _
2
1
jb
b
c
b
_ _
2
1
jb
w
0
mn
ba
_ _
2
1
jb
f
c
f
_ _
2
1
when f of
c
f
c
mn
13c
_
_
The guide wavelength l
g
is dened as
l
g
mn
2p
b
z
mn
14a
which, according to (13a) and (13b), can be written as
l
g
mn
2p
b
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
l
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
when f > f
c
f
c
mn
_
_
14b
l
g
mn
f1 when f f
c
mn
14c
In (14b) l is the wavelength of the wave in an innite me
dium of the kind that exists inside the waveguide. There is
no definition of the wavelength below cutoff since the wave
is exponentially decaying and there is no repetition of its
waveform.
According to (12b) and the values of w
0
mn
in Table 1, the
order (lower to higher cutoff frequencies) in which the
TE
z
mn
modes occur is TE
z
11
, TE
z
21
, TE
z
01
, and so on. It should
be noted that for a circular waveguide, the order in which
the TE
z
mn
modes occur does not change, and the bandwidth
between modes is also xed. For example, the bandwidth
of the rst singlemode TE
z
11
operation is 3.042/1.8412
1.6588 : 1, which is less than 2 : 1. This bandwidth is xed
and cannot be varied. A change in the radius only varies,
by the same amount, the absolute values of the cutoff fre
quencies of all the modes but does not alter their order or
relative bandwidth.
The electric and magnetic eld components can be
written from Eq. (7) as
E
r
1
er
@F
z
@f
A
mn
m
er
J
m
b
r
rC
2
sinmf
D
2
cosmfe
jb
z
z
15a
E
f
1
e
@F
z
@r
A
mn
b
r
e
J
0
m
b
r
rC
2
cosmf
D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
15b
E
z
0 15c
H
r
j
1
ome
@
2
F
z
@r@z
A
mn
b
r
b
z
ome
J
0
m
b
r
rC
2
cosmf
D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
15d
H
f
j
1
ome
1
r
@
2
F
z
@f@z
A
mn
mb
z
ome
1
r
J
m
b
r
r
C
2
sinmf D
2
cosmfe
jb
z
z
15e
H
z
j
1
ome
@
2
@z
2
b
2
_ _
F
z
jA
mn
b
2
r
ome
J
m
b
r
r
C
2
cosmf D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
15f
where
0
@
@b
r
r
15g
By using (15a)(15f), the wave impedance Z
z
w
TE
mn
of the
TE
z
mn
H
z
mn
modes in the z direction can be written as
Z
h
mn
Z
z
w
TE
mn
r
H
f
E
f
H
om
b
z
mn
16a
With the aid of (13a)(13c) the wave impedance of (16a)
reduces to
Z
h
mn
Z
z
w
TE
mn
om
b
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
m
e
_
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
when f > f
c
f
c
mn
_
_
16b
Z
h
mn
Z
z
w
TE
mn
om
0
1 when f f
c
f
c
mn
_
16c
Z
h
mn
Z
z
w
TE
mn
om
jb
f
c
f
_ _
2
1
j
m
e
_
f
c
f
_ _
2
1
j
Z
f
c
f
_ _
2
1
when f of
c
f
c
mn
_
_
16d
By examining through (16b)(16d), we can make the
following statements about the impedance.
1. Above cutoff it is real and greater than the intrinsic
impedance of the medium inside the waveguide.
2. At cutoff it is innity.
CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES 645
3. Below cutoff it is imaginary and inductive. This in
dicates that the waveguide below cutoff behaves as
an inductor that is an energy storage element.
3. TRANSVERSE MAGNETIC (TM
Z
) MODES
The transverse magnetic to z (TM
z
) modes can be derived
in a similar manner as the TE
z
modes of Section 2 by
letting
A ^ aa
z
A
z
r; f; z 17a
F0 17b
The vector potential A must satisfy the vector wave equa
tion, which reduces for the A of (17a) to
r
2
A
z
r; f; z b
2
A
z
r; f; z 0 18
The solution of (18) is obtained in a manner similar to that
of (2), as given by (4), and it can be written as
A
z
r; f; z A
1
J
m
b
r
r B
1
Y
m
b
r
r
C
2
cosmf D
2
sinmf
A
3
e
jb
z
z
B
3
e
jb
z
z
19a
with
b
2
r
b
2
z
b
2
19b
The constants A
1
, B
1
, C
2
, D
2
, A
3
, B
3
, m, b
r
, and b
z
can be
found using the boundary conditions of
E
f
r a; f; z 0 20a
or
E
z
r a; f; z 0 20b
The fields must be finite everywhere 20c
The fields must repeat every 2p radians in f 20d
According to (20c), B
1
0 since Y
m
(r 0) N. In addi
tion, according to (20d),
m0; 1; 2; 3; . . . 21
Considering waves that propagate only in the z direc
tion, (19a) then reduces to
A
z
r; f; z B
mn
J
m
b
r
rC
2
cosmf
D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
22
The eigenvalues of b
r
can be obtained by applying either
(20a) or (20b).
From Eq. (22), we can write the electric eld component
E
z
as
E
z
j
1
ome
@
2
@z
2
b
2
_ _
A
z
jB
mn
b
2
r
ome
J
m
b
r
rC
2
cosmf
D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
23
Application of the boundary condition of (20b) using (23)
gives
E
z
ra; f; z jB
mn
b
2
r
ome
J
m
b
r
a
C
2
cosmf D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
0
24
which is satised only provided that
J
m
b
r
a 0 ) b
r
aw
mn
)b
r
w
mn
a
25
In (25) w
mn
represents the nth zero (n1, 2, 3,y) of the
Bessel function J
m
of the rst kind of order m (m0, 1, 2,
3,y). An abbreviated list of the zeros w
mn
of the Bessel
function J
m
is found in Table 2. The smallest value of w
mn
is 2.4049 (m0, n1).
By using (19b) and (25), b
z
can be written as
b
z
mn
b
2
b
2
r
_
b
2
w
mn
a
_ _
2
_
when b > b
r
w
mn
a
_
_
26a
Table 2. Zeros v
mn
of J
m
(v
mn
) 0 (n1, 2, 3,y) of Bessel function J
m
(x)
m0 m1 m2 M3 m4 m5 m6 m7 m8 m9 m10 m11
n1 2.4049 3.8318 5.1357 6.3802 7.5884 8.7715 9.9361 11.0864 12.2251 13.3543 14.4755 12.8264
n2 5.5201 7.1056 8.4173 9.7610 11.0647 12.3386 13.5893 14.8213 16.0378 17.2412 18.4335 19.6160
n3 8.6537 10.1735 11.6199 13.0152 14.3726 15.7002 17.0038 18.2876 19.5545 20.8071 22.0470 23.2759
n4 11.7915 13.3237 14.7960 16.2235 17.6160 18.9801 20.3208 21.6415 22.9452 24.2339 25.5095 26.7733
n5 14.9309 16.4706 17.9598 19.4094 20.8269 22.2178 23.5861 24.9349 26.2668 27.5838 28.8874 80.1791
646 CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES
b
z
mn
0 when b b
c
b
r
w
mn
a
_
26b
b
z
mn
b
2
r
b
2
_
j
w
mn
a
_ _
2
b
2
_
when bob
r
w
mn
a
_
_
26c
By following the same procedure as for the TE
z
modes,
we can write the expressions for the cutoff frequencies
(f
c
)
mn
, propagation constant (b
z
)
mn
, and guide wavelength
(l
g
)
mn
as
f
c
mn
w
mn
2pa
me
p 27
b
z
mn
b
2
b
2
r
_
b
1
b
r
b
_ _
2
1
b
c
b
_ _
2
1
w
mn
ba
_ _
2
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
when f > f
c
f
c
mn
_
_
28a
b
z
mn
0 when f f
c
f
c
mn
_
28b
b
z
mn
b
2
r
b
2
_
jb
b
r
b
_ _
2
1
jb
b
c
b
_ _
2
1
jb
w
mn
ba
_ _
2
1
jb
f
c
f
_ _
2
1
when f of
c
f
c
mn
_
_
28c
l
g
mn
2p
b
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
l
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
when f > f
c
f
c
mn
_
_
29a
l
g
mn
f1 when f f
c
f
c
mn
29b
According to (27) and the values of w
mn
of Table 2, the
order (lower to higher cutoff frequencies) in which the TM
z
modes occur is TM
01
, TM
11
, TM
21
, and so forth. The band
width of the rst singlemode TM
z
01
operation is 3.8318/
2.40591.5927:1. Comparing the cutoff frequencies of the
TE
z
and TM
z
modes, as given by (12b) and (27) along with
the data of Tables 1 and 2, the order of the TE
z
mn
and TM
z
mn
modes is that of TE
11
(w
0
11
1:8412), TM
01
, (w
01
2.4049),
TE
21
(w
0
21
3:0542), TE
01
w
0
01
3:8318 TM
11
w
0
11
3:8318, TE
31
(w
0
31
4:2012), and so forth. The dom
inant mode is TE
11
and its bandwidth of singlemode op
eration is 2.4049/1.8412 1.3062:1. Plots of the eld
congurations over a cross section of the waveguide,
both E and H, for the rst 30 TE
z
mn
and/or TM
z
mn
modes
are shown in Fig. 2 [1].
It is apparent that the cutoff frequencies of the TE
0n
and TM
1n
modes are identical; therefore they are referred
to here also as degenerate modes.
The electric and magnetic eld components can be
written using (22) as
E
r
j
1
ome
@
2
A
z
@r@z
B
mn
b
r
b
z
ome
J
0
m
b
r
r
C
2
cosmf D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
30a
E
f
j
1
ome
1
r
@
2
A
z
@f@z
B
mn
mb
z
omer
J
m
b
r
r
C
2
sinmf D
2
cosmfe
jb
z
z
30b
E
z
j
1
ome
@
2
@z
2
b
2
_ _
A
z
jB
mn
b
2
r
ome
J
m
b
r
r
C
2
cosmf D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
30c
H
r
1
m
1
r
@A
z
@f
B
mn
m
m
1
r
J
m
b
r
r
C
2
sinmf D
2
cosmfe
jb
z
z
30d
H
f
1
m
@A
z
@r
B
mn
b
r
m
J
0
m
b
r
r
C
2
cosmf D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
30e
H
z
0 30f
where
0
@
@ b
r
r
30g
By using (30a)(30f), the wave impedance in the z di
rection can be written as
Z
z
w
TM
mn
E
r
H
f
E
f
H
b
z
mn
oe
31
CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES 647
With the aid of (28a)(28c) the wave impedance of (31)
reduces to
Z
z
w
TM
mn
b
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
oe
m
e
_
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
_
Z
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
_
when f > f
c
f
c
mn
_
_
32a
Z
z
w
TM
mn
0
oe
0 when f f
c
f
c
mn
_
32b
Z
z
w
TM
mn
jb
f
c
f
_ _
2
1
oe
j
m
e
_
f
c
f
_ _
2
1
jZ
f
c
f
_ _
2
1
when f of
c
f
c
mn
_
_
32c
Examining (32a)(32c) we can make the following state
ments about the wave impedance for the TM
z
modes.
Figure 2. Field congurations of rst 30 TE
z
and/or
TM
z
modes in a circular waveguide. (Source: C. S. Lee,
S. W. Lee, and S. L. Chuang, Plot of modal eld distri
bution in rectangular and circular waveguides, IEEE
Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., r 1985, IEEE.)
648 CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES
1. Above cutoff it is real and smaller than the intrinsic
impedance of the medium inside the waveguide.
2. At cutoff it is zero.
3. Below cutoff it is imaginary and capacitive. This
indicates that the waveguide below cutoff behaves
as a capacitor that is an energy storage element.
Whenever a given mode is desired, it is necessary to
design the proper feed to excite the elds within the wave
guide and detect the energy associated with such modes.
To maximize the energy exchange or transfer, this is ac
complished by designing the feed, which is usually a probe
or antenna, so that its eld pattern matches that of the
eld conguration of the desired mode. Usually the probe
is placed near the maximum of the eld pattern of the de
sired mode; however, that position may be varied some
what in order to achieve some desired matching in the
excitation and detection systems. Shown in Fig. 3 are sug
gested designs to excite and/or detect the TE
11
and TM
01
modes in a circular waveguide, to transition between the
TE
10
of a rectangular waveguide and the TE
11
mode of a
circular waveguide, and to couple between the TE
10
of a
rectangular waveguide and TM
01
mode of a circular wave
guide.
Figure 2. (Continued).
CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES 649
4. ATTENUATION FROM OHMIC LOSSES
It has been shown that the attenuation coefcients of the
TE
0n
(n1,2,y) modes in a circular waveguide monoton
ically decrease as a function of frequency [2,3]. This is a
very desirable characteristic, and because of this the ex
citation, propagation, and detection of TE
0n
modes in a
circular waveguide have received considerable attention.
The attenuation coefcient for the TE
z
mn
and TM
z
mn
modes
inside a circular waveguide are given, respectively, by
TE
z
mn
a
c
TE
z
mn
R
s
aZ
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
f
c
f
_ _
2
m
2
w
0
mn
2
m
2
_ _
Np=m
33a
TM
z
mn
a
c
TM
z
mn
R
s
aZ
1
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
Np=m 33b
where
R
s
om
2s
_
34
Plots of the attenuation coecient versus the normalized
frequency f/f
c
, where f
c
is the cutoff frequency of the dom
inant TE
11
mode, are shown for six modes in Fig. 4a and b
for waveguide radii of 1.5 and 3 cm, respectively. Within
the waveguide is free space and its walls are made of cop
per (s 5.7 10
7
S/m).
It is evident from the results of the preceding example
that as f
c
/f becomes smaller the attenuation coefcient de
creases monotonically (as shown in Fig. 4), which is a de
sirable characteristic. It should be noted that similar
monotonically decreasing variations in the attenuation
coefcient are evident in all TE
0n
modes (n1,2,3,y).
According to (15a)(15f), the only tangential magnetic
eld component to the conducting surface of the wave
guide for all these TE
0n
(m0) modes is the H
z
compo
nent, while the electric eld lines are circular. Therefore
these modes are usually referred to as circular electric
modes. For a constant power in the wave, the H
z
compo
nent decreases as the frequency increases and approaches
zero at innite frequency. Simultaneously the current
density and conductor losses on the waveguide walls
also decrease and approach zero. Because of this attrac
tive feature, these modes have received considerable
attention for longdistance propagation of energy, espe
cially at millimeterwave frequencies. Typically attenua
tions as low as 1.25 dB/km (2 dB/mi) have been attained
[2]. This is to be compared with attenuations of 120dB/km
for WR90 copper rectangular waveguides, and 3dB/km
at 0.85 mm, and less than 0.5 dB/km at 1.3mm for beroptic
cables.
Although the TE
0n
modes are very attractive from the
attenuation point of view, there are a number of problems
associated with their excitation and retention. One of the
problems is that the TE
01
mode, which is the rst of the
TE
0n
modes, is not the dominant mode. Therefore in order
for this mode to be above its cutoff frequency and propa
gate in the waveguide, a number of other modes (such as
the TE
11
, TM
01
, TE
21
, and TM
11
) with lower cutoff fre
quencies can also exist. Additional modes can also be
present if the operating frequency is chosen well above
the cutoff frequency of the TE
01
mode in order to provide
a margin of safety from being too close to its cutoff fre
quency.
To support the TE
01
mode, the waveguide must be
oversized and it can support a number of other modes.
One of the problems faced with such a guide is how to ex
cite the desired TE
01
mode with sufcient purity and sup
press the others. Another problem is how to prevent
coupling between the TE
01
mode and undesired modes.
The presence of the undesired modes causes not only high
er losses but also dispersion and attenuation distortion to
the signal since each exhibits different phase velocities
and attenuation. Irregularities in the inner geometry, sur
face, and direction (bends, nonuniform cross sections, etc.)
of the waveguide are the main contributors to the coupling
to the undesired modes. However, for the guide to be of
any practical use, it must be able to sustain and propagate
the desired TE
01
and other TE
0n
modes efciently over
bends of reasonable curvature. One technique that has
been implemented to achieve this is to use mode conver
sion before entering the corner and another conversion
when exiting to convert back to the desired TE
0n
mode(s).
Figure 3. Excitation of TE
mn
and TM
mn
modes in a circular
waveguide: (a) TE
11
mode; (b) TM
01
mode; (c) TE
10
(rectangular)
TE
11
(circular); (d) TE
10
(rectangular)TM
01
(circular).
650 CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES
Another method that has been used to discriminate
against undesired modes and avoid coupling to them is
to introduce lters inside the guide that cause negligible
attenuation to the desired TE
0n
mode(s). These lters in
troduce cuts that are perpendicular to the current paths of
the undesired modes and parallel to the current direction
of the desired mode(s). Since the current path of the un
desired modes is along the axis (z direction) of the guide
and the path of the desired TE
0n
modes is along the
circumference (f direction), a helical wound wire
placed on the inside surface of the guide can serve as a
lter that discourages any mode that requires an axial
Figure 4. Attenuation for TE
z
mn
and TM
z
mn
modes in a circular waveguide: (a) a1.5 cm;
(b) a3cm.
CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES 651
component of current ow but propagates the desired
TE
0n
modes [3,4].
Another means to suppress undesired modes is to in
troduce within the guide very thin bafes of lossy material
that will act as attenuating sheets. The surfaces of the
bafes are placed in the radial direction of the guide so
that they are parallel to the E
r
and E
z
components of the
undesired modes (which will be damped) and normal to
the E
f
component of the TE
0n
modes that will remain un
affected. Typically two bafes are placed in a crossed pat
tern over the cross section of the guide.
A summary of the pertinent characteristics of the TE
z
mn
and TM
z
mn
modes of a circular waveguide are found listed
in Table 3.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. C. S. Lee, S. W. Lee, and S. L. Chuang, Plot of modal eld dis
tribution in rectangular and circular waveguides, IEEE Trans.
Microwave Theory Tech. MTT33(3):271274 (March 1985).
2. S. E. Miller, Waveguide as a communication medium, Bell Syst.
Tech. J. 33:12091265 (Nov. 1954).
Table 3. Summary of TE
z
mn
and TM
z
mn
Mode Characteristics of Circular Waveguide
TE
z
mn
m0; 1; 2; . . . ;
n1; 2; 3; . . .
_ _
TM
z
mn
m0; 1; 2; 3; . . .;
n1; 2; 3; 4; . . .
_ _
E
r
A
mn
m
er
J
m
b
r
rC
2
sinmf D
2
cosmfe
jb
z
z
B
mn
b
r
b
z
ome
J
0
m
b
r
rC
2
cosmf D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
E
f
A
mn
b
r
e
J
0
m
b
r
rC
2
cosmf D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
B
mn
mb
z
ome
1
r
J
m
b
r
rC
2
sinmf D
2
cosmfe
jb
z
z
E
z
0 jB
mn
b
2
r
ome
J
m
b
r
rC
2
cosmf D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
H
r
A
mn
b
r
b
z
ome
J
0
m
b
r
rC
2
cosmf D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
B
mn
m
m
1
r
J
m
b
r
rC
2
cosmf D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
H
f
A
mn
mb
z
ome
1
r
J
m
b
r
rC
2
sinmf D
2
cosmfe
jb
z
z
B
mn
b
r
m
J
0
m
b
r
rC
2
cosmf D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
H
z
jA
mn
b
2
r
ome
J
m
b
r
rC
2
cosmf D
2
sinmfe
jb
z
z
0
b
c
b
r
w
0
mn
a
w
mn
a
f
c
w
0
mn
2pa
me
p
w
mn
2pa
me
p
l
c
2pa
w
0
mn
2pa
w
mn
b
z
( fZf
c
)
b
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
1
l
l
c
_ _
2
l
g
( fZf
c
) l
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
l
1
l
l
c
_ _
2
v
p
( fZf
c
)
v
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
v
1
l
l
c
_ _
2
Z
w
( fZf
c
)
Z
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
Z
1
l
l
c
_ _
2
Z
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
Z
1
l
l
c
_ _
2
_
Z
w
(frf
c
) j
Z
f
c
f
_ _
2
1
j
Z
l
l
c
_ _
2
1
jZ
f
c
f
_ _
2
1
jZ
l
l
c
_ _
2
1
a
c
R
s
aZ
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
f
c
f
_ _
2
m
2
w
0
mn
2
m
2
_ _
R
s
aZ
1
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
lnb=a
2
I
1
k
2
I
2
2
_ _
3
G
r
k
3
poe
12
b
2
a
2
lnb=a
_ _
2
4
k
2
o
2
m
0
e
where e
e
0
je
00
represents the terminating medium
at the ange. The coefcients I
1
and I
2
are dened as
follows:
I
1
_
b
a
_
b
a
_
p
0
cos f
0
r
2
r
02
2rr
0
cos f
0
1=2
df
0
dr
0
dr
5a
I
2
_
b
a
_
b
a
_
p
0
cosf
0
r
2
r
02
2rr
0
cos f
0
1=2
df
0
dr
0
dr
5b
Computed values of integrals I
1
and I
2
for a few commer
cially available coaxial lines are given in Table 2 [8].
It may be pointed out that the rst term in (3) describes
the upper bound for the static capacitance of the opening,
while the second term gives the frequencydependent part
of the capacitance. Comparison with the data based on 
niteelement method (FEM) or methodofmoment (MoM)
analysis shows good agreement [8].
Using the values of I
1
and I
2
from Table 2, the following
expressions for the capacitance C may be derived from (3):
For a 3.6mm Teflonlled coaxial line in free space (f in
MHz):
CpF 0:02210:345310
11
f
2
6a
For a 6.4mm Teflonlled coaxial line in free space (f in
MHz):
CpF 0:03999 1:9687 10
11
f
2
6b
An openended coaxial line exciting a monopole probe (Fig.
5) has been used for permittivity measurements of biolog
ical materials. The biological tissues consist essentially of
water; free ions such as Na
, K
, Ca
2
, Cl
; and a num
ber of proteins. This composition makes the dielectric
properties of the tissues similar to those of saline solu
tions, which are characterized by a high loss factor at
microwave frequencies. The probe is used as a sensor
for permittivity measurements. The sensor is placed in
s/a = 0.25
s/a = 0.025
s/a = 0.025
s/a = 0.25
S
e
r
i
e
s
c
a
p
a
c
i
t
a
n
c
e
(
p
F
/
c
m
)
S
h
u
n
t
c
a
p
a
c
i
t
a
n
c
e
(
p
F
/
c
m
)
C
1
C
2
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
0.012
0.010
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0
0.8 1.6 2.4
Normalized frequency (K
o
b)
Figure 4. Frequency dependence of gap discontinuities of Fig. 2.
[From Figure 3 of S. Sen and P. K. Saha, Equivalent circuit of a gap
in the central conductor of a coaxial line, IEEE Trans. Microwave
Theory Tech. MTT30:20262029 (Nov. 1982) (r 1982 IEEE).]
Table 2. Value of Integrals I
1
and I
2
for a Few Coaxial
Lines
Line (mm) b (cm) a (cm) I
1
( 10
3
) I
2
( 10
9
)
14 (air) 0.7145 0.3102 5.88293048 103.784060
7 (air) 0.35 0.1520 2.88055348 12.194870
8.3 (Teflon) 0.362 0.1124 4.21373732 17.5606001
6.4 (Teflon) 0.2655 0.0824 3.09155881 6.92967372
3.6 (Teflon) 0.1499 0.0455 1.77531131 1.2618826
2.2 (Teflon) 0.0838 0.0255 0.99058927 0.22018405
Source: Table 1 of D. K. Misra, A quasistatic analysis of openended co
axial lines, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT35:925928 (Oct.
1987) (r 1987 IEEE).
COAXIAL LINE DISCONTINUITIES 655
contact with the material under test, and the reection
coefcient G is measured. Knowledge of the relationship
between the measured G and the permittivity e then al
lows one to determine the latter. A number of models have
been developed to determine e, including the capacitive
model, the antenna model, the equivalent transmission
line model, and the rational function model. A compara
tive study of these models for a lossy material is available
in Ref. 9, where it is concluded that the equivalent trans
missionline model for biological tissue characterization is
adequate.
3. REFLECTION STANDARD FOR COAXIAL LINES
A shortcircuited coaxial line can be used as a reection
standard only at one frequency for which it is a quarter
wave long. However, an opencircuited coaxial line with
extended outer conductor as shown in Fig. 1c, can be used
as a broadband reection standard with minimal losses.
Also, this reection standard can be fabricated easily us
ing commercially available components. Variational
analysis of this device has been reported elsewhere in
the literature [2,1012]. If the coaxial line/circular
waveguide combination is operated below the cutoff
frequency of the dominant mode in circular waveguide,
the signal will get attenuated in the waveguide. In addi
tion, if the waveguide is sufciently long to attenuate the
signal by B50dB, the radiation from the waveguide will
be negligible. Therefore, the coaxial line/waveguide junc
tion will be capacitive in nature. Bianco et al. [12] have
computed the junction capacitance. The variation of junc
tion capacitance with frequency for a 50O 7mm airline
(2b 7mm, e
r
1.000640) is given by the following ex
pression [12]
C
C0
1 f
MHz
=34450
2
1=2
7
where C(0) is the static capacitance and is 79.70 fF for the
7mm line.
4. STEPS IN COAXIAL LINES
The step in a coaxial line can be due to (1) an abrupt
change in the diameter of either the inner conductor
(Fig. 1d) or the outer conductor (Fig. 1e) or (2) a simulta
neous change in diameters of both the conductors. In other
words, the step discontinuity may arise when two coaxial
lines with different characteristic impedances are connect
ed in cascade. Here, a
1
and b
1
are the radii of the inner and
outer conductors of one coaxial line and a
2
and b
2
repre
sent the same for the other coaxial line. The step discon
tinuity may also result when a coaxial line is butt
terminated in a connector with the same impedance. The
equivalent circuit of a step can be described by a shunt
capacitance at the plane of the step as shown in Figs. 1d
and 1e. The capacitance does not vary appreciably with
frequency if the crosssectional dimensions of the line at
the plane of discontinuity are small fractions of the wave
length.
Discontinuity capacitance can be computed using the
modematching technique for determining the difference
in capacitances between that of the structure with the
discontinuity, and that computed by adding the contribu
tions of two single unperturbed lines with crosssectional
dimensions and lengths equal to the actual lines on each
side of the step. The lines may be terminated by magnetic
walls after a distance equal to one diameter on each side of
the step. This technique has been used in Refs. 1 and 13.
Gogioso et al. [14] have used the variational method
to calculate the discontinuity capacitance. FEM has
been used in Ref. 15 to analyze the doublestep disconti
nuity; computed results for a butt transition between a
coaxial line and a 7mm precision connector are presented
there.
Somlo [13] has obtained closedform expressions for the
discontinuity capacitance:
Step on the inner conductor (i.e., b
1
b
2
b; Fig. 1d):
C
2pb
F=m
e
p
a
2
1
a
ln
1 a
1 a
2 ln
4a
1 a
2
_ _
1:11 10
15
1 at 1
8
where a (b a
2
)/(b a
1
) and t (b/a
1
). The maximum
error in (8) is 730 fF/m for 0.01rar1.0 and
1.0otr6.0. In the limiting case when a
1
0, t
N, an expression for the step discontinuity obtained
from Fig. 1 of Ref. 13 is given as follows:
C
2pb
F=m
2e
p
1:477 ln 4a 9
where a (b a)/b. Equation (9) may be used to deter
mine C(0) for (7) [e.g., one obtains C(0) 80.7 fF for
50O 7mm airline; this compares favorably with the
computed value of 79.7fF].
Step on the outer conductor (i.e., a
1
a
2
a; Fig. 1e):
C
2pa
F=m
e
p
a
2
1
a
ln
1 a
1 a
2 ln
4a
1 a
2
_ _
4:12 10
15
0:8 at 1:4
10
Probe
Dielectric
under test
2a 2b
Figure 5. Coaxiallineexcited monopole probe for permittivity
measurement.
656 COAXIAL LINE DISCONTINUITIES
where a (b
1
a)/(b
2
a) and t (b
2
/a). The maximum
error in (10) is 760 fF/m for 0.01rar0.7 and
1.5rtr6.0. The stepsize decreases as a increases
from 0 to 1. For simultaneous steps in both the con
ductors, the discontinuity capacitance can be deter
mined approximately from the discontinuity
capacitances associated with step in either (inner
or outer) conductor [3,4].
The frequency dependence of step capacitance has been
included in Ref. 13 through a multiplier factor K that has
been plotted for ve different combinations of a and t. This
plot is included here as Fig. 6. The S matrix for a step
discontinuity in the inner conductor of rectangular coaxial
lines has been described by Xu et al. [16]. The mode
matching method in conjunction with FEM has been em
ployed to improve accuracy and efciency.
5. T JUNCTION OR STUB IN COAXIAL LINES
The conguration of a T junction and its equivalent circuit
are shown in Fig. 7. The branchline can be viewed as a
shunt circuit in parallel with the mainline. Experimental
results for a specific set of parameters are available for
l
0
10 cm [17]. The T junction nds application in branch
line couplers, lters, and other components and has been
analyzed in a rectangular coaxial line [16] using mode
matching, and FEM techniques. The analysis has been
extended to a branchline directional coupler.
Other types of discontinuity in coaxial lines that occur
less frequently, such as capacitive windows in a coaxial
line, aperture coupling between two coaxial lines, bifur
cation of a coaxial line, small elliptical and circular aper
tures in the outer conductor, and a coaxial line with
innite central conductor, are discussed in Ref. 1.
(b
2
a
1
)/z
0.01 0.1 1.0
K
2.0
1.1
1.01
1.001
Step on inner
: = 0.2 t = 1.5
Open circuited 50 line
: = 0.5657
t =
Step on inner
Step on outer
Step on inner
: = 0.5 t = 3
: = 0.7
: = 0.25
t = 5
t = 3
Figure 6. Frequency correction factor K for
step capacitance versus (b
2
a
1
)/l. [From Fig
ure 3 of P. I. Somlo, Computation of coaxial
line step capacitance, IEEE Trans. Microwave
Theory Tech. MTT15:4853 (Jan. 1967)
(r 1982 IEEE).]
COAXIAL LINE DISCONTINUITIES 657
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. N. Marcuvitz, ed., Waveguide Handbook, Peter Peregrinus,
London, 1986.
2. J. R. Whinnery, H. W. Jamieson, and T. E. Robbins, Coaxial
line discontinuities, Proc. IRE 32:695709 (Nov. 1944).
3. H. E. Green, The numerical solution of some important trans
mission line problems, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.
MTT13:676692 (Sept. 1965).
4. H. E. Green, The numerical solution of transmission line
problems, in L. Young, ed., Advances in Microwaves, Vol. 2,
Academic Press, New York, 1967, pp. 327393.
5. S. Sen and P. K. Saha, Equivalent circuit of a gap in the cen
tral conductor of a coaxial line, IEEE Trans. Microwave The
ory Tech. MTT30:20262029 (Nov. 1982).
6. S. Chattopadhyay and P. K. Saha, Variational analysis of a
gap in the central conductor of a rectangular coaxial
line, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47:246249
(Feb. 1999).
7. H. J. Eom, Y. C. Noh, and J. K. Park, Scattering analysis of a
coaxial line terminated by a gap, IEEE Microwave Guided
Wave Lett. 8:218219 (June 1998).
8. D. K. Misra, A quasistatic analysis of openended coaxial
lines, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT35:925928
(Oct.1987).
9. D. Berube, F. M. Ghannouchi, and P. Savard, A comparative
study of four openended coaxial probe models for permittivity
measurements of lossy dielectric/biological materials at mi
crowave frequencies, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.
44:19281934 (Dec. 1996).
10. E. W. Risley, Jr., Discontinuity capacitance of a coaxial line
terminated in a circular waveguide, IEEE Trans. Microwave
Theory Tech. MTT17:8692 (Feb. 1969).
11. E. W. Risley, Jr., Discontinuity capacitance of a coaxial line
terminated in a circular waveguide: Part IILower bound
solution, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT21:564
566 (Aug. 1973).
12. B. Bianco, A. Cosana, L. Gogioso, S. Ridella, and M. Parodi,
Opencircuited coaxial lines as standards for microwave mea
surements, Electron. Lett. 16:373374 (May 8, 1980).
13. P. I. Somlo, Computation of coaxialline step capacitance,
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT15:4853 (Jan.
1967).
14. L. Gogioso, M. Marchesi, and M. Parodi, A variational ap
proach to compute the equivalent capacitance of coaxial line
discontinuities, Proc. Int. Microwave Symp. 1979, pp. 580
583.
15. E. Marouby, M. Aubourg, and P. Guillon, Application of the
nite element method to the design of transitions between
coaxial lines, IEE Proc. H 137:219225 (Aug. 1990).
16. S. Xu, X. Wu, W. Guo, and Z. Li, Scattering characteristics of
rectangular coaxial line discontinuities, IEE Proc. Microwave
Anten. Propag. 142:257264 (June 1995).
17. C. G. Montgomery, R. H. Dicke, and E. M. Purcell, eds., Prin
ciples of Microwave Circuits, Peter Peregrinus, London, 1987,
Sect. 9.6, p. 295.
COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES
NEMAI CHANDRA KARMAKAR
Monash University
Clayton, Victoria, Australia
SHANTANU KUMAR PADHI
University of Queensland
St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia
1. INTRODUCTION
Starting with Maxwells theoretical concept of wave prop
agation in the 1870s, followed by Heinrich Hertz experi
mental proof of the transmission of electromagnetic wave
energy in the 1890s, RFmicrowave technologies saw ex
traordinary advances during the nineteenth and twenti
eth centuries. Progress in this eld, particularly its
application in highfrequency wired and wireless commu
nications technology, has hinged most critically on the ef
cient transmission and reception of electromagnetic
energy through various media. Without carefully designed
transmission lines, RF and microwave technologies could
not have undergone further development and modern civ
ilization could certainly not have reached the present in
formation age. In everything from a handheld GPS
receiver to a jumbo jet, transmissionline design is of cru
cial importance to proper operation. The sheer diversity of
RFmicrowave devices available today means that RF
microwave designers must spend most of their time tun
ing transmission lines, matching various sections, and de
signing controlled attenuation to other parts of the
system. For example, while a mobile phone consists of
highfrequency microstrip transmission lines in planar
multilayered circuits, a jumbo jet has 275km of cables of
various forms, including lowfrequency lighting, highfre
quency navigation tools, and wireless terrestrial and sat
ellite navigation and communication equipment. Just as
Highfrequency devices and gadgets such as radios, tele
vision sets, satellite ground stations, and satellite pay
loads are useless without efcient transmission lines,
adapters, and assemblies in the same way that the main
engine block in an automobile is useless without conduits,
nuts, and bolts. Transmission lines are guiding structures
that convey highfrequency electromagnetic energy from
one block to another. Their careful design for amplitude
and phase matching is therefore extremely important.
The highfrequency transmission line industry is a
huge enterprise. According to http://www.global
spec.com, 186 coaxial cable manufacturing companies
and 60 waveguide manufacturing companies operate
in the United States alone. Moreover, 585 companies
T T
T T
T
n:1
B
Figure 7. T junction and its equivalent circuit.
658 COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES
manufacture cable assemblies, including connectors,
adapters, and attenuators. In the year 2000, the market
volume increased by about 25%. This is due to rapid
growth of wireless mobile communications and other sec
tors. With the emergence of new innovative technologies
in the twentyrst century, such growth is expected to
continue at a still higher rate.
Highfrequency cables, waveguides, and accessories are
usually very expensive items because they require manu
facturing to high standards and tolerances. The most com
mon forms of such transmission lines are coaxial cables
and waveguides. For RFmicrowave frequencies, which
span anything from a few MHz to 30 GHz, the coaxial line
is the oldest and most widely used devices for transferring
RF energy from one point to another. Heinrich Hertz used
coaxial cables in his experiments to prove Maxwells the
ory of electromagnetic wave propagation. Hertz used co
axial lines to generate the standing waves. In the 1930s
when radios became very popular, coaxial transmission
lines were used exclusively at low frequencies such as
VHF and UHF applications. The shielding properties of
coaxial lines minimize the static interference of charge
leakage at low frequencies. For higherfrequency applica
tions such as 1 GHz and above, waveguide structures are
generally used. The waveguide is preferred because of its
low transmission losses and high powerhandling capabil
ities. In 1897, Lord Rayleigh mathematically proved the
concept of wave propagation through singleconductor
rectangular and circular waveguides. He also proved the
existence of a cutoff frequency below which no wave can
propagate through the waveguide. Following the example
of Lord Rayleigh, Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose invented
waveguides and used these waveguides in his wireless ex
periments in 1894. He also invented waveguide horn an
tennas for millimeterwave transmission and reception.
Sir Jagadish Bose extensively used scientific demonstra
tions of EM wave propagations and detections in his
teaching classes in the Presidency College of Kolkata,
India. Also in 1894, Sir Oliver Lodge observed direction
al radiation when he surrounded a spark oscillator with a
metal tube. Because highfrequency sources were not
widely available, not much work was conducted on wave
guides until about 1930. After this time, scientists from
AT&T and MIT radiation laboratory rediscovered the
waveguide and developed a theoretical framework to ex
plain the cutoff frequencies and propagation modes. Dur
ing and after World War II, the design and use of various
coaxial cables and waveguides advanced with new thrusts
for emerging applications in radars and wireless commu
nications.
In this article we rst describe the classical theory in
which transmission lines are assumed to be a distributed
section of series resistance and inductance, as well as
shunt capacitance and conductance. This model is then
evolved into the telegrapher equation, which explains
the wave nature of electromagnetic energy guided by a
twoconductor transmission line. Basic characteristic pa
rameters such as the propagation constant, phase velocity,
and characteristic impedance are derived. This general
ized transmission line theory can be applied to any trans
missionline type. Finally, the eld theory of transmission
lines is used to derive coaxial transmissionline theory.
Practical examples of various coaxial cables and cable as
semblies available on the market are also presented. Dif
ferent waveguide congurations such as parallelplate,
rectangular, circular, and elliptical waveguides are dis
cussed and propagation modes in the waveguide are de
ned. Planar waveguides such as microstrip lines,
slotlines, and coplanar waveguides are also presented.
2. CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSMISSION LINES
Most practical waveguide structures rely on singlemode
propagation in a particular direction. They can conse
quently be conveniently classied according to the polar
ization properties of the electromagnetic waves they carry:
transverse electromagnetic (TEM), transverse electric
(TE), or transverse magnetic (TM) modes. TEM modes
have both electric and magnetic elds transverse to the
direction of propagation. In TM mode, the magnetic eld is
transverse to the direction of propagation and in TE mode,
the electric eld is transverse to the direction of propaga
tion. Mathematically, these modes for a wave propagating
in the z direction can be represented as follows:
1. TEM waves: E
z
0, H
z
0
2. TM waves: E
z
a0, H
z
0
3. TE waves: E
z
0, H
z
a0
4. Hybrid waves: E
z
a0, H
z
a0
Transmission lines can be classied with respect to po
larization, as shown in the tree diagram in Fig. 1. TEM is
the dominant mode of propagation in coaxial lines and
parallelplate transmission lines where two conductors
are involved. TE and TM propagation modes are typical
ly found in singleconductor waveguides, which have rect
angular, circular, elliptical or ridgetype cross sections.
Other than TEM, TE, or TM modes, hybrid modes are also
known that contain all six components (E
x
,E
y
, E
z
, H
x
,
H
y
,H
z
) of electric and magnetic elds. Examples of trans
mission lines that support hybrid modes of propagation
include microstrip (MS) transmission line, slotline (SL),
and coplanar waveguide (CPW) structure.
The various forms of transmission lines are shown in
Fig. 2. Figure 2a illustrates the most typical such lines: a
parallel, twoconductor transmission line in which the
conductors are uniformly separated by an air dielectric.
The evolution of waveguides away from the twoconductor
transmission line can perhaps be best understood in terms
of the theory of quarterwave transformers. A quarter
wave section of a shortcircuited transmission line is
transformed by an operating frequency into an open cir
cuit at the input end of the line. The waveguide is then
considered to be two shortcircuited, quarterwave sec
tions along the twowire transmission line. The cutoff in
the waveguides frequency dependence can be understood
in terms of the behavior of the quarterwave section of
the line.
Figure 2b depicts a coaxial cable where the center con
ductor is concentric with the outer cylindrical conductor,
COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES 659
which is usually the ground for the transmission line. As
such, it acts as the shield for outside interference. The
uniform gap between the two conductors is lled with a
dielectric material. The advantage of the coaxial cable is
its high immunity to interfering signals due to the shield
ing provided by the outer conductor of the information
carrying signal.
Other forms of highfrequency transmission lines are
dielectric waveguides (not shown here), parallelplate
waveguides (Fig. 2e), and planar transmission lines such
as microstrip lines (Fig. 2f) and striplines (Fig. 2g).
Table 1 compares the three most popular transmission
lines used in modern microwave circuits and systems: co
axial cables, waveguides, and microstrip lines. As can be
seen, each line has its own advantages and disadvantages.
While coaxial cables are popular in networkrelated, low
and mediumfrequency operation, waveguides are pre
ferred in highfrequency and highpower applications. At
high frequencies, both coaxial cables and microstrip lines
exhibit high power losses and signal distortions. Because
of their better powerhandling capability, waveguides are
popular for radars and similar highpower, highfrequency
applications in which their physical bulk is not a hin
drance. For compact and portable, lightweight gadgets
such as mobile phones, handheld GPS receivers, and some
solidstate, highpower amplier modules, microstrip lines
are preferred. To compensate for the losses they suffer as a
result of high attenuation, ampliers are typically used.
Transmission lines and circuit formats are therefore se
lected according to their specication requirements and
applications.
3. TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY: LUMPEDELEMENT
CIRCUIT MODEL
A transmission line is often schematically represented by
a twowire line, because transmission lines for TEM wave
propagation always have at least two conductors. Figure 3
illustrates a differential length (Dz) of a twoconductor
transmission line represented by a distributed parameter
network. The voltages and currents vary in magnitude
and phase over its length. The distributive parameters are
Rresistance per unit length
Linductance per unit length
TEM
Coaxial
MS CPW Slot line
TE TM
Hybrid
Transmission line
Parallel plate
Rect. waveguide
Circ. waveguide
Ridge waveguide
Conventional
MMIC coaxial line
Figure 1. Classication of transmission lines based on a single mode of wave propagation.
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e) (f)
(g)
Metal strip
Grounded
conducting plane
Dielectric
substrate
Grounded
conducting plane
Figure 2. Commonly used waveguide structures: (a) open two
wire line; (b) coaxial line; (c) rectangular waveguide; (d) circular
waveguide; (e) parallelplate waveguide; (f) microstrip line;
(g) stripline.
660 COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES
Gconductance per unit length
Ccapacitance per unit length
Dz incremental length
One can determine the current and voltage relations
for the short length of line Dz. Kirchhoff s voltage and
current laws are applied along the transmission line
shown in Fig. 3. In the derivation, the line length of
Dz0 is assumed. Equations for the instantaneous volt
ages and currents and for timeharmonic equivalents are
as follows:
Instantaneous equations
@v
@z
Ri L
@i
@t
1
@i
@z
Gv C
@v
@t
2
Timeharmonic equations where e
jot
is assumed
dV
dz
RI joLI 3
dI
dz
GV joCV 4
The solution for instantaneous voltages and currents is
vz; t ReVze
jot
; iz; t ReIze
jot
5
Wave equations for timeharmonic voltages and currents
are rewritten as
dV
dz
RjoLI
dI
dz
GjoCV
)
d
dz
dV
dz
_ _
RjoL
dI
dz
d
2
V
dz
2
RjoLGjoCV
_
_
6
The nal expressions for timeharmonic voltage and cur
rent wave equations along the line are
d
2
V
dz
2
g
2
V 7
d
2
I
dz
2
g
2
I 8
The propagation constant g for the line is dened as
g
RjoLGjoC
_
a jb 9
where a is the attenuation constant (Np/m) and b is the
propagation constant (rad/m).
The travelingwave solutions are
Vz V
z V
z V
0
e
gz
V
0
e
gz
10
Iz I
z I
z I
0
e
gz
I
0
e
gz
11
The plus sign indicates the forwardtraveling wave, and
the minus sign indicates the backwardtraveling wave.
Applying (11) to the voltage of (3) gives the current on the
line:
Iz
1
RjoL
dVz
dz
g
RjoL
V
0
e
gz
V
0
e
gz
12
The characteristic impedance of the line is
Z
0
0
I
RjoL
g
RjoL
GjoC
13
To relate the voltage and current on the line;
Z
0
V
0
=I
0
V
0
=I
0
. The wavelength of the wave
along the line is
l
g
2p
b
14
Table 1. Comparison of Common Transmission Lines and
Waveguides
Characteristic Coaxial line
Rectangular
Waveguide Microstrip line
Preferred mode TEM TE
10
QuasiTEM
Dispersion None Medium Low
Bandwidth High Low High
Powerhandling
capacity
Medium High Low
Loss/attenuation Medium Low High
Physical size Large Large Small
Ease of
fabrication
Medium Medium Easy
Integration with
other components
Hard Hard Easy
i(z, t )
v(z, t )
+
i (z + z, t )
v(z + z, t )
R z L z
G z
z
C z
N
Figure 3. Lumpedelement equivalentcircuit model of the dif
ferential length of a transmission line.
COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES 661
and the phase velocity of the wave along the transmission
line is
v
p
o
b
lf 15
For lossless transmission lines, RG0; the propagation
constant is g jo
LC
p
a jb. Therefore, the attenuation
constant a 0 and b o
LC
p
. The characteristic imped
ance is
Z
0
L
C
_
16
The general solution of a lossless transmission line is
Vz V
z V
z V
0
e
jbz
V
0
e
jbz
17
Iz I
z I
z V
0
=Z
0
e
jbz
V
0
=Z
0
e
jbz
18
The wavelength of the wave along the line
l
g
2p=b 2p=o
LC
p
and the phase velocity of the
wave along the transmission line is v
p
(o/b) lf.
3.1. Coaxial Lines
The key feature of coaxial lines is that their characteristic
impedance is very broadband. The fundamental mode of
operation is TEM, where the electric and magnetic elds
are transverse in the direction of propagation. A typical
coaxial cable, shown in Fig. 4, consists of two concentric
conductors of inner and outer radii a and b, respectively,
with the space between them lled with a dielectric (e
r
)
such as Teflon or polyethylene. In this section we perform
a eld analysis on a coaxial cable to calculate the equiv
alent circuit parameters such as R, G, L, and C as dened
earlier in the telegrapher equation.
Let the voltage between the conductors be V
0
e
7jbz
and
the current I
0
e
7jbz
. The elds of a traveling TEM wave
inside the coaxial line along the z direction are then
given as follows:
E
V
0
^ rr
r lnb=a
e
gz
V=m 19
H
I
0
^
ff
2pr
e
gz
A=m 20
The conductors are assumed to have a surface resistivity
R
s
. The material lling the space between the conductors
is assumed to have a complex permittivity e e
0
je
00
, and
the permeability is m m
0
m
r
. We now determine the trans
mission line parameters R, G, L, and C.
The timeaverage magnetic energy store is dened as
W
m
m
4
_
S
HH
ds LjI
0
j
2
=4 21
The selfinductance per unit length is
L
m
jI
0
j
2
_
S
HH
ds H=m
m
2p
lnb=a H=m
22
The timeaverage electric energy stores is dened as
W
e
e
4
_
S
EE
ds CjV
0
j
2
=4 23
The selfcapacitance per unit length is
C
e
jV
0
j
2
_
S
EE
ds F=m
2pe
0
lnb=a
F=m 24
The power loss per unit length due to the nite conduc
tivity s of the metallic conductor is
P
c
R
S
2
_
C
1
C
2
HH
dl RjI
0
j
2
=2
where the surface resistivity is dened as R
S
1/sd
S
,
where d
S
is the skin depth of the conductor. The series re
sistance R per unit length of the line is
R
R
S
jI
0
j
2
_
C
1
C
2
HH
dl O=m
R
S
2p
1
a
1
b
_ _
O=m
25
(a) (b)
b
Water proof
outer jacket
Aluminum
shield
Dielectric
Inner
conductor
Braided
copper
c
r
a
Figure 4. Coaxial cable: (a) crosssectional
view; (b) isometric view.
662 COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES
Due to the lossy dielectric, the timeaverage power dis
sipated per unit length is
P
d
oe
00
2
_
S
EE
ds GjV
0
j
2
=2 26
The conductance per unit length is
G
oe
00
jV
0
j
2
_
S
EE
ds S=m
2poe
0 0
lnb=a
S=m 27
So far we have calculated the equivalentcircuit model pa
rameters of a coaxial cable with the radii of the outer and
inner conductors of b and a, respectively. Now we opt to
calculate the characteristic impedance of the coaxial line
Z
0
, which is frequencyindependent and can be calculated
as
Z
0
V
0
I
0
m
e
_
ln
b
a
_ _
60
e
r
p ln
b
a
_ _
O 28
The approximate cutoff frequency of the cable can be cal
culated from (29), at which point the rst nonTEM mode
of propagation begins. At a frequency above f
cutoff
[5], other
propagation modes dominate and the characteristic im
pedance becomes frequencydependent:
F
cutoff
GHz
7:51
e
r
p
1
ab
_ _
29
The line parameters L, R, C, and G of coaxial lines can be
calculated from
C
55:63e
r
ln
b
a
_ _ pF=m 30
L200ln
b
a
_ _
nH=m 31
R10
1
a
1
b
_ _
f
GHz
s
_
O=m 32
G
0:3495e
r
f
GHz
tand
ln
a
b
_ _ S=m 33
where tand is the loss tangent of the dielectric material, s
is the conductivity of the conductor in S/m, and f
GHz
is the
signal frequency in GHz.
3.1.1. Cable Losses. The losses in a coaxial cable arise
from two sources: resistance of the conductors and the di
electric losses between the two conductors. The conductor
losses are ohmic and increase with the square root of the
frequency due to the skin effect. The dielectric loss is due
to the nite conductivity of the dielectric material and in
creases linearly with the frequency. Figure 5a shows the
attenuation per foot and powerhandling capability of a
MegaPhase TM Series test cable. As can be seen in Fig. 5a,
the per unit length attenuation increases with frequency.
In Fig. 5b the powerhandling capacity of the cable reduc
es with frequency. The frequency dependence of the at
tenuation and the powerhandling capability is explained
in the following section.
The transmitted power can be expressed in terms of the
voltage or maximum value of the electric eld inside the
line:
P
T
1
2Z
0
jVj
2
1
Z
jE
a
j
2
pa
2
ln
b
a
_ _
34
The attenuation coefcients due to conductor and dielec
tric losses are
P
0
loss
1
2
R
s
2pajH
a
j
2
2pajH
b
j
2
R
s
jI
2
j
4p
1
a
1
b
_ _
35
a
c
P
0
loss
2P
T
R
s
2Z
1
a
1
b
_ _
ln
b
a
_ _ 36
1.60
1.40
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.0
0.000 20.000
Frequency (GHz)
(a)
Cable attenuation @ STP
d
B
/
f
t
40.000 60.000
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.000 20.000
Frequency (GHz)
(b)
Cable CW power handling @ STP
P
m
a
x
(
K
W
a
t
t
s
C
W
)
40.000 60.000
Figure 5. Attenuation per foot and powerhandling capability of a coaxial cable as a function of
frequency. (Source: http://www.megaphase.com/html/test02.html.)
COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES 663
a
d
w
2c
tand 37
Total losses will be
a a
c
a
d
R
s
2Z
1
a
1
b
_ _
ln
b
a
_ _
o
2c
tand 38
where the surface resistivity is
R
s
om
0
2s
_
39
3.1.2. Types of Coaxial Cable. There are various types
of coaxial cables available in the commercial market. They
are broadly categorized as exible cables and semirigid
cables. Flexible cables are most widely used as measure
ment tools for test and characterization. There are two
varieties of exible cable available. The overall cable di
ameters vary from o0.25in. to 41 in. depending on the
powerhandling capability of the wire. Some cables use a
stranded inner conductor, while others employ solid wire
with single braid or doublebraided outer conductor. The
outer jacket plays no part in the electrical performance of
the cableit simply holds everything together and sup
plies a waterproof covering. Selection of cable types de
pends primarily on the characteristic impedance of the
cable, capacitance per unit length, powerhandling capa
bility, outer diameter, and attenuation per unit length at
the specific frequency. Preference is also given to double
shielded/braided cable over the corresponding single
shielded cable due to the resilience against interference
and physical ruggedness. Figure 6b shows an airlled co
axial cable with spiral dielectric n support. This cable
displays low loss due to the air dielectric; the phase veloc
ity is very close to that of the free space.
3.1.3. Semirigid Cables. Another popular transmission
line is semirigid cable. Both inner and outer conductors
are solid, and the two conductors are uniformly separated
with dielectric material. Semirigid cables can be bent to
moderate angles but, once bent, cannot be brought back to
their original shape. Cables of this type are neither rigid
nor exible; hence their name. Semirigid cables have bet
ter shielding capabilities and are more immune to outside
interference than are exible cables. Semirigid cables also
have reduced attenuation and enhanced powerhandling
capabilities. Figure 7 shows various forms of semirigid
cables soldered with SMA connectors at both ends. The
inner conductors are made from various materials such as
silvercoated copper, silverplated copperclad steel, and
silverplated aluminum. The dielectric lling is typically
polyethylene, polytetrauoroethylene (TFE Teflon),
polytetrauoroethylenehexauoropropylene (FEP Tef
lon), or kapton. The outer conductor is made of copper,
aluminum, stainless steel, and special copper alloys. Se
lection of a particular type of semirigid cable involves con
sideration of factors such as powerhandling capability,
attenuation per unit length, size, highermode cutoff fre
quency, dielectric strength, and breakdown voltages (co
rona discharge voltage).
3.1.4. Coaxial Connectors. Coaxial cable is no use if in
terfacing with various components in a system is made.
Various types of coaxial connectors and cable assemblies
are used. Each type of connector can be attached to a cable
in several waves: direct solder, crimpon, and screwon.
Figure 7 shows various bent coaxial cable assemblies.
Interfacing cables with connectors and adapters need
special care. Bending also requires special jigs to ensure
minimum distortion of its regular shape. The cable must
be cut to the exact length and then bent to the shape
required. After shaping, the inner conductors are made in
exact lengths such that they can be inserted into the inner
conductor of a connector. Then solder is applied to
the outer jacket to electrically connect the adapter and
the cable. Adapter assemblies of this type are shown in
Fig. 8.
3.1.5. More Recent Developments of Coaxial Line. Coax
ial cables are nonplanar in nature, and compatibility with
modern monolithic microwave integrated circuits
(MMICs) and microelectromechanical structures
(MEMS) is an issue. MMIC and MEMS support planar
transmission lines such as microstrip lines, striplines,
slotted lines, and coplanar waveguides (CPWs). More
recently, with the advent of new processing techniques,
Water proof
outer jacket
(a) (b)
Water proof
outer jacket
Braided
copper
Braided
copper
Inner
conductor
Inner
conductor
Al
shields
Al
shields
Al
shields
Spiral
spacer
Dielectric
Dielectric
Figure 6. Flexible coaxial cable (coax) congurations: (a) doublebraided solidlled coax; (b) air
lled coax with spiral dielectric n support.
664 COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES
MMIC and MEMS coaxial lines have been developed.
These lines are designed for use in extremely wide fre
quency ranges from DC to THz. Monolithic implementa
tion of coaxial lines in silicon and gallium arsenide (GaAs)
substrate up to 40 GHz (c.f. Fig. 9a) has been reported [12].
The MMIC line is composed of a center conductor sur
rounded by a homogeneous dielectric (Polmide) covered
entirely with a goldplated ground plane. The pure TEM
mode propagation of the proper mode is veried from the
measurement. The authors also theoretically verify the
losses up to 1000GHz frequency band, and the transmis
sion loss is about 15 dB/mm. The line has a measured
maximum attenuation of 1.6dB/mm at 40 GHz.
Developments in MEMS technology have made many
breakthroughs in RF and microwave technologies. This
stateoftheart manufacturing technology supports IC
batch processing on silicon wafers. A MEMS microcoaxi
al transmission line with inclined shields has been devel
oped by the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and
Technology [13]. With the removal of dielectric between
the conductors, a very low attenuation of 0.03 dB/mm at
10 GHz has been obtained from the fabricated microcoax
ial transmission line. Investigation reveals that the mi
crocoaxial line fabricated on a glass line is less lossy than
that fabricated on a silicon device. The MEMS microcoax
ial line is shown in Fig. 9b.
Thus far, we have discussed the two main types of mi
crowave transmission lines, namely, coaxial cables and
waveguides, including their historical perspectives and
more recent market statistics. The basic transmissionline
theory of the telegrapher equation is presented. The the
ories of coaxial lines based on lumped elements as well as
eld theory have been presented. Two types of coaxial
linesexible and semirigid cablesare discussed. Dif
ferent connectors and adaptors of coaxial cables and cable
assemblies are presented. Finally, the most recent devel
opment in MMIC and MEMS microcoaxial lines at higher
frequencies are presented. In the following section, we will
discuss waveguides.
3.2. Waveguide
In the preceding section, we discussed various types of
coaxial transmission lines. In this section we shall discuss
various nonplanar and planar waveguide structures and
their modes of operations. Waveguides are extensively
used to transfer electromagnetic energy efciently from
one point to another in a wide spectrum of frequency.
Nonplanar waveguides are hollow tubes in which waves
can propagate only at certain frequencies and cannot
propagate below the cutoff frequencies. The cross section
of the enclosed boundaries of the waveguide is transverse
to the direction of propagation. Waveguides are used at
microwave frequencies for two reasons: (1) they are often
easier to fabricate than are coaxial lines and (2) they can
be made to have less attenuation. Coaxial lines require the
center conductor to be supported by the solid dielectric in
the center of the outer cylindrical jacket. In contrast, a
waveguide does not need any center conductor and its di
electric is air. Because of the high losses in a coaxial line
over any distance (42 ft), along with the cable leakage at
Figure 7. Various semirigid cable bends. (Source: http://
www.shibata.co.jp/etxt/3_g_g6.htm.)
Figure 8. Various coaxial cable assemblies. (Source: http://
www.gordontech.com.au/.)
FaAs substrate
(a)
(b)
L = 1.0 cm,
= 0.75 cm,
= 0.5 cm
B =1
W = 4
H = 4
G = 10
Figure 9. (a) MMIC rectangular coaxial line
on GaAs [12]; (b) MEMS microcoaxial
line [13].
COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES 665
higher frequencies, the waveguide structure is preferred
at higher frequencies. If the waveguide boundaries change
direction within reasonable limits, the wave is bound to
follow the changing direction without much distortion and
discontinuity. In practice, such bends and junctions are
very common in highpower radar systems where wave
guides carry highpower highfrequency EM energy from
the transmitter to the antenna. In waveguides, the waves
are guided according to the distributions of the EM elds
in the waveguide and their dependence on currents and
charges on the conducting boundaries and the reections
of the elds in the conducting boundaries.
The most common hollow waveguides have rectangular
or circular cross sections; however, the rectangular wave
guides are preferred over circular ones for many applica
tions. Figure 10 illustrates various forms of rectangular
waveguides. Very often rectangular waveguides are de
signed such that one side of the rectangular wall is twice
the length of the other side. This crosssectional dimen
sion has the advantage of enabling the operator to control
the polarization of the wave to be transmitted. The elec
trical elds remain parallel to the smaller dimension of
the waveguide cross section. If the dimension is made
much larger, the electric eld does not remain parallel to
the side any more. On the other hand, if the dimension is
made much smaller, then there will be considerable
attenuation. The dimensions of the waveguide are gene
rally designed such that only the fundamental or domi
nant mode can propagate. All other higherorder modes
attenuate quite rapidly. Furthermore the dimensions
are to be chosen such that there is a significant difference
between the cutoff frequencies of the successive modes.
This is necessary to ensure that only one designed mode
may propagate.
Another popular type is the circular waveguide. In con
trast to the rectangular waveguide, a circular waveguide
lacks the sense of polarization of the wave that is being
transmitted through. This is because there is no preferred
direction across the circular crosssectional plane. Fur
thermore, the cutoff frequencies of different modes are
very close. As a consequence, it is very hard to determine
an operating frequency that will yield a low attenuation
for the dominant mode and high attenuation for the other
higherorder modes. The advantage of the circular wave
guide is exploited from its circular symmetry. Rotary
joints use circular symmetry. For rotating antenna feeds
used in radars, rotary joints are employed. The quality (Q)
factor of the circular waveguide cavity is higher than that
of the rectangular waveguide. This inherent characteristic
is exploited in frequency meters.
Before proceeding further with the discussion of the
hollow metallic waveguides, we shall rst examine wheth
er any wave can propagate within the waveguide (i.e., in a
guide whose conducting boundaries form a simple con
nected region) and, if so, how the propagation takes place.
As mentioned earlier with respect to coaxial cables, a TEM
wave can propagate through the twoconductor transmis
sion line. In contrast, in the singleconductor hollow wave
guide such a TEM wave cannot propagate. This can be
proved by eld theory and solving the Helmoltz wave
equation. Another very simple and interesting concept
has been developed [14]. The waveguide can be perceived
by a twoconductor transmission line supported by two
quarterwavelength shortcircuited sections as shown in
Fig. 11. Since the shortcircuited quarterwavelength sec
tion transforms into an open circuit (with innity imped
ance, which is electrically invisible) at its input, there is no
effect on power transmission. In many sections of this
type, a rectangular waveguide such as that shown in
Fig. 11 is used. To preserve the transmissionline proper
ty of the waveguide, the dimension d must not be less than
one wavelength. Any frequency in the dimension a less
than a halfwavelength (i.e., o0.5l) causes the circuit to
become an inductive shunt (joL), which prevents propa
gation. The frequency at which the a dimension is a half
wavelength is called the cutoff frequency.
Complete solutions to eld equations are known for a
limited number of structures with a welldened geometry
that is compatible with the coordinate system. Each mode
Figure 10. Different forms of waveguides:
(a) rectangular waveguide; (b) twist polarizer;
(c) circular waveguide; (d) rectangular wave
guide bend.
d
b
a
z/4
Figure 11. A rectangular waveguide derived from a twowire
transmission line supported by two quarterwavelength short
circuited sections.
666 COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES
can be characterized by its electrical and magnetic com
ponents and can be visualized as eld patterns by its elec
tric and magnetic vectors.
In wave propagating structures, the transmission of
microwave energy takes place in a region surrounded by
boundaries, in most cases a metallic wall; and, for analyt
ical purpose, these are assumed lossless. Other assump
tion is that, within the frequency of interest, a waveguide
can support at least one propagating mode above its cutoff
frequency, which is the function of waveguide geometry.
The timeharmonic electric and magnetic elds are
assumed to have the following forms
Ex; y; z; t Ex; ye
jwtjbz
40
Hx; y; z; t Hx; ye
jwtjbz
41
where b is the propagation constant along the guide di
rection. The corresponding wavelength is the guide wave
length (l
g
2p/b):
l
g
l
0
1
f
c
f
_ _
2
42
where l
0
is the wavelength of a plane wave propagating in
an innite medium. Two important features can be noted
from this equation: (1) at higher operating frequency l l
0
and (2) as f approaches f
c
, l
g
becomes innite and the cor
responding mode does not propagate. Therefore, for a
given mode of propagation, the operating frequency is
always selected above the cutoff frequency.
3.2.1. ParallelPlate Waveguide. The parallelplate
waveguide normally supports TM and TE modes. It can
also support the TEM mode of propagation as it is formed
with two at plates or strips as shown in Fig. 2e. The
stripwidth W is assumed to be much greater than the sep
aration distance d so that the fringing eld and any
x components of the eld can be ignored. A material
with relative permittivity e
r
and permeability m
0
is
assumed to ll the region between the plates.
3.2.1.1. TEM Modes. The TEM mode solution can be
obtained by solving Laplaces equation as in (43) for the
electrostatic potential f between the two plates:
r
2
t
fx; y 0 for 0 x W and 0 y d 43
The initial boundary conditions for potentials are
fx; 0 0
fx; d V
0
44
Since there is no variation in the x plane, the equation can
be solved with given boundary conditions and the trans
verse electric eld and magnetic eld components can be
calculated. Once the electric eld is derived, the voltage
and the current on the top plate can be calculated from the
electric eld component and the surface current density,
respectively. The characteristic impedance of the parallel
plate can be found as follows:
Z
0
V
I
dZ
o
45
The Z
0
depends only on geometry and the material pa
rameter. The attenuation due to dielectric loss is given as
follows:
a
d
k tand
2
Np=m 46
The conductor attenuation for different mode of propaga
tion can be calculated from the following equations:
a
c
R
s
Zd
Np=m for TEMmode 47
a
c
2k
2
c
R
s
kbZd
Np=m for TE
n
mode 48
a
c
2kR
s
bZd
Np=m for TM
n
modes 49
The cutoff frequency and propagation constant for TE
n
and
TM
n
modes are
f
c;TM
Z
2d
me
p 50
and the propagation constant is
b
TE
k
2
np
d
_ _
2
_
51
The wave impedance of TE
n
and TM
n
modes are frequen
cydependent and are given as
Z
TM
E
y
H
x
bZ
k
52
Z
TE
E
x
H
y
kZ
b
53
The attenuation due to conductor loss for TM
1
, TE
1
, and
TEM modes in a parallelplate waveguide is shown in
Fig. 12. At the cutoff frequency the attenuation reaches
innity, prohibiting the propagation of modes.
3.2.2. Rectangular Waveguide. The rectangular wave
guide can propagate TM or TE modes, but not TEMmodes.
The uniform rectangular waveguide structure is shown in
Fig. 13. The propagation is in the z direction.
The cutoff frequency for TE
mn
modes can be calculated
as follows:
f
c;mn
1
2p
me
p
mp
a
_ _
2
np
b
_ _
2
_
54
COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES 667
The mode with the lowest cutoff frequency is called the
dominant mode. As we have assumed previously that
a4b, the lowest f
c
occurs for the TE
10
mode (for m1
and n0):
f
c;10
1
2a
me
p 55
The propagation constant of TE mode is
b
TE
k
2
k
2
c
_
k
2
mp
a
_ _
2
np
b
_ _
2
_
56
The wave impedance that relates the transverse electric
and magnetic elds is
Z
TE
E
x
H
y
kZ
b
57
where Z
me
p
, the intrinsic impedance of the material
lling the waveguide.
The attenuation due to dielectric loss is shown in
Fig. 14 for various TE and TM modes of rectangular wave
guide WR90 with an aluminum wall.
3.2.3. Circular Waveguide. The cross sectional view of a
circular waveguide is shown in Fig. 15. Circular wave
guides support TE and TM modes of propagation. Circular
waveguides also used in many applications as guiding
structures in the propagation of microwave energy.
The eld equations are solved in cylindrical coordinates
for both TE
mn
and TM
mn
modes as
@
2
@r
2
1
r
@
@r
1
r
2
@
2
@j
2
k
2
c
_ _
h
z
r; j
e
z
r; j
0 58
where h
z
and e
z
respectively are electric and magnetic
elds. The dominant mode in circular waveguide is TE
11
mode. The propagation constant and cutoff frequency for
TE
mn
modes are expressed as follows:
b
TE;nm
k
2
k
2
c
_
k
2
r
0
nm
a
_ _
2
59
f
c;nm
k
c
2p
me
p
r
0
nm
2ap
me
p 60
TEM
Cutoff
TM
1
TE
1
0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5
(k/k
c
)
6 7 8 9 10
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
(
:
c
p
d
)
/
R
s
Figure 12. Attenuation due to conductor loss for TEM, TM
1
, and
TE
1
modes of a parallelplate waveguide.
X
b
0 a
E
y
= 0 at x = 0
E
z
= 0 at x = 0
Z
Y
Figure 13. Coordinate system and electric eld distribution in a
rectangular waveguide.
0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Frequency (GHz)
18 20 22 24 26 28 30
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
:
c
(
d
B
/
m
)
TE
10
(2)
TM
11
(2)
TM
12
(2)
TM
11
(1)
TE
10
(1)
Figure 14. Attenuation of various modes of rectangular wave
guide WR90 with aluminum wall: (1) WR90 waveguide; (2) WR
90 waveguide with b 2a.
668 COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES
For TM
mn
modes the propagation constant and cutoff fre
quency are expressed as
b
TM;nm
k
2
k
2
c
_
k
2
r
nm
a
_ _
2
_
61
f
c;nm
k
c
2p
me
p
r
nm
2ap
me
p 62
where r and r
0
are the mth roots of Bessels functions J
n
(x)
and its rst derivatives J
n
0
x with order n, respectively.
The attenuation due to conductor loss in an aluminum
circular guide with radius 2.45 cm for different modes is
shown in Fig. 16. As can be seen, the attenuation decreas
es to a very small quantity at higher frequency of opera
tion. The transverse eld patterns and the cutoff
frequencies of various modes are shown in Figs. 17a and
17b, respectively.
3.2.4. Elliptic Waveguide. The elliptic waveguide is a
cylindrical waveguide where the transverse section is of
elliptical form, as shown in Fig. 18.
The readers are referred to other sources [13] for
quantitative information on elliptic waveguides. The
dominant mode in elliptic waveguide is the eH
11
mode.
One major application of elliptical waveguide is imped
ance matching. The transverse electric and magnetic eld
patterns of several lower order modes in an elliptical
waveguide with eccentricity e 0.75 are shown in
Fig. 19 [2].
3.2.5. Microstrip Line. The microstrip line is one of
the most popular transmission lines [10] because it can be
fabricated using the photolithography process and easily
integrated with other active and passive microwave
devices up to the millimeterwave frequency band. The
geometry of the microstrip transmission line is shown in
Fig. 20.
The broad range of microwave components such as l
ters, resonators, diplexer, distribution networks, and
matching circuits are made with microstrip lines. Al
though the microstrip structure is physically simple, the
theoretical analysis is rather complex. A number of meth
ods are employed to analyze the behavior of the microstrip
line. However, there are closedform analytical expres
sions for the characteristic impedance and propagation
velocity [11]. The microstrip line supports quasiTEM
mode as the pure TEM mode is impossible because of
the airdielectric interface. Most of the power is conned
to the region bounded by the width of the microstrip
line,called the fringing eld. Due to the presence of air
in the fringingeld region, some of the power may radiate
into free space. However, using a highdielectric substrate
and shielding the structure, the power loss due to radia
tion can be minimized. The microstrip medium is disper
sive and supports higherorder modes. Nevertheless, its
popularity is the result of the ease in integration with
surface mountable chip components such as chip capaci
tors, chip resistors, and other lumped elements with good
thermal dissipation properties of the medium without dis
turbing the RF propagation.
To design a basic microstrip line, it is important to
know the characteristic impedance and effective permit
tivity, which is normally frequencydependent. Many
varieties of approximations have been reported in the
literature [3]. However, the fairest and most accurate
method in determining the characteristic impedance and
effective permittivity [7] is outlined below:
Z
0
Z
2p
e
re
p ln
8d
W
0:25
W
d
_ _
for
W
d
1
_ _
Z
0
e
re
p
W
d
1:393 0:667 ln 1:444
W
d
_ _ _ _
1
for
W
d
! 1
_ _
63
where Wis the width of the microstrip line, h is the height,
and e
re
is the effective relative permittivity of the dielectric
slab.
x
z
[
y
r
a
0
Figure 15. Cross sectional view of a circular waveguide.
TE
11
TM
01
TE
21
TE
01
Frequency (GHz)
14 12 10 8 6 4 2
:
c
(
d
B
/
m
)
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
Figure 16. Attenuation due to metallic conductor of various
modes of circular aluminum waveguide, with a2.54cm.
COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES 669
The effective permittivity can be expressed as
e
re
e
r
1
2
e
r
1
2
F
W
d
64
F
W
d
112
d
W
_ _
0:5
0:04 1
W
d
_ _
2
for
W
d
! 1
_ _
F
W
d
1 12
d
W
_ _
0:5
for
W
d
1
_ _
65
With these equations, the characteristic impedance and
effective dielectric constant of a microstrip line can be
evaluated. All modern microwave computeraided design
tools are equipped with these calculations for the charac
teristic impedance, linewidth, and effective dielectric con
stant of microstrip lines. At higherfrequency operation
other factors such as decreased Q factors, radiation loss,
surfacewave loss, and higherorder mode propagation are
very critical in the design of microstrip lines. Figure 21
illustrates variation in the characteristic impedance and
effective dielectric constants with respect to width for a
microstrip line designed for two different substrates of
y
a
x
b
Figure 18. Geometry of the elliptical waveguide.
(1) TE
11
(2) TM
01
(3) TE
21
(4) TM
11
TE
11
TM
01
TE
21
TM
11
TE
01
f
(5) TE
01
(a)
(b)
(6) TE
31
Figure 17. (a) Transverse eld patterns of various modes in circular waveguide; (b) locations of
cutoff frequencies of the rst few TE and TM modes.
670 COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES
dielectric constant of 2.0 and 10.5. As can be seen in Fig.
21a, the characteristic impedance decreases with the
widthheight ratio of the dielectric substrate. With high
er dielectric constants the characteristic impedance is
lower for the same dimension of line. As shown in Fig.
21b, the effective dielectric constant increases with the
widthheight ratio of microstrip lines. A microstrip real
ization of a quadrature direct conversion receiver [15] de
signed on RT Duroid substrate of dielectric constant of
10.5 and 0.635 mm thickness is presented in Fig. 22. As
can be seen in the gure, all active and passive microwave
devices such as quadrature hybrid coupler, asymmetric
coupledline bandpass lters, lowpass lters, Wilkinson
power divider, and even harmonic mixer (EHMIX) are de
signed using photolithographic processes. The lumped
components such as chip resistors, capacitors, and diode
mixers are soldered on the microstrip lines. Thus micro
strip lines have created a revolution in highfrequency and
microwave circuits.
3.2.6. Slotline. Slotlines are planar transmissionline
structures that are widely used in MMIC circuits. The
basic slotline structure, shown in Fig. 23, consists of a
dielectric slab with a narrow slot etched on the ground
plane on only one side of the dielectric slab. This geometry
is planar and well suited for MIC/MMIC designs. The
wave propagates along the slot with the major electric
eld component oriented across the slot while the mag
netic eld is in the plane perpendicular to the slot. The
mode of propagation in slotline is nonTEM in nature.
Unlike the conventional waveguide, in the slotline there is
no cutoff frequency and propagation occurs at all frequen
cies down to zero. Because of the slotlines nonTEM
e
H
01 e
E
01
e
H
11 e
E
11
o
H
11 o
E
11
Figure 19. Field distribution of modes in
elliptic waveguides [2].
W
d
Substrate
GND plane
Microstrip line
c
r
Figure 20. Structure of the microstrip line.
COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES 671
nature, the characteristic impedance and phase velocity
are not constant but vary with frequency at a slow rate.
The characteristics of the slotline with regard to dielectric
thickness are shown in Fig. 24 [6]. Readers are referred to
the literature [3] for a detailed theoretical analysis of slot
line structures.
3.2.7. Coplanar Waveguide Transmission Line. The ge
ometry of coplanar waveguide (CPW), shown in Fig. 25,
consists of two slots of width w etched on the ground
plane of a dielectric substrate and separated by a spacing
s. This structure is also referred to as a uniplanar struc
ture as the signalcarrying line lies along with the
ground plane in the same plane. This structure often
demonstrates better dispersion behavior than does the
microstrip line [4,5]. As a result of low parasitic effects,
this structure is a good choice for higherfrequency oper
ation. The characteristic impedance of the line depends
primarily on the width of slots and their spacing for a
given substrate.
The characteristic of a CPW line are shown in Fig. 26.
The variation of effective dielectric constant and charac
Z
(
o
h
m
s
)
c
e
f
f
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
50
100
150
200
250
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
(w/h)
(a)
(w/d)
(b)
c
r
c
r
= 2.0
=10.5
c
r
c
r
= 2.0
=10.5
Figure 21. The characteristic of microstrip line. The variation of
(a): characteristic impedance and (b): effective permittivity of the
medium as a parameter of width.
RF port
IF port
(Ichannel)
EHMIX
Lowpass
filters
LO port
Wilkinson
power
divider
IF port
(Qchannel)
Isolation port
Bandpass
filters
90 degrees
Hybrid coupler
Figure 22. Microstrip realization of a mixer circuit.
w
d
Figure 23. Slotline geometry.
.620
.600 W/D=2.0
W/D=2.0
W/D=1.5
W/D=1.0
W/D=.8
W/D=.6
W/D=.4
W/D=.1
W/D=.2
W/D=1.5
W/D=1.0
W/D=.8
W/D=.6
W/D=.4
W/D=.2
W/D=.1
W/D=.02
W/D=.02
.580
.560
.540
.520
.500
.480
.460
.440
.020 .030 .040 .050
D/z
.060 .070 .080
z'/z
z'/z
z
0
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
c
r
= 9.6
Z
o
()
Figure 24. The dispersion characteristics of slotline from Ref. 6.
672 COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES
teristic impedance as line parameters can be a useful
tool for the design of the CPW line and its associated
components. A detailed analysis and closedform expres
sions of CPWs are reported in Ref. 8.
Figure 27 is a photograph of various MMIC slot anten
nas on coplanar waveguides designed on GaAs substrate
near 24 GHz. The slot dipole is fed through a CPW
line, and the calculated and measured performances of
the antenna is shown in Fig. 28. The details of antenna
design are reported in Ref. 9.
4. CONCLUSION
This article has presented a historic perspective of coaxial
cables and waveguides and has reviewed market poten
tials of coaxial cables, waveguides, and accessories. The
classications of various transmission lines according to
the modes excited in the particular transmission lines
have been shown. Twowire transmission lines such as co
axial cables, parallelplate waveguides, and microstrip
lines support TEM mode elds. The singleconductor
transmission lines support nonTEM mode elds such as
TE and TM modes. Next, the classical transmission line
theory has been derived in the telegrapher equation.
Next, the coaxial cable has been discussed. The design
parameters, higherorder mode cutoff frequency, and at
tenuation of coaxial cables were presented. The two main
types of coaxial cable are exible and semirigid coaxial
cables. The most recent developments of extremely high
frequency coaxial cables exploiting MMIC and MEMS pro
cessing techniques were presented. It was shown that
MEMS microcoaxial cable is lowloss even at very high
frequencies such as in the millimeterwave range.
Various waveguides in the form of parallelplate wave
guides and rectangular, circular, and elliptical waveguides
were presented in terms of their cutoff frequencies and
attenuation. Finally different planar waveguides such as
microstrip lines, slotlines, and coplanar waveguides were
presented. Their design formulas were also given for the
benet of designers.
c
e
f
f
Z
0
(
)
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
6
5
4
3
2
1
0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4
S
S+2W
(a)
0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
S
S+2W
(b)
h
1
b
0.5
0.5
0.1
0.1
h
1
b
Figure 26. The characteristics of a CPW line: (a) variation of ef
fective dielectric constant; (b) variation of characteristic imped
ance of Z
0
with CPW line parameters [8].
Figure 27. Photograph of a coplanarwaveguidefed MMIC an
tenna on GaAs substrate near 24GHz. (Courtesy PWTC,
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.)
s
w
2b h
1
Figure 25. The geometry of a CPW line.
COAXIAL LINES AND WAVEGUIDES 673
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, Wiley, New York, 1998.
2. K. S. Packard, The origin of waveguides: A case of multiple
rediscovery, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT
32:961969 (Sept. 1984).
3. N. Marcuvitz, Waveguide Handbook, Peter Peregrinus, IEE,
London, 1986.
4. R. N. Simons, Coplanar Waveguide Circuits, Components and
Systems, J Wiley, New York, 2001.
5. R. E. Collins, Foundation of Microwave Engineering, 2nd ed.,
McGrawHill, New York, 1992.
6. E. A. Mariani et al., Slotline characteristics, IEEE Trans. Mi
crowave Theory Tech. MTT17:10911096 (1969).
7. M. Kobayashi, A dispersion formula satisfying recent require
ments in microstrip CAD, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory
Tech. MTT36:12461250 (Aug. 1998).
8. K. C. Gupta, R. Garg, I. Bahl, and R. Bhatia, Microstripline
and Slotlines, Artech House, Norwood MA, 1996.
9. S. K. Padhi and N. C. Karmakar, Computer aided design of an
CPWfed slot antenna for MMwave applications, Int. J. RF
Microwave Comput. Aided Design Eng. 14(1):414 (Jan. 2004).
10. I. J. Bahl and T. D. K. Trivedi, A designers guide to microstrip
line, Microwaves 174182 (May 1977).
11. R. F. Harrington, Time Harmonic Electromagnetic Field,
McGrawHill, New York, 1961.
12. J. A. Bishop, M. M. Hashemi, K. Kiziloglu, L. Larson, N. Dagli,
and U. Mishra, Monolithic coaxial transmission lines for mm
wave ICs, Proc. IEEE/Cornell Conf. Advanced Concepts in High
Speed Semiconductor Devices and Circuits, Aug. 1991, 57.
13. J.B. Yoon, B.I. Kim, Y.S. Choi, and E. Yoon, 3Dconstruction
of monolithic passive components for RF and microwave ICs
using thickmetal surface micromachining technology, IEEE
Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT51(1):279288 (2003).
14. W. S. Cheung and F. H. Levien, Microwaves Made Simple: Prin
ciples and Applications, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1985.
15. N. C. Karmakar, QPSK direct conversion receiver for wireless
communications, Int. J. RF Microwave Comput. Aided Eng.
(Jan. 2005).
COMBLINE FILTERS
CHI WANG
Orbital Sciences Corporation
Dulles, Virginia
1. INTRODUCTION
Combline lters are one of the most widely used types of
bandpass lters in many communication systems and other
microwave applications because of many of their unique
merits. The rst combline lter was introduced by Mat
thaei in 1963 [2]. The design equations and procedures of
the rectangular bar combline lter with narrow to mod
erate bandwidth, using the coupled rectangular bar de
sign data from Getsinger [3], were also given by Matthaei
[1,2]. Cristal [4,5] later presented the data for coupled cir
cular cylindrical rods between parallel ground planes;
thus, more manufacturingadvantageous and costeffec
tive cylindrical rod combline lters can be designed with
reasonable accuracy and excellent electrical performance.
Although Matthaeis design equations were based on
approximations, the results were shown to be reasonably
good for narrowtooctave bandwidth applications.
Wenzels exact analysis approach or fullwave electromag
netic simulations can be used for more accurate designs
[911]. Combline lters with elliptic function frequency
responses, rst presented by Rhodes and Levy, give great
exibility in their conguration and responses [6].
With the rapid development of satellite communica
tions since the 1970s and mobile communications since
the 1980s, generalized lters with elliptic function re
sponses having crosscouplings between nonadjacent res
onators are widely used [68,13,2227]. Combline lters
are particularly suitable for achieving elliptic function re
sponse and for highvolume, lowcost production, because
all the resonator rods can be mounted or built in on the
common surface of the lter housing, while all the tuning
21.0 21.5 22.0 22.5 23.0 23.5 24.0 24.5 25.0
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
R
e
t
u
r
n
l
o
s
s
(
d
B
)
Frequency (GHz)
Calculated
Measured
(a) (b)
Figure 28. (a) CPWfed slot dipole antenna at 24GHz; (b) calculated and measured return loss of
the antenna [9].
674 COMBLINE FILTERS
screws are mounted in a single cover. In addition, the res
onator locations of the combline lter may be exibly ar
ranged according to the lters coupling matrix and
system mechanical requirement. The combination allows
lters with large numbers of resonators and complicated
crosscoupling conguration to be tuned nearly to theo
retical performance without excessive cost.
In the physical realization of combline lters, the input
and output couplings can be achieved by a shortcircuited
coupled line as part of an impedance transforming section,
or an inductively coupled loop, a capacitive coupled probe,
or by a direct, tappedin line. The directtapped input/out
put conguration makes the combline lter more compact
and easy to fabricate and therefore is more advantageous
than other types of input/output structures [1420]. This
method was rst described in the literature by Dishal [15]
for smallpercentagebandwidth interdigital lters, and by
Cohn [16] for combline lters. Cristal [17] gave exact gen
eral equivalent circuits for combline and interdigital ar
rays using graph transformations; thus the tapped line
can be designed with high accuracy.
It is well known that the difference between the mea
sured results and the design based on the conventional
TEM combline theory can be as much as 30% depending
on the lters bandwidth [21]. Using fullwave electromag
netic computeraided design (CAD) tools, combline lters
can be designed in high accuracy with arbitrary resonator
and coupling aperture dimensions [21,48]. The unloaded
Q and the spurious responses of the resonators can be
computed accurately from the electromagnetic simulators.
Furthermore, the temperature characteristic and power
handling capability of combline lters can be accurately
determined [5052].
Ceramic combline lters were introduced in the
1980s to satisfy the needs for miniature lters for
mobile communications taking advantage of the develop
ment of highdielectricconstant, lowloss dielectric
materials. They have been widely used in many commu
nication systems [4047]. Ceramic combline lters can be
manufactured using single or multiple solid ceramic
blocks with a metallized exterior. The resonator rods are
realized by a series of metallized holes that are grounded
at one end of the block, where the opposite ends of the
blocks are kept open. Therefore, the resonator lines are
around a quarterwavelength long at resonance. Cou
plings between adjacent resonators can be achieved by ei
ther series capacitors or apertures [42,48]. These ceramic
combline lters can be designed and manufactured with
high accuracy, and are very suitable for lowcost mass
production.
Combline lters are most suitable for applications re
quiring relatively low insertion loss in the frequency range
between 500MHz and 12 GHz, and they have following
attractive features:
1. They are compact. The length of the resonator rods
may be designed to be l
0
/8 or less at resonance. The
unloaded Q of the resonator cavity is a function of its
cross section. Therefore the size of the combline l
ter can be varied depending on the applications.
2. Combline lters possess the ability to be tuned over
a wide range of frequencies without suffering signif
icant degradation in performance [2,12]. The tuning
range is a function of the amount of capacitance ad
justment provided by the tuning screw.
3. The combline resonator has very high unloaded Q:
volume ratio compared with other types of resona
tors, such as empty waveguide cavity and dielectric
loaded resonators, although the combline resonator
doesnt give the highest unloaded Q value.
4. They have strong stopbands, and the stopband
above the primary passband can be made very
broad. Combline lters may be designed to be spu
riousfree over 34 times the center frequency of the
lter.
5. Adequate coupling can be maintained between reso
nator elements with sizable spacing between such
resonator lines.
6. They are reliable, low in cost, and very suitable for
manufacturing. All resonator rods can be mounted
or built in to the lter housing, and all tuning screws
can be directly attached to the housing or cover. In
addition, all the materials are readily available and
can be modied easily.
2. CONFIGURATIONS
A combline lter usually consists of a conductive enclosure
and a number of parallel conductive rods serving as res
onators, which are shortcircuited at one end and open
circuited at the other end. The open ends of the resonator
rods are usually close to one side of the enclosure in order
to create sufcient capacitance between the rod and the
ground. Coupling between resonators is achieved by way
of the EM coupling between resonator lines. The input and
output coupling may be achieved in several ways as stated
in the introduction.
Figure 1 shows a combline bandpass lter in transmis
sionline form. The resonators of the lter consist of
TEMmode transmissionline elements that have a
lumped capacitor C
s
k
between the open end of each reso
nator line element and ground. Lines 1 through n and
their associated capacitances C
s
1
to C
s
n
constitute resona
tors, while lines 0 and n1 are not resonators but part of
impedance transforming sections at both ends of the lter.
With the lumped capacitors present, the resonator lines
will be less than a quarterwavelength long at resonance,
and the coupling between resonators will be predominant
ly magnetic in nature. It is usually desirable to make the
capacitances of the combline lter sufciently large so that
the resonator lines will have a length of l
0
/6 or less at
resonance.
The second passband of the combline lter occurs when
the resonator line elements are somewhat over a half
wavelength long, so if the resonator lines are l
0
/8 long at
the primary passband, the second passband will be cen
tered at somewhat over 4 times the frequency of the rst
passband [2]. Therefore, the combline lters can have
COMBLINE FILTERS 675
extremely broad spuriousfree stopband compared with
other types of lter.
Figure 2 shows the original fourpole combline lter
having the conguration shown in Fig. 1 published by
Matthaei in 1963 with its top cover removed. Figure 3
shows an alternate conguration of the combline lter
that is currently widely used in the industry and is more
favorable for manufacturing. The cross section of the res
onator rods may be rectangular or circular; the circular
conguration is more common because it is easier to man
ufacture. Each resonator rod has a counterbored hole at
its open end. A tuning screw in the cover can be adjusted
to penetrate in or out concentrically to the resonator rod to
adjust the resonant frequency of the resonator to the de
sired value. The tuning screws between the resonator rods
are used to adjust the coupling coefcient between the
resonators.
The input/output coupling can be achieved by short (or
open)circuited impedance transformer bars as shown in
Matthaeis original conguration [2], or by direct tap as
shown in Fig. 3. The input/output coupling can also be
achieved by a coupling loop or probe. As the later input/
output coupling methods do not need an extended trans
mission rod at each end of the combline lter, the lter is
more compact.
The resonator rods can be separate parts mounted into
the lter housing, using screws to achieve good contact, or
can be built into the lter housing so that resonators and
enclosure constitute a single piece, with only a top cover,
tuning screws, and connectors needed to complete the l
ter. The couplings between resonators can be controlled by
the spacing between them or by varying the aperture di
mension on a conductive wall between two resonators. The
resonators can be arranged in a row or in any desired lay
out depending on the coupling structure of the lter.
Significant progress in microwave lter technology has
taken place since the 1970s, particularly the use of elliptic
function responses using nonadjacent couplings between
resonators together with compact lter congurations
[68,13,22,23]. Transmission zeros can be achieved on
the lower, higher side or both sides of the lters passband
depending on the attenuation requirements. The resul
tant lter may have sharper attenuation response; thus
fewer resonators are required, which results in a more
compact lter with lower insertion loss. Figure 4 shows an
example of an elliptic function combline lter with builtin
resonators and a very compact conguration [39].
There are several ways to design a combline lter, but
the most popular method is to use a lowpass prototype l
ter. This is transformed into the desired bandpass lter,
and then the physical dimensions are determined by
either approximation or fullwave 3D electromagnetic
simulations. Figure 5 shows the typical design procedure
of a combline lter based on this approach. First, the
specications are used to determine the desired lter
parameters, such as number of resonators, bandwidth,
passband ripple, and the desired ideal frequency respons
es from the lowpass prototype lter. Then the lter topol
ogy and equivalentcircuit parameters, such as lter
element values g
k
, the admittance inverters J
k,k1
, impe
dance inverters K
k,k1
, or coupling matrix M
k,k1
, are
0 1 2 3 n
n+1
n1
1 2 3 n1 n
C
1
S
C
2
S
C
3
S
C
S
n1
C
n
S
Y
B
= Y
A
Y
A
Impedance
transformer
Resonator
Rod
Figure 1. A combline lter with
shortcircuited input/output lines.
Figure 2. The original combline lter [1].
676 COMBLINE FILTERS
determined. The required unloaded Q of the resonators is
determined, and the basic cavity and rod dimensions can
then be decided. Finally the rod, spacing, or aperture di
mensions can be obtained from Matthaeis approximate
design equations using Getsingers or Cristals design
charts. A prototype is mode to verify the correctness of
the design and to perform some minor adjustments. Other
practical issues such as temperature compensation and
power handling capability should also be considered.
3. LOWPASS PROTOTYPE
Figure 6 shows a typical Chebyshev response of a lowpass
prototype lter and that of the corresponding bandpass
lter. The lowpass prototype lter is usually chosen to
have unit bandwidth o
1
0
for convenience, while the
bandwidth of the bandpass lter can be arbitrarily
specied.
The relationship between the lowpass prototype re
sponse and the corresponding bandpass lter is given as
[1,2]
L
A
o L
0
A
o
0
1
where
o
0
o
0
1
o
o
o
0
o
0
o
_ _
2
o
o
2
o
1
o
0
; o
0
o
2
o
1
p
3
The mapped lowpass prototype lter response has the
same characteristics as that of the bandpass lter, or vice
versa. Therefore, if the desired bandpass lter has n re
turn loss poles in passband and m nite transmission ze
ros in stopband, the corresponding lowpass prototype
lter will also have n poles in passband from o
1
0
to o
1
0
at location a
i
(i 1, 2,y, n) and m zeros in stopband at
location b
i
(i 1, 2,y, m). The insertion loss and return
loss of the lowpass prototype lter versus frequency can be
expressed in terms of the poles and zeros as
L
A
10 log
1
1 e f
2
_ _
4
L
R
10 log
e f
2
1 e f
2
_ _
5
A
A
FREQUENCY
TUNING SCREW
RESONATOR ROD
A  A
COUPLING
TUNING SCREW
Figure 3. A combline lter with tappedin input/output couplings.
Figure 4. A 12pole elliptic function combline lter [39].
COMBLINE FILTERS 677
where
f
P o
0
Q o
0
n
i 1
o
0
a
i
m
i 1
o
0
b
i
6
e 10
L
Ar
=10
1 7
The approximation problem is to nd the locations of the
poles with locations of the given zeros to determine the
equalripple passband response. The pole and zero loca
tions of the transfer function can be determined by opti
mizing the polynomial function P(o
0
) through iterations
[7] or by the recursive technique shown by Cameron [26].
For a Chebyshev response, all the transmission zeros are
at innity, and a closedform expression for the pole loca
tions exists, as follows:
a
i
cos
2i 1p
2n
_ _
; i 1; 2; . . . ; n 8
Figure 7 shows the attenuation characteristics for a 0.01
dBripple Chebyshev lter versus number of poles. The
0.01dB passband ripple gives better than 25dB return
loss for the ideal case; therefore it is often used as the
starting point for a practical lter design.
Given the transfer function and polezero locations of
the lowpass prototype lter, the circuit element values of
the lowpass and bandpass lters can be obtained by net
work synthesis. The commonly used forms for the proto
type lter circuits are shown in Fig. 8 using g
k
(k0, 1,y,
n, n1) as the element values. The prototype lters in
Fig. 8a using the shunt capacitor as the rst element and
in Fig. 8b using the series inductor as the rst element
have identical responses and g
k
values; therefore, either
form may be used depending on the applications. When
converting a prototype lter to a bandpass lter, a lowpass
prototype with n reactive elements leads to a bandpass
lter with n resonators.
For Chebyshev lters having passband ripple L
Ar
dB,
g
0
1, and o
0
1
1, the remaining g values can be obtained
analytically as follows:
g
1
2a
1
sinh
b
2n
_ _ 9
g
k
4a
k1
a
k
b
k1
g
k1
10
g
n1
1 for nodd
coth
2
b
4
_ _
for neven
_
_
_
11
L
AO
L
AO
L
Ar
L
AO
L
Ar
0 0
o
1
o
1
L
A
(
o
)
,
d
b
A
t
t
e
n
u
a
t
i
o
n
L
A
(
o
)
,
d
b
A
t
t
e
n
u
a
t
i
o
n
o
a
w
a
o
a
o
b
o
o
o
0
o
2
Prototype response Bandpass filter response
Figure 6. Lowpass prototype and corresponding bandpass lter
responses.
Specifications
f0, BW, IL, RL, Attn, GD,
Power Handling, etc
Lowpass Prototype Filter
Ideal Frequency
Responses
# of Poles, Passband
Ripple, Transmission
zeros
Circuit parameters
Topology, Min. Unloaded Q
Combline Dimensions,
Filter Preliminary Layout
Meet
Spec ?
Bar Dimension,
Ground Plane Spacing
Compute Self and Mutual
Capacitance C
k
, C
k, k+1
of
Parallel Coupled Lines
Determine Resonator
Dimension and Q
u
Determine s/b, w
a
, w
b
from
Getsinger's Chart
Determine Resonator
Spacing From CM
Design Input/Output
Build Prototype
and Test
No
Yes
Appr. Fullwave
Figure 5. Typical combline lter design procedure.
678 COMBLINE FILTERS
Here
b ln coth
L
Ar
17:37
_ _
12
a
k
sin
2k 1p
2n
_ _
13
b
k
sinh
2
b
2n
_ _
sin
2
kp
n
_ _
14
Table 1 presents the computed g element values for
Chebyshev lters for n1 through 10 with 0.01 and
0.1dB passband ripple levels.
The g values of the lowpass prototype lter given in
Eqs. (9)(11) are normalized to unit input impedance g
0
d
b
o
1
o
1
n
=
1
5
n
=
1
4
n
=
1
3
n
=
2
n
=
3
n
=
4
n
=
5
n
=
6 n
=
7
n
=
8 n
=
9 n
=
1
0
n
=
1
1
n
=
1
2
Figure 7. Attenuations of the 0.01dBripple Chebyshev lters.
G
0
=g
0
R
0
=g
0
L
1
=g
1
L
2
=g
2
C
1
=g
1
C
3
=g
3
L
n
=g
n
L
n
=g
n
C
n
=g
n
G
n+1
=g
n+1
R
n+1
=g
n+1
L
3
=g
3
C
2
=g
2
C
n
=g
n
R
n+1
=g
n+1
G
n+1
=g
n+1
or
or
(a)
(b)
Figure 8. Lowpass lter circuit and parameters (a) a shunt capacitor as rst element; (b) a series
inductor as rst element.
COMBLINE FILTERS 679
where the values of the normalized inductor L
0
and ca
pacitor C
0
are equal to the particular g value of the pro
totype lter.
The lowpass prototype lter circuits in Fig. 8 consist of
both inductors and capacitors. However, in bandpass and
bandstop lter designs, it is desirable to use the same type
of resonator having all inductors or all capacitors in the
prototype lters.
This can be achieved by using the impedance inverter
(K inverter) or admittance inverter (J inverter) as
shown in Fig. 9. The inverters act like frequency
independent quarterwavelength lines, so that only
inductors exist in the Kinverter prototype, and only
capacitors in the Jinverter prototype networks.
Figure 9 also gives the equations for converting the g
value of the lowpass lter prototype to these forms.
The components value such as R, L, C, or G in the
prototype circuit using J or K inverters can be chosen
arbitrarily. The frequency responses of the inverter
circuits in Fig. 9 are identical to those of the original pro
totype lters.
Another commonly used analysis method in the cavity
type bandpass lter design is to use the coupling matrix.
Figure 10 presents the equivalent circuit of a generalized
coupled bandpass prototype lter using the coupling
matrix [7,26].
Table 1. Element Values for Chebyshev Filters Having g
0
1, x
0
0
1 for 0.01 and 0.1dB Ripples
Value of n g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
g
5
g
6
g
7
g
8
g
9
g
10
g
11
0.01dB ripple
1 0.0960 1.0000
2 0.4488 0.4077 1.1007
3 0.6291 0.9702 0.6291 1.0000
4 0.7128 1.2003 1.3212 0.6476 1.1007
5 0.7563 1.3049 1.5773 1.3049 0.7563 1.0000
6 0.7813 1.3600 1.6896 1.5350 1.4970 0.7098 1.1007
7 0.7969 1.3924 1.7481 1.6331 1.7481 1.3924 0.7969 1.0000
8 0.8072 1.4130 1.7824 1.6833 1.8529 1.6193 1.5554 0.7333 1.1007
9 0.8144 1.4270 1.8043 1.7125 1.9057 1.7125 1.8043 1.4270 0.8144 1.0000
10 0.8196 1.4369 1.8192 1.7311 1.9362 1.7590 1.9055 1.6527 1.5817 0.7446 1.1007
0.1dB ripple
1 0.3052 1.0000
2 0.8430 0.6220 1.3554
3 1.0315 1.1474 1.0315 1.0000
4 1.1088 1.3061 1.7703 0.8180 1.3554
5 1.1468 1.3712 1.9750 1.3712 1.1468 1.0000
6 1.1681 1.4039 2.0562 1.5170 1.9029 0.8618 1.3554
7 1.1811 1.4228 2.0966 1.5733 2.0966 1.4228 1.1811 1.0000
8 1.1897 1.4346 2.1199 1.6010 2.1699 1.5640 1.9444 0.8778 1.3554
9 1.1956 1.4425 2.1345 1.6167 2.2053 1.6167 2.1345 1.4425 1.1956 1.0000
10 1.1999 1.4481 2.1444 1.6265 2.2253 1.6418 2.2046 1.5821 1.9628 0.8853 1.3554
R
A
G
A
C
o1
C
o2
C
on
G
B
R
A
L
o1
g
o
g
1
L
o1
K
o1
J
o1
K
12
K
23
K
n, n+1
J
12
J
23
J
n, n+1
k
01
=
k
k, k+1
k
n, n+1
L
o2
L
on
R
B
L
ok
L
o(k+1)
L
on
R
B
g
k
g
k+1
g
n
g
n+1
K=1 to n1
=
=
(a)
(b)
,
G
A
C
o1
g
o
g
1
J
01
=
J
k, k+1
J
n, n+1
C
ok
C
o(k+1)
C
on
G
B
g
k
g
k+1
g
n
g
n+1
K=1 to n1
=
=
, ,
Figure 9. Modied prototype using impedance and
admittance inverters.
680 COMBLINE FILTERS
A general solution of the narrowband coupled cavity
lter described above has been presented in a paper by
Atia and Williams in the form of the loop equations as [7]
Z I V 17
R sI jM
i
1
i
2
.
.
.
i
n1
i
n
_
_
_
e
1
0
.
.
.
0
0
_
_
_
_
18
where
s jo
0
19
M
l
11
M
12
M
13
M
1;n1
M
1n
M
12
l
22
M
23
M
2;n1
M
2n
M
13
M
23
l
33
M
3;n1
M
3n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
M
1;n1
M
2;n1
M
3;n1
l
n1;n1
M
n1;n
M
1n
M
2n
M
3n
M
n1;n
l
nn
_
_
_
_
20
The matrix R has allzero entries except for the (1, 1) and
(n, n) elements, which are R
1
and R
n
, respectively. M is the
socalled coupling matrix and has general entries of M
ij
for
iaj, and l
ii
for i j. l
ii
gives the resonant frequency of
each resonator mapped to the lowpass prototype domain
according to Eqs. (2) and (3).
The coupling matrix of the bandpass lter can be de
termined by the network synthesis method as described in
Refs. 7 and 26 or by optimization from the pole and zero
locations of the lters transfer function [24]. For the case
of direct network optimization, the coupling matrix ele
ments are the optimization variables and the objective er
ror function can be established by determining the
difference between the transfer function frequency re
sponse of the prototype lter and the frequency response
of the optimized lter. The Chebyshev coupling matrix of
the same order can be used as the starting guess of the
coupling matrix.
For lters with Chebyshev frequency responses, the
coupling matrix of the lter can be obtained analytically
from the g values of the prototype lter as
R
1
1
g
0
g
1
21
M
i;i 1
g
i
g
i 1
p 22
R
n
1
g
n1
g
n
23
where the remaining elements in the coupling matrix are
zero.
As in the case of the lowpass prototype lter, the cou
pling matrix shown in Eq. (20) is normalized to the pass
band from 1 to 1 and zero center frequency. For a
bandpass lter with center frequency f
0
, and bandwidth
BW, the required couplings of the lter are the normalized
lters coupling elements multiplied by the bandwidth
with the unit same as that of the bandwidth.
4. DIRECTCOUPLED COMBLINE FILTER DESIGN
Matthaei gave the approximate design equations for the
directcoupled combline lter shown in Fig. 1 in terms of
the resonator rods selfcapacitance to ground C
j
per unit
length, and the mutual capacitance C
j,j 1
per unit length
between neighboring resonator bars j and j 1 [1,2]. The
design equations use the lowpass prototype lter param
eters g
j
(i 0,1,y,n,n1) to achieve the desired frequency
responses. The equations are sufciently accurate for the
applications of narrow bandpass lters with bandwidths
up to octave.
By specifying the width of the lter enclosure and
the resonator rod dimension, the admittance Y
aj
of the
resonator lines can be computed. It is usually desirable
M
1,n
M
12
M
2,i
M
2,n
M
1,i
M
1,n1
M
2,n1
M
n1,n
M
i,n1
M
i,n
e
0
R
1
R
2
..... .....
i
1
i
2
i
i
i
n1
i
n
(1) (2) (i) (n1) (n)
Figure 10. A bandpass lter equivalent circuit.
COMBLINE FILTERS 681
to choose the ratio of enclosure width to resonator line
width in the range between 3 and 4 so that optimum
unloaded Q can be achieved. In addition, the electrical
length y
0
of the resonator lines ranges between p/4 and
p/3 at center frequency so that the lter will have both
wide spuriousfree stopband and less unloaded Q degra
dation due to excessive end loading in case shunt resona
tors are used.
4.1. Design Equations
The normalized Jinverter parameters of the combline l
ter can then be computed as
G
T1
o
2
o
1
b
1
g
0
g
1
o
0
o
0
1
24
J
j; j 1
o
2
o
1
o
0
o
0
1
b
j
b
j 1
g
j
g
j 1
25
G
Tn
o
2
o
1
b
n
g
n
g
n1
o
0
o
0
1
26
where
b
j
Y
aj
cot y
0
y
0
csc
2
y
0
2
_ _
27
The normalized selfcapacitances per unit length between
each resonator rod and ground are
C
0
e
Z
0
Y
A
e
r
p 1
G
T1
Y
A
_ _
28
C
1
e
Z
0
Y
A
e
r
p
Y
a1
Y
A
1
G
T1
Y
A
J
12
Y
A
tan y
0
_ _
C
0
e
29
C
j
e
Z
0
Y
A
e
r
p
Y
aj
Y
A
J
j1; j
Y
A
tan y
0
G
Tn
Y
A
J
j; j 1
Y
A
tan y
0
_ _
;
j 2 to n 1
30
C
n
e
Z
0
Y
A
e
r
p
Y
an
Y
A
1
G
Tn
Y
A
J
n1; n
Y
A
tan y
0
_ _
C
n1
e
31
C
n1
e
Z
0
Y
A
e
r
p 1
G
Tn
Y
A
_ _
32
The normalized mutual capacitances per unit length be
tween two adjacent resonator rods are
C
01
e
Z
0
Y
A
e
r
p
C
0
e
33
C
j; j 1
e
Z
0
Y
A
e
r
p
J
j; j 1
Y
A
tan y
0
_ _
; j 1 to n 1 34
C
n;n1
e
Z
0
Y
A
e
r
p
C
n1
e
35
The required lumped capacitances C
s
j
between the open
end of the resonator rod and ground are
C
s
j
Y
aj
cot y
0
o
0
; j 1 to n 36
Knowing the desired self and mutual capacitances of the
combline lter resonator rods, we can determine the spac
ing between the adjacent resonators from the Getsinger or
Cristals design curves for the parallelcoupled rectangu
lar or circular bars as described in the following section.
4.2. ParallelCoupled Bars
The resonator bars of a combline lter can be considered
as an array of the parallel lines. The cross section of the
bar is usually rectangular or circular. The dimensions of
the lines can be related to the various line capacitances
per unit length. The self and mutual capacitances ob
tained from Eqs. (28)(36) can be used to determine the
bar dimensions from Getsingers parallelcoupled rectan
gular line curves for the rectangular cross section resona
tor rod combline lters, or from Cristals parallelcoupled
cylindrical rod design data for the circular cross section
resonator rod combline lters.
4.2.1. Coupled Rectangular Bars between Parallel Pla
tes. The cross section of a parallelcoupled rectangular
bars under consideration and various line capacitances
are shown in Fig. 11. There are two parallel ground planes
spaced a distance b apart, and a pair of rectangular bars
located parallel to and midway between the ground
planes. Assuming that C
a
is the selfcapacitance per unit
length between line a and ground, C
ab
is the mutual ca
pacitance per unit length between lines a and b, and C
b
is
the capacitance per unit length between line b and
ground, then, in terms of odd and evenmode capacitanc
es for lines a and b, respectively, we have
C
a
oo
C
a
2C
ab
; C
a
oe
C
a
37
C
b
oo
C
b
2C
ab
; C
b
oe
C
b
38
In Fig. 11, the capacitance per unit length of each line has
been separated into component parts by their contribu
tions. C
p
is the parallelplate capacitance per unit length
from the top or bottom side of one bar to the adjacent
ground plane, C
0
fe
is the fringing capacitance per unit
length to ground from the inner corner when the bars
682 COMBLINE FILTERS
are excited in the even mode, and C
0
fo
is the fringing
capacitance per unit length to ground from the inner cor
ner when the bars are excited in the odd mode. The ca
pacitance C
0
f
is the fringing capacitance per unit length for
any of the outer corners of the rods. Assuming that all the
coupled bars have the same height and thickness, so that
the fringing capacitances are the same for both bars, the
total self and mutual capacitances of the coupled bars are
C
a
2C
a
p
C
0
f
C
0
fe
39
C
ab
C
0
fo
C
0
fe
40
C
b
2C
b
p
C
0
f
C
0
fe
41
Figures 1214 give the normalized design charts by Get
singer [3], which relate DC/e, C
0
fe
=e, C
0
fo
=e, and C
0
f
=e to the
rectangular bar dimensions, where
DCC
ab
42
To design a combline lter with rectangular cross section
resonator bars, rst compute the C
j
and C
j, j 1
values of
the lter using Eqs. (28)(36), and then select a convenient
value for t/b, and use Fig. 12 of DC/e and C
fe
0
/e versus s/b
to determine s
j, j 1
/b and also C
fe
0
/e. Using t/b and Fig. 14
of C
f
0
/e versus t/b, C
f
0
/e can be determined. As the par
allelplate capacitance C
p
/e is given by
C
p
e
2
w=b
1 t=b
43
C
f
C
1
C
f
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f C
a
p
C
a
p
s
b
C
b
p
C
b
p
Line a Line b t b
c
w
a
w
a
s
Electric wall for odd mode
Magnetic wall for even mode
t
b
= 0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.10
0.05
0.0
0
.0
5
0
.0
0.025
0
.6
0
0
.4
0
0
.2
0
0
.1
0
0
.0
2
5
c
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.80
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
c
C
f
e
c
O
R
t
b =
0
.8
0
Figure 12. Fringing capacitances for coupled rectangular bars.
s
b
t LINE a LINE b
c
f
'
c
f
'
c
f
'
c
f
'
c
f
'
e
c
f
'
e
c
f
'
e
c
f
'
e
c
f
'
o
c
f
'
o
c
f
'
o
c
f
'
o
c
p
a
c
p
a
c
p
b
c
p
b
w
a
w
b
ELECTRIC WALL FOR ODD MODE
MAGNETIC WALL FOR EVEN MODE
Figure 11. Cross section of parallelcoupled
rectangular lines.
COMBLINE FILTERS 683
when the groundplane spacing b is specied, the desired
bar width w
j
can be determined as follows:
w
j
b
1
2
1
t
b
_ _
1
2
C
j
e
_ _
C
0
fe
j1;j
e
C
0
fe
j; j 1
e
_ _
44
w
j
b
1
2
1
t
b
_ _
1
2
C
j
e
_ _
C
0
fe
e
C
0
f
e
_ _
45
4.2.2. Coupled Circular Rods between Parallel
Plates. Combline lters made from circular cylindrical
resonator rods can achieve the same excellent electrical
performance and at the same time may offer manufactur
ing advantages. Cristal has given design data for coupled
circular cylindrical rods between parallel ground planes
[4] that can be used to accurately design a combline lter
with circular resonator rods. Figure 15 shows the geome
try of the periodic, circular cylindrical rods between par
allel ground planes under consideration. The circular rods
have diameter d and are spaced periodically at a distance
c. The ground planes are separated at distance b.
The spacing between adjacent rod surfaces is denoted
by s and is given by
s c d 46
The total static capacitances of the rods are related to the
mutual capacitance between two adjacent rods C
m
and the
selfcapacitance C
g
of each rod. The total capacitance
measured between one rod and ground when the rods
are driven in the odd mode is
C
o
C
g
4C
m
47
C
f
C
f
C
f
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f
e
C
f C
a
p
C
a
p C
b
p
C
b
p
Line a Line b t b
w
a
w
a
s
Electric wall for odd mode
Magnetic wall for even mode
C
f
o
c
s
b
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.80
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
t
b
=0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.10
0.05
0.00
0.025
Figure 13. Oddmode fringing capacitances for coupled rectangular bars.
t b
0.0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
t
b
C
f
C
f
C
f
c
Figure 14. Fringing capacitance for an isolated rectangular bar.
cg
2
cg
2
cg
2
cg
2
cg
2
cg
2
c m c m
c
s
b d
Figure 15. Cross section of parallelcoupled circular rods.
684 COMBLINE FILTERS
assuming that both sides of the rod are having the same
potential conditions. The total capacitance measured be
tween one rod and ground when the rods are driven in the
even mode is
C
e
C
g
48
From Eqs. (47) and (48) we can obtain
C
m
1
4
C
o
4C
e
49
Cristals design graphs of the normalized capacitance C/e
versus normalized spacing s/b are given in Fig. 16 for C
m
/
e and in Fig. 17 for
1
2
C
g
=e.
As in the rectangular cross section resonator bar case,
to design a combline lter with circular cylindrical reso
nator rod, one rst needs to compute the C
j
and C
j; j 1
values of the lter using Eqs. (28)(36), where
C
o
C
j
50
C
m
C
j; j 1
51
and then use Fig. 17 of C
m
/e to determine the rod spacing
s
j; j 1
=b and use Fig. 16 of C
g
/e to determine the normal
ized rod diameter d/b.
4.3. TappedLine Input and Output
For a tap point located around the bottom20%of a l/4long
resonator rod, the relationship between the tap point and
the resulting loaded Q
e
is given approximately by [15]
Q
e
p
4
R
Z
0
_ _
1
sin
2
p=2l=L
_ _
52
Q
e
f
0
R
1
BW
53
where l is the height of the tap point to the bottom of the
resonator rod; L is the equivalent height of the resonator
rod, which is equal to l/4; R is the impedance of the input
or output port; R
1
is the element of the lters coupling
matrix; and Z
0
is the impedance of the resonator rod.
Figure 18 shows the graph of the equation for the
loaded Q.
0.05 0.15 0.25 0.35 0.45 0.55 0.65 0.75
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
10
d/b
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.05
b d
C
S
C
g
c
g
/
1 2
s/b
1
2
2
C
g
C
m
C
m
2
C
g
2
C
g
2
C
g
2
C
g
2
Figure 16. Graph of normalized mutual capacitance
C
m
/e versus
1
2
(s/b).
COMBLINE FILTERS 685
Cristal [17] later presented a general openwire equiv
alent circuit considering the effects of the coupled resona
tors using a graph transformation process for combline
and interdigital lter designs. In previous papers he as
sumed that the input or output port will be directly
connected to the tappedin point. However, for practical
applications, the tapped line will have an impedance
different from that of the input/output port and resonator
rod with a given electrical length. The tappedline length
and impedance can have significant effect and therefore
should be included in the analysis of the combline lter
input/output couplings. Figure 19 shows an equivalent
circuit of the tappedline input/output coupling neglecting
the effect of the rest of the resonators. In Cristals ap
proach, the graph transformation process or a circuit sim
ulator can be used to solve the tappedline coupling
circuit.
5. FILTER TOPOLOGIES
The combline lter design equations presented in the pre
vious sections are approximate and based on the direct
coupled lter type, typically exhibiting Chebyshev fre
quency responses. The stopband attenuation level is de
termined mainly by the number of stages of the lter. The
use of nonadjacent or crosscouplings in the narrowband
width bandpass lter with elliptic function response per
mits great exibility in the choice of the frequency
response. As a result, a smaller number of resonators
are required to meet the attenuation specication.
Theoretically, crosscoupling can be applied between
any two nonadjacent resonators of the lter, and also in
cluding the input and output ports. However, in practical
applications the crosscouplings that can be applied are
usually limited by the physical layout and complexity of
10
8
6
5
3
4
2
1
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.05 0.15 0.25 0.35
s/b
0.45 0.55 0.65 0.75
0.05
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
d/b
C
m
/
c
b d
c
c
g
2
s
c
g
2
c
g
2
c
g
c
m
c
m
2
c
g
2
c
g
2
1
2
Figure 17. Graph of normalized half self
capacitance
1
2
C
g
/e versus
1
2
(s/b).
686 COMBLINE FILTERS
the lters. The advantage of the lter with an extra num
ber of crosscouplings may be offset by the layout limita
tion, with much more development effort and the
sensitivity of the lter network, leading to longer tuning
time and poorer temperature stability.
Combline lters with either asymmetric or symmetric
frequency response may be realized to meet the desired
attenuation characteristics by applying the proper cross
coupling topology and values. For each desired lter trans
fer function, the conguration or topology that can achieve
the targeted frequency response is not unique. However, it
is usually preferable to achieve the desired frequency re
sponse by using known simple topologies. Figure 20 shows
typical canonicalform coupled resonator lters with
crosscouplings that can achieve the asymmetric frequen
cy response in part (a), and symmetric frequency response
in part (b) [13]. Topologies for socalled CQ and CT lters
are shown in Fig. 21.
Filters having complicated crosscoupling structures as
shown in Fig. 20 can achieve more transmission zeros us
ing a minimum number of crosscouplings. However, each
crosscoupling may affect more than one transmission zero
location, which usually makes them more difcult to tune.
For commercial applications when cost is a main concern,
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19
Q
t
Z
0
R
g
Q
n
Z
0
R
L
Singlyloaded resonator = Q produced by
" Tapping "
= 0.7 h
+ d h
( )
l
L
L =
z
4
h
d
R
Z
0
= 138 log (1.25 )
0.1L
l
R
Z
0
4
L
l
Q =
sin
2
( )
Figure 18. Loaded combline resonator Q versus
tappedline position.
L
i
C
1
s
L
T
L
i
Z
0T
Z
01
Z
01
L
T
C
1
S
Z
0
L
1
1
L L
T
Figure 19. An equivalent circuit for the tappedline input/output
coupling geometry.
COMBLINE FILTERS 687
the lter topology that makes the lter easy to design and
to tune will be very attractive to lter designers.
The cascaded triplet (CT) or cascaded quadruplet (CQ)
sections are relatively simple to tune. Each section is typ
ically responsible only for the transmission zeros that it
generates and therefore can be used as a basic building
block to create more complicated lter structures.
Figure 22 presents the examples using two CT or CQ
sections in the cascaded lters.
A CT lter consists of cascaded groups of three cavities
or nodes, each with one crosscoupling between rst and
third resonators in the CT section. The cross section will
introduce one transmission zero at either the lower or the
higher side of the passband depending on the sign of the
crosscoupling. A crosscoupling with negative sign or ca
pacitivetype coupling will generate the transmission zero
at the lower side, while the positive or inductive cross
coupling will generate the transmission zero at the higher
side. An aperture between two combline resonators usu
ally achieves positive coupling unless the aperture is at
the top of the cavity and the electrical length of the comb
line rod is over 751 [48]. A coupling bar or probe between
the top of the resonators can usually achieve the required
capacitive coupling.
Similarly, a CQ lter consists of cascaded groups of four
cavities or nodes, each with one crosscoupling between
the rst and fourth resonators in the CQ section. When
the crosscoupling is capacitive, one symmetric pair of
transmission zeros one at each side can be achieved. For
inductive crosscoupling, a pair of zeros will be on the real
axes, and as a result the group delay frequency response of
the lter may be equalized.
N + 2
1 2 3
K
N+1,N+2
K
1
,
N
+
2
K
2
,
N
+
1
K
3
,
N
K
2
,
N
+
2
K
3
,
N
+
1
K
N,N+1
JB
1
JB
N
JB
N+1
N + 1 N
S
N + 1
s
N
s
N/2 + 2
S
S I
N + 2
I
JB
1
JB
3
JB
2
S S I
1
I
2
s
K
12
K
12
K
12
K
23
K
23
K
23
3
s
N/2 + 1
s
K
1
,
N
+
2
K
2
,
N
+
1
K
N
/
2
+
1
,
N
/
2
+
2
K
3
,
N
(a)
(b)
Figure 20. Canonical prototype networks having (a) asymmetric
and (b) symmetric frequency responses.
g
m
g
m
g
m1
g
m+1
J
m1
g
m1
g
m
J
m
g
m
J
m
1
1
1
1
(a)
(b)
Figure 21. Typical lter building blocks: (a) cascaded triplet (CT)
section; (b) cascaded quadruplet (CQ) section.
1
2
3 4
5
6 M
01
M
12
M
23
M
23
M
45
M
56
M
34
M
67
M
67
M
78
M
56
M
34
M
12
M
13
M
46
7 0
1
2 3
4 5
6 7
8
M
01
M
45
M
89
M
14
M
58
0
9
(a)
(b)
Figure 22. Cascaded coupling diagram: (a) a sixpole CT lter;
(b) an eightpole CQ lter.
688 COMBLINE FILTERS
If the quadruplet section has two crosscouplings as
shown in Fig. 23, two asymmetric transmission zeros may
then be achieved. The locations of the zeros depend on the
relative sign of the couplings. Assuming that all the adja
cent couplings are inductive, Table 2 summarizes the lo
cations of the zeros corresponding to the sign of the cross
couplings. Similarly, a general veresonator section with
three transmission zeros can be analyzed [25]. Figure 24
gives an example of an eightpole combline lter having
ve transmission zeros using multiple crosscoupling four
and veresonator sections. The three highside zeros are
realized by the 15 crosscoupled veresonator section,
while the two lowside zeros are realized by the 58 cross
coupled fourresonator section.
As a general rule, a simple Chebyshev response lter
that meets the passband, but not the stopband, require
ments would be used as the starting point of the design.
By bringing transmission zeros from DC or innity to
nite frequencies, the desired stopband characteristics
can be achieved. In most cases, the overall degree of the
lter can be reduced compared with a Chebyshev design
that meets the same requirements.
6. EM SIMULATIONS
To realize narrowband combline lters with relatively
complex resonator topologies, all physical parameters
such as cavity and aperture dimensions need to be deter
mined from the given coupling matrix. Such lter designs
are now increasingly dependent on accurate electro
magnetic (EM) computer simulations, due to complexity
of the lter structures. As a result, strong interaction
between resonators cannot be neglected and should be
considered in the design. These requirements usually can
be satised only by EM simulation. As shown in Fig. 5, the
approximate design equations from Eqs. (24)(53) for
spacecoupled combline cases can be replaced completely
by EM simulations.
6.1. EM Simulators and Methods
Threedimensional (3D) EM simulation software is usual
ly preferred for use in cavitytype combline lter design.
The most commonly used numerical techniques for arbi
trary structures are the niteelement method (FEM) and
the nitedifference timedomain method (FDTD). These
methods can analyze complex structures but usually re
quire large amounts of memory and long computation
time. Other computer software can solve some common
structures very efciently (using much less memory) by
utilizing the properties of the structure, such as the mode
matching (MM) and transmissionline matrix (TLM)
methods. For planar structure problems, the method of
moment method (MoM) is usually used.
The commonly used commercial EM simulators are
Ansoft or Agilents HFSS using FEM, CSTs Microwave
Studio using the FDTD method for 3D arbitrary struc
tures, Agilents Momentum using FEM, Sonnets Em, and
Zelands IE3D using MoM for 3D planar structures.
For narrowbandwidthcoupled resonator lter design,
it is usually convenient to divide the lter into individual
pieces to determine the cavity and aperture dimension
separately when using the EM simulation software to
perform the design from the efciency and memory usage
point of view; otherwise too much simulation time will be
4 3
1 2
R
B
R
A
M
34
M
23
M
24
M
14
M
12
Figure 23. Generalized quadruplet section for twotransmission
zero implementation.
Table 2. Locations of Transmission Zeros for Generalized
Quadruplet Section
Case M
14
M
24
Number of Zeros (of
0
,4f
0
)
1 0 o0 1 (1, 0)
2 0 40 1 (0, 1)
3 o0 0 2 (1, 1)
4 40 0 2(j, j)
5 40 40 2 (0, 2)
6 40 o0 2 (2, 0)
7 o0 o0 2 (1, 1)
8 o0 40 2 (1, 1)
2 1 8 7
3 4 5 6
2 8 7
6 5 4 3
1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
0.8167 0.8287 0.8407 0.8527 0.8647 0.8767
8
3
1
(
d
B
)
Freq. (GHz)
8
1
1
(
d
B
)
(a)
(c)
(b)
Figure 24. An eightpole combline lter with ve transmission
zeros: (a) equivalent circuit; (b) layout; (c) measured frequency
response.
COMBLINE FILTERS 689
needed. Most of the parameters will be netuned by tun
ing screws at the prototype stage and during production.
6.2. Resonant Frequency
An EM simulator can model the resonator and determine
the resonant frequencies of both the fundamental and
higherorder modes. In addition, the eld distributions of
the resonant cavity can be obtained, including the tuning
screw as shown in Fig. 25. Figure 26 presents the typical
higherorder mode chart of the combline resonators with
the airgap between the rod and enclosure as a variable. It
is shown that TM
02
and HE
11
are the rst two higheror
der modes of the typical combline resonator. For the small
gap case, a resonator with a shorter length has a larger
mode separation. The resonant frequency of the rst
higherorder mode can be 35 times the dominant
mode resonant frequency when the height of the cavity
is 0.51.0 times the diameter of the cavity. The typical
smallgap reentrant cavity bandpass lter can achieve
a spuriousfree range of more than twice the center
frequency. This mode separation ratio decreases as the
gap increases.
6.3. Unloaded Q
Accurate determination of the unloaded Q factor of the
resonator is very important for combline lter design,
since it directly relates to loss, size, and cost of the lter.
Empirically, the unloaded Q of a combline resonator can
be estimated from the measurements of many practical
lters using the equation [21]
QKb
f
0
_
54
where b is the width of the cavity in inches, f
0
is the res
onant frequency in gigahertz, and K is a constant approx
imately equal to 1600 with b less than 0.08l for a practical
silverplated combline resonator. However, when b is
above 0.08l, K increases, and can be as much as 2800 for
b 0.18l. Figure 27 shows the measured unloaded Q of
the combline resonator expressed in K values with b/l in
terms of K as a function of b/l in the range between 0.12
and 0.20. The practical Q is dependent on factors such as
surface roughness, plating quality, tuning screw penetra
tion, and possible surface contact problems, which partial
ly explains the spread in the K values of various designs
having the same b/l.
EM simulation software can compute the unloaded Q of
a cavity accurately. Since a combline resonator has small
Figure 26. Typical mode chart of a combline resonator relative to
dominant mode as a function of gap.
1
0.8
0.6
y
/
y
m
a
x
Et, r / r
max
0.4
0.2
0
1 0.5 0 1 0.5
Figure 25. Typical electric eld distributions of a combline
cavity.
3000
2800
K=
2600
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14
b/z
0.16 0.18 0.20
Q
bf
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1
2
Figure 27. Measured normalized unloaded Q as a function of b/l.
690 COMBLINE FILTERS
loss, a perturbation method is usually incorporated for
this kind of computation. Figure 28 shows the computed
unloaded Q of the combline resonators versus the ratio of
the outer/inner diameter ratio D
2
/D
1
with different rod
lengths. It is shown that maximum unloaded Q of the res
onators occurs when D
2
/D
1
is approximately 3.6. Longer
rod length yields higher unloaded Q for the same D
1
and D
2
.
Both the resonant frequency and unloaded Q decrease
when the tuning screw penetrates into the cavity. The
tuning screw may have a strong effect on unloaded Q of
the combline resonator, which should be considered in the
lter design. Figure 29 shows the computed unloaded Q of
a combline resonator versus resonant frequency change by
the tuning screw.
7. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
Combline lters have been widely used in many commu
nication systems and microwave applications. They have
become more and more important for lowloss microwave
lters in the 0.512 GHz frequency band for both narrow
and wideband applications. Applications of combline l
ters also include diplexers (duplexers), multiplexers, and
delayline lters. When a combline cavity is lled with a
high dielectric constant material, it results in a dielectric
resonator having significantly reduced dimensions.
Another application for combline lters is to replace the
lowpass lter to achieve a very wideband spuriousfree
response in the system [49]. For this type of application,
the bandwidth of the lter is usually relatively large and
9000
6000
4500
3000
2 4 6 8
D2/D1
Q
f
Rod length = 70
Rod length = 50
Rod length = 30
D2
D1
Figure 28. Computed unloaded Q of a combline resonator versus
D
2
/D
1
Ratio.
3200
3000
2800
2600
2400
2200
2000
0.00 0.08 0.16
fo/ fo_max
0.22 0.27 0.31
Q
u
/
f
o
Figure 29. Unloaded Q of a combline resonator versus resonant
frequency as an effect of the tuning screw.
CHANNEL
1
G1
TL1
CHANNEL
2
G2
TL2
CHANNEL
N
GN
TLN
jBo
GC
EC
SUSCEPTANCE
ANNULLING
NETWORK
CHANNEL FILTERS
Figure 30. Schematic of a parallelconnected
multiplexer.
COMBLINE FILTERS 691
therefore does not require very high unloaded Q; thus the
lter can be very small in size. As the combline resonator
can have superior stopband performance, wideband spu
riousfree performance with a sharp rolloff skirt can be
achieved easily with combline resonator lters.
Multiplexers, particularly duplexers, are frequently re
quired by communication systems for RF front ends to
separate or combine both transmit and receive signals
[2837]. A schematic drawing of a commonly used paral
lelconnected multiplexer with N channels is shown in
Fig. 30. The multiplexer consists of channel lters and a
susceptance annulling network, which in turn consists of
transmission lines seriesconnected to each channel lter
and a shunt susceptance element at a common input port
to help provide a nearly constant total input admittance
[3338]. The susceptance annulling network is achieved
by optimizing the length and characteristic impedance of
the transmission lines and the shunt susceptance element
value to minimize the interaction among the channels. For
narrowband applications, the suceptance jB
0
of the an
nulling network can be maintained by offsetting the res
onant frequency of the rst cavities of the channel lters
to cancel the susceptance of the channel lters. Figure 31
is a photograph of a DCS (digital communication system)
duplexer consisting of two 6pole combline lters. Each
channel lter has two CT sections having two transmis
sion zeros at one side. Figure 32 presents the measured
frequency response of the duplexer.
Acknowledgment
The author would like to thank reviewers for reviewing
the article and many valuable suggestions.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. G. L. Matthaei, L. Young, and E. M. T. Jones, Design of Mi
crowave Filters, ImpedanceMatching Networks and Coupling
Structures, McGrawHill, New York, 1964.
2. G. L. Matthaei, Combline bandpass lters of narrow or mod
erate bandwidth, Microwave J. 6: 8291 (Aug. 1963).
3. W. J. Getsinger, Coupled rectangular bars between parallel
plates, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT10:6572
(Jan. 1962).
4. E. G. Cristal, Coupled circular cylindrical rods between par
allel ground planes, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.
MTT12:428439 (July 1964).
CH1
CH2
CH1
CH2
Center 1
Center 1
795 . 000
795 . 000
000 MHz
000 MHz
Span
Span
250.000
250.000
000
000
MHz
MHz
PRm
Con
PRm
Con
S
21
S
21
log MAG
log MAG
10 dB/
10 dB/
REF 0 dB
REF 0 dB
1 60.96
1 .2361
1 710.000
71.394 dB
1,785 GHz
3: .6204 dB
1,805 GHz
4: .2663 dB
1.83 GHz
2: . 7765 dB
1.785 GHz
3: 56.7 dB
1.805 GHz
4: 41.268 dB
1.88 GHz
000 MHz
dB
dB
1
2 3 4
8
2
1
1
2:
Figure 32. Measured frequency response of
the duplexer.
Figure 31. A 1.8GHz DCS duplexer.
692 COMBLINE FILTERS
5. E. G. Cristal, Data for partially decoupled round rods between
parallel ground planes (corresp.), IEEE Trans. Microwave
Theory Tech. MTT16:311314 (May 1968).
6. R. Levy and J. D. Rhodes, A combline elliptic lter, IEEE
Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT19: 2629 (Jan. 1971).
7. A. Atia, A. Williams, and R. Newcomb, Narrowband multi
plecoupled cavity synthesis, IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. MTT21:
649655 (Sept. 1974).
8. R. Levy, Filters with single transmission zeros at real or
imaginary frequencies, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.
MTT24:172181 (April 1976).
9. R. J. Wenzel, Synthesis of combline and capacitively loaded
interdigital bandpass lters of arbitrary bandwidth, IEEE
Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT19:678686 (Aug. 1971).
10. R. J. Wenzel, Synthesis of combline and capacitively loaded
interdigital bandpass lters of arbitrary bandwidth, IEEE
Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT19:678686 (Aug. 1971).
11. R. J. Wenzel, Exact design of wideband equalripple bandpass
lters with nonadjacent resonator couplings, IEEE MTTS
Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, 1976, Vol. I, pp. 125127.
12. G. D. OClock, Jr., Tunable frequency range and mismatch
adjustment for combline bandpass lters, IEEE Trans. Mi
crowave Theory Tech. MTT20:238239 (March 1972).
13. H. C. Bell, Canonical asymmetric coupledresonator lters,
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT30:13351340
(Sept. 1982).
14. R. Levy and S. B. Cohn, A history of microwave lter re
search, design, and development, IEEE Trans. Microwave
Theory Tech. MTT32: 10551067 (Sept. 1984).
15. M. Dishal, A simple design procedure for small percentage
bandwidth roundrod interdigital lters (corresp.), IEEE
Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT13:696698 (Sept. 1965).
16. S. B. Cohn, Generalized design of bandpass and other lters
by computer optimization, IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave
Symp. Digest, 1974, Vol. I, pp. 272274.
17. E. G. Cristal, Tappedline coupled transmission lines with
applications to interdigital and combline lters, IEEE Trans.
Microwave Theory Tech. MTT23:10071012 (Dec. 1975).
18. S. Caspi and J. Adelman, Design of combline and interdigital
lters with tappedline input, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory
Tech. MTT36:759763 (April 1988).
19. W.T. Lo and C.K. C. Tzuang, Kband quasiplanar tapped
combline lter and diplexer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory
Tech. MTT41:215223 (Feb. 1993).
20. C. Ernst and V. Postoyalko, Tappedline interdigital lter
equivalent circuits, IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave Symp. Di
gest, 1997, Vol. II, pp. 801804.
21. R. Levy, H.W. Yao, and K. A. Zaki, Transitional combline/ev
anescentmode microwave lters, IEEE Trans. Microwave
Theory Tech. MTT45:20942099 (Dec. 1997).
22. R. Levy, Direct synthesis of cascaded quadruplet (CQ) lters,
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT43:29402945
(Dec. 1995).
23. R. Hershtig, R. Levy, and K. Zaki, Synthesis and design of
cascaded trisection (CT) dielectric resonator lters, Proc. 27th
European Microwave Conf. and Exhibition, Sept. 1997, Vol. 2,
pp. 784791.
24. W. A. Atia, K. A. Zaki, and A. E. Atia, Synthesis of general
topology multiple coupled resonator lters by optimization,
IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, 1998, Vol. II,
pp. 821824.
25. J.F. Liang and D. Zhang, General coupled resonator lters
design based on canonical asymmetric building blocks, IEEE
MTTS Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, 1999, Vol. III, pp.
907910.
26. R. J. Cameron, General coupling matrix synthesis methods
for Chebyshev ltering functions, IEEE Trans. Microwave
Theory Tech. MTT47:433442 (April 1999).
27. R. Levy and P. Petre, Design of CT and CQ lters using ap
proximation and optimization, IEEE Trans. Microwave The
ory Tech. MTT49:23502356 (Dec. 2001).
28. E. G. Cristal and G. L. Matthaei, A technique for the design of
multiplexers having contiguous channels, IEEE Trans. Mi
crowave Theory Tech. MTT12:8893 (Jan. 1964).
29. R. J. Wenzel and W. G. Erlinger, Narrowband contiguous
multiplexing lters with arbitrary amplitude and delay
response, IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, 1976,
Vol. I, pp. 116118.
30. A. E. Atia, Computeraided design of waveguide multiplexer,
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT22:332336
(March 1974).
31. J. D. Rhodes, Design formulas for bandpass channel dip
lexers, IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, 1976,
Vol. I, pp. 112115.
32. J. L. Haine and J. D. Rhodes, Direct design formulas for
asymmetric bandpass channel diplexers, IEEE Trans. Micro
wave Theory Tech. MTT25:807813 (Oct. 1977).
33. J. D. Rhodes and R. Levy, A generalized multiplexer theory,
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT27:99111 (Feb.
1979).
34. J. D. Rhodes and S. A. Alseyab, A design procedure for band
pass channel multiplexers connected at a common junction,
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT28:246253
(March 1980).
35. P. M. LaTourrette, Multioctave comblinelter multiplexer,
IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, 1977, Vol. I,
pp. 298301.
36. P. M. LaTourrette and J. L. Roberds, Extendedjunction comb
line multiplexers, IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave Symp. Digest,
1978, Vol. I, pp. 214216.
37. P. M. LaTourrette, Widebandwidth combline lters with high
selectivity, IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, 1979,
Vol. I, pp. 275277.
38. W.T. Lo and C.K. C. Tzuang, Kband quasiplanar tapped
combline lter and diplexer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory
Tech. MTT41:215223 (Feb. 1993).
39. G. Ptzenmaier, Synthesis and realization of narrowband
canonical microwave bandpass lters exhibiting linear phase
and transmission zeros, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.
MTT30:13001311 (Sept. 1982).
40. A. Fukasawa, Analysiss and composition of a new microwave
lter conguration with inhomogeneous dielectric medium,
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT30:13671375
(Sept. 1982).
41. M. Sagawa, M. Makimoto, and S. Yamashita, A design meth
od of bandpass lters using dielectriclled coaxial resona
tors, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT33:152157
(Feb. 1985).
42. K. Hano, H. Kohriyama, and K.I. Sawamoto, A directcou
pled l/4coaxial resonator bandpass lter for land mobile
communications, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.
MTT34:972976 (Sept. 1986).
COMBLINE FILTERS 693
43. Y. Isota, M. Miyazaki, O. Ishida, and F. Takeda, A grooved
monoblock combline lter suppressing the third harmonics,
IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, 1987, Vol. I,
pp. 383386.
44. R. Levy, Simplied analysis of inhomogeneous dielectric block
combline lters, IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave Symp. Digest,
1990, Vol. I, pp. 135138.
45. T. Ishizaki and T. Uwano, A stepped impedance combline
lter fabricated by using ceramic lamination technique,
IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, 1994, Vol. II,
pp. 617620.
46. H. Matsumoto, H. Ogura, and T. Nishikawa, A miniaturized
dielectric monoblock bandpass lter for 800MHz band cord
less telephone system, IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave Symp.
Digest, 1994, Vol. I, pp. 249252.
47. H. Matsumoto, T. Tsujiguchi, and T. Nishikawa, A miniatur
ized dielectric monoblock duplexer matched by the buried im
pedance transforming circuit, IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave
Symp. Digest, 1995, Vol. III, pp. 15391542.
48. H. W. Yao, K. A. Zaki, A. E. Atia, and R. Hershtig, Full wave
modeling of conducting posts in rectangular waveguides and
its applications to slot coupled combline lters, IEEE Trans.
Microwave Theory Tech. MTT43 (Part II):28232829 (Dec.
1995).
49. J.F. Liang and W. D. Blair, HighQ TE01 mode DR lters for
PCS wireless base stations, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory
Tech. MTT46 (Part II):24932500 (Dec. 1998).
50. T. Olsson, P. Anderson, U. Jordan, M. Lisak, V. Semenov, and
M. Ahlander, Microwave breakdown in airlled resonators,
IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, June 1999, Vol. 3,
pp. 915918.
51. C. Wang and K. A. Zaki, Temperature compensation of comb
line resonators and lters, 1999 IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave
Symp. Digest, June 1999, Vol. 3, pp. 10411044.
52. C. Wang and K. A. Zaki, Analysis of power handling capacity
of bandpass lters, 2001 IEEE MTTS Int. Microwave Symp.
Digest, May 2001, Vol. 3, pp. 16111614.
COMPLEX MEDIA
LEWEI LI
WENYAN YIN
National University of
Singapore
Kent Ridge, Singapore
1. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS
For most media, the general form of constitutive relations
that account for multiple effects resulting from interaction
between electromagnetic waves and media can be ex
pressed by [1]
D
i
e
ij
E
j
g
E
ij
@
t
E
j
x
E
ijk
D
j
E
k
b
E
ij
B
j
a
E
ij
@
t
B
j
Z
E
ijk
D
j
B
k
1a
H
i
m
1
ij
B
j
g
B
ij
@
t
B
j
Z
B
ijk
D
j
B
k
b
B
ij
E
j
a
B
ij
@
t
E
j
Z
B
ijk
D
j
E
k
1b
where E
k
and H
i
are the electric and magnetic eld
components; D
i
and B
k
are electric and magnetic induction
components; and e
ij
, g
ij
B
, Z
E
ijk
, and so on are constitutive
tensors of different ranks. The space D
j
and time @
t
derivatives take into account spatial and temporal varia
tions of the eld.
For linear, stationary, and dispersive bianisotropic
media in the frequency domain, their constitutive rela
tions can be described by a set of equations as follows
[225] (e
jot
):
D
*
e
0
eo E
*
m
0
e
0
p
xo H
*
2a
B
*
m
0
mo H
*
m
0
e
0
p
Zo E
*
2b
where o is the operating angular frequency; the tensors
[e(o)], [m(o)], [x(o)] and [Z(o)] are the relative permittivity,
permeability and magnetoelectric tensors, respectively.
Apparently, Eqs. (2a) and (2b) are applicable for the
constitutive description of electromagnetically anisotro
pic, biisotropic chiral, uniaxially, or biaxially bianisotropic
media [2645]. Therefore, Eqs. (2a), and (2b) can incorpo
rate most practical applications of complex linear media
used in RF engineering.
2. CLASSIFICATION OF BIANISOTROPIC
1
MEDIA
2.1. Continuous Groups of Symmetry (CGS)
In Eqs. (2a) and (2b), four constitutive tensors are usually
described by a 33 matrix, respectively. However, accord
ing to the theory of continuous groups of symmetry (CGS)
developed by Dmitriev [1,4649], the number of indepen
dent elements in [e(o)], [m(o)], [x(o)] and [Z(o)] for a given
bianisotropic medium is completely governed by a certain
magnetic group of symmetry. From CGS theory, we can
understand the four constitutive tensors if the CGS of
medium is known. Typically, these tensors correspond to
the following CGSs:
D
4h
D
2d
; D
4h
D
2h
; C
4h
S
4
; C
4h
C
2h
;
D
4
D
2
; D
2d
S
4
; D
2d
D
2
; D
2d
C
2v
;
C
4v
C
2v
; D
2h
D
2
; D
2h
C
2h
;
D
2h
C
2v
; S
4
C
2
; C
4
C
2
; D
2
C
2
; C
2h
C
i
;
C
2h
C
2
; C
2h
C
s
; C
2v
C
2
;
C
2v
C
s
; C
i
C
1
; C
2
C
1
; C
s
C
1
3
1
The term bianisotropic denotes the property of being biisotropic
and/or anisotropic.
694 COMPLEX MEDIA
The constitutive tensors for these 23 linear complex media
are given as follows [1]:
1
D
4h
D
2d
: N
f
5: e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
xx
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
0 0
0 m
xx
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
0 x
xy
0
x
xy
0 0
0 0 0
_
_
_
_
; Z x
4a
2
D
4h
D
2h
: N
f
4: e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
xx
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
0 0
0 m
xx
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
;
x Z 0
4b
3
C
4h
S
4
: N
f
6: e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
xx
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
0 0
0 m
xx
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
x
xx
x
xy
0
x
xy
x
xx
0
0 0 0
_
_
_
_
;
Z x
4c
4
C
4h
C
2h
: N
f
4: e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
xx
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
0 0
0 m
xx
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
;
x Z 0
4d
5
D
4
D
2
: N
f
7: e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
xx
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
0 0
0 m
xx
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
x
xx
0 0
0 x
yy
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
;
Z x
4e
6
D
2d
S
4
: N
f
8: e
e
xx
e
xy
0
e
xy
e
xx
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
m
xy
0
m
xy
m
xx
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
x
xx
x
xy
0
x
xy
x
xx
0
0 0 0
_
_
_
_
;
Z
x
xx
x
xy
0
x
xy
x
xx
0
0 0 0
_
_
_
_
4f
COMPLEX MEDIA 695
7
D
2d
D
2
: N
f
6: e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
xx
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
0 0
0 m
xx
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
x
xx
0 0
0 x
xx
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
;
Z
x
xx
0 0
0 x
xx
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
4g
8
D
2d
C
2v
: N
f
6: e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
xx
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
0 0
0 m
xx
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
0 x
xy
0
x
yx
0 0
0 0 0
_
_
_
_
;
Z x
4h
9
C
4v
C
2v
: N
f
6: e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
xx
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
0 0
0 m
xx
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
0 x
xy
0
x
yx
0 0
0 0 0
_
_
_
_
; Z x
4i
10
D
2h
D
2
: N
f
9: e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
0 0
0 m
yy
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
x
xx
0 0
0 x
yy
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
; Z x
4j
11
D
2h
C
2h
: N
f
8: e
e
xx
e
xy
0
e
xy
e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
m
xy
0
m
xy
m
yy
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x Z 0
4k
12
D
2h
C
2v
: N
f
8: e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
0 0
0 m
yy
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
0 x
xy
0
x
yx
0 0
0 0 0
_
_
_
_
;
Z
0 x
yx
0
x
xy
0 0
0 0 0
_
_
_
_
4l
696 COMPLEX MEDIA
13
S
4
C
2
: N
f
9: e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
xx
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
0 0
0 m
xx
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
x
xx
x
xy
0
x
yx
x
yy
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
;
Z
x
yy
x
xy
0
x
yx
x
xx
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
4m
14
C
4
C
2
: N
f
9: e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
xx
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
0 0
0 m
xx
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
x
xx
x
xy
0
x
yx
x
yy
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
;
Z
x
yy
x
xy
0
x
yx
x
xx
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
4n
15
D
2
C
2
: N
f
13: e
e
xx
e
xy
0
e
xy
e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
m
xy
0
m
xy
m
yy
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
x
xx
x
xy
0
x
yx
x
yy
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
;
Z
x
xx
x
yx
0
x
xy
x
yy
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
4o
16
C
2h
C
i
: N
f
12: e
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
xy
e
yy
e
yz
e
xz
e
yz
e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
m
xy
m
xz
m
xy
m
yy
m
yz
m
xz
m
yz
m
zz
_
_
_
_
x Z 0
4p
17
C
2h
C
2
: N
f
13: e
e
xx
e
xy
0
e
xy
e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
m
xy
0
m
xy
m
yy
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
x
xx
x
xy
0
x
yx
x
yy
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
;
Z
x
xx
x
yx
0
x
xy
x
yy
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
4q
COMPLEX MEDIA 697
18
C
2h
C
s
: N
f
12: e
e
xx
e
xy
0
e
xy
e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
m
xy
0
m
xy
m
yy
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
0 0 x
xz
0 0 x
yz
x
zx
x
zy
0
_
_
_
_
;
Z
0 0 x
zx
0 0 x
zy
x
xz
x
yz
0
_
_
_
_
4r
19
C
2v
C
2
: N
f
13: e
e
xx
e
xy
0
e
xy
e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
m
xy
0
m
xy
m
yy
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
x
xx
x
xy
0
x
yx
x
yy
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
;
Z
x
xx
x
yx
0
x
xy
x
yy
0
0 0 x
zz
_
_
_
_
4s
20
C
2v
C
s
: N
f
12: e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
yy
e
yz
0 e
yz
e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
0 0
0 m
yy
m
yz
0 m
yz
m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
0 x
xy
x
xz
x
yx
0 0
x
zx
0 0
_
_
_
_
;
Z
0 x
yx
x
zx
x
xy
0 0
x
xz
0 0
_
_
_
_
4t
21
C
i
C
1
: N
f
21: e
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
xy
e
yy
e
yz
e
xz
e
yz
e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
m
xy
m
xz
m
xy
m
yy
m
yz
m
xz
m
yz
m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
x
xx
x
xy
x
xz
x
yx
x
yy
x
yz
x
zx
x
zy
x
zz
_
_
_
_
;
Z
x
xx
x
yx
x
zx
x
xy
x
yy
x
zy
x
xz
x
yz
x
zz
_
_
_
_
4u
698 COMPLEX MEDIA
22
C
2
C
1
: N
f
21: e
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
xy
e
yy
e
yz
e
xz
e
yz
e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
m
xy
m
xz
m
xy
m
yy
m
yz
m
xz
m
yz
m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
x
xx
x
xy
x
xz
x
yx
x
yy
x
yz
x
zx
x
zy
x
zz
_
_
_
_
;
Z
x
xx
x
yx
x
zx
x
xy
x
yy
x
zy
x
xz
x
yz
x
zz
_
_
_
_
4v
23
C
s
C
1
: N
f
21: e
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
xy
e
yy
e
yz
e
xz
e
yz
e
zz
_
_
_
_
;
m
m
xx
m
xy
m
xz
m
xy
m
yy
m
yz
m
xz
m
yz
m
zz
_
_
_
_
x
x
xx
x
xy
x
xz
x
yx
x
yy
x
yz
x
zx
x
zy
x
zz
_
_
_
_
;
Z
x
xx
x
yx
x
zx
x
xy
x
yy
x
zy
x
xz
x
yz
x
zz
_
_
_
_
4w
It is obvious that the constitutive features of normal
uniaxially anisotropic media such as microwave laminates
can be represented by the CGSs of C
4h
C
2h
or D
4h
D
2h
.
Uniaxially bianisotroic media, such as chiroomega media,
can be described by D
2d
C
2v
or C
4v
C
2v
. For gyroelectric
and gyromagnetic anisotropic media, their constitutive
features can be represented by D
2h
C
2h
. On the other
hand, it should be pointed out that in these constitutive
tenors, each element could be the function of operating
frequency, or even a complex quantity. The interaction
features of electromagnetic waves with various composite
bianisotropic structures can be found in the literature
[5054]. The constitutive tensors of some CGSs of bianiso
tropic media are described in detail below.
2.2. Ferroelectric Materials [5557]
Ferroelectric thin lms can be used as the substrate or
superstrate of various microstrip or coplanarwaveguide
based microwave devices (Fig. 1) that possess certain
tunabilities in their electromagnetic features. When the
crystalline principal axes of the ferroelectric lm are
oriented in the coordinate directions, the lm is reduced
to the simplied case of the CGS described above, namely,
D
2h
C
2v
and m m
0
I
, x
xy
x
yx
0. The lms permittiv
ity tensor Ie
f
m in the unbiased condition, the biasing
electric eld
~
EE
bias
0, can be expressed by
e
f
0
e
xx
0 0 0
0 e
yy
0 0
0 0 e
zz
0
_
_
_
_
5
When the biasing DCelectric eld is applied, Ie
f
mbecomes
e
f
E
*
bias
e
xx
E
*
bias
0 0
0 e
yy
E
*
bias
0
0 0 e
zz
E
*
bias
_
_
_
6
Here, each element e
f
E
*
bias
can be a function of each of
the three bias eld components E
x;y;z;bias
. If we assume, for
simplicity, diagonal functional projection of the bias eld
components onto the permittivity tensor Ie
f
m elements,
then we have
e
f
E
*
bias
e
xx
E
x;bias
0 0
0 e
yy
E
y;bias
0
0 0 e
zz
E
z;bias
_
_
_
7
Using the hexagonal perovskite crystalline form for
Ba
x
Sr
1x
TiO
3
(BSTO) thin lm, with the c axis parallel to
the y axis and having properties different from those in the
a and baxis directions parallel to the xz plane and having
the same effects, Ie
f
m takes an uniaxial form as
e
f
0
e
xx
0 0 0
0 e
yy
0 0
0 0 e
xx
0
_
_
_
_
8
COMPLEX MEDIA 699
In the case of E
bias
E
x
, the ferroelectric effect renders
Ie
f
m as
e
f
E
bias
e
xx
E
x;bias
0 0
0 e
yy
0 0
0 0 e
xx
0
_
_
_
_
9
and Ie
f
(E
bias
)m is biaxial.
It is understood that, as a rule, the losses in ferro
electrics decreases with decreasing temperature. So, after
the discovery of hightemperature superconductivity
(HTS), much effort has been devoted to combining HTS
with ferroelectrics to realize the tunability of microwave
devices in a lowloss situations. The modied microstrip
structure in Fig. 1 consists of a dielectric substrate (LAO
or MgO, typically 254mm thick), a ferroelectric thinlm
layer with thickness ranging from 300 to 2000nm for
various applications, and a gold or YBCO thin lm of
0.35 or 2mm thick for the top strip, respectively.
On the other hand, in order to achieve the desired
propagation characteristics of a ferroelectric microstrip
line or coplanar waveguide, an additional ferrite layer can
also be introduced in the substrate or superstrate
substrate structures presented above.
2.3. Sapphire
A nonmagnetic sapphire is also very important for high
frequency applications, and its relative permittivity tensor
can be expressed by
e
e
xx
e
xy
0
e
yx
e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
10a
e
xx
e
x
T cos
2
y
e
e
y
T sin
2
y
e
e
xy
e
yx
T e
y
T e
x
T sin y
e
cos y
e
e
yy
e
x
T sin
2
y
e
e
y
T cos
2
y
e
; e
zz
e
z
T 10b
where y
e
0
y
e
360
_
_
_
11
LA O
D2
D1
t
X
(a)
(b)
Y
Z
Y
MgO(LaAlO3)
2a
D3
(HTS) (HTS) (HTS
s w
BSTO
s
)
LA O
BSTO
D2
D1
t
WS S
(HTS) TS)
X
Y
Z
Y
MgO(LaAlO3)
2a
D4
D3
(HTS) (HTS) (HTS)
s w s
BSTO2
BSTO1
(c
0
, j
0
)
(c
0
, j
0
)
.
.
Figure 1. Crosssectional views of two composite ferroelectric
coplanar waveguides: (a) BSTO substrate; (b) BSTO superstrate
substrate.
700 COMPLEX MEDIA
In Fig. 2b, there is a transversely magnetized plasma
between two perfectly conducting parallel plates sepa
rated by a distance 2d, where the static magnetic eld
is applied in the x direction and wave propagation is in
the z direction. If the plasma is magnetized in the y
direction, normal to the conducting plates, the modes are
not, in general, separable into TE and TM modes.
Here the relative permittivity tensor can be written in
the form
e
e
xx
0 0
0 e
yy
e
yz
0 e
yz
e
zz
_
_
_
_
12
where each element in (12) is given in Ref. 61. Figure 2c
shows a suspended singleslotline structure and Fig. 2d, a
suspended coplanar waveguide.
When the biasing DC magnetic eld B
*
0
of the solid
state plasma in Fig. 2 is in an arbitrary direction (j
0
,y
0
),
its permittivity tensor can be described by (e
jot
)
eo
e
xx
o e
xy
o e
xz
o
e
yx
o e
yy
o e
yz
o
e
zx
o e
zy
o e
zz
o
_
_
_
_
13a
e
xx
o e
1
o e
2
o e
1
o sin
2
n cos
2
c
e
xy
o jgo cos n e
2
o e
1
o sin c cos c sin
2
n
e
xz
o fjgo sin ce
2
o e
1
o cos c cos ng sin n
e
yx
o jgo cos n e
2
o e
1
o sin c cos c sin
2
n
e
yy
o e
1
o e
2
o e
1
o sin
2
n sin
2
c
e
yz
o fjgo cos ce
2
o e
1
o sin c cos ng sin n
e
zx
o fjgo sin ce
2
o e
1
o cos c cos ng sin n
e
zy
o fjg cos ce
2
o e
1
o sin c cos ng sin n
e
zz
o e
1
o sin
2
n e
2
o cos
2
n
13b
In (13b), two consecutive rotations of angles c and n are
determined by the spherical angles j
0
and y
0
by
cos c
sin y
0
cos j
0
sin
2
y
0
cos
2
j
0
cos
2
y
0
_ 13c
cos n sin y
0
sin j
0
13d
e
1
o e
s
o
2
p
o jt
1
oe
0
o jt
1
2
o
2
c
13e
(a)
(d)
B0
s s w
b
Gyroelectric
substrate
D3
D2
D1
(b)
y
x
z
+d
B0
d
Gyroelectric
medium
p
r
o
p
a
g
a
t
i
o
n
(c)
w
D4
D2
D1
b
D3 c
d
B0
Gyroelectric
substrate
X
Z
Y
PEC
Gyroelectric
medium
B0
Perfect
conductor
Figure 2. Schematic diagrams of gyroelectric
waveguides and planar transmission lines:
(a) circular; (b) planar; (c) slotline; (d) copla
nar waveguide.
COMPLEX MEDIA 701
e
2
o e
s
o
2
p
oe
0
o jt
1
13f
go
o
2
p
o
c
oe
0
o jt
1
2
o
2
c
13g
where o
p
ne
2
=e
0
m
_
represents the plasma frequency;
o
c
eB
0
=m
_
_
_
14a
m
xx
o mo 1 mo sin
2
y
0
cos
2
j
0
m
xy
o 1 mo sin j
0
cos j
0
sin
2
y
0
jk cos y
0
m
xz
o jk sin j
0
sin y
0
1 mo sin y
0
cos y
0
cos j
0
m
yx
o 1 mo sin j
0
cos j
0
sin
2
y
0
jk cos y
0
m
yy
o mo 1 mo sin
2
y
0
sin
2
j
0
m
yz
o jk cos j
0
sin y
0
1 mo sin y
0
cos y
0
sin j
0
m
zx
o jk sin j
0
sin y
0
1
mo sin y
0
cos y
0
cos j
0
m
zy
o jk cos j
0
sin y
0
1
mo sin y
0
cos y
0
sin j
0
m
zz
o 1 1 mo sin
2
y
0
mo m
1
o jm
2
o
m
1
o 1
o
0
o
m
o
2
0
o
2
1 a
2
m
F
m
m
2
o
oo
m
a
m
o
2
0
o
2
1 a
2
m
F
m
ko k
1
o jk
2
o
k
1
o
oo
m
o
2
0
o
2
1a
2
m
F
m
k
2
2o
m
o
0
a
m
o
2
F
m
F
m
o
2
0
o
2
1a
2
m
2
4oo
0
a
m
2
14b
where ojgjH
0
; o
m
jgjM
s
, M
s
is the saturation magne
tization of the ferrite, g denotes to the gyromagnetic ratio
( 2.21 10
5
rad
.
m/C), a
m
identies the Landau
damping coefcient, and the loss is taken into account.
2.6. Biisotropic Chiral Medium
Since the early 1990s many researchers have explored the
diverse chirality effects in biisotropic chiral media on
electromagnetic wave propagation, radiation, and scatter
ing. Electromagnetic waves in chiral media show some
very interesting features, such as optical rotatory disper
sion (ORD), which causes the rotation of polarization; and
circular dichroism, due to the different absorption coef
cients of right and lefthanded circularly polarized waves.
Some component models using chiral media have been
proposed, such as chirowaveguides, chirolens, chirodomes,
chirostrip antennas, chiral resonators, and chiralmode
transformers [6383].
The constitutive equation for biisotropic chiral media
can be easily obtained from Eqs. (2a) and (2b), as
follows
D
*
e
0
e
r
E
*
m
0
e
0
p
x H
*
15a
B
*
m
0
m
r
H
m
0
e
0
p
Z E
*
15b
702 COMPLEX MEDIA
where we let e e
r
I
, m m
r
I
, x x I
jk I
, and
Z x
jk I
, where I
16a
H
z
q
16b
where U
7
are determined by
r
2
t
U
0 16c
X
Z
Y
1
(bi)(an)Isotropic
chiral media
Perfect electric conductor
(bi)(an)Isotropic
chiral medium
Perfect electric conductor
R2
R1
2
(a)
(b)
Figure 4. Geometries of chirowaveguides: (a) circular; (b) rec
tangular.
Ferrite D2
D1
X Z
Y
2a
D4
W
D3
t
MgO(LaAlO
3
)
(a) (b)
BSTO
Y Y
X
X
Z
Z
0
1
2
3
4
5
He
2a 2a
HTS
Ferrite
PEC
l
Wf
W1
W
Dielectric
Dielectric
HTS
[
(c
0
, j
0
)
Figure 3. Geometries of ferritebased tunable microstrip line and coplanar resonator: (a) BSTO
ferrite microstrip line; (b) multilayer composite HTSferrite coplanar resonator.
COMPLEX MEDIA 703
and more generally, by
S
C
1
C
4
C
1
C
4
2
4C
2
C
3
_
2
16d
q
C
1
C
2
16e
C
1
joA
43
Z
zz
A
41
e
zz
D
0
; C
2
joA
43
m
zz
A
41
x
zz
D
0
C
3
joA
21
e
zz
A
23
Z
zz
D
0
; C
4
joA
21
x
zz
A
23
m
zz
D
0
D
0
A
21
A
43
A
23
A
41
16f
Further, the transverse components electric and magnetic
elds inside the chirowaveguide can be expressed in terms
of E
z
and H
z
as follows [31,32,35,6971]
E
x
E
y
H
x
H
y
_
_
_
A
22
A
21
A
42
A
41
A
21
A
22
A
41
A
42
A
24
A
23
A
44
A
43
A
23
A
24
A
43
A
44
_
_
_
_
@E
z
@x
@E
z
@y
@H
z
@x
@H
z
@y
_
_
_
_
17a
where
A
21
a
3
b
2
a
4
b
3
a
2
b
1
D
; A
22
a
1
b
1
a
4
b
2
a
3
b
3
D
A
23
a
1
b
2
a
2
b
3
a
4
b
4
D
; A
24
a
3
b
4
a
1
b
3
a
2
b
2
D
A
41
a
1
b
5
a
2
b
8
a
6
b
9
D
; A
42
a
2
b
5
a
3
b
6
a
4
b
7
D
A
43
a
1
b
7
a
3
b
9
a
2
b
10
D
; A
44
a
1
b
6
a
2
b
8
a
4
b
9
D
b
1
a
2
7
a
2
8
; b
2
a
6
a
7
a
5
a
8
; b
3
a
6
a
8
a
5
a
7
;
b
4
a
2
5
a
2
6
; b
5
a
3
a
8
a
4
a
7
b
6
a
1
a
7
a
3
a
5
; b
7
a
4
a
5
a
1
a
8
;
b
8
a
2
a
7
a
3
a
6
; b
9
a
1
a
6
a
2
a
5
a
1
g oZ
xy
; a
2
joZ
xx
; a
3
om
xy
;
a
4
jom
xx
; a
5
oe
xy
; a
6
joe
xx
a
7
g ox
xy
; a
8
jox
xx
D
a
1
a
1
b
1
a
2
b
4
a
3
b
3
a
2
a
2
b
1
a
4
b
3
a
3
b
2
a
3
a
3
b
4
a
2
b
2
a
1
b
3
a
4
a
1
b
2
a
2
b
3
a
4
b
4
17b
where g is the mode propagation constant. In Fig. 4a, six
eld components of the guided hybrid modes HE(EH)
nm
can be expressed in a set of closedform equations. For
example, in the inner chiral region (rrR
1
) in Fig. 4a, the
tangential eld components are given by [69]
E
1
z
D
1
1
S
1
J
n
S
1
_
r D
1
2
S
1
J
n
S
1
_
re
jnj
18a
E
1
j
fD
1
1
M
1
J
0
n
S
1
_
r
jnN
1
r
J
n
S
1
_
r
D
1
2
M
1
J
0
n
S
1
_
r
jnN
1
r
J
n
S
1
_
rge
jnj
18b
H
1
z
D
1
1
q
1
J
n
S
1
_
r D
1
2
q
1
J
n
S
1
_
re
jnj
18c
H
1
j
fD
1
1
X
1
J
n
0
S
1
_
r
jnY
1
r
J
n
S
1
_
r
D
1
2
X
1
J
n
0
S
1
_
r
jnY
1
r
J
n
S
1
_
rge
jnj
18d
where D
1
(1)
and D
2
(1)
are unknown modeexpanding con
stants to be determined. Here, J
n
and J
n
0
are the Bessel
function of the rst kind and its derivative, respectively.
After some mathematical treatments, the mode dispersion
and attenuation characteristics in chirowaveguides can be
understood.
As in normal waveguides, various discontinuities may
also exist in chirowaveguides, as shown in Fig. 5. This
structure is symmetric in the zaxis direction, and the
scattering of the guided mode may be analyzed in terms of
the symmetric and asymmetric excitations as indicated in
Ref. 79.
Figure 6 shows two cases of a normal waveguide
partially lled with bianisotropic chiral media, and these
may be easily met in the measurement of chiral parameter
using some standard waveguide methods.
In the case of coaxial line lled with a biisotropic chiral
medium, the inuence of permittivity and length of chiral
sample W on the amplitude of scattering parameters
is depicted in Fig. 7, where a3.04mm, b 7.0mm,
c 6.0 mm, x
c
10
4
mho, and mm
0
.
2.6.2. Chiral Resonators. Chiral media can be used to
produce circular cylindrical and spherical dielectric reso
nators that are further used in lters and antennas.
Figure 8 shows the congurations of two chiral spherical
resonators [81].
704 COMPLEX MEDIA
The inner and outer electromagnetic elds of the chiral
sphere shown in Fig. 8a can be expressed by
~
EE
1
chiral
m;n
fja
mn
~
NN
1
e;mn
k
r
~
MM
1
e;mn
k
r
jb
mn
~
NN
1
o;mn
k
r
~
MM
1
o;mn
k
r
c
mn
~
NN
1
e;mn
k
r
~
MM
1
e;mn
k
r
d
mn
~
NN
1
o;mn
k
r
~
MM
1
o;mn
k
rg
19a
~
HH
1
chiral
1
Z
c
m;n
fa
mn
~
NN
1
e;mn
k
r
~
MM
1
e;mn
k
r
b
mn
~
NN
1
o;mn
k
r
~
MM
1
o;mn
k
r
jc
mn
~
NN
1
e;mn
k
r
~
MM
1
e;mn
k
r
jd
mn
~
NN
1
o;mn
k
r
~
MM
1
o;mn
k
rg
19b
and
~
EE
free
m;n
je
mn
~
NN
4
e;mn
k
0
r jf
mn
~
NN
4
o;mn
k
0
r
g
mn
~
M M
4
e;mn
k
0
r h
mn
~
MM
4
o;mn
k
0
r
~
HH
free
1
Z
0
m;n
jg
mn
~
NN
4
e;mn
k
0
r jh
mn
~
NN
4
o;mn
k
0
r
e
mn
~
MM
4
e;mn
k
0
r f
mn
~
MM
4
o;mn
k
0
r
19c
where a
mn
, b
mn
, c
mn
, d
mn
, e
mn
, f
mn
, g
mn
, h
mn
, are unknown
coefcients that can be determined by boundary condi
tions at r R
1
;
~
MM
1;4
eomn
k
0
r and
~
NN
1;4
eomn
k
0
r are
spherical vector wavefunctions. In the case of a multilayer
chiral spherical resonator, as shown in Fig. 8b, the elec
tromagnetic elds in each layer can be easily obtained as
given in Refs. 72 and 73. Straightforwardly, a set of
characteristic equations can be derived after some math
ematical treatments, and the Q factor as a function of
chirality parameter is shown in Fig. 9 for hybrid modes of
different orders [81]. As an example, the Q factor of hybrid
mode HE
m22
varies from 30 to 500 as x
r
increases from
zero to one.
2.6.3. Chiral Striplines and Chiral Slotlines. A chiral
medium can also be combined with other materials, such
as ferrites, to form some novel nonreciprocal chirostrip
transmission lines. Figure 10 shows the shielded
chiralstripline and two chiral slotlines with chiral and
ferrite substrates [42].
d
X
O
Z
(bi)(an)Isotropic
chiral medium
2t 2 2t 1
d1
Figure 5. Crosssectional view of a chirowaveguide grating [79].
0
w
Z
a
b
c
d
(bi)(an)Isotropic
chiral medium
(b)
cj
c
w
a
b
c
Z
(bi)(an)Isotropic
chiral medium
(a)
Figure 6. A waveguide partially lled with chiral media: (a) coaxial line; (b) rectangular
waveguide.
0.6
0.4
0.2
1
0.95
0.9
0.85
0.8
5
4
3
2
1 15
10
5
w (mm)
w (mm)
Dielectric constant
Dielectric constant
0
S
1
1
S
2
1
0
5
4
3
2
1 15
10
5
0
Figure 7. Inuence of dielectric constant and length of chiral
sample on the amplitude of scattering parameters for a coaxial
line partially lled with case [80].
COMPLEX MEDIA 705
Using the technique of exponential matrix in the
spectral domain, together with the Galerkin MoM
(method of moments) procedure, the mode dispersion
characteristics in these structures can be understood. As
an example, Fig. 11 shows the frequency dependence
of effective permittivity e
eff
in the structure shown in
Fig. 10b, and both chirality and gyrotropy are considered
here. The parameters chosen for calculation are assumed
to be f 40GHz, a3.556mm, D
1
D
4
3.3935mm, D
2
D
3
0.1625 mm, e
2
o 12:6 I
, M
s
(2)
m
0
0.275,
o
2
0
=o
2
m
0:30, a
2
m
0:0, y
2
0
90
, j
2
0
0
, x
2
o
Z
2
o
10
6
I
; e
3
o
_
2:2 I
; m
3
o
_
I
, x
3
o
_
Z
3
o
_
j0:5 I
a, and j0:8 I
b.
In Fig. 11, the ferrite substrate is magnetically biased
by a magnetic eld xed to the xaxis direction with
saturation magnetization M
2
s
m
0
0:275; o
2
0
=o
2
m
0:3.
Physically, such a unilateral chiral ferrite slotline is a
nonreciprocal structure, but only the effective dielectric
constant of forward wave is demonstrated here. It is
obvious that, at high frequency f 40 GHz and for strong
chirality, e
eff
decreases rapidly with increasing the slot
width.
2.6.4. Faraday Chiral Media. Faraday chiral media are
classied as chiroplasmas or chiroferrites in which the
effects of both gyrotropy and chirality are combined
[49,84]. Corresponding to the CGS of C
1
, their four
constitutive tensors can be described by
C
C
xx
jC
xy
0
jC
xy
C
xx
0
0 0 C
zz
_
_
_
_
; Ce; m; x; Z 20
where these tensors contain a total of 12 scalar quantities.
When a circular waveguide is lled with Faraday chiral
media, as shown in Fig. 4a, the longitudinal components
E
z
and H
z
can be decoupled and expressed by Eqs. (16a)
and (16b). Following a procedure similar to that described
in Refs. 32 and 35, the eld distribution in each layer can
be derived, and also the mode dispersion characteristics
can be understood. Some hybrid analytical and numerical
techniques, as proposed in Refs. 8589, can be employed to
study the combined effects of gyrotropy and chirality
on the guided hybrid mode characteristics. On the other
hand, it should be mentioned that to design and fabricate
Faraday chiral media, and further to extract their consti
tutive parameters at microwave frequencies, is very chal
lenging work. Although some methods have been proposed
[90], many difcult problems need to be explored by the
researchers in both material and microwave elds.
3. TYPICAL METHODOLOGIES
3.1. Exponential Matrix Technique in the Spectral Domain
Among the techniques used to deal with the interaction of
an electromagnetic wave with multilayer bianisotropic
media, we should mention the exponential matrix
technique proposed by Tsalamengas [4], which has been
successfully used to study source radiation and wave
R
1
Ri
0
R
1
(c
i
, j
i
)
RN
0
(c
0
, j
0
) (c
0
, j
0
)
(c, j,
c
)
(a) (b)
Figure 8. A single (a) and a multilayer (b) chiral resonators.
x
x
x x
x
x
x
x
HE
m11
24
Q
Q
20
16
12
8
4
0
0
(a)
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
r
HM
m11
HE
m12
HM
m12
HE
m13
HM
m13
HE
m14
HM
m14
(b)
HE
m21
HM
m21
HM
m22
HM
m23
HM
m24
HE
m22
HE
m23
HE
m24
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
Figure 9. Q factor versus chirality parameter for hybrid modes
of different orders: (a) e
r
10, m
r
1, n1; (b) e
r
10, m
r
1, n2.
706 COMPLEX MEDIA
propagation problems related to single, double, and
multilayer bianisotropic structures [34,3840,42,5054]
as shown in Fig. 12. Here, we let the z axis of a rectangular
coordinate system be normal to all boundaries and the x
and y axes lie in the plane of the top interface. In the zaxis
direction, the geometry has discrete variation in material
characteristics, and this structure may be with or without
a backed plane at z d
N
d
N
N
i 1
D
i
. For the
nonbacked case the regions z40 and zod
(N)
are usually
assumed to be free space e
0
; m
0
. The thickness of each
layer is denoted by D
(1)
,y,D
(i)
jd
i
d
i1
j; . . . ; and D
(N)
.
Mathematically, the four constitutive tensors e
i
o,
m
i
o, x
i
o, and Z
i
o (i 1,y, N) of each layer
may take any type of the above mentioned 23 CGSs or
even another form [1].
Assuming that a linearly polarized electromagnetic
wave is obliquely incident on a multilayer bianisotropic
medium, as shown in Fig. 12, four propagating modes with
different phase velocities can be generated in each layer.
After propagation through the medium, the polarization of
the transmitted eld is rotated with respect to the polar
ization of the incident wave. Now we introduce the
(a)
a
D
3
D
2
D
1
(c
0
, j
0
)
(b)
x
4
3
2
1
z
w
Chiral
Ferrite
o
a
D
4
D
3
D
2
D
1
(c)
z
D
2
D
3
2D1
2
1
O
Ferrite
Chiral
W
a
x
w
(an)Isotropic
Chiral
Figure 10. Crosssectional views of three
microstrip transmission lines with chiral
and ferrite substrate: (a) chiral stripline;
(b) unilateral chiral slotline; (c) bilateral
chiral slotline.
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
0.88
0.92
0.96
1.00
1.04
1.08
a
b
E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
d
i
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
c
o
n
s
t
a
n
t
Slot width W (mm)
Chiral
Ferrite
Figure 11. Slot width dependence of e
eff
b
=k
0
2
in a unilateral
slotline on a doublelayer chiralferrite substrate.
COMPLEX MEDIA 707
onedimensional Fourier transform domain dened by
~
cck
x
; z
1
2p
_
1
1
cx; ze
jk
x
x
dx 21a
cx; z
_
1
1
~
cck
x
; ze
jkxx
dk
x
21b
into the following Maxwell equations e
jot
:
r
"
HH
i
jofe
0
e
i
o
"
EE
i
m
0
e
0
p
x
i
o
"
HH
i
g;
22a
r
"
EE
i
jofm
0
m
i
o
"
HH
i
m
0
e
0
p
Z
i
o
"
EE
i
g
22b
Following a procedure similar to that proposed in Ref. 4,
the transverse eld components in each layer of multi
layered bianisotropic slabs can be expressed as
d
dz
~
E E
i
x
k
x
; z
~
E E
i
y
k
x
; z
~
HH
i
x
k
x
; z
~
HH
i
y
k
x
; z
_
_
_
q
i
11
q
i
12
q
i
13
q
i
14
q
i
21
q
i
22
q
i
23
q
i
24
q
i
31
q
i
32
q
i
33
q
i
34
q
i
41
q
i
42
q
i
43
q
i
44
_
_
_
~
EE
i
x
k
x
; z
~
EE
i
y
k
x
; z
~
HH
i
x
k
x
; z
~
HH
i
y
k
x
; z
_
_
_
_
23
where the matrix elements q
11
(i)
q
44
(i)
are functions of
spectral variable k
x
and material parameters (all the
elements of e
i
o, m
i
o, x
i
o and Z
i
o). After
some mathematical manipulations, their exact expres
sions can be derived and presented [38]. Furthermore,
the general solution to the vector differential Eq. (23) can
be written as follows:
~
EE
i
x
k
x
; z
~
EE
i
y
k
x
; z
~
HH
i
x
k
x
; z
~
HH
i
y
k
x
; z
_
_
_
T
i
11
z
$
T
i
12
z
$
T
i
13
z
$
T
i
14
z
$
T
i
21
z
$
T
i
22
z
$
T
i
23
z
$
T
i
24
z
$
T
i
31
z
$
T
i
32
z
$
T
i
33
z
$
T
i
34
z
$
T
i
41
z
$
T
i
42
z
$
T
i
43
z
$
T
i
44
z
$
_
_
_
~ zz z d
i
~
EE
i
x
k
x
; d
i
~
EE
i
y
k
x
; d
i
~
HH
i
x
k
x
; d
i
~
HH
i
y
k
x
; d
i
_
_
_
24
The matrix T
i
z
$
44
in (24) is a transmission matrix,
which physically relates to the tangential electromagnetic
elds on one surface z d
(i)
to the tangential elds on
another surface in the ith layer. Further, T
i
z
$
44
can
be expressed in the form of exponential matrix as follows:
T
i
z
4 4
e
zq
i
4 4
25
The procedure for calculating the exponential matrix in
(25) can be followed as described in Ref. 4, and is omitted
here.
The incident plane wave in the spectral domain can be
expressed as a superposition of TM and TE (with respect
to the y axis) as follows:
~
EE
inc
k
x
; z
~
HH
inc
k
x
; z
_
_
_
_
E
TM
inc
~ee
y
E
TE
inc
~ee
E
TM
inc
e
!
E
TE
inc
~ee
y
=Z
0
_
_
_
_
e
jk
0
x sin y
0
z cos y
0
26
where y
0
is the incident angle, k
0
o
m
0
e
0
p
; k
x
k
0
sin y
0
,
Z
0
m
0
=e
0
_
, ~ee
~ee
x
cos y
0
~ee
z
sin y
0
, and ~ee
x
, ~ee
y
, and ~ee
z
are the three unit vectors, respectively. The reected wave
elds in the spectral domain can be written as a super
position of TM and TE (to y)
~
EE
r
k
x
; z
~
HH
r
k
x
; z
_
_
_
_
E
TM
0
~ee
y
E
TE
0
~ee
E
TM
0
~ee
E
TE
0
~ee
y
=Z
0
_
_
_
_
e
jk
0
z cos y
0
27
(c
(i)
, j
(i)
,
(i)
, p
(i)
)
X
Z
z=d
(1)
z=d
(2)
z=d
(3)
z=d
(i1)
z=d
(i+1)
z=d
(N1)
z=d
(N)
z=d
(i)
z=0
:
:
2
3
i1
i
i+1
N1
N
1
Incident Wave
(c
0
, j
0
)
With(out) Backed plane
Transmitted wave
Reflected Wave
0
0
Figure 12. Cross section of multilayer bianiostropic medium
with(out) backed plane.
708 COMPLEX MEDIA
where E
0
TM
and E
0
TE
refer to the TM and TE components in
the reected waves, respectively. In Fig. 12, if there is no
backed plane at z d
(N)
, the transmitted waves into
region zod
(N)
are denoted by
~
EE
t
k
x
; z
~
HH
t
k
x
; z
_
_
_
_
E
TM
2
~ee
y
E
TE
2
~ee
E
TM
2
~ee
E
TE
2
~ee
y
=Z
0
_
_
_
_
e
jk
0
z d
N
cos y
0
28
where E
2
TM
and E
2
TE
refer to the TM and TE components in
transmitted waves, respectively. Furthermore, E
0,2
TM
and
E
0,2
TE
above can be determined by enforcing the boundary
conditions at each interface in Fig. 12. When the structure
shown above is backed by a perfectly conducting backed
plane, we have
E
TE
0
E
TM
0
_ _
R
11
R
21
R
12
R
22
_ _
E
TE
inc
E
TM
inc
_ _
29
where R
11,22
denotes for the copolarized reection coef
cients and R
12,21
represents the crosspolarized reection
coefcients [4]. In the nobacking case, the transmitted
matrix is determined by
E
TE
2
E
TM
2
_ _
T
11
T
12
T
21
T
22
_ _
E
TE
inc
E
TM
inc
_ _
30
where T
11,12
and T
12,21
are the co and crosspolarized
transmission coefcients, respectively. A more detailed
study on the co and crosspolarized reection and trans
mission characteristics of different layered omega(chiro)
ferrite geometries can be seen in Ref. 53. As an example,
Fig. 13 shows the variations of the co(cross)polarized
reection and transmission coefcients as a function of
the incident angle for a chiroferrite slab in free space, and
we let
e
1
xx
e
1
yy
5:0; e
1
zz
6:0; e
1
xy
e
1
yx
j0:3
m
1
xx
m
1
yy
0:9; m
1
zz
1:5; m
1
xy
m
1
yx
j0:4
x
1
xx
Z
1
xx
x
1
yy
Z
1
yy
j0:5; x
1
zz
Z
1
zz
j0:9
x
1
xy
Z
1
xy
j0:1; x
1
yx
Z
1
yx
j0:1
The biasing DC magnetic elds
"
HH
0
of all chiroparticles are
all along the z axis.
On the other hand, the technique described above,
combined with the Galerkin MoM procedure, can also be
extended to treat bianisotropic microstrip structures, as
shown in the literature [39,40,42,54]. However, it should
be mentioned that to deal with the mode dispersion
characteristics in a microstrip transmission line with
bianisotropic material, a general multilayer model is
shown in Fig. 14. It is evident that this model can
incorporate various applications [5557]. However, we
need to be careful about the destroy in image symmetry
of the constitutive tensors [54,91].
3.2. Extended FiniteElement Method (FEM)
The extended FEM as well as the FEMboundaryelement
method (FEMBEM) is able to treat wave propagation and
90 60 30 0 30 60 90
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
T11
T12
T21
T22
R11
R12(21)
R22
Chiroferrite
Incident angle (degree)

R
(
T
)
1
1
,
1
2
,
2
1
,
2
2

Incident
Reflected
Transmitted
Z H
0
x
Figure 13. R(T)
pq
(pq11,22,12,21) as a function of the in
cident angle y
0
for a singlelayer chiroferrite slab in free space
(solid dotted linesT
11;12;21;22
; empty dotted linesR
11;12;21;22
),
D
(1)
/l 0.5 (where l is the incident wavelength).
x
z=0
z=d
3
z=d
N1
Bianisotropic
superstrate
z=d
i
z=d
N
x
z
(c, j)
Bianisotropic
substrate
2a
Electric walls
at x=a, a
Strip
Grounded electric wall (or magnetic wall)
z=d
0
z=d
1
z=d
2
1
N1
N
i
i+1
2
3
Figure 14. Crosssectional view of a multiple microstrip trans
mission lines embedded in a multilayer bianisotropic superstrate
substrate.
COMPLEX MEDIA 709
radiation problems related to complex bianisotropic media
[26,92,93]. Figure 15 shows the geometry of a bianisotro
pic waveguide with an arbitrary cross section, where the
lled bianisotropic medium can be lossless or lossy. More
generally, the bianisotropic region may consist of several
types of bianisotropic media, but the structure must be
homogeneous in the zaxis direction.
Following a procedure similar to that used in Refs.
9294, for admissible test functions
~
EE
test
and
~
HH
test
, we
must have
e
_ _
e
f
~
E E
test
.
jr
~
HHo e
~
EE x
~
HH
H
*
test
.
jr
~
EEo m
~
HH Z
~
EEdx dy 0
31
where the appropriate interelement and boundary condi
tions are handled during the assembly
e
over all ele
ments. Here, both the necessary continuity requirements
on ~ nn
~
EE and ~ nn
~
HH and the additional requirements on ~ nn
~
BB and ~ nn
~
DD are, as described below, explicitly enforced on
the test and expansion functions. The six components of
the electric and magnetic test and expansion elds are
approximated on each element in terms of the values at
each nodal point according to
~
EE
~
HH
_ _
N
T
E
x
f g
E
y
_ _
E
z
f g
H
x
f g
H
y
_ _
H
z
f g
_
_
_
_
e
jbz
32a
where
N
Z
0
N f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g
0 f g Z
0
N f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g
0 f g 0 f g jZ
0
N f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g
0 f g 0 f g 0 f g N f g 0 f g 0 f g
0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g N f g 0 f g
0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 j N f g
_
_
_
_
32b
and Z
0
m
0
=e
0
_
. The real m1 column vector {N} is the
element shape function vector, m is the number of nodal
points on each element, {0} is a m1 null vector, and the
superscript T denotes a matrix transposition. The col
umn vectors {E
x
}, {E
y
}, {E
z
}, {H
x
}, {H
y
}, and {H
z
} are m1
complex eld vectors representing the nodal point values
of, respectively, E
x
/Z
0
, E
y
/Z
0
, jE
z
/Z
0
, H
x
, H
y
, and jH
z
on
each element.
By employing the standard Galerkin procedure with
the expansion in (32a) and (32b), we can obtain the
following generalized eigenvalue equation
o P b Q R
_ _
E
x
f g
E
y
_ _
E
z
f g
H
x
f g
H
y
_ _
H
z
f g
_
_
_
_
0 f g 33
where the column vector is composed of all the nodal point
variables used to represent
~
EE and
~
HH throughout the
waveguide cross section. Note that both the complex
propagation constant b and the real angular frequency o
may be treated as the eigenvalue, depending on which is
numerically most advantageous or of primary interest.
By expanding (31) in component form, the quadratic
sparse matrices [P], [Q], and [R] take forms similar to
those in Ref. 94, and
Q Z
0
e
__
e
0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g A f g 0 f g
0 f g 0 f g 0 f g A f g 0 f g 0 f g
0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g
0 f g A f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g
A f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g
0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g
_
_
_
_
dx dy
34
X
Z
Y
PEC
O
(bi)(an)Isotropic
chiral media
Figure 15. The bianisotropic waveguide with an arbitrary cross
section.
710 COMPLEX MEDIA
R Z
0
e
__
e
0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g C f g
0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g B f g
0 f g 0 f g 0 f g C f g B f g 0 f g
0 f g 0 f g C f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g
0 f g 0 f g B f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g
C f g B f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g 0 f g
_
_
_
_
dx dy
35
and
A N f g N f g
T
36a
B N f g
@ N f g
T
@x
36b
C N f g
@ N f g
T
@y
36c
The continuity of n
*
~
EE, n
*
~
HH, n
*
.
~
DD, and n
*
.
B
*
, where
~ nn is the unit normal vector perpendicular to an element
side in the transversal xy plane, is enforced. Also, the
sample thirdorder triangular mesh is shown in Fig. 16,
and in order to satisfy the interelement conditions, it is
sufcient to apply the following at each nodal point along
each internal side
~ nnE
p
~
EE
q
0 37
~ nn
~
HH
p
~
HH
q
0 38
~ nn
.
e
p
_
~
E E
p
x
p
_
~
HH
p
e
q
_
~
EE
q
x
q
_
~
HH
q
0 39
~ nn
.
m
p
_
~
HH
p
Z
p
_ _
~
EE
p
m
q
_
~
HH
q
Z
q
_ _
~
EE
q
0 40
where fE
*
p
;
~
HH
p
g and fE
q
;
~
HH
q
g represent unconnected eld
components in adjacent elements, p and q. To satisfy the
external boundary conditions at each nodal point along
each external side it is sufcient to enforce
~ nnE
*
p
0 41a
~ nn
.
m
p
_
~
HH
p
Z
p
_ _
~
EE
p
0 41b
on electric walls and
~ nn
~
HH
p
0 42a
~ nn
.
e
p
_
~
EE
p
x
p
_
~
HH
p
0 42b
on magnetic walls. From these equations, it can be found
that the total number of unknown is r6N
p
, where N
p
is
the number of nodal points.
As indicated in Ref. 94, the most important property of
the eigenvalue problem (30) now is the O(1/N) density of
the matrices [P], [Q], and [R]. This property ensures that
the maximum number of nontrivial matrix elements on
each row is independent of the dimension of the matrices.
Thus an upper bound of the densities becomes
r NN
z
=N
2
$ O1=N, where N
z
is the maximum number
of nonzero elements on each row and N is the matrix
dimension. Therefore, for large problems, sparse eigenva
lue codes can be used to save signicant amounts of
computer time an memory.
3.3. Extended Method of Line (MoL)
The normal method of line (MoL) [28] is very useful in the
analysis of planar radiative and transmissive microwave
components. This method was developed by mathemati
cians and physicists in order to solve partialdifferential
equations in the electromagnetic analysis of optical and
microwave devices, for the numerical solution of the
partialdifferential Helmholtz equation. Originally devel
oped to study planar waveguides, MoL was also extended
to study stratied microwave components with arbitrarily
shaped cross sections and microstrip discontinuities, in
cluding onedimensional and bidimensional resonators
and antennas. The latest extensions of this method have
been achieved to study gyrotropic media and microwave
components mounted on cylindrical or spherical struc
tures.
The standard version of MoL, does not allow for the
study of elements with bianisotropic superstratesub
strates. More recently, an extended MoL numerical pro
cedure, which allows for the analysis of components in
the presence of any linear, inhomogeneous, or lossy
bianisotropic medium, has been developed [28]. Such an
extension is based on the generalization of the transmis
sionline equations for a general linear medium.
n
Element p
Element q
Figure 16. A portion of a sample of thirdorder mesh in the
bianisotropic region.
COMPLEX MEDIA 711
Applying the curl Maxwell equations in a sourceless
bianisotropic region, and after some mathematical manip
ulations, a set of transmissionline equations for a biani
sotropic medium in Cartesian coordinates can be derived
as follows e
jot
@E
t
@" zz
A
xx
A
xy
A
yx
A
yy
_ _
E
t
Z
xx
Z
xy
Z
yx
Z
yy
_ _
~
HH
t
43a
@H
t
@" zz
Y
xx
Y
xy
Y
yx
Y
yy
_ _
E
t
B
xx
B
xy
B
yx
B
yy
_ _
~
HH
t
43b
where E
t
Ex
Ey
_ _
; H
t
Hx
Hy
_ _
,
~
HH
t
Z
0
H
t
, and Z
0
m
0
=e
0
_
.
The 16 operatorial tensor elements A
ij
; B
ij
; Y
ij
; Z
ij
, where i,
j x, y, z, involve both the constitutive tensor entries and
the transverse derivatives and are given in Ref. 28 and
omitted here, and are very similar to the expressions
shown in Ref. 34.
It should be noted that Eqs. (43a) and (43b) can be
decoupled only for particular bianisotropic media whose
constitutive parameters allow the coupling matrices [A]
and [B] to vanish. The necessary and sufcient condition
on the medium constitutive tensors to obtain decoupled
equations, independently from the excitation, can be
written in the following form [28]
e
e
xx
e
xy
0
e
yx
e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
; m
m
xx
m
xy
0
m
yx
m
yy
0
0 0 m
zz
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
;
x
0 0 x
xz
0 0 x
yz
x
zx
x
zy
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
; Z
0 0 Z
xz
0 0 Z
yz
Z
zx
Z
zy
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
44
which represents the CGS of C
2h
C
s
above. Under such
circumstances, a standard MoL procedure similar to that
expressed in (43) can be used, and we have
@
2
E
t
@" zz
2
P
E
E
t
;
@
2
H
t
@" zz
2
Q
E
H
t
: 45a;b
This set of equations can be easily discretized in two
dimensions and then diagonalized, and the electromag
netic characteristics of the structure, as shown in Figs.
17a and 17b, can be further understood.
In the general case, an extended version of MoL needs
to be developed, as discussed in Ref. 28. Starting from
(43a) and (43b) and discretizing in the transverse plane as
in the standard MoL, a set of equations involving trans
verse eld components can be derived as follows
d
^
EE
t
d" zz
^
AA
^
EE
t
^
ZZ
^
HH
t
46a
d
^
HH
t
d" zz
^
YY
^
EE
t
^
BB
^
HH
t
46b
where the symbol ^ stands for bidimensional discretiza
tion. Here [
^
EE
t
] and [
^
HH
t
] depend only on z, respectively, as
shown in Fig. 18, where
^
EE
x
and
^
HH
y
are calculated on lines
denoted by o, while
^
EE
y
and
^
HH
x
are sampled on lines
denoted by K. The other two sets, denoted by empty and
solid square dots, respectively, contain the lines in which
the centraldifference derivatives are computed.
In Fig. 18, d
x
and d
y
are the discretization steps for the
centraldifference operators along x and y, respectively.
The matrices
^
AA;
^
ZZ;
^
YY; and
^
BB are obtained from
Eqs. (4), given in Ref. 28, substituting their elements
with discretized quantities. First of all, partial derivatives
are substituted with centraldifference matrices
^
DD, also
including the boundary conditions.
0
x
y
z
0
x
y
z
(a) (b)
D
1
D
2
b
a
(c)
Bianisotropic substrates Bianisotropic substrates
Microstrip
Patch
PEC
(bi)(an)Isotropic chiral
substrate
Figure 17. Microstrip transmission lines and antenna on biani
sotropic substrates.
dx
lx
ly
a
b
0
0
N
y
0
+1
N
x
0
+1
dy
Figure 18. Rectangular patch with discretization lines.
712 COMPLEX MEDIA
Equations (46a) and (46b) are the algebraic discretized
versions of the generalized transmission line equations,
and they can be changed into
d
^
cc
d" zz
^
AA
^
ZZ
^
YY
^
BB
_ _
^
cc 47
where
^
cc
^
EE
t
^
HH
t
_
T
and the superscript T represents
the transpose of matrix. It is evident that the solution to
(47) is in the form of an exponential matrix, which is well
documented in Ref. 4 and used elsewhere in the literature
[34,3840,5054] by enforcing certain boundary conditions.
As a numerical example, Fig. 19 shows the geometry of
a patch cavity resonator loaded with a bianisotropic sub
strate, and the resonant frequency versus patch side
length is depicted in Fig. 20 for e
r
2:0, D0.8mm, and
ab 10 cm.
In Fig. 18, the bianisotropic substrate is characterized
by the CGS of D
2d
C
2v
, and
e e
0
e
r
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
; m m
0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
;
x c
1
0
0 jx 0
jx 0 0
0 0 0
_
_
_
_
; Z x
48
where c
0
3 10
8
m=s. It is seen that, compared to the
isotropic case, the resonant frequency changes very little
for a given patch width, and this is because the bianiso
tropic substrate is supposed to be very thin and the
magnetoelectric coupling effect is very weak [28].
3.4. FiniteDifference TimeDomain Method (FDTD)
The nitedifference timedomain (FDTD) method [95] is
the most popular threedimensional fullwave numerical
algorithm that has been used to model electromagnetic
phenomena and interactions in various elds. The simpli
city and effectiveness of FDTD method stem from the
utilization of a Cartesian grid from the discretization of
the structure, with appropriate staggering of the un
known discrete values of the components of the electric
and magnetic eld vectors in such a manner that the curl
operations in Maxwells equations can be approximated in
terms of secondorder accurate nite differences. The
staggering of the elds is known as the Yee lattice. This
discretization results in a state space representation of the
discrete values of all six components of the electric and
magnetic elds on the grid. The simplicity and versatility
of the FDTD algorithm, combined with its suitability for
parallel implementation, has prompted aggressive re
search and development toward its further enhancement.
In the time domain, the constitutive equations of
biisotropic chiral media can be expressed by
~
DDt e
~
EEt
w
c
0
~
HHt
1
c
0
_
t
0
k
0
t
~
HHt tdt 49a
~
BBt m
~
HHt
w
c
0
~
EEt
1
c
0
_
t
0
k
0
t
~
EEt tdt 49b
X
Y
Z
D
a
Bianisotropic
substrate
b
Patch
lp2
lp1
Figure 19. A patch cavity resonator loaded
with a bianisotropic substrate.
Isotopic
=2
=4
10
9
8
8
7
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
1
2
2 1
Patch side length (l
p1
= l
p2
) (cm)
R
e
s
o
n
a
n
t
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
(
G
H
z
)
Figure 20. Resonant frequency versus patch side length [28].
COMPLEX MEDIA 713
and (49a) and (49b) respectively can be further discretized
as
~
DDn e
~
EEn
w
c
0
~
HHn
1
c
0
n1
m0
~
HHn m
_
m1Dt
mDt
k
0
tdt
50a
~
BBn m
~
HHn
w
c
0
~
EEn
1
c
0
n1
m0
~
EEn m
_
m1Dt
mDt
k
0
tdt
50b
The complex timedomain chirality parameter ^ kk
0
t is
dened as [95]
^ kk
0
t j
to
2
0
1 x
2
_ e
xo
0
t jfo
0
1x
2
p
t
51
while the timedomain chirality parameter should be the
real part of ^ kk
0
t, and
k
0
mDt
_
m1Dt
mDt
k
0
tdt 52a
^ kk
0
mDt
_
m1Dt
mDt
^ kk
0
tdt 52b
In the time domain, the time dependences of both permit
tivity and permeability are described by the following
equations:
et e
0
e
1
dt
e
s
e
1
o
0e
e
o
0e
x
e
t
1 x
2
e
_ sino
0e
1 x
2
e
_
t
_
_
_
_
53a
mt m
0
m
1
dt
m
s
m
1
o
0m
e
o
0m
x
m
t
1 x
2
m
_ sino
0m
1 x
2
m
_
t
_
_
_
_
53b
Further, (50a) and (50b) respectively become [95]
~
DDn e
0
e
1
~
EEn
w
c
0
~
HHn e
0
Re ^ ww
e
0
~
EEn
e
0
Re
^
~
cc
~
cc
E
w
e
n 1e
x
e
j
1x
2
e
p
o
0e
Dt
_
Re ^ kk
0
0
c
0
~
HHn
1
c
0
Re
^
~
cc
~
cc
H
k
n 1
e
xj
1x
2
p
o
0
Dt
_
54a
~
BBn m
0
m
1
~
HHn
w
c
0
~
EEn m
0
Re ^ ww
m
0
~
HHn
m
0
Re
^
~
cc
~
cc
H
w
m
n 1e
x
m
j
1x
2
m
p
o
0m
Dt
_
Re ^ kk
0
0
c
0
~
EEn
1
c
0
Re
^
~
cc
~
cc
E
k
n 1
e
xj
1x
2
p
o0Dt
_
54b
where
^
~
cc
~
cc
F
j
n
n1
m0
~
FFn m ^ jjm 54c
Finally, the general algorithm for dispersive biisotropic
chiral media can be found, and in this algorithm [95],
we must
1. Update the y component of the electric displacement
D
y
i 1=2
n
1
2
and the magnetic ux density
B
y
i 1=2
n
1
2
by
D
y
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
e
0
e
1
E
y
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
e
0
Re ^ ww
e
0E
y
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
e
0
Re
^
cc
E
y
w
e
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
e
x
e
j
1x
2
e
p
o
0e
Dt
w
c
0
H
y
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
Re ^ kk
0
0
c
0
H
y
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
1
c
0
Re
^
cc
H
y
k
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
e
xj
1x
2
p
o
0
Dt
55a
B
y
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
m
0
m
1
H
y
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
m
0
Re ^ ww
e
0H
y
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
m
0
Re
^
cc
E
y
w
m
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
e
x
m
j
1x
2
m
p
o
0m
Dt
w
c
0
E
y
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
Re ^ kk
0
0
c
0
E
y
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
1
c
0
Re
^
cc
E
y
k
i 1=2
n
1
2
_ _
e
xj
1x
2
p
o
0
Dt
55b
714 COMPLEX MEDIA
2. Update the x component of the electric displacement
D
x
i
n1 and the magnetic ux density B
x
i 1
n1
by
D
x
i
n1 e
0
e
1
E
x
i 1
n1 e
0
Re^ ww
e
0E
x
i 1
n1
e
0
Re
^
cc
E
x
w
e
i 1
ne
x
e
j
1x
2
e
p
o
0e
Dt
w
c
0
H
x
i
n1
Re ^ kk0
c
0
H
x
i
n1
1
c
0
Re
^
cc
H
x
ki
ne
xj
1x
2
p
o
0
Dt
56a
B
x
i
n1 m
0
m
1
H
x
i
n1
m
0
Re ^ ww
m
0H
x
i
n1
m
0
Re
^
cc
Ex
w
mi
ne
x
m
j
1x
2
m
p
o
0m
Dt
w
c
0
E
x
i
n1
Re ^ kk
0
0
c
0
E
x
i
n1
1
c
0
Re
^
cc
Ex
ki
ne
xj
1x
2
p
o
0
Dt
56b
On the basis of (56a) and (56b), the interaction of a
transient microwave signal with biisotropic media can be
fully understood, in particular the material dispersion and
loss effects.
To use biisotropic and bianisotropic chiral media to
fabricate certain microwave devices, there are still many
challenging problems that need to be explored further,
such as the control or optimization of material parameters
and their measurements.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. V. Dmitriev, Table of the second rank constitutive tensors for
linear homogeneous media described by the point magnetic
groups of symmetry, Prog. Electromagn. Res. PIER28:4395
(2000).
2. D. Graglia, P. L. E. Uslenghi, and R. E. Zich, Reection and
transmission for planar structures of bianisotropic media,
Electromagnetics 11:193208 (1991).
3. F. L. Mesa, R. Marques, and M. Horno, A general algorithm
for computing the bidimensional spectral Greens dyad in
multilayered complex bianisotropic media: The equivalent
boundary method, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.
MTT39:16401649 (1991).
4. J. L. Tsalamengas, Interaction of electromagnetic waves with
general bianisotropic slabs, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory
Tech. MTT40:18701878 (1992).
5. I. V. Lindell, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, Planewave
propagation in a uniaxial chiroomega medium, Microwave
Opt. Technol. Lett. 6:517520 (1993).
6. I. V. Lindell and A. J. Viitanen, Plane wave propagation in
uniaxial bianisotropic medium, Electron. Lett. 29:150152
(1993).
7. A. Lakhtakia and W. S. Weiglhofer, Axial propagation in
general helicoidal bianisotropic media, Microwave Opt. Tech
nol. Lett. 6:804806 (1993).
8. S. A. Tretyakov and A. A. Sochava, Proposed composite
materials for nonreected shields and antenna radomes,
Electron. Lett. 29:10481049 (1993).
9. A. J. Viitanen and I. V. Lindell, Plane wave propagation in a
uniaxial bianisotropic medium with an application to a
polarization transformer, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves
14:19932010 (1993).
10. S. He and I. V. Lindell, Propagation eigenmodes for plane
waves in a uniaxial bianisotropic medium and reection from
a planar interface, IEEE Trans. Anten. Propag. AP41:
16591664 (1993).
11. S. He, Wave propagation through dielectricuniaxial bianiso
tropic interface and the computation of Brewster angles,
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11:24032409 (1993).
12. S. He, Y. Hu, and S. Strom, Electromagnetic scattering from a
stratied bianisotropic slab, IEEE Trans. Anten. Propag.
AP42:856858 (1994).
13. M. Norgren and S. He, General scheme for electromagentic
reection and transmission for composite structures of
complex materials, IEE Proc. Microwave Anten. Propag.
142:5256 (1995).
14. A. Lakhtakia and W. S. Weiglhofer, Inuence of pitch on
attenuation and handedness of axial propagation modes in
helicoidal bianisotropic media, Opt. Commun. 111:199
(1994).
15. A. Lakhtakia and W. S. Weiglhofer, On light propagation in
helicoidal bianisotropic medium, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A
438:419437 (1995).
16. A. Lakhtakia and W. S. Weiglhofer, Further results on light
propagation in helicoidal bianisotropic mediums: oblique
propagation, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 453:93105 (1997).
17. M. Norgren, Optimal design using stratied bianisotropic
media: Application to antireection coatings, J. Electromagn.
Waves Appl. 12:939959 (1998).
18. D. Y. Khaliullin and S. A. Tretyakov, Reection and transmis
sion coefcients for thin bianisotropic layers, IEE Proc. Micro
wave Anten. Propag. 145:163168 (1998).
19. C. R. Simovski, M. S. Kondratjev, P. A. Belov, and S. A.
Tretyakov, Interaction effects in twodimensional bianisotro
pic arrays, IEEE Trans. Anten. Propag. AP47:14291439
(1999).
20. V. Losada, R. R. Boix, and M. H. Horno, Fullwave analysis of
circular microstrip resonators in multilayered media contain
ing uniaxial anisotropic dielectric, magnetized ferrites, and
chiral materials, IEEE Trans. Anten. Propag. AP48:
10571064 (2000).
21. A. Toscano and L. Vegni, Analysis of printedcircuit antennas
with chiral substrates with the method of lines, IEEE Trans.
Anten. Propag. AP49:4854 (2001).
22. E. O. Kamenetskii, Nonreciprocal microwave bianisotropic
materials: Reciprocity theoremand network reciprocity, IEEE
Trans. Anten. Propag. AP49:361366 (2001).
23. L. Vegni, F. Bilotti, and A. Toscano, Analysis of cavity backed
rectangular patch antennas with inhomogeneous chiral sub
strates via a FEMBEM formulation, IEEE Trans. Magn.
37:32603263 (2001).
24. E. L. Tan, Vector wave function expansions of dyadic Greens
functions for bianisotropic media, IEE Proc. H, Microwaves
Anten. Propag. 149:5763 (2002).
COMPLEX MEDIA 715
25. W. S. Weiglhofer and A. Lakhtakia, Analytical investigation
of electromagnetic waves in bianisotropic media, IEE Proc. H,
Microwaves Anten. Propag. 149:138139 (2002).
26. F. Bilotti, A. Toscano, and L. Vegni, FEMBEM formulation
for the analysis of cavitybacked patch antennas on chiral
substrates, IEEE Trans. Anten. Propag. AP51:306311
(2003).
27. F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and A. Toscano, Radiation and scattering
features of patch antennas with bianisotropic substrates,
IEEE Trans. Anten. Propag. AP51:449456 (2003).
28. A. Alu, F. Bilotti, and L. Vegni, Extended method of line
procedure for the analysis of microwave components with
bianisotropic inhomogeneous media, IEEE Trans. Anten.
Propag. AP51:15821589 (2003).
29. W. Y. Yin, W. Wan, and W. B. Wang, Guided electromagnetic
waves in parallelplate gyroelectromagnetic biaxial chirowa
veguides, J. Modern Opt. 41:5965 (1994).
30. W. Y. Yin and W. Wan, Spectraldomain decoupling method of
electromagnetic waves propagation and radiating in bianiso
tropic gyroelectromagnetic chiral media, Microwave Opt.
Technol. Lett. 7:187193 (1994).
31. W. Y. Yin, W. Wan, and W. B. Wang, Mode characteristics in a
circular uniaxial chiroomega waveguide, Electron. Lett.
30:10721073 (1994).
32. W. Y. Yin, W. Wan, and W. B. Wang, Guided electromagnetic
waves in gyrotropic chirowaveguides, IEEE Trans. Micro
wave Theory Tech. 42:21562163 (1994).
33. W. Y. Yin and W. Wan, The combined effect of dispersion and
damping on the scattering characteristics of Faraday chiral
cylindrical scatterers, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 10:
189194 (1995).
34. W. Y. Yin, W. Wan, and W. B. Wang, Radiation from a dipole
antenna on twolayer grounded Faraday chiral substrates, J.
Electromagn. Waves Appl. 7:10271044 (1995).
35. W. Y. Yin, W. Wan, and W. B. Wang, Mode bifurcation and
attenuation in circular Faraday chirowaveguidesummary,
J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 10:13891394 (1996).
36. W. Y. Yin, Scattering by a linear array of uniaxial bianiso
tropic chiral cylinders, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 12:
287295 (1996).
37. W. Y. Yin, Scattering by two parallel cladded bianisotropic
uniaxial chiral bers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13:28332840 (1996).
38. W. Y. Yin, G. H. Nan, and I. Wolff, The combined effects of
chiral operation in multilayered bianisotropic substrates,
Prog. Electromagn. Res. PIER20:153178 (1998).
39. W. Y. Yin and I. Wolff, Bilateral coplanar waveguide and
periodic microstrip line in bianisotropic superstratesubstrate
structures, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 13:259275 (1999).
40. W. Y. Yin, L. W. Li, and I. Wolff, The compatible effects of
gyrotropy and chirality in biaxially bianisotropic chiral and
chiroferrite microstrip line structures, Int. J. Num. Model.
Electron. Networks Devices Fields 10:209227 (1999).
41. W. Y. Yin and L.W. Li, Multiple scattering from gyrotropic
bianisotropic cylinders of arbitrary crosssections using the
modeling technique, Phys. Rev. E 60:918925 (1999).
42. W. Y. Yin, L.W. Li, and M. S. Leong, Hybrid effects of
gyrotropic and chirality in ferrite nlines, Microwave Opt.
Technol. Lett. 25:4044 (2000).
43. W. Y. Yin, L.W. Li, T. S. Yeo, and M. S. Leong, Effects of double
helical conductances of surfaces on multiple scattering of
eccentrically twolayered bianisotropic cylinder array: The
case of TE
z
wave incidence, Electromagnetics 20:369382
(2000).
44. W. Y. Yin and L.W. Li, Effects of helical conductance of
surfaces on multiple interaction of composite eccentrically
bianisotropic cylinders: The case of TM
z
wave incidence, Prog.
Electromagn. Res. PIER23:221236 (2001).
45. W. Y. Yin, L.W. Li, M. S. Leong, and T. S. Yeo, Indirect
modeling of the scattering from twodimensional composite
uniaxial bianisotropic cylinders of arbitrary cross sections,
Int. J. Num. Model. Electron. Networks Devices Fields
14:237256 (2001).
46. V. Dmitriev, Constitutive tensors and general properties of
complex and bianisotropic media described by continuous
groups of symmetry, Electron. Lett. 34:532534 (1998).
47. V. Dmitriev, Group theoretical approach to determine struc
ture of complex and composite media constitutive tensors,
Electron. Lett. 34:743745 (1998).
48. V. Dmitriev, Symmetry description of continuous homoge
neous isotropic media under external perturbation, Electron.
Lett. 34:745747 (1998).
49. V. Dmitriev, Constitutive tensor nomenclature of Kamenets
kiis media, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 18:280284 (1998).
50. W. Y. Yin and L.W. Li, Reection and transmission character
istics of bianisotropic slabs with(out) a soft and hardsurface:
The clarication of the continuous magnetic group of sym
metry, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 21:351356 (1999).
51. W. Y. Yin and L. W. Li, Radiation patterns of a dipole antenna
array on bianisotropic substrates with a soft and hardsur
face: The clarication of the continuous magnetic group of
symmetry, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 13:11731189 (1999).
52. W. Y. Yin, L.W. Li, T. S. Yeo, and M. S. Leong, The Muller
matrix and scattering cross section of a linear array of
eccentrically twolayered bianisotropic cylinders with double
surface helical conductances: Clarications of the magnetic
symmetry groupsabstract, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.
14:11351137 (2000).
53. W. Y. Yin, B. Guo, and X. T. Dong, Comparative study on the
interaction of electromagnetic waves with multilayer ome
ga(chiro)ferrite slabs, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 17:1529
(2003).
54. W. Y. Yin, B. Guo, L. W. Li, Y. B. Gan, and I. Wolff,
Constitutive parameter effects in some multilayered bianiso
tropic microstrip lines: Clarication of magnetic groups of
symmetry, IEE Proc. Microwave Anten. Propag. 150:1822
(2003).
55. C. M. Krowne, Fullwave spectral Greens function integral
equation calculation of coplanar ferroelectric thin lm trans
mission structures, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 26:187192
(2000).
56. C. M. Krowne, Theoretical considerations for nding aniso
tropic permittivity in layered ferroelectric/ferromagnetic
structures from fullwave electromagnetic simulations,
Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 28:6369 (2001).
57. C. M. Krowne, M. Daniel, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond,
Anisotropic permittivity and attenuation extraction from
propagation constant measurements using an anisotropic
fullwave Greens function solver for coplanar ferroelectric
thinlm devices, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT
50:537548 (2002).
58. C. M. Krowne, Waveguiding structures employing the solid
state magnetoplasma effect for microwave and millimeter
wave propagation, IEE Proc. Microwave Anten. Propag.
140:147164 (1993).
59. R. Pregla, Method of lines for the analysis of multilayered
gyrotropic waveguide structures, IEE Proc. Microwave Anten.
Propag. 140:183192 (1993).
716 COMPLEX MEDIA
60. F. Mesa and M. Horno, Application of the spectral domain
method for the study of surface slow waves in nonreciprocal
planar structures with a multilayered gyrotropic substrate,
IEE Proc. Microwave Anten. Propag. 140:193200 (1993).
61. L. E. Davis, R. Sloan, and D. K. Paul, TM
0m
modes in
transversely magnetized semiconductorlled coaxial wave
guide and parallel plates, IEE Proc. Microwave Anten.
Propag. 140:211218 (1993).
62. T. Nurgaliev, S. Miteva, A. P. Jenkins, and D. D. Hughes,
Investigation of MW characteristics of HTS microstrip and
coplanar resonators with ferrite thinlm components, IEEE
Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51:3340 (2003).
63. I. V. Lindell, Variational method for the analysis of lossless bi
isotropic (nonreciprocal chiral) waveguides, IEEE Trans.
Microwave Theory Tech. MTT40:402405 (1992).
64. P. Pelet and N. Engheta, Modal analysis for rectangular
chirowaveguides with metallic walls using the nitediffer
ence method, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 6:12771285
(1992).
65. P. K. Koivisto, S. A. Tretyakov, and M. I. Oksanen, Wave
guides lled with biisotropic media, Radio Sci. 28:675686
(1993).
66. H. Cory and S. Waxman, Coupling between chiral slabs,
J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 7:16091622 (1993).
67. A. L. Topa and C. R. Pavia, New biorthogonality relations for
inhomogeneous biisotropic planar waveguides, IEEE Trans.
Microwave Theory Tech. MTT42:629634 (1994).
68. W. Y. Yin and W. B. Wang, Transverse coupling between two
general biisotropic slabs, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves
15:10651072 (1994).
69. W. Y. Yin, W. Wan, and W. B. Wang, Hybrid mode character
istics in multilayered Faraday chirowaveguides, Prog. Elec
tromagn. Res. PIER13:149168 (1996).
70. L. W. Li, M. S. Leong, P. S. Kooi, T. S. Yeo, and K.H. Tan,
Rectangular modes and dyadic Greens functions in rectan
gular chirowaveguides, I. Theory, IEEE Trans. Microwave
Theory Tech. MTT47:6773 (1999).
71. L. W. Li, M. S. Leong, P. S. Kooi, T. S. Yeo, and K.H. Tan,
Rectangular modes and dyadic Greens functions in rectan
gular chirowaveguides, II. Numerical results, IEEE Trans.
Microwave Theory Tech. MTT47:7481 (1999).
72. W. Y. Yin and P. Li, The focal points of radially spherical
chirolenses, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 6:561564 (1993).
73. W. Y. Yin and P. Li, The theory of multilayered spherical
chirodome, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 7:179182 (1993).
74. P. Pelet and N. Engheta, Chirostrip antenna: Line source
problem, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 6:771794 (1992).
75. W. Y. Yin and W. B. Wang, The analysis of the radiation
characteristics of a twolayered chirostrip dipole antenna
using dyadic Greens function, Microwave Opt. Technol.
Lett. 6:221223 (1993).
76. A. Toscano and L. Vegni, A new efcient moment of method
formulation for the design of microstrip antennas over a
chiral grounded slab, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 11:
567592 (1997).
77. A. J. Viitanen, Chiral softsurface waveguide mode transfor
mer, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 27:168171 (2000).
78. A. J. Viitanen, Chiral hard surface waveguide mode transfor
mer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT48:1077
1079 (2000).
79. X. Wu and D. L. Jaggard, Discontinuities in planar chirowa
veguides, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT45:
640647 (2000).
80. X. Wu and D. L. Jaggard, A comprehensive study of disconti
nuities in chirowaveguides, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory
Tech. MTT50:23202330 (2002).
81. D. Worasawate, J. R. Mautz, and E. Arvas, Electromagnetic
resonances and Q factors of a chiral sphere, IEEE Trans.
Anten. Propag. AP52:213219 (2004).
82. M. Zhang, T. S. Yeo, L. W. Li, and M. S. Leong, Electromag
netic scattering by a multilayer gyrotropic bianisotropic
circular cylinder, Prog. Electromagn. Res. PIER40:91111
(2003).
83. M. Zhang, L. W. Li, T. S. Yeo, and M. S. Leong, Scattering by a
gyrotropic bianisotropic cylinder of arbitrary cross section: An
analysis using generalized multipole technique, Prog. Elec
tromagn. Res. PIER40:315333 (2003).
84. W. S. Weiglhofer and S. O. Hansen, Faraday chiral media
revisitedI elds and sources, IEEE Trans. Anten. Propag.
AP47:807814 (1999).
85. R. D. Graglia, M. S. Sarto, and P. L. E. Uslenghi, TE and TM
modes in cylindrical metallic structures lled with bianiso
tropic materials, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT
44:14701477 (1996).
86. F. Olyslager, Properties of and generalized fullwave trans
mission line models for hybrid bianisotropic waveguides,
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT44:20642075
(1996).
87. V. Dmitriev, Comments on Properties of and generalized full
wave transmission line models for hybrid bianisotropic wa
veguides. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT
47:655659 (1999).
88. Xu Yansheng and R. G. Bosisio, A study on the solutions of
chirowaveguides and bianisotropic waveguides with the used
of coupledmode analysis, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.
14:308311 (1997).
89. P. L. E. Uslenghi, TETM decoupling for guided propagation
in bianisotropic media. IEEE Trans. Anten. Propag. AP
45:284286 (1997).
90. E. O. Kamenetskii, On the technology of making chiral and
bianisotropic waveguides or microwave propagation, Micro
wave Opt. Technol. Lett. 14:103107 (1996).
91. G. Plaza, F. Mesa, and F. Medina, On the use of SDA for the
analysis of boxed planar lines with complex media, IEEE
Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49:13651368 (2001).
92. L. Valor and J. Zapata, An efcient nite element formulation
to analyze waveguides with lossy inhomogeneous bianiso
tropic materials, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT
44:291296 (1996).
93. L. Valor and J. Zapata, A simplied formulation to analyze
inhomogeneous waveguide with lossy chiral media using the
niteelement method, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.
MTT46:185187 (1998).
94. J. A. M. Svedin, Propagation analysis of chirowaveguides
using niteelement method, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory
Tech. MTT38:14881496 (1990).
95. A. Grande, A. C. L. Cabeceira, J. Represa, P. P. M. So, and W.
J. R. Hoefer, FDTD modeling of transient microwave signals
in dispersive and lossy biisotropic media, IEEE Trans. Micro
wave Theory Tech. MTT52:773784 (2004).
COMPLEX MEDIA 717
Next Page