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Southern Cross University

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Theses

2010

An investigation on the anthropometry profile and its relationship with physical performance of elite Chinese women volleyball players
Yuyi Zhang
Southern Cross University, nancy85926@163.com

Suggested Citation
Zhang, Y 2010, 'An investigation on the anthropometry profile and its relationship with physical performance of elite Chinese women volleyball players', MSc thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW. Copyright Y Zhang 2010

ePublications@SCU is an electronic repository administered by Southern Cross University Library. Its goal is to capture and preserve the intellectual output of Southern Cross University authors and researchers, and to increase visibility and impact through open access to researchers around the world. For further information please contact epubs@scu.edu.au.

An Investigation on the Anthropometry Profile and Its Relationship with Physical Performance of Elite Chinese Women Volleyball Players

Yuyi Zhang
Bachelor of Sport Science

This thesis is presented in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Science
School of Health and Human Sciences Southern Cross University 2010

Abstract
The purposes of this study were to determine the anthropometric characteristics of elite Chinese women volleyball players, identify the differences in the anthropometric profile and physical performance between the players at different volleyball positions, and examine the correlations between the anthropometric profile and the physical performance of the players. Thirty-one anthropometric indices and four physical performance (medicine ball throwing, running vertical jump, T shuttle run agility test and timed 20 sit ups) were measured for 100 volleyball players recruited from the top eight teams of 2007-2008 national championship. The average age of the players was 22.33.6 (SD) years and the average training age was 9.74.0 years. For the elite Chinese women volleyball players, the average values of stature, body mass, sitting height, standing reach height, and BMI were respectively 183.65.8 cm, 70.57.6 kg, 95.73.5 cm, 236.77.8 cm, and 20.92.0. The overall anthropometric characteristics of these volleyball players can be described as high stature; relatively longer forearm, palm, calf and Achilles tendon lengths but a shorter sitting height; wider femur, biiliocristal and biacromial breadths; larger difference between relaxed and tensed arm girth, smaller wrist and ankle girths, smaller ankle girth / Achilles tendon length index; and smaller skinfolds. The results also revealed that most of the anthropometric variables were poorly correlated with the selected physical performance measurements, except that the biepicondylar femur breadth, calf girth and calf length indices were significantly correlated with the running jump height. There were significant differences among the anthropometric profiles of the players at different volleyball positions, especially in the indices of body mass, stature, standing reach height, radiale-stylion length, acromiale-dactylion length, midstylion-dactylion length, iliospinale height, tibiale-laterale height length, biacromial breadth, biiliocristal breadth, transverse chest breadth and gluteal girth (all P<0.001). However, the physical performance of the players at different positions showed no significant between-position difference except the running jump height. The average somatoype values of elite Chinese women volleyball players were 3.7-2.9-4.0, belonging to
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endomorph-ectomorph. Their somatoypes were found mainly in four of the 13 categories, with 29% in endomorphic ectomorph, 14% in balanced ectomorph, 11% in balanced endomorph and 9% in ectomorph-endomorph. The somatotype of the spikers and liberos was of the central type, that of the second spikers and second setters was endomorphic ectomorph, and that of the setters was endomorph-ectomorph. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the following anthropometric indices be considered in recruitment for women volleyball players: body mass, stature, sitting height, biacromial breadth, subscapular skinfold, ankle girth, forearm girth and Achilles tendon length.

Acknowledgements
I owe tremendous debt of gratitude to many people who have greatly contributed to or have helped with the development of this thesis in their special ways during the years that it has been in preparation.

My deepest gratitude goes first and foremost to Professor Zhou Shi, my supervisor, for his sense of responsibility, enlightening guidance, and incredible patience during the whole course of my writing. He has walked me through all the stages in the writing of this thesis. Without his consistent and illuminating instruction, this thesis could never have reached its present form. Moreover, his profound knowledge, rigorous scholarship and good character will be a lifetime model for me.

Second, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Associate Professor Zhang Qin, my co-supervisor, who gave me timely instruction and help in the data collection, data analyses, and the writing of this thesis. She is a guide not only in my study, but also in my life.

I would like to show my most sincere appreciation to the academic, technical and administrative staff in the School of Health and Human Sciences, the staff of the International Office, and the staff of the Library at Southern Cross Universityfor their kind and warm help in the study and the life of a young student far way from her home.

My appreciation also goes to Mr. Xu Li, the director of Chinese Volleyball Management Center, and Mr. Cai Yi, the secretary of competition department of Chinese Volleyball Management Center, along with the coaches and players in China national women volleyball team, Bayi-army women volleyball team, Tianjin women volleyball team, Shanghai women volleyball team, Jiangsu provincial women
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volleyball team, Liaoning provincial women volleyball team, Sichuan provincial women volleyball team, Zhejiang provincial women volleyball team and Shandong provincial women volleyball team. They gave me unreserved help and support along my data collection and made this investigation possible. Their kindness and patience to a young student like me will always be treasured up in my memory.

Last but by no means the least, my thanks are also go to my parents. It is always their love and support that makes me rosy in the writing of this thesis and in my daily life as well.

Table of Contents
Declaration ........................................................................................................................... 1 Abstract ................................................................................................................................ 2 Acknowledgement ..... 4 Table of Contents ................................................................................................................. 6 List of Tables ........................................................................................................................ 9 List of Figures .................................................................................................................... 15 1. Chapter One: Introduction ........................................................................................... 16 1.1 Background of the research ................................................................................ 16 1.2 Significance of the research ................................................................................ 24 1.3 Statement of the problem .................................................................................... 24 1.4 Purposes of the research...................................................................................... 25 1.5 Research hypotheses ........................................................................................... 25 1.6 Research outline .................................................................................................. 26 1.7 Limitations of the research.................................................................................. 26 2. Chapter Two: Literature Review ................................................................................. 28 2.1 Volleyball ............................................................................................................ 28 2.2 Anthropometry and sports ................................................................................... 30 2.3 Somatotype ......................................................................................................... 42 2.4 Physical performance..55 2.5 The recruitment based on anthropometry ........................................................... 70 2.6 Summary of the Literature Review ..................................................................... 84 3. Chapter Three: Methods .............................................................................................. 85 3.1 Participants .......................................................................................................... 85 3.2 Research design .................................................................................................. 87 3.3 Ethical considerations ......................................................................................... 88 3.4 Equipment ........................................................................................................... 89 3.5 Procedures ........................................................................................................... 89 3.6 Statistical analysis ............................................................................................. 106
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4. Chapter Four: Results ................................................................................................. 107 4.1 Results for anthropometric variables and physical performance measurements ................................................................................................................. ..107 4.2 Correlations between the anthropometric characteristics and physical performance.. ............................................................................................. 111 4.3. Anthropometric characteristics of the players at the five volleyball positions 114 4.4 Physical performance of the five volleyball position groups............................ 120 4.5 Somatotypes of elite Chinese women volleyball player ................................... 123 4.6 Clustering analyses for anthropometric profile of elite Chinese women volleyball players............................................................................................................ 126 4.7 Regression analysis and prediction of physical performance ........................... 129 5. Chapter Five: Discussion ............................................................................................ 138 5.1 Analysis on anthropometric characteristics of elite Chinese women volleyball players............................................................................................................ 138 5.2 Analyses of anthropometric characteristics between different volleyball positions. ................................................................................................ 140 5.3 The relationship between anthropometric characteristics and physical performance ............................................................................................... 149 5.4 The differences in physical performance between different volleyball positions........... .............................................................................................. 155 5.5 Somatotypes ...................................................................................................... 156 5.6 Typical anthropometric characteristics of volleyball players ........................... 162 5.7 Regression model for anthropometric characteristic and physical performance of elite Chinese women volleyball players ........................................................ 164 6. Chapter Six: Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Research ........................... 167 6.1 Conclusions ....................................................................................................... 167 6.2 Suggestions for future research ......................................................................... 169 7. References .................................................................................................................... 171 8. Appendices ................................................................................................................... 184

Appendix 1: Definition of terms ..................................................................................... 184 Appendix 2: Health status assessment ........................................................................... 190 Appendix 2: Health status assessment (Chinese) .......................................................... 194 Appendix 3: Information sheet....................................................................................... 198 Appendix 3: Information sheet (Chinese) ..................................................................... 202 Appendix 4: Informed consent form.............................................................................. 205 Appendix 4: Informed consent form (Chinese) ............................................................ 208 Appendix 5: Expert Questionnaires............................................................................... 210 Appendix 6: Tables for results ....................................................................................... 211 Publication 254

List of Tables
Number Table 1-1 Title The mean values of body mass and stature of elite women volleyball players in the past four Olympics games Table 1-2 Physical characteristics of the female volleyball players at different positions of the top six teams in the 26th Olympic Games Table 2-1 Physical ability tests significantly correlated with proficiency in the game Table 2-2 A comparison of anthropometric indices between the players from China and three other countries (Mean SD) Table 2-3 The physical characteristics of 287 players in the 15th World Women Volleyball Tournament. Table 2-4 A comparison of four anthropometric indices between Chinese 39 and Italian, Russian and USA womens volleyball teams. Table 2-5 A comparison of (trochanterion height - calf length)/calf length100 Table 2-6 Average value of the index of Achilles tendon/calf length 100 in gymnasts and volleyball players (mean SD) Table 2-7 A comparison of the index ankle girth/Achilles tendon100 in different sports (mean SD) Table 2-8 Categorization of somatotype methods based on Heath-Carter measurement Table 2-9 Table 2-10 Results of female volleyball players somototype Somatotypes of ten varsity and nine junior varsity women intercollegiate volleyball players Table 2-11 Statistics of four indices of female volleyball players from top 9 teams in the 26th Olympics Games 68 49 52 46 41 41 40 36 36 34 21 Page 17

Table 2-12

Anthropometric characteristics of elite female volleyball players at volleyball positions

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Table 2-13

The anthropometric characteristics of the spikers in 15th World Womens Volleyball Tournament

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Table 2-14

The anthropometric characteristics of the second spikers in 15th World Womens Volleyball Tournament

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Table 2-15

The anthropometric characteristics of the setters in 15th World Womens Volleyball Tournament

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Table 2-16

The anthropometric characteristics of the second setters in 15th World Womens Volleyball Tournament

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Table 2-17

The anthropometric characteristics of the liberos in 15th World Womens Volleyball Tournament

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Table 3-1

The top eight teams of the 2007-2008 Chinese Womens Volleyball Tournament

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Table 3-2 Table 3-3 Table 3-4 Table 3-5 Table 3-6 Table 3-7 Table 4-1

The general information for all volleyball players General information for the five players positions The items of anthropometric measurements The derived indices from the anthropometric data Results statistics of the survey Test-Retest Reliability of Four Physical performance Tests Anthropometric variables for elite Chinese women volleyball players

86 86 90 92 101 102 211

Table 4-2 Table 4-3

Somatotype values for elite Chinese women volleyball players Physical performance testing data for elite Chinese women volleyball players

108 108

Table 4-4

Derived anthropometric indices of elite Chinese women volleyball players

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Table 4-5

Correlations between anthropometric profile and medicine ball throwing

213

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Table 4-6

Correlations between anthropometric profile and T-shuttle run agility test

215

Table 4-7

Correlations between anthropometric profile and timed 20 sit-ups performance

217

Table 4-8

Correlations between anthropometric profile and running vertical jump height

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Table 4-9

Correlations coefficients between the derived anthropometric indices and medicine ball throwing

220

Table 4-10

Correlations between the derived anthropometric indices and T-shuttle run agility test

221

Table 4-11

Correlations between the derived anthropometric indices and timed 20 sit-ups

222

Table 4-12

Correlations between derived anthropometric indices and running vertical jump

223

Table 4-13 Table 4-14

Correlations between BMI and physical performance Correlations between sum of four skinfolds and physical performance

113 113

Table 4-15

Correlations between somatotype values and physical performance

114

Table 4-16

One-way ANOVA for anthropometric indices of players at different positions

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Table 4-17

One-way ANOVA for evaluation indices of players at different positions

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Table 4-18

One-way ANOVA for body composition anthropometric indices of players at different positions

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Table 4-19

One-way ANOVA for body composition evaluation indices of players at different positions

116

Table 4-20

Multiple comparison for basic anthropometric difference among the players at different positional groups

229

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Table 4-21

Multiple comparison for length indices among the players at different positional groups

230

Table 4-22

Multiple comparison for breadth indices among the players at different positional groups

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Table 4-23

Multiple comparison for girth indices among the players at different positional groups (A)

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Table 4-24

Multiple comparison for girth indices among the players at different positional groups (B)

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Table 4-25

Multiple comparison for derived indices of spikers-second spikers

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Table 4-26 Table 4-27

Multiple comparison for derived indices of spikers-setter Multiple comparison for derived indices of spikers-second setter

239 240

Table 4-28 Table 4-29

Multiple comparison for derived indices of spikers-libero Multiple comparison for derived indices of second spikers-setter

241 242

Table 4-30

Multiple comparison for derived indices of second spikers-second setter

243

Table 4-31

Multiple comparison for derived indices of second spikers-libero

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Table 4-32

Multiple comparison for derived indices of setter-second setter

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Table 4-33 Table 4-34

Multiple comparison for derived indices of setter-libero Multiple comparison for derived indices of second setter-libero

246 247

Table 4-35

Multiple comparisons for anthropometric indices of body composition among the players at different positional groups

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Table 4-36

Multiple comparisons for evaluation indices of body composition among the players at different positional groups

119

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Table 4-37

One-way ANOVA for physical fitness of players at different tactical positions

120

Table 4-38

Multiple comparisons for physical fitness among the players at different positional groups

122

Table 4-39

Distributions of the somatotypes of elite Chinese women volleyball players

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Table 4-40 Table 4-41

Somatotype distributions in the eight women volleyball teams ANOVA for somatotype value of the players at different tactical positions

124 125

Table 4-42

Comparisons of somatotype data at the five volleyball positions

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Table 4-43

Comparisons of statistics of percentage of somatotyping between players at the five volleyball positions

249

Table 4-44

Comparisons of somatotypes between players at the five volleyball positions

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Table 4-45

Difference analyses for somatotype values of different positional groups

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Table 4-46 Table 4-47 Table 4-48 Table 4-49

Numbering of anthropometry indices Statistics table of R-model cluster coefficient Statistical table of R-model cluster for typical indices Summary of regression prediction of medicine ball throwing with anthropometric indices

251 252

128 129

Table 4-50

Coefficientsa of regression prediction of medicine ball throwing with anthropometric indices

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Table 4-51

Summary of regression prediction of running vertical jump with anthropometric indices

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Table 4-52

Coefficientsa of regression prediction of running vertical jump with anthropometric indices

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Table 4-53

Summary of regression prediction of T-shuttle run agility test

133

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with anthropometric indices Table 4-54 Coefficientsa of regression prediction of T-shuttle run agility test with anthropometric indices Table 4-55 Summary of regression prediction of timed 20 sit-ups with anthropometric indices Table 4-56 Coefficientsa of regression prediction of timed 20 sit-ups with anthropometric indices Table 5-1 Comparison of anthropometric data between top women volleyball teams in Chinese and world Table 5-2 Comparison of stature between top women volleyball teams in Chinese and world Table 5-3 Comparison of body mass between top women volleyball teams in Chinese and world Table 5-4 Comparison of the Katoly indices between top women volleyball teams in Chinese and world Table 5-5 Somatotype characteristics for Italian female volleyball players 157 in different volleyball positions Table 5-6 Table 5-7 Statistics for Foreign women volleyball players somatotyp Summary of the regression models for specific physical performance to anthropometric characteristics of elite Chinese women volleyball players Table 5-8 Test of regression equation for specific physical performance of elite Chinese women volleyball players 166 160 165 148 147 146 140 135 134 133

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List of Figures
Number Figure 1-1 Title The average height of elite women volleyball players in the top four teams in the past four Olympics games, compared with that of the Chinese team Figure 2-1 Somatochart for Greek female players from different competition level Figure 3-1 Figure 3-2 Figure 3-3 Figure 3-4 Figure 3-5 Figure 3-6 Figure 4-1 Figure 5-1 The sites of anthropometric measurements The medicine ball throwing test The running vertical jump test The route of T-shuttle run agility test The T-shuttle run agility test The timed 20 sit-ups test Clustering pedigree chart for anthropometric indices Distribution of somatotypes of elite Chinese women volleyball players at different volleyball positions Figure 5-2 Distribution of Chinese and foreign elite women volleyball players somatotype 161 90 103 104 105 105 106 127 159 82 Page 19

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1. Chapter One: Introduction


1.1 Background of the research 1.1.1 The characteristics of volleyball as a sport Volleyball is a complex game of simple skills. The volleyball court is a rectangular field with the size of 9 9 m on each half separated by a net of 2.24 m in height in the middle. Two teams in the match, as opponents, will exercise various skills and tactics to attack and to defend. The ball is served into play. To attack, the players try to make the ball fall down onto the ground of the opposite side. To defend, they try to prevent the ball from falling down onto the ground of their own side. A team can touch the ball three times on its own side. As a purely rebound ball game (you can't hold the ball), volleyball is a sport of constant motion. The basic pattern of movement in making an attack includes a dig (an underarm pass made with the forearms), a set (an overhead pass made with the hands), and a spike (the overhead attacking shot). Teams can also try to block the opponent's spike as the ball crosses the net (International Volleyball Federation, 2008).

In each team there are six players standing in two rows with three players in each. In a match, every player should change their position in turn except the libero, which means every player on the court should be able to serve, set, pass, spike and block. So it is essential for the players to possess physique and physical performance that allow them to play their roles most effectively (Chen, 1989a).

The height over the volleyball net always means the mastery of the game. The height is decided by a combination of the athletes body height and the jumping height, and usually it is shown in blocking height and spiking height. A team will lose its capacity of winning a score if there is a lack of predominance over the net (Tian, 2006).

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It has also shown in recent years that there is a trend that more womens teams adopt the technique, tactics and physical performance that were previously seen only in male volleyball players. The skills like higher attack, powerful jumping-serve, attack from the back row and aggressive blocking are now widely used by female volleyball players. All these bring forward greater demand for specific physical fitness and physique of female volleyball players. For example, during the period from 1992 to 2002, the number of female volleyball players who were taller than 190 cm increased rapidly (Gao, 2006). Table 1-1 shows the trend of change in anthropometry and the height indices of the top six women volleyball teams in the 26th to the 29th Olympics games (Zhang, 1998b, Gao, 2006, International Volleyball Federation, 2008).

Table 1-1 The mean values of body mass and stature of elite women volleyball players in the past four Olympics games Games Mass Stature Spiking height Blocking height 26th 71.4 1.81 27th 71.7 1.82 306.7 290.4 28th 71.8 1.83 305.2 291.9 29th 73.4 1.84 304.8 297.2

Source: (Gao, 2006; International Volleyball Federation, 2008; Zhang, 1998)

1.1.2 Physical performance of volleyball players In volleyball, technical and tactical skills, anthropometric characteristics and individual physical performance capacities are most important factors that contribute to the success of a team in competitions (Hakkinen, 1993).

Physiologically, a volleyball game is an intermittent exercise that requires the players to perform frequently short bouts of high-intensity activities such as jump and spike, followed by periods of low-intensity activities (Kuenstlinger et al., 1987, Viitasalo et al., 1987). Therefore the players should possess both high aerobic and anaerobic power.

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The instant and explosive spiking and blocking over the net are intense enough to trigger anaerobic metabolism which means lactic acid may accumulate in the blood. Moreover, since the match time is not restricted, a match sometimes may last for more than two hours. Therefore, it also requires a high level of aerobic fitness (Chen, 2005, Tian, 2006).

Volleyball players require well-developed muscular strength, power and endurance, speed, agility, and flexibility, and have a high level of jumping ability, fast reaction time and swift movements (She, 1999). Considerable demand is also placed on the neuromuscular system during sprints, jumps (blocking and spiking), and high-intensity court movements that occur repeatedly during competition (Hakkinen, 1993).

Versatility and speediness are the trend of development in modern volleyball sport. Versatility means that the athletes should not only be well-prepared for their specific position, but also posses high levels of all-round skills in serving, setting, spiking, blocking and defense. Speediness requires the athletes to be able to move quickly to the optimal place on the court. Speediness and agility in tactics, as the key factors, work together to make suddenness the feature of modern volleyball sport (Huang, 1992).

Among all the physical performance indicators, speed and power (eg. in jumping and spiking) are of the most important ones. Particularly, jumping height is decisive for the execution of techniques and tactics (Jin et al., 2007). The research by Japan Volleyball Association demonstrated the significant correlation between the vertical jumping index and the competitive ability of the volleyball players. It was found that the jumping ability had a positive correlation with the number of spiking, and the total success rates of spiking, blocking and serving in a game (Tian, 2006).

1.1.3 Anthropometric characteristics of female volleyball players Optimal physique is apparently an advantage to volleyball performance. Only when a
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volleyball team is collectively equipped with all the ideal anthropometric characteristics can the team win the dominance in a game (Chen, 2005).

Height has been reported to be a discriminating factor between successful and non-successful teams in a collegiate tournament (Morrow et al., 1979), correlating significantly with the final standings of an open national tournament (Gladden and Colacino, 1978). The height over the net is a decisive factor for volleyball games, determined by the athletes stature and jumping height, and shown in blocking height and spiking height. All these bring forward the demand for specific physique of volleyball athletes. The stature data shown in Figure 1-1 demonstrates the trend of change in the top womens volleyball teams in recent Olympic games (Gao, 2006).

188 186

Height(cm)

184 182 180 178 176 26th 27th 28th 29th

Chinese team Top four teams in Olympics

Figure 1-1 The average height of elite women volleyball players in the top four teams in the past four Olympics games, compared with that of the Chinese team Source: Zhang (1998b) and Gao (2006).

The rivalry in modern volleyball games focuses on the dominance over the net, and the best way to win this dominance is to recruit athletes who are taller with greater jumping ability. Previous investigations indicated that elite volleyball players did demonstrate advantageous physique characteristics (Li, 1995). The major

characteristics of volleyball players include high stature and standing reach height, low Katoly index (= mass/height1000), long arm span, long Achilles tendon and long

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lower-limb and calf. As a result, in the recruitment, high stature should not be the only criterion, other characteristics should also be considered (Tian, 2006).

Body mass correlates well to muscle size and power in elite athletes. It has been reported that Katoly index correlates well to the quantity and strength of muscles (Gai and Li, 2002, Li, 2002).

Arm span and standing reach height have also been suggested as essential factors for higher spiking and blocking (Zeng, 1992). Arm span is closely related to most of the volleyball techniques, especially in attacking. To make full use of the spiking speed of a waving arm, a long arm is an advantage. Jin and colleagues suggested that standing reach height should be used as an essential criterion in recruitment of volleyball players (Jin et al., 2007). You and Huang (2000) suggested that arm length had a significant correlation with the performance over the volleyball net, especially in attacking (You and Huang, 2000). Longer arm is important too in defence. The length of the arm span of elite volleyball players has been found to be approximately 5 cm longer than his/her height. The arm span and the standing reach height are found to be closely related (Zeng, 1992).

In summary, the anthropometric characteristics of volleyball players have been reported as high stature, and relatively longer limbs, shorter sitting height, higher lean mass, larger girth difference between the relaxed and flexed-and-tensed arm, wider hand, narrower pelvis, longer calf, slimmer ankle, longer Achilles tendon, and wider but not longer feet (Tian, 2006).

1.1.4 Physique characteristics of volleyball players at different positions An athletes anthropometric characteristics represent important prerequisites for successful participation in any given sport (Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001b). Indeed, it can be assumed that an athletes anthropometric characteristics can in some way influence his/her level of performance (Carter and Heath, 1990, Rienzi et al.,
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1999). However, although studies have examined the anthropometric and physiological profiles of athletes from a variety of sports (Cardinal, 1993, Gabbett, 2000b, Rienzi et al., 1999, Zabukovec and Tiidus, 1995a) it appears that few studies have examined the anthropometric or physiological profile of elite volleyball players, particular in relation to their positional role within the sport (Duncan et al., 2006).

It has been suggested that volleyball players at different positions have different anthropometric characteristics, especially in height. Nowadays, among the prominent volleyball players in the world, the average height of setters is about 180185 cm, spikers is about 185190 cm, second spikers is about 190200 cm, and second setters is about 185 195 cm (Ling, 2007b). Table 1-2 shows the physical characteristics of the female volleyball players of the top six teams in the 26th Olympics Games, and the players at different positions (Zhang, 1998b).

Table 1-2 Physical characteristics of the female volleyball players at different positions of the top six teams in the 26th Olympic Games Spikers Second spikers Body mass (kg) Stature (cm) Running vertical jump (cm) Source: (Ling, 2007a) 70.8 180.5 307.6 73.9 184.8 309.9 68.4 175.9 295.3 Setters Second setters 72.2 181.3 307.6

1.1.5 Physique and recruitment of talented volleyball players Success in sport competitions has been associated with specific anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype (Bayios et al., 2006, Duncan et al., 2006, Hakkinen, 1993).

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Recruitment based on scientific analysis and early training is critical in modern sports training. Volleyball players usually begin their training at the age of 11-12 (Guo, 1999). The reliability of the prediction for volleyball players future height has been thought as a key factor of a successful recruitment (Huang, 1992).

In the world, and in China, various methods and approaches have been utilized in the selection of players, such as performance based, by experience of coaches, use of qualitative and quantitative indices, and scientific testing. Talent identification for players always includes certain anthropometric measurements. Among the

anthropometric indices, some of them are highly attributable to heredity (e.g. stature, length and width), but some others are with very low heredity, such as the nutrition indices like body mass.

The talent search for volleyball program at Queensland Academy of Sport has identified that height, standing reach height, muscular power, speed, agility, and maximal aerobic power are essential characteristics for success in volleyball (Gabbett et al., 2006). It has been demonstrated that junior players and teams are significantly different to elite players and teams in some selected physiological and anthropometric measurements.

The average age of a champion team is usually in the range of 23 to 25 years. It normally needs 8 to 10 years to build up a champion team or to cultivate a champion athlete. Therefore, the best age for recruitment is around 13 years for female athletes and 15 years for male athletes. An important issue in the recruitment is the prediction of the physique, and the reliability of the prediction. So far the recruitment of volleyball athletes have been mainly based on personal experience of the coaches, and this, to some extent, restricts the improvement of volleyball sport.

Huang (1992) also suggested that, in the recruitment of volleyball players, the anthropometric characteristics include stature, body mass, relative length of the limbs,
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the length of the limbs/stature ratio, palm and foot length, body and limbs girths and widths, mass/stature, etc., we should pay attention not only on the indices of girths and mass/height ratio, but also the relative length of limbs and Achilles tendons, the stature and the height of feet arches (Huang, 1992).

Yang (1996) had collected 106 testing items for physical performance (23 items from China, 26 items from Japan, 26 items from USA, 10 items from Canada, 14 items from former Soviet Union, and 7 items from Holland), and categorized 61 test items that were commonly used in these countries to six domains that were thought to be closely related to volleyball performance, including: explosive force, stamina, agility, muscle strength, flexibility, coordination and balance. Furthermore, 10 testing items were selected, including 20-metre sprint starting from a prone position, spiking jump, 3-step frog-leap, medicine ball throwing, sit-ups, 12-minute race, 3-metre shuttle run, 36-metre shuttle run, deep squat with barbell, standing forward body flexion (Yang, 1996). Gabbett et al. (2006) selected the following items to measure physical performance of volleyball players: lower-body muscular power (vertical jump, spike jump), upper-body muscular power (over-head medicine ball throwing), speed (5-m and 10-m sprint), agility (T-test), and maximal aerobic power (multistage fitness test). However, there have been few reports on the relationship between the anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of elite volleyball players, particularly at different playing positions.

In summary, volleyball is a team sport which requires specific anthropometric characterics of players for elite performance, particularly in relation to dominance over the net. Volleyball coaches have been paying greater attention on anthropometric characteristics in recruitment of potential players. However, according to the literature we collected, at present there are few reports on the anthropometry profile of elite volleyball players. Particularly there is a paucity of information on the differences between players at different playing positions and the relationships between the anthropometry measurements and physical performance.
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1.2 Significance of the research This study was the first to systematically analyse the anthropometric characteristics, and their relationship with physical performance for elite female volleyball players in China. Through quantitative analysis of elite female volleyball players, unique physique characteristics to volleyball players may be identified that will provide evidence for validation of indices that will be useful in recruitment of talented athletes.

Athletes at different positions in volleyball may have different physique. Defining these differences for elite female volleyball players may assist further in the identification of talented athletes for specific positions.

Anthropometry is a very old science, and, like many old sciences it has followed a variety of paths. One of the consequences of multiple anthropometric traditions has been the lack of standardization in the identification of measurement sites, and in measurement techniques. This makes comparisons across time and space extremely difficult. The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) has recommended standardized practices in anthropometry (Marfell-Jones et al., 2006b). This study will be the first study that applies ISAK standards in examining the anthropometric characteristics of Chinese players. Adoption of the international standards will allow comparative studies for the data collected from Chinese players with those from other countries.

1.3 Statement of the problem 1) Anthropometric characteristics have been recognized as important contributors to volleyball performance. However, in China various non-standardized methods and definitions have been used in the past to describe athletes anthropometric characteristics and no information is available about the somatotypes of elite Chinese female volleyball players.
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2) There has been no information available about the specific anthropometric characteristics of volleyball players at different positions.

3) Various indicators have been used in the past for athletes physical performance. However, no one has examined the relationships between standardized

anthropometric measurements and performance indicators for elite Chinese female volleyball players.

1.4 Purposes of the research 1) To establish an anthropometric profile (31 items) database for elite Chinese female volleyball players (top eight teams in 2008 China National Tournament) and the players at different positions (the spiker, the second spiker, setter, the second setter and the libero), using the methods recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK).

2) To examine the physique and proportions of body parts and their correlations to four selected physical performance indicators of the Chinese elite female volleyball players.

1.5 Research hypotheses 1) There are no significant correlations between the measured anthropometric variables and the selected physical performance indicators of the elite Chinese female volleyball players (Null hypothesis).

2) There are no significant differences in anthropometric characteristics between five player positions, namely, the spiker, the second spiker, the setter, the second setter and the libero (Null hypothesis).

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3) There are no significant differences in physical performance between the five player positions, namely, the spiker, the second spiker, setter, the second setter and the libero (Null hypothesis). 1.6 Research outline In this study, we recruited 100 elite female volleyball players in China. We established anthropometric profiles for the players and measured their physical performance variables. We chose 31 anthropometry variables, which were according to the characteristics of volleyball, and through these 31 anthropometry variables, we got 22 derived variables for a better understanding of the physique characteristics of Chinese elite women volleyball players. Furthermore, according to the characteristics of volleyball, we also chose four physical performance measurements for an understanding of the correlations between the anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of female volleyball players. The four physical performance variables are commonly used by the China Volleyball Association. 1.7 Limitations of the research Some participants were unwilling to expose certain areas of their body for anthropometric measurements that resulted in missing data in some cases. Best effort was made to collect all data with respect to participants privacy and dignity.

As a team sport, it was difficult to validate indicators for performance in competitions for each individual athlete. The analysis of the data was under the assumption that athletes from these eight top teams were of the same calibre and the substitute players possessed similar status as those who were more frequently seen on court.

Due to time constraints, only four physical performance measurements were taken in this study that might not have reflected all determining factors in elite performance and

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in selection of potential athletes.

It would be ideal to collect the same set of data from lower ranked adult teams and junior teams for comparisons that would allow identification of the differences between elite and lower ranked teams, and best indices in selection of talented volleyball players. This study was to set the initial bench marks for future research in this area, however would not be able to investigate players from other levels of teams due to time constraint.

Due to injury, some players were unable to participate in the measurement of physical performance. Therefore, only 87 athletes were involved in the performance measurements whilst 100 participated in the anthropometric measurements.

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2. Chapter Two: Literature Review


2.1 Volleyball Volleyball is a popular sport. It has become the second most popular sport next to football in China, and with over 150 million participants in the world (International Volleyball Federation, 2008).

2.1.1 Volleyball game The volleyball court is a rectangle field with a size of 99 m on each half and a net of 2.24 m high in the middle. Two teams in the match, as opponents, will exercise various skills and tactics to attack and to defend. To attack, they will try their best to make the ball fall down onto the opposite side. To defend, they will prevent the ball from falling down onto their own side. In a match each team has six players playing on the court. They stand in two rows with three players in each. The players standing position on the court will rotate clockwise except the libero, which means every player should be able to serve, set, pass, spike and block. So it is essential for the players to possess the physique and physical performance that allow them to play their roles most effectively (Chen, 1989a). Especially, to make their attack and defence effective, the dominance over the net becomes the most important factor. Therefore the height and abilities over net are the decisive factor for victory (Huang, 1992).

To execute volleyball skills and tactics, players need high levels of physical performance specifically in muscle strength, speed of movement, arm spiking, jump with and without running up, stamina of movement, agility, and flexibility of shoulders, waist, knees, and wrist, etc. (Chen, 2005). Among all the physical performance, jumping ability, speed and explosive force are of the most important. Research by the Japan Volleyball Association demonstrated a significant correlation between the vertical jump and the ability in competitions of the volleyball players. It was found that the jumping ability had a positive correlation with the number of spiking, and the
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overall success rate of spiking, blocking and serving in a game (Tian, 2006).

2.1.2 The trend of development in the world womens volleyball The height-over-the-volleyball-net determines the domination in a game. The height-over-net is determined by the players stature and jumping ability, usually shown in blocking height and spiking height (Huang, 1992).

The stature and jumping ability of the players are among the most important factors in winning volleyball games (Gladden and Colacino, 1978). Spiking height and blocking height do not simply represent the jumping ability. They also reflect the athletes abilities in attack and defence. Therefore these measurements are often used as important indices to evaluate the attacking and defending abilities of a team as a whole (Ge, 2003; Heimer et al., 1988; MacLaren, 1990).

The attack and block represent 45% of the total actions in a game and are attributable for 80% of the scores obtained in international matches (Voigt and Vetter, 2003). The performance of these volleyball skills as well as the serves depend on the height that the players can reach (Stanganelli et al., 2008).

The skills that are commonly used in mens volleyball, such as higher attack, powerful jumping-serve, attack from the back row and aggressive blocking, are now widely used in womens volleyball games. It brings forward a higher demand for the anthropometric characteristics of women volleyball players (Gao, 2006).

The standing height alone can no longer warrant winning in a volleyball game. At present, the women volleyball players who perform better appear to be bigger and stronger, in contrast of the notion thin and tall in the past. Only the players who are equipped with greater weight and strength in addition to height can meet the requirement of fast developing techniques and tactics in modern volleyball sport (Jin et al., 2007, Xing et al., 2006).
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2.1.3 Summary It can be summarized that the contemporary development of womens volleyball sport has demonstrated a trend of gaining the dominance over the net, players being taller and having greater muscle strength and power, and the tactics and techniques used being closer to that commonly seen in mens volleyball.

Little information is found in the literature about the anthropometric characteristics and their correlations with women volleyball players skills, and tactics, except some limited information on stature and body mass. Therefore, it is suggested that to evaluate the relationships between anthropometric characteristics and physical performance in the elite women volleyball players, more comprehensive

anthropometric assessment is necessary. 2.2. Anthropometry and sports 2.2.1 Introduction In this section, literature with a focus on the concept and the measurements of anthropometry is reviewed.

2.2.1.1 Concepts of anthropometry Anthropometry: Anthropometry like any other area of science depends upon adherence to the particular rules of measurement as determined by national and international standards bodies (Norton and Olds, 1996). There are two ways to appraise anthropometry. One is to compare the absolute value of the data obtained through anthropometric measurements, and the other is to transfer the measured data into normalized indices for evaluation (Ye, 1995).

2.2.1.2 Introduction of ISAK anthropometry standards in China Anthropometric measurements are not widely-used for athletes in China and there has

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been no standardization of the measurement methods..For example, there were no consensus on the landmarks for determination of measurement sites, measurement skills and procedures. A lack of standardization not only cause discrepancies in measurements, but also prevent valid and reliable comparisons of anthropometry data. At present, the ISAK methods have not been commonly accepted and used in China. This study was the first that applied ISAK standards in anthropometry research in China. Adoption of the international standards will allow the data collected from Chinese athletes to be directly comparable with those collected from other countries where ISAK methods have also been adopted.

2.2.1.3 Derived anthropometric indices in relation to sports Based on original anthropometric measurements, some indices have been derived. These anthropometric indices can be divided into four categories: physique, length, breadth and girth (Tan and Chou, 2003). Some commonly used indices are listed below.

Length indicesupper limbs length/stature index, middle fingers span/stature index, sitting height/stature index, forearm length/upper limb length index, lower limb length/stature index, calf length plus feet length/lower limb length index, lower limb length B minus calf length A/ calf length A index, and feet length/stature index. These indices use the proportion of certain body segments length normalized to the stature (or other reference body segments) to obtain the relative value of a particular body segments length (Tan and Chou, 2003).

Breadth indicesShoulder breadth/stature index, pelvis breadth/shoulder breadth index, and hand breadth/stature index. These indices use the proportion of certain body segments breadth normalized to the stature (or other reference body segments) to obtain the relative value of a particular body segments breadth (Tan and Chou, 2003).

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Girth indicesChest girth/stature index, upper arm (in tension) girth/stature index, upper arm (relaxed) girth/stature index, thigh girth/stature index, and calf girth/stature index. These indices use the proportion of certain body segments girth normalized to stature to get the relative value. The greater the index, the stronger the body segments (Tan and Chou, 2003).

Physique indices: They are calculated from two or more anthropometry measurements. It involves the proportion and inherent relationship between different segments of the body. Sometimes it requires comparison of the absolute values of a body segment, while in other occasions it requires to evaluate the proportion of the body segment to the stature. For instance, lower limbs length is an absolute value, whereas the derived index of lower limb length is a relative value calculated from the formula lower limbs length/stature100%.

Katoly index: It is index for the ratio of a person's mass to height. The Katoly index is calculated from the formula of body mass (kg)/stature (cm)1000. Through the relationship between body mass and stature, it denotes the body mass per centimetre height, reflecting the girth, breadth, thickness and tissue density of the human body. The Katoly index reflects the proportion of height and weight in the process of growth, and has been used as one of the basic anthropometric evaluations for athletes. Its rationale lies in the fact that height is under the control of heredity, whereas weight is greatly influenced by environmental factors, nutrition and training. The Katoly index is suggested to reflect muscle strength and power (Li, 2004).

Body mass index (BMI): It is calculated by body mass (kg)/stature (m2) (Malousarisa et al., 2008). It has been one of the most commonly utilised indices in the assessment of body mass to height ratio.

2.2.1.4 Anthropometric measurements in sport Evaluation of anthropometric characteristics can be performed with two methods,
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namely direct evaluation and indirect evaluation. Direct evaluation adopts absolute values of the anthropometric data, while indirect evaluation is achieved through converting the anthropometric data into corresponding derived indices (Tan and Chou, 2003).

In sports related research, anthropometric methods are widely applied in the recruitment of potential athletes. Different sports have different anthropometric characteristics, therefore specific anthropometric variables should be used for talent identification in different sports.

For the recruitment of juvenile volleyball players, the commonly used anthropometric variables include stature, arm span minus height, lower limb length (iliospinale height) /stature100, length of Achilles tendon/calf length plus foot arch height100, breadth of biiliocristal/biacromial100 (Zeng, 1992).

There have been numerous studies that attempt to answer the questions on whether players physique is a precondition to gain high performance; whether different sport events have special requirements on players physique; and whether there is correlation between players physique and the development of physical performance. However, there has been limited information on the anthropometry profile of elite volleyball players in China.

2.2.2 Anthropometric characteristics of elite volleyball players 2.2.2.1 Anthropometric characteristics and physical performance Physique mainly includes body constitution, body composition, body type, body carriage, and bone age. It is usually used to study the human bodys external condition covering body shape, growth and build. Volleyball sport demonstrates unique anthropometry characteristics that are different from other sports. Volleyball players physique characteristics are mainly reflected by stature, body mass, Katoly index and some other typical physique indices, which are associated with specific physical
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performance like jumping ability, agility and strength, etc. Coaches and researchers have recognized the importance of the anthropometric conditions in early identification of the athletes with over-net dominance and developing potentials of specific physical performance (Tan and Chou, 2003).

Stamm (2003) utilized a number of tests for female volleyball players physical performance. These tests included: jumping ability (standing vertical jump and reach and running vertical jump and reach); maximum aerobic endurance (20 m shuttle run); trunk strength (sit-up test); flexibility test (the extent of bending forward from sitting position); agility and speed (a zigzag run test); and upper body and arms strength (medicine ball throwing test), and reported that four of these tests showed a significant correlation with game proficiency (See Table 2-1). The aerobic endurance was measured by 20 m shuttle run, flexibility was measured by the extent of bending forward from sitting position, agility and speed of movement was measured by a zigzag run test, and upper body strength was measured by the medicine ball throwing test. The upper body and arms strength was found to contribute to 22% of the

efficiency of attack. Table 2-1 Physical ability tests significantly correlated with proficiency in the game No Variables Mean SD Min Max Partial correlation with (N=32) efficiency of game element Reception feint attack r r r PA3 Endurance 386.3 86.7 135 515 -0.526 0.426 PA5 PA6 PA7 Flexibility (cm) Speed Medicine ball throw (cm) 16.3 27.8 304.5 6.2 1.6 48.3 5 24.7 210 32.5 33 400 0.457 -0.587 0.468

Note: PA3: maximum aerobic endurance was measured by 20 m shuttle run PA5: flexibility test measured the extent of bending forward from sitting position
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PA6: agility and speed of movement was measured by a zigzag run test PA7: upper body and arms strength were measured by the medicine ball throwing test (Stamm et al., 2003).

Stamm et al. (2000) reported statistically significant correlations between anthropometric variables. As for the tests of physical ability, six out of the eight variables were also significantly correlated to each other. As the tests of physical abilities were correlated with many anthropometric variables, it was proved possible to predict the physical abilities of the volleyball players from age and anthropometric characteristics.

From the analyses of the literature, it is clear that there is a relationship between volleyball players anthropometric profile and physical performance. Grgantov et al. (2007) indicated that a greater body height would allow the ball contact occurring at a greater height above the net; a greater ankle diameter would ensure a greater stability and facilitate landing and taking off in spike and block; an increased wrist diameter would contribute to the ball shooting strength on spike and serve; and increased trunk and thigh muscle strength would contribute to the efficacy in all techniques, especially those involving jump (Grgantov et al., 2007).

Yuan (1982) suggested some other anthropometric characteristics for juvenile volleyball players identification, such as longer toes (especially the second toes), longer hands and feet, narrower pelvis and ankles, high flexibility, and the growth showing a promising taller height (Yuan, 1982).

Qu (2007) measured the anthropometric profile of women volleyball players in the 26th Olympic Games, and made a comparison between the Chinese players and players from other countries (Qu, 2007). The results of the comparisons are shown in Table 2-2.

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Table 2-2 A comparison of anthropometric indices between the players from China and three other countries (Mean SD) Indices Stature(cm) Body mass (kg) Katoly index 372.433.9 366.929.3 389.214.9 369.420.9 China 183.03.4 73.43.3 Cuba 179.86.3 72.74.4 Brazil 182.55.3 70.46.6 Russia 185.84.5 74.43.0

Qu (2007) also collected data for the anthropometric variables of 287 women players in the 15th World Women Volleyball Tournament as shown in Table 2-3.

Table 2-3 The physical characteristics of 287 players in the 15th World Women Volleyball Tournament. Indices America (n=96) Stature(cm) Body mass(kg) Katoly index 182.17.5 70.17.6 384.836.2 Europe (n=95) 184.47.7 70.16.0 379.925.2 Africa (n=36) 177.64.8 69.46.2 390.631.1 Asia (n=60) 180.17.6 68.55.9 380.222.7

Several other studies reported the mean age, height, and weight for selected groups of female volleyball players (Conger and Macnab, 1967, Gladden and Colacino, 1978, Hosler et al., 1978, Kovaleski et al., 1980). The first group was composed of 10 college women volleyball players (age 19.4 years, height 166 cm and weight 59.8 kg (Conger and Macnab, 1967). The second group was composed of 88 players who participated in a U.S. Volleyball Association National Tournament (21.9 years, 172.2 cm and 65.8 kg, respectively) (Gladden and Colacino, 1978). The third group comprised of 180 college players who participated in a major college tournament (19.5 years, 169.0 cm and 65.1 kg) (Hosler et al., 1978). The fourth comparative group was composed of 19 college players (19.9 years, 172.2 cm, and 64.1 kg) (Kovaleski et al., 1980). The U.S. training

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team was older (23-24 years), taller (177.8 cm), and heavier (67.2 kg) than any of the other four groups reported.

It is obvious that elite volleyball players have their specific anthropometric characteristics, such as stature, the length of arm, palm, fingers, and Achilles tendon, the girth of ankle, calf, thigh, forearm and upper arm. For example, the elite volleyball players in China usually have longer Achilles tendons and smaller ankle girth, and this contributes to a comparatively smaller value of the index ankle girth/Achilles tendons100. The ankle girth/Achilles tendons index of volleyball male players were 92.8, male swimmers were 102.3 and male gymnasts were 105.7. The ankle girth/Achilles tendons index of volleyball female players was 95.8, female swimmers was 108.3 and female gymnasts was 101.2. Therefore the volleyball players had a longer Achilles tendon and smaller ankle girth than that of other athletes. Similarly, the average calf length index of the volleyball players is obviously longer than those of the swimmers. The average calf length index of the male volleyball players was 99.7, the swimmers were 90.3. The average calf length index of the female volleyball players was 100.5, the swimmers were 95.3. These anthropometric characteristics have been considered to be very important in talent identification of volleyball players (Zeng, 1992).

All these anthropometric characteristics would have an impact on their physical performance. Therefore a greater attention should be paid to the anthropometric characteristics of elite athletes and the relationship between the anthropometry characteristics and performance indicators. These may be helpful in identifying potential players with promising future, and making the training more effective.

The literature review revealed that, though most of the researchers had made detailed descriptions of the volleyball players basic anthropometric characteristics, their studies were mainly confined to a few typical indices, which are hardly possible to ensure a complete and systematic quantitative analysis. Instead, they were mainly qualitative.
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Based on the registration data in some international games, which may or may not be accurate, some scholars have used different analyses on the anthropometric characteristics of volleyball players from different countries, and have obtained some quantitative results. Most of these reports were just comparative analyses on the limited basic indices, such as stature, body mass, age and Katoly index. Nevertheless, few of them have involved the measurements, the comparisons, or the analyses on volleyball players length, breadth, girth and the proportional relationships following common measurement protocols such as those suggested by ISAK.

2.2.2.2 The stature of volleyball players Body height has been reported to be a discriminating factor between successful and non-successful teams in a collegiate tournament (Morrow et al., 1979), correlating significantly with the final standings of an open national tournament (Gladden and Colacino, 1978). The intensive competition in modern volleyball games always focuses on the dominance over the net. The most effective way to win the dominance over the net is to recruit tall players therefore stature becomes an important index in the identification of potential volleyball players (Xing et al., 2006). It has been reported that the average height of the women volleyball players in the 27th and 28th Olympic Games was respectively 1.82 m and 1.83 m. While in the 29th Olympic Games, the average height of players was 1.84 m. The stature in the top four teams holds the equal average that is higher than other teams. It reflects the tendency of increased stature of the elite world women volleyball players (Gao, 2006).

2.2.2.3 Body mass characteristics Li (2004) investigated 36 players from three top teams in 2002 World Womens Volleyball Championship, including Italy, Russia and USA, and 12 players of the China Womens Volleyball Team. It was concluded that the body mass of China Womens Volleyball team members was significantly lighter and their Katoly index was significantly lower than that of the other teams (P<0.05. Table 2-4) (Li, 2004).

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Table 2-4 A comparison of four anthropometric indices between Chinese and Italian, Russian and USA womens volleyball teams. Indices Stature (cm) Body mass (kg) Katoly index Spiking height(cm) Top teams in the world 186.2 7.67 74.1 6.33 39.8 2.79 308.1 9.47 Team of China 183.8 5.06 71.9 4.29 39.1 1.94 315.8 7.91

2.2.2.4 Limb lengths The growth rate of arm length is slower than that of the body height, so the arm span of an infant is usually shorter than the height (He, 1992). Zeng (1992) reported that the average difference between arm span and stature in Chinese volleyball players was much smaller than that of the players in some other countries. For instance, the average arm span of Cuba women volleyball players was 13.4 cm more than the stature, while the average arm span of Chinese women volleyball players was only 5.4 cm longer than the stature (Zeng, 1992).

For the dominance over the volleyball net, Jin et al. (2007) emphasized the importance of standing reach height in the recruitment of players. Generally, standing reach height is well correlated to the body height. When vertical jump remaining the same, higher standing reach height always means higher spiking height and higher blocking height. Among young women volleyball players in China, the average standing reach height is 235.9 cm, and the utmost goes to 245 cm (Jin et al., 2007).

To a great extent, stature depends on the lower limbs length, and iliospinale height/ stature100 is a commonly used index. The ratio of lower limb length to stature varies in different races. For example, the women volleyball players of Cuba and China shared almost same stature, but as for lower limb length, the average proportion of Cuba players was 58.5%, while that of the Chinese players was 55.2% (Zeng, 1992).

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The index of (trochanterion height - calf length)/calf length100 reflects the proportion between thigh length and calf length. There has been plenty of evident that if the value of the calf length plus the feet height is longer than the thigh length, the players will be propitious for the sport giving priority to jumping ability. For example, the average of the index (trochanterion heightcalf length)/calf length100 of the elite volleyball players is obviously smaller than those of the swimmers, and athletes in field and track events (Table 2-5) (Zeng, 1992).

Table 2-5 A comparison of (trochanterion height - calf length)/calf length 100 Male Setters Chief spikers Second spikers Gymnasts Swimmers Source: (Zeng, 1992) 100.52.43 99.21.85 99.42.82 99.5 2.62 90.32.49 Female 100.73.93 99.13.00 101.62.53 99.93.17 95.32.30

The index of Achilles tendon length/calf length 100 is often used in talent identification. This index reflects not only the proportion of Achilles tendon to calf length, but also indirectly the backward pulling strength of the triceps. The Achilles tendon length of elite players is always longer than those of non-players. It has been found that elite volleyball players demonstrate a greater Achilles tendon/calf length 100 index than elite gymnasts (Table 2-6) (Zeng, 1992).

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Table 2-6 Average value of the index of Achilles tendon/calf length 100 in gymnasts and volleyball players (mean SD) Sports Gymnasts Volleyball players Source: (Zeng, 1992) Male 45.43.74 46.83.28 Female 47.84.07 49.33.96

The Achilles tendon length of non-athletes are generally shorter than the ankle girth, and this makes the index ankle girth/Achilles tendon 100 larger than 100. However, the elite athletes usually have longer Achilles tendon that results in a comparatively smaller value of the index ankle girth/Achilles tendon 100, in the events including volleyball, basketball, track events and high jump, etc. (Table 2-7) (Zeng, 1992)

Table 2-7 A comparison of the index ankle girth/Achilles tendon100 in different sports (mean SD) Sports Volleyball players Gymnasts Swimmers Source: (Zeng, 1992) Male 92.89.65 105.71.74 102.31.68 Female 95.812.35 101.29.76 108.31.36

The aforementioned reports emphasized the importance of upper limbs length in that it was essential for volleyball players to be able to learn and improve their skills. However, few follow up studies were found in relation to women volleyball players upper limbs length and performance, therefore further investigations are needed (Zeng, 1992).

It is widely accepted that stature is mainly determined by lower limbs length. The data shown in Tables 2-4 to 2-6 are some comparative analyses on lower limbs length, calf

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length and Achilles tendon length. From these data it can be seen that women volleyball players have particular features on the lower limb lengths. For example, the indices for the ankle girths and Achilles tendon length in volleyball players are smaller than those of gymnasts and swimmers, which means women volleyball players have longer Achilles tendon. Does this reveal that Achilles tendon length is related to volleyball players jumping ability? Should we pay more attention to the anthropometric characteristics features of lower limbs in talent identification? This research intended to answer these questions.

2.3 Somatotype This section presents the literature on somatotype, with its definition, classification, and evaluation. The Introduction will focus on the widely-used Heath-Carter method.

2.3.1 Introduction 2.3.1.1 Concept of somatotype The technique of somatotyping is used to examine anthropometric characteristics and body composition. The resulting somatotype gives a quantitative summary of the physique. It is defined as the quantification of the present shape and composition of the human body. It is presented in a three-number rating representing endomorhy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy components respectively, always in the same order (Norton and Olds, 1996).

In particular, along with the fast development of modern technology, the anthropometric technologies and methods have also had significant improvements. Besides the traditional manual measurements, there are high-tech photogrammetry, three-dimensional photography and laser scanning methods. Photogrammetry is to use optical technology to analyze human body digital photograph. According to the results of indirect measurements taken from the non-contact measurement method,

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photogrammetry can obtain measurement data and derived indices (Ge and Liu, 2007).

In three-dimensional photography, two cameras at positions will photograph the human body simultaneously. The relationship between the two pictures of a same point on the surface of human body is analyzed and then through the principle of geometric optical triangulation, the three-dimensional coordinates of the imaged point will be figured out and be applied in the analyses of anthropometric characteristics. This approach is consistent with human visual characteristics, but is comparatively more difficult in the measurement of human body surface and the accuracy is not guaranteed (Li et al., 2001).

In whole-body laser scanning methods, three-dimensional images are obtained through laser scanning triangulation. The entire scanning process is computerized and completion of a scan takes only a few seconds. The scanned images can be integrated to build up a complete human body model (Li et al., 2001).

Although the modern approaches, like three-dimensional photography and laser scanning, offer accurate ways for anthropometric measurements, the drawbacks are high cost and requirements of a high level of expertise. As a result, the traditional manual measurements are still widely applied for direct anthropometric measurements (Ge and Liu, 2007). Heath and Carter method is simple, accurate and inexpensive for assessment of somatotypes, therefore it is a frequently used method.

Heath and Carter (1999) defined somatotype as the current physical characteristics of the concerned individual and it is an explicit shape characteristic without the concern of the body size. The method was developed from Sheldons work and established a more objective method for somatotype classification. The Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype method has been regarded as the most useful method for somatotype evaluation (Carter and Heath, 1990).

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2.3.1.2 The Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotyping method The Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotyping method uses taxonomy of somatotype created by American scholars B. H. Heath and J. E. L. Cater in 1967. It utilizes multiple regression analysis of somatotype composition so that the problem of subjectivity is overcome, and it also gives an unequivocal scientific definition of somatotype. It is important to recognize that the somatotype is a general descriptor of physique and does not answer more precise questions regarding specific body dimensions. The Heath-Carter method of somatotyping is the most commonly used today (Liang and Nie, 2001, Norton and Olds, 1996, Zhu et al., 1998).

For implementation of this method, 10 anthropometric measurements are used. These include standing height, body weight, four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, and medial calf), two breadths (biepicondylar femur breadth, biepicondylar humerus breadth) and two girths (upper arm girth in flexed and tensed and calf girth) (Carter, 1980).

The technique of somatotyping is used to appraise anthropometric characteristics and composition. The somatotype of a human body can be categorized into three types, endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy. Endomorphy represents the relative content of body fat, mesomorphy represents the relative level of musculo-skeletal development, and ectomorphy represents the relative level of slenderness and thinness (Norton and Olds, 1996).

Through anthropometric measurements and calculation, the Heath-Carter method uses three numbers, that are separated by hyphens, to represent the extent of anthropometric characteristics in endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively (Jiang et al., 2007, Norton and Olds, 1996).

While the first attempt at classifying human bodies is attributed to Hippocrates and his contemporaries, a systematic approach did not emerge until the twentieth century. Of
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these pioneering research efforts, W.H. Sheldon (1940) described a genotypic classification seeking relationships between human physique and personality that remains the best known and most controversial (Sheldon et al., 1940). His tri-polar somatotype was later revised by Heath and Carter in the 1960s into a phenotypic method based on calculations made from 10 anthropometric measurements. The Heath and Carter method is still in use today and is one of the most commonly applied techniques in somatotyping and related areas (Carter and Heath, 1990, Heath and Carter, 1967).

There are three ways to calculate the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype:1) enter the data onto a somatotype rating form; 2) enter the data into equations derived from the rating form; or 3) enter the data into a computer programs such as Life-size (Norton and Olds, 1996).

The somatotype is divided into sectors by three axes which intersect at the center of the triangle. These sectors and the somatotypes in them are named according to the relative rank or dominance of the components of the somatotype. In the order of endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, a somatotype is described by three numbers. The dominance of a component is ranked from zero (minimum) to theoretically indefinite, with four as neutral. For example, 4-4-4 is a perfect central; 3-5-2 is called an endo-mesomorph because mesomorph is dominant, with endomorph second in dominance. A 1-6-3 is called an ecto-mesomorph, a 2-3-5 a meso-ectomorph, a 2-4-4 an ectomorph-mesomorph, and a 2-5-2 a balanced mesomorph, and so on (Carter, 1970).

Heath-Carter somatotyping method can be divided into 13 categories and this is based on areas of the somatochart, see Table 2-8.

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Table 2-8 Categorization of somatotype methods based on Heath-Carter measurement Central Ectomorphic endomorph Balanced endomorph No component differs by more than one unit from the other two, and consists of 2,3 or 4 Endomorphy is dominant and ectomorphy is greater than mesomorphy Endomorphy is dominant and mesomorphy and Ectomorphy are equal (do not differ by more than one-half unit) Endomorphy is dominant and mesomorphy is greater than ectomorphy Endomorphy and mesomorphy are equal (do not differ by more than one-half unit), and ectomorphy is smaller Mesomorphy is dominant and endomorphy is greater than endomorphy Mesomorphy is dominant and mesomorph and ectomorph are equal (do not differ by more than one-half unit) Mesomorphy is dominant and ectomorph is greater than endomorphy Mesomorph and ectomorph are equal (do not differ by more than one-half unit) and endomorphy is lower Ectomorphy is dominant and mesomorphy is greater than endomorphy Ectomorphy is dominant; endmorphy and mesomorphy are equal and lower (or do not differ by more than one-half unit) Ectomorphy is dominant, and endomorphy is greater than mesomorphy Endomorphy and ectomorphy are equal ( or do not differ by more than one-half unit), and mesomorphy is lower

Mesomorphic endomorph Mesomorph-endomorph

Endomorphic mesomorph Balanced mesomorph

Ectomorphic mesomorph Mesomorph-ectomorph

Mesomorphic ectomorph Balanced ectomorph

Endomorphic ectomorph Endomorph-ectomorph

(Carter and Heath, 1990, Heath and Carter, 1967, Norton and Olds, 1996) The 13 categories can be further grouped into four larger categories: Central: no component differs by more than one unit from the other two.

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Endomorph: endomorphy is dominant, mesomorphy and ectomorphy are more than one-half unit lower. Mesomorph: mesomorphy is dominant, endomorphy and ectomorphy are more than one-half unit lower. Ectomorph: Ectomorphy is dominant, endomorphy and mesomorphy are more than one-half unit lower ( Carter and Heath, 1990, Heath and Carter, 1967, Norton and Olds, 1996).

2.3.2 Implications of somatotyping 2.3.2.1 Somatotype of general population The study of somatotype aims to evaluate the different human anthropometric characteristics (Ye, 1995). Because the conditions of muscles and bones and the content of body fat are the keys to determine somatotype, so anthropology, medicine and nutrition are always related with the research on somatotype. The somatotype changes with sex, age, race, living environment, and the nutritional status. Research on the somatotype in ordinary people is aimed to understand what factors may affect anthropometric characteristics in relation to health, nutrition, ageing and other aspects of life.

The purpose of the investigation on athletes somatotype is to offer reference for talent identification, which aims to identify and forecast the developing tendency of the athelets stature, body mass, body fat, muscles and bones in different growth stages, and to understand the specific anthropometric characteristics for different sports. Such information would be essential to set the criteria for the recruitment of players as well as for the improvements of players competence.

The literature presented below summarizes the somatotypes of the people with different sex, age, race and living environment that contributes to our understanding of the somatotypes of athletes in different sports including volleyball. The previous studies have also provided reference data for comparison of somatotypes in women
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volleyball players from different countries.

2.3.2.2 Somatotypes of athletes Somatotypes of athletes in different sports Plenty of evidence supports that the ideal somatotype for athletes varies as a function of the sport or event (Carter and Heath, 1990, Duquet and Carter, 1996). Although ideal body size and shape are not the only elements necessary for an athlete to excel, they may represent important prerequisites for successful performance in a sport. Indeed, it can be assumed that a players anthropometric characteristics can in some way influence his/her level of performance, and at the same time can help to determine a suitable physique for a certain sport. Therefore, somatotype analysis can provide a descriptive picture of the anthropometric characteristics of the high-level players. In this sense, the somatotyping method is believed to yield better results than simple linear anthropometric measurement (Rienzi et al., 1999), since it combines adiposity, musculo-skeletal robustness and linearity into a somatotype rating (Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001b).

Neni et al. (2007) reported the somatotypes of adult Indonesian, in particular of male athletes in a number of sports. The athletes were from badminton, soccer, and volleyball, aged in their 20s. Non-athlete undergraduate students were also studied as a control group. The following findings were obtained: the mean somatotype of the badminton players was central (3.3-3.7-3.7), that of the soccer players was balanced mesomorph (2.7-4.9-3.0), that of the volleyball players was mesomorph-ectomorph (2.4-3.5-3.7), and that of the students were ectomorphic mesomorph (2.7-5.2-3.8). Compared with international data, the Indonesian players were shorter and lighter in each of the sports. The mean somatotype of the Indonesian badminton players was central, contrasting with the more mesomorphic South Australian players. The somatotypes of the international volleyball groups were divided into mesomorphic ectomorph and ectomorphic mesomorph. The Indonesian volleyball players belong to the latter group (Neni et al., 2007).
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Athletes of a specific sport event may be characterized by a particular somatotype. The literature has shown that high-level female volleyball players have a common somatotype, mesomorphy. This indicates that the top-level female volleyball players have more muscles and less adipose tissue (Papdopoulou et al., 2002. See Table2-9).

Table 2-9 Items


Endomorphy Mesomorphy Ectomorphy

Results of female volleyball players somototype


Total National team 4.251.09 2.221.11 2.220.99 Major A1 Major A2 National league 4.641.22 2.571.11 2.031.00 P

4.481.19 2.491.20 2.140.96

4.361.16 2.191.23 2.390.94

4.481.22 2.811.21 1.950.89

0.449 0.016 0.045

It was found that Polish athletes from a population of students (age 19-21) demonstrated a somatotype of 3.5-4.3-3.0 which was close to the median build. The somatotype of rowers (2.9-4.3-2.9) was similar to that of students. Light weight rowers and volleyball players were more slender as their ectomorphy exceeded the mesomorphy. Wrestlers, judoiosts and karate players were solid build, with a high score of mesomorphy and a very low score of ectomorphy. Boxers were in the middle. It should be emphasized that the within-group variability of individual factors was relatively low, smaller than that in the control group (Krawczyk et al., 1997).

Guo (2001) investigated 45 male teenage sprint athletes in Gansu province. The results showed that the average somatoype value of those elite athletes was 1.2-3.92-3.65. Guo claimed that every sport event had its own ideal somatotype, or favorite somatotype and this determined the significance of somatotype indices in talent identification. Guo had also found that most of the coaches interviewed in his research had referred to practical anthropometric results (Guo, 2001).

Zeng (1985) had investigated the somatotype value of 103 Chinese athletes in track
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and field, swimming, weight lifting and gymnastics. He found that the elite gymnasts somatotype scores were 1.3-6.2-2.4, and the athletes with better performance were always with a larger mesomorphy value. The weight lifting athlete had very large mesomorphy value, and the heavier the body mass, the larger the mesomorphy value. As for the jumpers, better performance always associated with larger ectomorphy value. The author suggested that it was significant to investigate whether the somatotype condition of a teenage athlete would alter with years of training and growth that would be close to the favorite somatotype (Zeng et al., 1985).

Deng and colleagues (1999) had made an investigation on the somatotypes of 119 water ballet athletes in the national water ballet championship and found that their average somatotype value was 3.14-2.45-3.74. It was revealed that the athletes with larger mesomorphy value would have better performance. It was also found that the somatotype of elite water ballet athletes tend to suggest an optimal somatotype and this meant that somatotype could be used as a reference in talents identification (Deng et al., 1999).

Gao and associates (2001) had measured the somatotypes of the top athletes of different classes in the national kickboxing tournament in 1977 (a total of 30 athletes). The average somatotype values of elite Chinese kickboxing athletes were 2.12-4.41-3.18. It was revealed that the athletes somatotype changed from mesomorphic- ectomorph to mesomorphy with the increase of body mass. The authors concluded that the somatotypes of the kickboxing athletes were similar, and this would offer theoretical basis for future talents identification (Gao et al., 2001).

Somatotype of volleyball players The somatotypes of volleyball players differ according to their positions and levels of performance (e.g., state, national) and depending on the technical and tactical demands placed on the players. Among the junior volleyball players of the UK, setters exhibited higher ectomorphic and lower mesomorphic scores than the centers. The mean (SD)
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somatotype scores for setters and centers were 2.6(0.9)1.9(1.1)5.3(1.2) and 2.2(0.8)3.9(1.1)3.6(0.7) respectively (Duncan et al., 2006). Italian male volleyball players had somatotype scores of 2.4(0.7)4.5(0.9)2.8(0.8) for setters,

2.0(0.6)4.0(1.0)3.5(0.8) for centers, 2.2(0.6)4.3(0.9)3.0(0.7) for spikers and 2.2(0.6)4.3(0.9)3.1(0.8) for opposites (Duncan et al., 2006, Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001a).

Many studies have suggested that differences exist in somatotypes between various sports, and at different performance levels (from professional Olympic players to amateurs), for example for volleyball (Papadopoulou et al., 2002; Viviani and Baldin, 1993) and handball players (Carter, 1981b, Eiben, 1981). However, few of them have examined the whole spectrum of morphological characteristics within each sport (Bayios et al., 2006). In addition, there has not been enough information about the players somatotypes and their roles in games in the literature, especially about volleyball players. From the information available to us, the mean somatotypes of non elite Chinese women volleyball players were compared with those of Italian female amateur players (4.7-3.9-2.3) (Viviani and Baldin, 1993). There was a higher value in endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value in ectomorphy in the Chinese volleyball players as compared to the amateur Italian players (Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001b).

Bayios et al. (2006) discovered that in both the varsity and the junior varsity groups, endomorphy was the dominant somatotype, and mesomorphy value was greater than ectomorphy. Thus, the groups of varsity and junior varsity women volleyball players were characterized as mesomorphic endomorphs. The mean somatotype for the groups of varsity and junior varsity was 4.2-3.7-3.3 (endomorphic-mesomorphic-ectomorphic) (Bayios et al., 2006. Table 2-10).

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Table 2-10 Somatotypes of ten varsity and nine junior varsity women intercollegiate volleyball players Items Varsity Junior Varsity Combined Endomorphic* 3.650.84 4.500.78 4.201.10 Mesomorphic 3.450.82 4.271.00 3.671.22 Ectomorphic 3.200.93 2.610.61 3.251.65

*Based on a scale of 12 for endomorphy and 9 for ectomorphy and mesomorphy, P< 0.05 between varsity and junior varsity.

Although the mesomorphy used to be the primary component of competitive female volleyball players somatotype in the last two decades, recent studies indicated a trend toward ectomorphy (Malousarisa et al., 2008).

It is well known that the lack of appropriate anthropometric characteristics might result in poor performance in top-level volleyball. Although some of these characteristics can be improved through training, the basic ones required for the sport of volleyball may be essentially inherited. These basic anthropometric features include body height and appendage lengths. It is of paramount importance for coaches to understand the significance of taking into account these basic body characteristics for initial selection of young players. Inappropriate initial selection of young female players without considering anthropometric features could become an obstacle for future developments for becoming top-level players (Papadopoulou, 2002).

In sport research, one of the main criteria used to assess the relationships between function and structure is the performance level. For somatotype, for example, it is well established that, within a particular sport activity, physique varies according to the performance level. The higher the level, the higher the tendency to conform the body characteristics (Carter and Heath, 1990, Carter, 1980).

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In the literature specific to volleyball it is found that female volleyball players somatotype exhibit diachronic variations: they could be reasonably ascribed both to changes in athletic selection which have occurred in the last decades, and to wide-spread and generalized culturally-determined tendency towards a lower degree of endomorphism for women (Viviani and Baldin, 1993).

In another report, volleyball players were the tallest and had the lowest value of body fat compared with basketball and handball, and were characterized as balanced endomorph (3.4-2.7-2.9). It was because that volleyball players showed higher homogeneity in somatotype, most probably reflecting the stricter selection process and the higher professionalism of these athletes who exerted greater effort in keeping up with the suggested instructions regarding training and diet (Bayios et al., 2006).

In summary, the current research on the somatotype is mainly based on the Heath-Carter method. However, in China, most of the somatotype research has focused on general public rather than on athletes in specific sports, even less on volleyball players. So far, no literature has been found on Chinese women volleyball players somatotype.

The literature suggests that mens somatotype changes with growth periods, nutrition conditions and physical exercises. In addition, there are great differences between somatotypes of athletes and non-athletes. Evidence shows that athletes are lower in endomorphy, but higher in mesomorphy, indicating that athletes have comparatively lower body fat content but stronger muscles and bones. It has been an interesting question that whether elite athletes in particular sports possess unique anthropometric characteristics and anthropometrical characteristics. It has been repeatedly stressed that the height over the net is a key factor in volleyball. However, height might not be the only factor to be considered in selection of talented players, but what other anthropometric parameters need to be included requires further study. For instance, previous studies have shown that volleyball players have a
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somatotype with dominance in mesomorphy, which means they are tall and muscular. However, recent finding indicates that they are trend toward ectomorphy. In addition, little is known for the anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of volleyball players at different playing positions.

2.3.3 Summary Based on the literature review in the area of anthropometry and physical performance, the following are summarised.

It has been an interesting question that whether elite athletes in particular sports posses unique body shape and anthropometrical characteristics. It is evident that the volleyball players are tall, and their somatotype appears to be different to some other sports such as football, basketball and handball. It has been repeatedly suggested that the height over the net is a key factor in volleyball. However, the height might not be the only factor to be considered in selection of talented players. What other anthropometric parameters needs to be included requires further studies. For instance, early studies have shown that volleyball players have a somatotype with a dominance in mesomorphy, that means they are generally tall and muscular. However, recent finding indicates that they lean more toward ectomorphy. In addition, little is known for the anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of players at different positions in volleyball.

It is known that the physique and physical performance are among the essential factors for elite performance in many sport events. However, there is a paucity of information about the physique and its relationship with performance in volleyball. Chinese womens volleyball teams have demonstrated a high level of achievements. However, there have been no published reports on the anthropometric characteristics of Chinese elite female volleyball players. In addition, the description of volleyball players physique is lack of the specific and quantitative standard.

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2.4 Physical performance This section mainly introduces volleyball players physical performance in two areas: 1) physical performance and the sport; 2) physical performance and positions. The former focuses on the differences between volleyball and other sports. The latter focuses on the specific physical performance of players on different playing positions.

2.4.1 Physical performance and sport Athletic competence refers to the integrated physical performance necessary for techniques and tactics enhancement and excellence in all kinds of physical exercises. The integrated physical performance involves anthropometric characteristics, physiological function, health and physical performance, among which physical performance is the most important athletic competence, while anthropometric characteristics, physiological function and health form a good basis for an ideal physical performance (Guo, 1999).

Physical performance can be defined as human body competence in strength, speed, endurance, agility and flexibility in playing sport. The performance is related not only with anatomical and physiological characteristics, but also with training level and nutritional condition. Physical performance is a basis of mastering and the improving sports skills and achievements (Ye, 1995). Physical performance is virtually an integration of various body activity abilities for playing sport. The evaluation of physical performance involves a variety of aspects which can be mainly divided into general physical performance and specific physical performance (Yuan, 1982). In physical performance assessment, specific equipment or apparatus are needed and environmental conditions are also considered (Yuan, 1982).

Physical performance forms the basis of sport skills. The improvement of sport-specific physical performance depends not only on the level of coaching, but also on the talent of the players. Liu (2006) pointed out that, as a criterion for physical
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conditioning and sport competence, physical performance on one hand relates with the muscle efficiency, and on the other hand reflects the function of various organ systems (Liu, 2006).

Strength refers to the physical ability of muscle system in overcoming resistance. Muscle strength is the power source for a variety of actions. There are many factors may influence the strength, such as anthropometric characteristics and heredity (the size of muscle and the proportion of fast and slow muscle fibers), neural control and motor skills (Zhang, 2006).

Speed is the body competence in fast movements. According to different contexts, it can be divided into reacting speed, acting speed and moving speed, which are all influenced by the process of nerve excitability, muscle flexibility, muscle relaxation and biochemical factors (Tian, 2006). Endurance refers to the capacity of retaining performance quality in particular duration. The performance of endurance attributes to the central nervous system function, maximum oxygen uptake and the body's energy reserves and utilization.

In several ballgames, skills, anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of an individual player are the most important factors that contribute to the competitive success of a whole team. With respect to the physical performance the endurance requirements of volleyball and basketball seem to be rather similar (Hakkinen, 1989, Viitasalo et al., 1987). However, volleyball belongs to aerobic sport with a high alactic anaerobic power productions which need a fairly long recovery periods (Viitasalo et al., 1987), therefore differs from the anaerobic lactic metabolic requirements of basketball (Hakkinen, 1989).

Well-developed physical performance is essential for volleyball sport. Strength in extending shoulders and elbows extension and flexion and in gripping hands is favorable for spiking, serving and setting in the game. Strength in knee extension is
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critical to jumping. Swift reaction with high frequency and high vertical jump ensures strong explosive force and absolute force (Pu et al., 1989).

2.4.1.1 Importance of physical performance in volleyball

Physical performance is essential in building up the specific competence of both men and women volleyball players. Volleyball is an intermittent sport that requires players to compete in frequent short bouts of high-intensity exercise, followed by periods of low-intensity activity (Kuenstlinger et al., 1987, Viitasalo et al., 1987). The high-intensity bouts of exercise, with the total duration of the match around 90 minutes, requires players to have well-developed aerobic and anaerobic alactic (ATP-CP) energy systems (Hakkinen, 1993, Viitasalo et al., 1987). Considerable demands are also placed on the neuromuscular system during the various sprints, jumps (blocking and spiking), and high-intensity movement that occurs repeatedly during competition (Hakkinen, 1993). As a result, volleyball players require well-developed speed, agility, upper-body and lower-body muscular power, and maximal aerobic power (VO2max) (Gabbett and Georgieff, 2006).

Hertogh and Hue (2002) suggest that power output is an essential component of success in many sports. For volleyball players, exercises aimed at increasing strength are advocated to improve power output and thus maximal jump height (Hertogh and Hue, 2002). Stamm (2003) suggested that it is essential for a successful volleyball player to possess greater speed and endurance, arms and upper body strength, and flexibility (Stamm et al., 2003).

2.4.1.2 Constitution of volleyball players physical performance A variety of physical performance may reinforce or restrict one another. For example, jumping ability is a specific physical performance for volleyball players. However, it should be complemented by other physical performance including speed, agility, and flexibility, etc. (You, 1985).
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In many experts' opinion volleyball should be considered as a power sport (Stech and Smulsky, 2007). High performance of elite volleyball players is mostly dependent on the efficacy of jump actions, in particular, the explosive power of the lower extremity muscles (Harman et al., 1991). Vertical jump is one of the significant indicators of power (speed-force) (Young, 1995, Young et al., 1999a, Young et al., 1999b).

Pu et al. (1989) has suggested that physical performance requirements for volleyball include high levels of strength in shoulder, elbow and hands, which will be favorable for spiking, serving and saving ball; strength in knee extension, which will be favorable of jumping; and quick reaction time (Pu et al., 1989).

In conclusion, physical performances such as, strength, speed, agility and jumping ability are all very important to volleyball players. This is because they need to change their playing positions in turn (except for liberos). In a volleyball game, all players must be able to attack and block in the front line, and defend and serve in the back line. It requires the players to have all-round physical performance.

2.4.1.3 Physical performance measurements for volleyball players Numerous methods have been used to test volleyball players physical fitness in different countries. Some examples as found in the literature are listed below. The objectives of these tests were to assess athletes.

The anthropometric variables of the United States Womens National Volleyball Training Team includes age (years), weight (kg), height (cm) and reach (cm). The four motor ability tests were taken from a motor performance battery developed by Disch et al. (Disch et al., 1977). The four tests included vertical jump, triple hop, agility run, and 20-yard dash (Spence et al., 1980).

Huang et al. (1985) utilized 10 measurement items to assess the physical performance
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of juvenile volleyball players, including 100 metre and 60 metre sprints; running vertical jump with two feet, running vertical jump with one foot, and standing three-step forward jump; badminton shuttlecock throwing; sit-ups; 800 metre and 1500 metre races; and touching depth when bending down forward for flexibility. There was also a combined test of moving along the net and then jumping to block (3 metres5 times). The above items involved almost all the main required physical performance for volleyball players, and were theoretically supported, therefore, adopted by most of the coaches (Huang et al., 1985).

Gabbett and Georgieff (2007) measured physical performance to junior national, state, and novice volleyball players. The measurements included height, standing reach height, skinfold thickness, lower-body muscular power, agility, and estimated maximal aerobic power (Gabbett and Georgieff, 2007). Stamm (2003) administered physical performance tests to female volleyball players, including jumping ability, maximum aerobic endurance, trunk strength, speed, upper body and arms strength tests (Stamm et al., 2003).

Yuan (1982) adopted different methods to determine the physical performance for talent identification. The methods included tests for reaction and speed: to start, move, run and stop after seeing or hearing the given signals; for agility and flexibility: to stand up from lying position (four directions), run through hurdles, jump over elastic band, and finally move under the net; and combined abilities: to run after hearing the given signal, Z running, middle distance race, vertical jump, and medicine ball etc. (Yuan, 1982).

Japanese Volleyball Association has stipulated the following testing items for volleyball players fitness competence: for muscle strength: grip force, pull-ups, basketball throw, back force, sit-ups, vertical jump, standing three-step jump; for agility: 9-metre double trip, 20-metre race, rolling race; for stamina: 800-metre race, steps jump (50cm height for men, 40cm height for women); for flexibility: forward
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stoop, backward bend; and for body control: handstand (Zhong and Huang, 1989).

In the evaluation of the specific athletic competence for volleyball, Zhang (1996) designed eight testing items, including: vertical jump, standing 3-step jump, 2-step running-up vertical jump (for jumping ability); badminton shuttlecock throw (for explosive force); 3 V movement (for agility); 30-metre ran (for speed); sit and bend forward (for flexibility); 800-metre race (for stamina). Since 1996, China Volleyball Association has made arrangements for the test of athletic competence among the players in national volleyball league matches, and the testing items include running up jump with two feet, five times continuous running up jump with two feet (for spikers), 6-metre16 times movements under the net (for setters) and 800-metre race (Zhang, 1996).

As for the specific physical performance of juvenile volleyball players, Feng (2003) utilized nine testing items for the second rank group and nine testing items for the first rank group. The former included: running-up vertical jump, standing long jump, 30-metre race, v-route movement, medicine ball (1.5 kg) throw, V sit-up, prone to lift up (two body ends up) and rope skipping; the latter included: running-up vertical jump, for consecutive cross-step running-up vertical jump, standing 3-step frog-leap, 30-mater race, v route movement, medicine ball (2 kg) throw, sit-up (two body ends up), prone to lift up (two body ends up) and rope skipping. The testing items for the libero in the first rank group are: route movement with intermittent rope skipping, 6-metre double trip fish-leap (boys), 6-metre double trip rolling (girls), forward stoop, 400-metre race (Feng, 2003).

In the Volleyball Training and Education Outline by Huang and Lu (1991), 12 physical performance items were used with percentile scores for the evaluation of juvenile male and female volleyball players. They are: 100-metre sprint, 60-metre sprint, 800-metre run, 1500-metre run, 36-metre movement (not sure what do you mean), running-up vertical jump, consecutive jump, standing 3-step forward jump,
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badminton shuttlecock throw, V sit up and agility test. Percentage table of evaluation is also adopted in the physical performance testing for China volleyball league matches (Huang and Lu, 1991).

Jin et al. (2007) stated that Chinese Volleyball Association had set a rule in 1996 that players for National Leagues must pass the physical performance tests as a pre-requisite. There are four volleyball-specific tests, including spike jump, five vertical jumps in 20 seconds, 6 m 16 sprint beneath the net, 800 m running race (Jin et al., 2007).

In a study by Stamm and associates, in order to evaluate the girls general physical performance, the following generally recognized tests were used: reach height with outstretched hand, standing vertical jump and running vertical jump. Two Euro Fit tests were used: endurance test and stomach muscles strength test. In addition, flexibility test from sitting position, speed test (zigzag run touching medicine ball) and medicine ball throw from behind ones back in a sitting position with outstretched legs were used (Stamm et al., 2000).

The ability to generate high levels of upper-body muscular power during spiking and serving is an important attribute of volleyball players. Upper-body muscular power was estimated using an overhead medicine-ball throw (Osbornk, 2002). Medicine ball throwing, shuttlecock throwing and barbell bench pressing are usually applied in the testing of upper limbs strength. Among them, medicine ball throwing is widely used.

Volleyball players require high levels of lower-body muscular power to perform the spiking, blocking, and jumping tasks that are frequently executed during a match. Lower-body muscular power was estimated by means of the vertical-jump test and the spike-jump test (Osbornk, 2002). Running vertical jump, successive vertical jump, frog jump, squat with barbell load and rope skipping are often used methods for the testing of jumping ability and strength of lower limbs strength. Among them, running vertical
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jump is the most generally applied approach.

Volleyball players require the ability to rapidly accelerate, decelerate, and change direction. The agility of subjects was evaluated using a T-shuttle run agility test (Hoffman et al., 1991). Agility test times were measured to the nearest 0.01 second, with the fastest value obtained from two trials used as the agility score. Besides, T-shuttle run agility test, V-route movement, -route movement and 6-metre movement under net are also used to testing volleyball players agility.

Based on the review of literature, a wide range of tests has been used for the testing volleyball players physical performance. However, some commonly used tests include the strength of lower limb, waist and abdomen muscles, jumping ability and agility. Therefore in this thesis, we adopted running-up vertical jump, medicine ball throw, sit-up timing and T-shuttle run agility test for testing elite women volleyball players physical performance.

2.4.1.4 Implications of physical performance assessments in volleyball Previous research demonstrated that a teams average vertical jumping distance had a significant correlation with a teams final standing in a womens open national championship tournament in the United States (Gladden and Colacino, 1978). Song (1982) studied the relationship between the defensive movements and physical performance among the players in Class A womens volleyball teams in China. From the regression analysis, he found that the defensive movements were significantly related with speed. It was suggested that the physical performance testing should include items for 3-metre swift movement, 4 6 metre transversely movement, v sit-ups, 5-step frog-leap and 30 metre sprint (Song, 1982). Gabbett and Georgieff (2007) indicated that significant differences (p < 0.05) were detected among junior national, state, and novice volleyball players for height, standing reach height, skinfold thickness, lower-body muscular power, agility, and estimated maximal aerobic power, with the physiological and anthropometric characteristics of players typically
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improving with increases in playing level (Gabbett and Georgieff, 2007).

In summary, there have been numerous investigations on the importance of physical performance, the selection of physical performance tests, the correlation among different physical performance tests and the relationship between players performance and physical performance. However, there has been scarcely any literature concerning the relationship between players anthropometric characteristics and physical performance. So far there havent been any data that indicate whether players physical performance is under the influence of their anthropometric characteristics, or whether some specific physical performance may impact players anthropometric

characteristics. Moreover, there have rarely any studies that compared physical performance of the volleyball players in different playing positions.

2.4.2

Correlations performance

between

anthropometric

characteristics

and

physical

There are a considerable number of factors that affect players performance and achievements in competitions, including technical skills, experience in games, psychological characteristics, and conditioning status, etc. There have been some reports on investigations on the relationships between anthropometric characteristics and physical performance and sport performance.

Stanganelli (2008) suggested that the vertical jump capacity was critical for success in volleyball (Stanganelli et al., 2008). You and Huang (2000) found that, with the rapid development of worlds volleyball games, the requirements for physical capacity of elite players are elevated. These include anthropometric characteristics, physiological function, and physical performance. Research has demonstrated that physical capacity is partly determined by genetic factors.

Chen (1999) examined the influence of non-technical factors such as anthropometric characteristics and physical performance on the competition results and suggested that
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anthropometric characteristics and physical performance are closely correlated to each other (Chen, 1999).

2.4.2.1 The relationships between anthropometry and physical performance in sports Optimal anthropometric characteristics have been considered to be a pre-requisite for good performance in sports. As a result, studies (Carter, 1970, Hirata, 1966) have identified particular body type that is likely to lead to success in selected sport events (Sharma and Dixit, 1985). Xu and Chen (2000) reported that the main anthropometric factors which were highly correlated to the performance of elite female aerobics athletes in China were stature and arm length. The main physical performance tests that were correlated to sport performance were chin-up and standing long jump. This study suggests that the performance of aerobics is highly correlated with the indices of anthropometry and physical performance, such as stature, arm length, chin-up, and standing long jump (Xu and Chen, 2000). Previous studies have also documented the physical performance and anthropometric characteristics of sub-elite and elite rugby league players to provide insight into the factors that are likely to limit and contribute to high performance (Gabbett et al., 2005, Gabbett, 2006, Meir et al., 2001, O'Connor, 1996). When it comes to the relation among anthropometric characteristics, physical performance and achievement of 100 m sprinters, it has been reported that anthropometric characteristics, such as stature, length of trochanterion-tibiale laterale and girth of thigh have significant contributions to the achievements, whereas body mass and calf girth has no significant relationship with the achievement (Gabbett et al., 2005, Gabbett, 2006, Meir et al., 2001, O'Connor, 1996). For physical performance of 100 meter sprint athletes, the vertical jump, and vertical jump/ thigh girth are significantly correlated to players accomplishment, while lower body muscular power, vertical jump/length of trochanterion-tibiale laterale and vertical jump/girth of calf have no significant correlations to the achievement (Wang and Zhang, 2003). Yin (1999) pointed out that the performance of heel-to-toe walking race lies on the stride length and frequency. In the condition of coequality, the players who have higher
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stature and longer lower limbs can dominate in the race. Therefore, attention must be paid to the factor of lower limbs length when selecting potential athletes. At the same time, it is propitious to have wide shoulder and narrow biiliocristal for heel-to-toe walkers, because these may improve stride frequency. In addition, slim thigh and thick calf can benefit performance (Yi, 1999).

The above literature indicates that, in the sport events like aerobics, walking race, and sprint, athletes anthropometric characteristics and physical performance interact with each other. The previous studies on the athletes of some sport events have enlightened us to put forward the hypothesis that there are certain correlations among volleyball players anthropometric characteristics, physical performance and achievement.

2.4.2.2 The correlations among the anthropometric characteristics, physical performance and achievement in volleyball Several studies have documented the physiological and anthropometric characteristics of volleyball players (Fleck et al., 1985, Hascelik et al., 1989, Hosler et al., 1978, Spence et al., 1980) and reported that the physical performance of players increases as the playing level is increased (Smith et al., 1992, Thissen-Milder and Mayhew, 1991). Smith et al. (1992) compared physical, physiological, and performance characteristics of national-level and college-level volleyball players and found significantly higher block and spike jumps, 20-m speed, and VO2max in the national-level players (Smith et al., 1992). Fleck and associates (1985) compared the 1980s U.S. Womens National Volleyball Teams with 1979s team for their age, height, weight, body composition determined via hydrostatic weighing and vertical jump height. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in age (232.6 yr. and 21.50.7 yr.), percentage of body fat (11.73.7% and 18.33.4%), and vertical jump distance (52.44.5 cm and 45.56.4 cm). These results indicate that training of elite (national and international caliber) women volleyball players should consider reduce percentage of body fat so as to increase vertical jump distance (Fleck et al., 1985).

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Gao (2006) made a correlative analysis between the ranked volleyball places in the 27th and the 28th Olympics Games and the players seven physical performance indices. The results revealed that the ranked places were significantly correlated with the players stature. According to the ranked places in womens volleyball in the 27th and the 28th Olympics Games, the 12 teams were divided into 3 groups (the top four teams made the first group, the 5th to 8th teams made the second group, and the 9th to 12th teams made the third group). Gao (2006) then applied analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare the seven indices among the players. The results showed that the first group had the highest stature, which was 1.84 m, while the second group was 1.82 m and the third group was 1.80 m, with significant differences between the first, the second & the third groups. The results indicated that the players performance in competition are significantly related with the players stature, which involves four indices for the height-over-the-net, namely, spiking height, blocking height, the difference between spiking height and stature, the difference between blocking height and stature (2006). In modern volleyball games, intense confrontations are mostly reflected by the contest of the height-over-the-net. Therefore, the taller players with better jumping ability would be an advantage (Gao, 2006).

The relationship between anthropometric characteristics and physical performance has been shown in a number of studies on volleyball players. For example, Stamm et al. (2003) suggested that anthropometric characteristics had a significant impact on performing all technical-tactical elements in volleyball, particularly in spike and block. You and Huang (2000) claimed that the length of hand is closely correlated to all volleyball technical skills, especially in the process of hitting. To make full use of the speed gained when waving arms, players with long arms would have an advantage. The length of hand plays an important role in blocking and defense. Long hands allow players to reach higher when they are blocking and controlling broader space in defense (You and Huang, 2000).

Liu (2006) suggested that the waist girth was related to the abdominal muscle function
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in volleyball players. The waist girth was negatively correlated to the abdominal muscle strength. The index of (waist girth/stature) x 100 also related the abdominal muscle strength. Zeng (1992) found that Achilles tendon length was correlated to players jumping ability. A longer Achilles tendon length relates to faster contraction speed and higher power of the calf muscle. The index of (Achilles tendon length /calf length A) 100 reflects not only the strength of the calf muscle, but also players jumping and moving ability. The index of (Sitting height/Stature) 100 reflects the comparative length of players trunk, and greater index of sitting height will usually mean a longer trunk, shorter lower limbs and lower center of gravity. This may be propitious to fast and agile movement, but it will not help in jumping. Hu (1999) reported that longer calves, shorter thighs and smaller ankle girths were among the anthropometric characteristics of elite volleyball players. Zhang (2007) found that the difference between the tensioned and the relaxed upper arm girths reflected the maximum tensioning and relaxing capacity of the upper arm muscles. The upper arm muscle strength will determine volleyball players swing speed and spiking force therefore would directly affect the players performance in spiking.

When compared with the players of Korea and Japan, Chinese women volleyball players showed higher scores in body mass, stature and touching height of vertical jump. When compared with the volleyball players from Europe and America, Chinese players showed no significant difference in these indices, except that standing reach height was lower than that of the Cuban volleyball players (Chen, 1999). Chen (1999) also compared four indices (age, body mass, stature and touching height of vertical jump) for the 108 female volleyball players from the top nine teams in the 26th Olympics Games (Cuba, China, Brazil, Russia, Holland, Korea, U.S.A., Germany, and Japan) (Chen, 1999). The results are listed in Table 2-11.

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Table 2-11 Statistics of four indices of female volleyball players from top 9 teams in the 26th Olympics Games Items Asian (3 teams) American (3) European (3) N 36 36 36 Mass (kg) 68.6 73.0 72.6 Stature (cm) 178.6 181.8 184.1 Running vertical jump (cm) 301.7 312.8 307.3

In conclusion, in international women volleyball games, the winners have distinct advantages both in the anthropometric indices including stature, standing reach height and body mass, as well as in the physical performance indices like jumping ability. Asian women volleyball players did have a history of beating the European and American teams by virtue of well-developed techniques and fighting spirit. However, recently, most of the Asian women volleyball teams seldom get the chance to win the games. There is an exception though. China women volleyball players can still win six champions in high-level world women volleyball games, and this might be because their anthropometric characteristics and physical performance conditions were close to those of top European and American players. The above mentioned statistic data has given evidence to the fact that good achievement attributes to the volleyball players favorable anthropometric characteristics and physical performance conditions.

2.4.3 Summary The nature of volleyball competition requires the players to be well equipped with skills and tactics. Moreover, they should also have good physical performance. All these can possibly work together to win the dominance in a game. Physical performance is the base of high-level volleyball performance. If there is no highly developed physical performance, it will be impossible for volleyball players to master outstanding skills, advanced tactics, and satisfying achievements. Volleyball players should never be satisfied with their overall outstanding physical performance, and

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especially, they should develop the specific physical performance for the volleyball game, which mainly include jumping ability, moving speed, arm-waving speed, agility on the court, stamina for a match and flexibility. As for the testing indices of physical performance for volleyball players, though different coaches and experts have different ideas, most of their suggestions are: running up vertical jump, movement in various styles, short distance race, medicine ball throw (or badminton throw), sit up, long distance race.

The above-listed measurements can well reflect players physical performance, and statistical analyses have shown good correlations between these measurements and the players anthropometric indices.

In China, no systematic study has fully covered the relationship between the anthropometric characteristics and the specific physical performance of female volleyball players. Whether some specific anthropometry characteristics would contribute to the development of the corresponding physical performance still needs to be revealed. There is also a lack of research on the key anthropometry and physical performance factors in relation to high-level performance for women volleyball players.

In recent years, scholars have showed more interests in studying the relationship between physical performance and anthropometric characteristics, and its influence on players performance. Volleyball sports have been involved in these researches, but the existing literature is restricted within the individual index of performance and anthropometric characteristics. If we want to get an accurate evaluation of the influences from physical performance and anthropometric characteristics, a complete picture is needed.

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2.5 The recruitment based on anthropometry From the existing literature in China, it is found that a great attention has been paid to the talent identification based on anthropometric characteristics. The research is mainly carried out along genetics and anthropometry approaches. The former focuses on childrens growth and genetic characteristics, while the latter is concentrated on the measurements and evaluation of anthropometric characteristics.

2.5.1 The importance of anthropometric profile in recruitment of players The fast development in modern sports pushes coaches and sport organizations to pay increased attention to talent identification which is based on not only experience, but also scientific approaches. Among these scientific approaches, anthropometric measurements always play an important role (Xing, 1992). Li (1992) has suggested that a scientific identification of potential players relies on precise and reliable anthropometric measurements and mathematical modeling of the characteristics of outstanding players (Li, 1992).

It has been suggested that a successful athlete relies on a combination of genetic and environmental factors (Tian, 2006). It is estimated that genetic factors account for 92% of stature, 85% of sitting height, 87% of arm length, 92% of thigh length, 82% of foot length, 70% of biacromiale length, 60% of arm girth, 55% of waist girth and 78% of lean mass (Xie et al., 2005). It has also been estimated that heredity is attributable to 86% of reaction time, 64% of relative strength, 75% of anaerobic endurance and 86% of aerobic endurance. In principle, if contribution of heredity is lower than 50% in an attribute it should not be taken as an indicator for talent identification (Xie et al., 2005).

In the past 10 years, the average age of players in top volleyball teams is usually in the range from 23 to 25 years. It normally needs 8 to 10 years to build up a champion team or to cultivate an elite player. Therefore, the best age for talent identification is around
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13 years for girls and 15 years for boys (Zeng, 1992). To date the talent identification of volleyball players has been mainly based on the experience of coaches. To some extent, the improvement volleyball sport is restricted when the prediction of the stature of the young players is based on the experience (Huang, 1992).

Olympic women volleyball players possess certain body characteristics which have been reported as a discriminating factor between high and lower level players (Fleck et al., 1985).. The viewpoints of the researchers converge on the fact that the ideal physique for a sport is not the sole factor of excellence in this sport. Nevertheless, the lack of optimum anthropometric characteristics can become an obstacle for an athlete capable of achieving elite performance (De Garay et al., 1974, Tanner et al., 1964).

2.5.2 Selection of anthropometric measurements 2.5.2.1 Anthropometric selection in sports There is no doubt that the technical skills in volleyball are essentially determined by the players age, body build and physical ability (Buck and Harrison, 1990, Dufek and Zhang, 1996, Malina, 1994, Thissen-Milder and Mayhew, 1991). Studies of the players body build have laid emphasis on a few most essential measurements and characteristics of body composition. Thus, height and weight (Malina, 1994), height, weight and lean body mass (Hascelik et al., 1989), fat skinfolds (Smith et al., 1992), weight, thigh and arm girths and estimation of body fat content on the basis of skinfolds have been applied (Hakkinen, 1993).

The anthropometric assessment indices for female adolescent volleyball players in Rio de Janeiro study included the following variables: body mass, stature, girths of arms, abdomen, hip, thigh, and the skinfolds of triceps, biceps, chest, subscapular, suprailiac, abdominal and thigh (de Almeida and Soares, 2003).

Successful competition in sports has been associated with specific anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype (Carter and Heath, 1990, Claessens
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et al., 1991, Ebersole, 2002). For instance, the importance of tall stature in team sports athletes is universally accepted as it is well known that body height influences positively all body segment lengths and, in turn, athletic performance (Alexander Marion, 1976, Apostolidis et al., 2004, Carter and Heath, 1990, Fleck et al., 1985).

Thus, there is a wealth of empirical evidence and a longstanding scientific interest regarding the existence of structural differences among athletes in various sports (Carter, 1981, Carter, 1984, Eiben, 1981, Gualdi Russo et al., 1992, Gualdi-Russo and Graziani, 1993). An athletes anthropometric characteristics and physical

characteristics may represent important prerequisites for successful participation in any given sport (Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001b), and can in some way influence his/her level of performance, at the same time helping to determine a suitable physique for a certain sport (Carter and Heath, 1990, Rienzi et al., 1999).

Identification of specific characteristics of physique that may contribute to success in sports as well as the possible structural differences among athletes in various sports has been a subject of high interest for sport scientists and coaches. However, although studies have examined the anthropometric and physiological profiles of athletes from a variety of sports (Gabbett, 2000a, Rienzi et al., 1999, Zabukovec and Tiidus, 1995b), it appears that few studies have examined the anthropometric or physiological profile of volleyball players, particularly in relation to their positional role in the games (Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001b). Within a team sport, certain positions may require more specific physique characteristics based on the physiological demands set on the players during the game. Therefore, the investigation in this thesis aimed to provide novel information in this field.

From the above mentioned previous research we have learnt that, in anthropometric investigation for the players in different sports events, the selected measurements are not always the same. For instance, for walking race athletes, the key measurements are at waist, coax, thighs, and calves; for rowers, upper limbs, shoulders and chest are the
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areas of focus. These mean that different sports have different requirements for their athletes anthropometric characteristics.

2.5.2.2 Selection of anthropometry measurements in volleyball The anthropometry measurements included body weight, height in standing position, sitting height, height with one arm raised, height with two arms raised and arm span. In addition, the lengths of the upper limb, forearm, hand, lower limb, thigh and foot were measured as well as the girths of shoulder, chest, biceps, forearm, wrist, waist, abdomen, hip, thigh, calf and ankle. The skinfolds measured were those of the triceps, subscapular, abdomen and thigh (Papadopoulou et al., 2002).

Li (2006) analyzed the anthropometric characteristics of Chinese junior female volleyball players. He recommended five indices like stature, standing reach height/stature, abdominal skinfold and body mass/stature can be taken as essential indicators for the selection of junior female volleyball players in China (Li, 2006).

To improve the volleyball players talent identification, the Chinese national organization of volleyball conducted a specific research and had brought forward some reference indices for the volleyball players anthropometric characteristics, including: stature, finger distance-height, iliospinale height/stature100, length of Achilles tendon /calf length plus foot arch height100, breadth of biiliocristal/biacromial breadth100 (Zeng, 1992).

To sum up, the previous investigation on volleyball players anthropometric characteristics all take the basic indices including stature, body mass, standing reach height and sitting height. They tend to focus on the length of lower limbs, Achilles tendon and calf, and ankle girth, which are related with jumping ability, and the index of biiliocristal breadth/biacromial breadth100, which may influence players agility. However, it is also found that these scholars have not made complete selections for volleyball players anthropometric measuring positions and therefore can not present a
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full picture of volleyball players anthropometric characteristics conditions.

2.5.3 Anthropometry characteristics of volleyball players at specific positions The literature review in this section introduces the concept of specific volleyball positions in volleyball sport. The physical performance and the anthropometric characteristics required for the players at specific positions are also reported.

2.5.3.1 Anthropometry characteristics of players at different positions in team sports Researchers have investigated the physical qualities of different playing positions based on which they developed performance standards and normative data for these players (Gabbett et al., 2005, Gabbett, 2006, Gabbett and Georgieff, 2006, Meir et al., 2001).

Gabbett (2006) compared the physiological and anthropometric characteristics of specific playing positions and positional playing groups in sub-elite rugby league. The results of his study demonstrated that few physiological and anthropometric differences exist among individuals playing positions in sub-elite rugby league, although props are taller, heavier, have a greater skinfold thickness, than other positional playing groups. The adjustables and outside backs were shorter, lighter, leaner, faster, and had higher maximal aerobic power than hit-up forwards (Gabbett, 2006).

Ostojic et al. (2006) described structural and functional characteristics of elite Serbian basketball players and evaluated whether players in different positional roles had different physical and physiological profiles. The results of this study showed that there were differences in physical and physiological characteristics in different positional roles of elite basketball players that might be due to genetic factors or training, or both. The demands of the different positional roles appeared to be unique, thus training as well as recruiting should reflect the differences. Coaches can use this information to determine what type of profile is needed for specific positions and to
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design training programs to maximize physical performance development in their players and to achieve success in basketball. The study also revealed a strong relationship between body composition, aerobic physical performance, anaerobic power, and positional roles in elite basketball players (Ostojic et al., 2006).

Hencken and White (2006) investigated a squad of Premiership soccer players (n=24) using ISAK (International Society of Advancement of Kinanthropometry) suggested methods, with a total of 39 anthropometry measurements. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed no differences between the stature and body mass between strikers, midfielders, defenders, and goalkeepers. In his study, within-position variation was quite large in some cases, which could indicate that a team that did not have the opportunity to select players based on anthropometric characteristics might be at a disadvantage (Hencken and White, 2006).

Specific positional roles in soccer and volleyball require distinct technical skills and therefore further research is essential to detect whether the positional variation of Indian soccer and volleyball players relates to any difference in their morphological characteristics (Bandyopadhyay, 2007).

In summary, it has been speculated that, in team sports, the players at different tactical positions may have distinct anthropometric profiles. However, from the above review of literature it is clear that, except the anthropometric differences shown in different sport events, elite basketball, lacrosse and soccer players may not always shown significant differences in their anthropometric profiles among different positions. Further study is also required for volleyball players. We therefore proposed a Null Hypothesis that there were no differences among the anthropometric profiles of the women volleyball players at different tactical positions.

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2.5.3.2 Physical performance and anthropometry for volleyball players at volleyball positions It appears that for liberos the primary requirement is certainly not height, since their role during the game is to defend their court playing close to the ground, for which they need to have good technical skills, strategy and reaction time. Their high value in mesomorphy with the low fat mass are indicative of a good muscular system necessary for playing good defence. Setters also need high speed and agility as well as technical and organizational skills to serve their role in the game, whereas body size is not so crucial. Opposites exhibit strong tendency for higher ectomorphy compared to spikers, reecting their different duties during the game. The opposites, being the main spikers of the team, attack and block the opposing teams attacks over the net and therefore have to be tall with long arms and legs. Spikers have signicant contribution in the game, playing over the net (attacking and blocking) but also close to the ground, in receiving the ball. Therefore, technical skills in receiving the ball and effective attacking combined with good jumping (Malousarisa et al., 2008).

The roles of players at volleyball positions The chief spikers should be able to make breaks through the blocking defense of the opponent. In matches, the chief spikers are supposed to be in charge of the aggressive and powerful attacks usually at the No. 4 position. Therefore, the chief spikers are demanded to meet higher spiking requirements for height, strength, skill, route and precision (Chen, 1989b).

In an elite volleyball team, the second spikers are indispensable for their fast attacks, passes, serves, blocks and the cooperation with teammates. Their most important function is to make effective group movements and build a two or three persons block. They are always smart in the application of time difference and position shift, skillful in fast attacking skills and tactics, and cooperative in teaming up effective attacks and blocks, especially with the chief spikers and the second setters (Wu, 1996).

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Setters usually make the second pass, which is the turning point from defense to attack. Therefore, they are the key factors for the realization of both defending and attacking tactics (Chen, 1989b). As for the second setters, their responsibilities have changed a lot in modern volleyball games. Their previous function in the second pass decreased, their attacking function has otherwise increased. In the current world level women volleyball games, second setters has come up to be the core of the whole attacking tactics (Chen, 1999).

The position of Libero was established by International Volleyball League in 1998. The player in this position can be called libero defensive player. The duty of this player is to make the first pass and defense on the back row. A good libero can enhance the defense of the back row and make other players be more dedicated for attacking buildup. At present, libero becomes such a crucial role that the application and the talent identification of the libero players require serious consideration (Li, 2006).

Current research on physical characteristics of elite volleyball players Each of the six players in the volleyball court has specific roles in the games. Therefore, the anthropometric characteristics required for these positions would be different. Spikers are always expected to give forceful attack at No.4 position which is chief spiker and therefore they should have high stature and strong muscles, while Liberos are devoted to receive the spiked or the served ball in the backfield, and they are not allowed to spike or block in the front field.

Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni (2001) suggested that the volleyball players had significantly different anthropometric characteristics in relation to their game roles. They indicated that the setters were the lightest, the shortest, and the fattest; the spikers were the heaviest; and the second spikers were the tallest (Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001b). The research of Malousaris et al. (2008) indicated that the liberos had smaller body size than the rest of the players. In addition, the setters were shorter and had lower body mass and fat free mass than the centers (Malousarisa et al., 2008).
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There are arguments about whether there is a significant difference in Katoly index for female volleyball players at different volleyball positions. For example, Li (2004) undertook the anthropometry indices for the female volleyball players (n=287) in the 14th World Volleyball Championship in 2002. He conducted one-way ANOVA and found that there were significant differences in Katoly index among the spikers, second spikers, setters, second setters and liberos (Li, 2004).

Ling (2007) has also suggested that players at different volleyball positions may have unique anthropometric characteristics. Among the world top women volleyball players, the average stature of setters is 180-185 cm, chief spikers 185-190 cm, second spikers 190-200 cm, second setters 185-195 cm (Ling, 2007b). Table 2-12 shows some of the anthropometric characteristics and performance measurements of female volleyball players at different volleyball positions in the top six female teams in the 26th Olympics Games (Zhang, 1998b).

Table 2-12 Anthropometric characteristics of elite female volleyball players at volleyball positions Items Spiker Second spiker Body mass (kg) Stature (cm) Running vertical jump (cm) Source: (Zhang, 1998a) 70.8 180.5 307.6 73.9 184.8 309.9 68.4 175.9 295.3 Setter Second setter 72.2 181.3 307.6 71.3 180.6 305.1 Mean

To make a clear understanding of the anthropometric characteristics between Chinese elite women volleyball players and the world elite women volleyball players, we have made comparative analyses among the 287 elite women volleyball players from 24

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teams in the 15th World Championships in 2006. The comparative indices include: stature, body mass and Katoly index. The data has been collected from the official website of the 15th World Championships (http://sports.sina.com.cn/z/

wwcvolleyball06/) and the research results on the anthropometric characteristics of the elite women volleyball players in the 15th World Championships (Qu, 2007). Through X2 test on the results, Qu (2007) found that there were significant differences among the stature indices and the body mass indices of spikers, second spikers, setters, second setters and liberos (Tables from 2-13 to 2-17), but there was no significant difference in the Katoly indices (Qu, 2007).

Table 2-13 The anthropometric characteristics of the spikers in 15th World Womens Volleyball Tournament Items America (n=24) Stature (cm) Body mass (kg) Katoly index 184.77.1 70.19.6 379.146.3 Europe (n=21) 187.14.9 71.45.2 381.424.8 Africa (n=11) 178.64.7 72.55.6 405.829.4 Asia (n=18) 181.26.0 67.85.6 373.723.2

Table 2-14 The anthropometric characteristics of the second spikers in 15th World Womens Volleyball Tournament Items America (n=26) Stature (cm) Body mass (kg) Katoly index 186.74.4 73.66.0 394.130.0 Europe (n=30) 188.15.9 71.75.7 381.024.3 Africa (n=7) 180.15.2 71.35.1 395.420.2 Asia (n=15) 185.74.6 71.64.7 385.521.4

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Table2-15 The anthropometric characteristics of the setters in 15th World Womens Volleyball Tournament Items America (n=18) Stature (cm) Body mass (kg) Katoly index 177.35.1 68.84.6 388.128.0 Europe (n=16) 178.94.8 68.65.0 383.728.6 Africa (n=6) 176.23.8 61.53.3 349.117.1 Asia (n=10) 175.68.1 68.56.6 389.423.5

Table 2-16 The anthropometric characteristics of the second setters in 15th World Womens Volleyball Tournament Items America (n=16) Stature (cm) Body mass (kg) Katoly index 183.64.1 70.57.2 383.8 38.0 Europe (n=18) 186.946.4 71.25.1 380.622.2 Africa (n=8) 178.62.9 71.05.8 397.532.0 Asia (n=10) 180.75.9 69.25.6 382.622.1

Table 2-17 The anthropometric characteristics of the liberos in 15th World Womens Volleyball Tournament Items America (n=12) Stature (cm) Body mass (kg) Katoly index 171.87.3 64.06.4 372.433.9 Europe (n=10) 171.75.5 63.16.5 367.029.3 Africa (n=4) 170.30.5 66.32.4 89.214.9 Asia (n=7) 170.46.9 63.05.1 369.420.9

Based on the analyses Qu (2007) pointed out that there were no significant differences in the average age, body mass and Katoly index of the players from America, Europe, Africa and Asia. However, there was a significant difference in the average stature. Although there were no significant differences among the average of age and Katoly index, the average of stature and body mass were significantly different among the
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players at different tactical positions. The players from America, Europe, Africa and Asia, at different tactical positions, showed specific anthropometric characteristics and the height-over-the-net as well.

There were significant difference among the mean statures of the players from America, Europe, Africa and Asia, but there was no significant difference among the age, body mass, and Katoly index. The average stature of the European players was the tallest (184.4 cm), followed by the players from the America (182.1 cm), Asia (180.0 cm), and Africa (177.6 cm). The average body mass was 69.7 kg. European players average body mass is the heaviest (70.1 kg), the next goes to the American and African players (69.4 kg), and the lightest was the players from Asia (68.5 kg). However, these differences were not statistically different. The players average Katoly index was 383.0. The average values, from the highest to the lowest, were in the order of European, Asian, American and African players, although these differences were not statistically significant.

As for the anthropometric characteristics and height over the net, the players from different continents or from different tactical positions may have their own features. For example, for the position of spikers, there were no significant differences among the averages of age and body mass of the players from different continents, but there existed significant differences in the averages of stature and Katoly index. At the position of second spikers, significant difference was found between the continents in the average stature, while no significant differences were found in the averages of age, body mass and Katoly index. The setters from different continents had significantly different body mass and Katoly index, but their other indices showed no significant difference. The second setters from different continents had significantly different averages of stature, but there was no significant difference among their age, body mass and Katoly index. For liberos, there was no significant difference among the players from different continents.

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Liberos were shorter and lighter (p < 0.01) than spikers, centers and opposites, while centers and opposites were taller than setters and spickers. In respect of body mass and fat free mass, significant differences (p < 0.01) were observed between centers and liberos, centers and setters, as well as between spikers and liberos. With regard to somatotype, spikers and setters are characterized as balanced endomorphs (3.5-3.0-2.7 and 3.6-2.5-3.0, respectively), centers and opposites as endomorphectomorphs (3.4-2.4-3.1 and 3.4-2.4-3.5, respectively) and liberos as mesomorphendomorphs (3.1-3. 3-2.6). In general, A1 opposites were leaner than all other positions and all A2 players (A1national team of Greek; A2: national league of Greek). In A1 division, spikers (3.3-2.5-3.3), centers (3.2-2.2-3.2), and setters (3.4-2.2-3.2) were characterised as endomorph-ectomorphs, opposites as balanced ectomorphs (2.6-2.4-3.9) and liberos as centrals (3.2-3.3-2.8). In A2 division, spikers (3.6-3.3- 2.4) and liberos (3.0-3.3-2.4) were characterized as mesomorphendomorphs, centers (3.6-2.7-3.1) and setters (3.7-3.0-2.7) as balanced endomorphs, and opposites (4.1-2.5-3.2) as ectomorphic endomorphs (Malousarisa et al., 2008)

Figure 2-1 Somatochart for Greek female players from different competition level (V1: mean somatotype of A1 volleyball division; V2: mean somatotype of A2
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volleyball division) by playing position (H1: mean somatotype of A1 spikers, C1: mean somatotype of A1 centres; O1: mean somatotype of A1 opposites; S1: mean somatotype of A1 setters; L1: mean somatotype of A1 liberos; H2: mean somatotype of A2 spikers; C2: mean somatotype of A2 centres; O2: mean somatotype of A2 opposites; S2:mean somatotype of A2 setters; L2: mean somatotype of A2 liberos) (Malousarisa et al., 2008)

2.5.4 Summary As an important factor for successful cultivation, talent identification has aroused increasing attention of coaches. Nowadays, some anthropometric indices have been adopted by some coaches in the talent identification of volleyball players. However, further research is needed to validate talent identification criteria for specific groups of players.

The talent identification criteria of volleyball players can be divided into several kinds, including anthropometry, energy, physical performance, and psychology, etc. Though different specialists may hold different opinions for the selection of the indices, they share the tendency of using stature, arm span, lower limbs length and Achilles tendon length as anthropometry indices, and fast movement, running-up vertical jump, arm-waving speed and the strength of waist and abdomen muscle as physical performance indices. Yet, there is a paucity of specific research on these indices.

There has been literature on physical characteristics of players in volleyball positions in team sports, such as volleyball, rugby, soccer, and lacrosse, however the results on the differences between positions have been equivocal.

In volleyball, due to the different responsibilities at volleyball positions, spikers, second spikers, setters, second setters and liberos differ in their roles and required different skills and tactics in the competition. Therefore, differences are expected in their physical performance and anthropometric characteristics.
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As for the different anthropometric characteristics of the women volleyball players at volleyball positions, very limited information is available in the literature. Previous studies are limited to measurements of stature, body mass, arm span and Katoly index. Further investigations on a more complete anthropometry profile for volleyball players at different positions is necessary in validation of talent identification criteria.

2.6 Summary of the Literature Review Based on the analysis of over 200 reports in the filed of anthropometry and sports, with a focus on volleyball players, the following can be summarised. 1) Previous findings have revealed that anthropometric characteristics and physical performance are the foundation for skills and tactics. Selections based on the optimal characteristics may be an important pre-requisite in setting up a high performance team. 2) Very limited information is available in the literature regarding the anthropometric characteristics of elite female volleyball players. 3) No systematic research has been found in the literature on the correlations between anthropometric measurements and physical capacity, and neither has any study demonstrated the significance of anthropometric characteristics of a particular body part may contribute to the development of the corresponding physical capacity in female volleyball. 4) No literature has reported the relationship between the performance of female volleyball players in different playing positions and their specific physique and physical performance. 5) Particularly, there has been a paucity of information on the anthropometric characteristics of elite Chinese female volleyball players, although the Chinese team has been among the world top teams for more than 20 years.

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3. Chapter Three: Methods


3.1 Participants Volleyball players from the top eight teams of the 2007-2008 Chinese Womens Volleyball Tournament were invited to participate in the study (Table 3-1).

Table 3-1 The top eight teams of the 2007-2008 Chinese Womens Volleyball Tournament Rank 1 2 3 4 Team Tianjin Bayi Shanghai Liaoning Rank 5 6 7 8 Team Sichuan Jiangsu Shandong Zhejiang

One hundred (100) players, including 27 chief spikers, 25 second spikers, 15 setters, 18 second setters and 15 liberos, completed all anthropometry measurements. The participants age was in the range of 18 to 30 years old as registered at the 2007-2008 National Volleyball Tournament. Their mean age (SD) was 22.33.65 years and they had participated in volleyball training for 9.673.98 years on average. Due to injury, 13 players were absent form the measurement of physical performance. Hence the total number of players involved in the physical performance measurements was 87.

The statistics of general information for all volleyball players are presented in Table 3-2. Statistics of general information for each of the five volleyball players positions are presented in Table 3-3.

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Table 3-2

The general information for all volleyball players N Minimum 18.0 7.1 4.2 0.7 51.6 156.0 84.2 207.6 306.3 Maximum 30.8 16.9 20.7 15.0 103.9 198.0 107.0 256.5 546.8 Mean 22.3 12.6 9.7 5.6 70.5 183.6 95.7 236.7 383.6 SD 3.65 1.80 3.98 3.47 7.60 5.77 3.53 7.81 37.04

Age (year) ATFT (year) YPVT (year) YBEV (year) Body mass (kg) Stature (cm) Sitting height

100 100 100 100 100 100 100

(cm) SRH(cm) Katoly index 100 100

AbbreviationsATFT: Age of training volleyball in the first timeYPVT: Years of participating in volleyball training; YBEV: Years of becoming elite volleyball player (who joined in her own team, which is one of the national top 8 teams); SRH: Standing reach height.

Table 3-3 General information for the five players positions N Chief spikers Second spikers Setters Second setters Liberos Total 27 25 15 18 15 100 Age (year) 23.03.78 21.93.78 22.13.54 22.63.69 21.53.49 YBEV (year) 6.03.45 5.23.54 5.73.65 5.83.90 5.02.98 5.63.47 YPVT (year) 10.24.25 9.13.82 9.53.77 9.74.41 9.83.82 9.73.98

Abbreviations: YBEV: Years of becoming elite volleyball player; YPVT: Years of participating in volleyball training. Data presented are meanSD.

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3.2 Research design This study used a cross-sectional design and was descriptive in nature. Selected anthropometry and physical performance data were collected from the current top eight womens volleyball teams and the national team in China. Anthropometry measurements and statistical analyses were performed to determine the physical characteristics of the volleyball players, and comparisons were made between the players of different volleyball positions. Correlation analyses were also performed to examine the relationships between the anthropometry characteristics and physical performance.

To collect the data, the researchers traveled to the training camps of the volleyball teams. The data was collected during the period of November 2008 to February 2009. During this period, some teams (n=5) participated in the measurements during the pre tournament preparation phase, while other teams (n=3) were measured during the gaps between games.

The anthropometry measurements included 29 items, of which 26 were accordance of ISAK manual (Marfell-Jones et al., 2006a) and three were additional measurements following the protocol of Zeng (1992). Based on the collected original data, 20 derived anthropometry indices were calculated and the somatotypes were determined using the Heath-Carter method (Carter and Heath, 1990, Heath and Carter, 1967, Norton and Olds, 1996).

Four physical performance tests were selected with consideration of their specificity to volleyball. These tests included overhead medicine ball throwing (for upper-body muscular power), running vertical jump (for lower-body muscular power), T-shuttle run agility test and timed 20 sit-ups (for muscular endurance). The physical performance of each player was measured according to the stated methods issued by
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the China Volleyball Association (Jin et al., 2007).

All of the anthropometry measurements were taken by the same (female) researchers who obtained ISAK level 1 and level 2 anthropometrist certificates. The physical performance tests were also performed by the same researchers. The anthropometry measurements were taken in the morning while the measurements of physical performance were taken in the afternoon. All measurements for one volleyball team were completed within one day.

Statistical analyses were performed when all the anthropometry and physical performance data had been collected, after consultation with a statistician.

3.3 Ethical considerations All participants were screened using the pre-participation health status questionnaire (Appendix 2) to ensure no contraindications to participation. Participants were provided with information at their level of comprehension about the purpose, methods, demands, risks, inconveniences, discomforts, and possible outcomes of this research. A copy of the information sheet and the consent form (all in Chinese) are attached in (Appendix 3). Informed consent was obtained from each participant prior to the commencement of the measurements. The experimental procedure had obtained approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Southern Cross University (ECN-08-142). However, there was no requirement for ethical approval for conducting this project by the relevant authorities and sport teams in China. The research has obtained approval by the China Volleyball Administration Center and the coaches of the teams.

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3.4 Equipment For the anthropometry measurements, Rosscraft (Rosscraft Innovations Company, Canada) anthropometry equipment was used, including Campbell 20 (54 cm) wide sliding caliper with AP branches, Campbell 10 (18 cm) small bone caliper, segmometer, head square, Slim Guide skinfold calipers, and steel anthropometric tapes. A weighing scale (accurate to 100 grams) was used to record body mass. For the measurement of stature, a steel tape measure was fixed to a wall, and the head square was used to get the height (Marfell-Jones et al., 2006a). This tape measure was also used for standing reach height and vertical jump. The measurements were taken in a room with protection of privacy.

All the measurements of the physical performance were taken at an indoor volleyball court. The Medicine ball (2000 gram) (Guan You KB-178, China) which was specially used in national fitness test for high school students was used in the throwing tests. The timing for T-shuttle run agility test used a Casio stopwatch (Casio Company, Japan). The timed 20 sit-ups was performed on a gym mat.

3.5 Procedures On the day of testing, the researchers met the athletes in the morning. Before the measurements, the team officials and coaches explained to the participants the significance of the research and encouraged them to cooperate with the researchers. The anthropometry measurements were executed according to the ISAK procedures. Each item was measured twice with the assistance of a recorder. If the variation between the two measurements was out of the limit set by ISAK (i.e. >5% for skinfolds and >1% in all other measurements), a third measure was taken. When two measurements were taken, the average value of the two was used in statistical analysis. If a third measure was taken the medium number was used in statistical analysis. The physical performance tests were performed twice for each player.
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3.5.1 Procedures of anthropometric measurements No warm-up was required. During the measurements, the room temperature was not specifically controlled, but was around 25o C degrees. When taking the measurements, two anthropometrists together to measure the four basic variables, including: stature, body mass, standing reach height and sitting height. Then all the skinfolds and girths were measured by one anthropometrist. After this, the lengths and breadths were measured by another anthropometrist.

3.5.1.1 The items of anthropometric measurements Considering the characteristics of volleyball and the time required in measurements, 26 items were selected from the ISAK full anthropometric profile (39 items) (Marfell-Jones et al., 2006a). Moreover, three additional measurements, standing reach height, hand breadth and Achilles' tendon length, were included, as described below. The sites of anthropometric measurements are shown in Figure 3-1.

Figure 3-1 The sites of anthropometric measurements (the full names of the items as labeled are found in Table 3-4)

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The full list of the items measured is presented in Table 3-4.

Table 3-4 Type

The items of anthropometric measurements Number of items Name

Base measurement Skinfold Girth

Stature, body mass, sitting height, standing reach height

4 9

Triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, medial calf Arm(relaxed, flexed an Arm (relaxed, flexed and tensed) (N), forearm(O), wrist (P), waist (Q), gluteal (R), mid-thigh (S), calf (T), ankle (U)

Length

Acromiale-radiale (B), radiale-stylion radiale (A), iliospinale height (E), tibiale laterale height (F), midstylion-dactylion (D), Achilles' tendon (G)

Breadth

Biilocristal (I), biacromial (H), transverse chest (J), biepicondylar humerus (K), biepicondylar femur (L), hand (M)

Derived variables Total

Arm flexed and tensed girth minus arm-relaxed girth, Acromiale-dactylion length (C)

31

The capital letters in the brackets correspond to the labels shown in Figure 3-1.

After collection of the anthropometric data as described above, further anthropometric indices were derived. Based on the 31 direct anthropometric measurements, 22 indices were derived (Table 3-5).

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Table 3-5
Height indices 2

The derived indices from the anthropometric data


Sitting height index = sitting height / stature100 Standing reach height index = standing reach height / stature100

Length indices

Forearm length index = radiale-stylion radiale length / stature100 Forearm/upper limb length index = radiale-stylion radiale length/(acromiale-radiale length+radiale-stylion radiale length+ midstylion-dactylion length)100 Upper limb length index = (acromiale-radiale length+radiale-stylion radiale length+hand length)/stature100 Calf length index = ibiale-laterale length/stature100 Lower limb length index = iliospinale height/stature100 Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index = ankle girth/Achilles tendon length100

Breadth indices

Biacromial breadth index = biacromial breadth/stature100 Biiliocristal breadth index = biiliocristal breadth/stature100 Biiliocristal/biacromial breadth index=biilocristal/biacromial breadth 100 Transverse chest breath index = transverse chest breath/stature100 Hand breadth index = metacarpals breadth/stature100

Waist indices

Waist girth index = Waist girth/stature100 Arm flexed and tensed girth index = Arm flexed and tensed girth/ stature100 Arm relaxed girth index = Arm relaxed girth/stature100 Mid-thigh girth index = Mid-thigh girth/stature100 Calf girth index = Calf girth/stature100 Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index = Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length100

Nutritional indices

Katoly index = body mass/stature1000 Body mass index = body mass(kg)/stature(m2) Sum of 4 skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf)

Total

22

(Ye, 1995)

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3.5.1.2 The method and process of measurements The anthropometric measurements were performed according to the ISAK manual (Marfell-Jones et al., 2006a) by two anthropometrists who had taken part in ISAK Level 2 anthropometrist training, with two recorders who assisted in recording of the data.

Body mass The participant wore minimal clothing. The scale was reset to zero. The participant stood on the centre of the scale without support and with the weight distributed evenly on the two feet.

Stature The participant was asked to stand with the heels together, and the heels, buttocks and upper part of the back touching the wall. Positioning the head in the Frankfort plane was achieved by placing the tip of the measurers thumb on the orbitale, and the index finger on the tragion of each side of the participant, then horizontally aligning the two points. Having positioned the head in the Frankfort plane, the measurer relocated the thumbs posteriorly towards the participant's ears, and far enough along the line of the jaw of the participant to ensure that upward pressure, when applied, is transferred through the mastoid processes. The participant was then instructed to take and hold a deep breath and while keeping the head in the Frankfort plane, the measurer applied gentle upward lift through the mastoid processes. The recorder placed the headboard firmly down on the vertex, compressed the hair as much as possible. The height was read to the nearest 0.1 centimeter.

Sitting height The participant was seated on a measuring box or a level platform. The participant was instructed to take and hold a deep breath and while keeping the head in the Frankfort plane the measurer applied gentle upward lift through the mastoid processes. The recorder placed the headboard firmly down on the Vertex, crushing
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the hair as much as possible. Care was taken to ensure the participant did not contract the gluteal muscles nor push with the legs.

Standing reach height This was measured as the vertical distances from the ground to highest point of finger tip, while the participant stood upright with the right side of the body against the wall, stretched the right arm as high as possible and not to lift up any heel. The measurer stood on a chair at the right side of the participant and took the vertical distance from the top of the middle finger of the stretched arm to the ground (Zeng, 1992).

Triceps skinfold The participant assumed a relaxed standing position. The landmark of mid-acromiale-radiale and the site for the triceps skinfold were made according to the ISAK Manual (Marfell-Jones et al., 2006a). The right arm should be relaxed with the shoulder joint externally rotated to the mid-prone position and elbow extended by the side of the body. The skinfold was taken parallel to the long axis of the arm at the triceps skinfold site.

Subscapular skinfold Subscapular skinfold site was in 2 cm along a line running laterally and obliquely downward from the subscapulare landmark at a 45o angle. The participant assumes a relaxed standing position with the arms hanging by the sides. The skinfold measurement taken with the fold running obliquely downward at the subscapular skinfold site. The line of the skinfold was determined by the natural fold lines of the skin.

Supraspinale skinfold The point at the intersection of two lines: the line from the marked iliospinale to the anterior axillary border, and the horizontal line at the level of the marked iliocristale,

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was marked. The skinfold measurement taken with the fold running obliquely and medially downward at the marked supraspinales skinfold sites.

Medial calf skinfold The maximal girth of the calf was determined by trial and error. The level of the maximum girth is determined by trial and error. Participant's right foot was placed on a box with the calf relaxedThe fold was parallel to the long axis of the leg.

Arm relaxed girth The participant assumed a relaxed position with the arms hung by the sides. The measurement was taken at the level of mid-acromiale-radiale site, perpendicular to the long axis of the arm.

Arm relaxed and tensed girth The circumference of the arm perpendicular to the long axis of the arm at the level of the peak of the contracted biceps brachii, when the arm was raised anteriorly to the horizontal. The participant assumed a relaxed standing position with the left arm hung by the side. The participant's right arm is raised anteriorly to the horizontal with the forearm supinated and flexed at about 45-90o to the arm. The measurer stood to the side of the participant and with the tape loosely in position. The participant was asked to partially tense the elbow flexors to identify the probable peak of the contracted muscles. The participant was encouraged to contract the arm muscles as strongly as possible and hold it while the measurement was made at the peak of the biceps brachii.

Forearm girth The participant assumed a relaxed standing position with the left arm hung by the side. The participant's right arm was slightly flexed at the shoulder and the elbow was extended. The participant held the palm up (ie. forearm supinated) while relaxing the

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muscles of the forearm. Using the cross-hand technique, the measurer moved the tape measure up and down the forearm and made serial measurements in order to correctly locate the level of the maximum girth

Wrist girth It was measured as the minimal circumference of the wrist perpendicular to the long axis of the forearm, distal to the styloid processes. The participant assumed a relaxed standing position, with the right arm is slightly flexed at the elbow, the forearm supinated and the hand relaxed. Manipulation of the tape measure was required to be sure the minimal girth was obtained. The tissues were not be compressed by excessive tension.

Waist girth The anthropometrist stood in front of the participant who abducted the arms slightly allowing the tape to be passed around the abdomen. The participant was asked to breathe normally and the measurement was taken at the end of a normal expiration (end tidal) at the narrowest point. If there was no obvious narrowing the measurement was taken at the mid-point between the lower costal (10th rib) border and the iliac crest.

Gluteal (hip) girth The participant assumed a relaxed standing position with the arms folded across the thorax, the feet put together and the gluteal muscles relaxed. The anthropometrist passed the tape around the hips from the side. The stub of the tape and the housing are then both held in the right hand while the anthropometrist used the left hand to adjust the level of the tape at the back to the adjudged level of the greatest posterior protuberance of the buttocks.

Mid-thigh girth The circumference of the thigh was


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measured

at

the

level

of

the

mid-trochanterion-tibiale laterate site, perpendicular to its long axis. The anthropometrist passed the tape between the lower thighs and then slides the tape up to the correct plane. The stub of the tape and the housing are both hold in the right hand while the anthropometrist used the left hand to adjust the level of the tape to the target level.

Calf girth The participant usually stood in an elevated position. The anthropometrist passed the tape around the calf and then slid the tape to the correct plane. The tape was moved up and down perpendicular to the axis of the leg to find the maximal girth.

Ankle girth The participant stood in an elevated position. The anthropometrist passed the tape around the ankle and manipulated it up and down this region to ensure that the minimum girth was obtained.

Acromiale-radiale length The participant assumed a relaxed standing position with the arms hung by the sides. The right forearm should be pronated. One branch of the caliper or segmometer was held on the acromiale while the other branch was placed on the radiale. If the branches of the segmometer were too short to allow clearance of the deltoids, a large sliding caliper was used The segmometer or caliper measurement scale was paralleled to the long axis of the arm.

Radiale-stylion length The participant assumed a relaxed position with the arms hanging by the sides. The right forearm was in the mid-pronated position. This measurement represented the length of the forearm. It was the distance between the previously marked radiale and stylion landmarks. One caliper (or segmometer) branch was held against the radiale and the other branch was placed on the stylion landmark.
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Midstylion-dactylion length The participant assumed a relaxed standing position with the left arm hung by the side. The right elbow was partially flexed, forearm supinated, and the fingers extended (but not hyperextended). This measurement represented the length of the hand. One branch of the caliper or segmometer was placed on the marked dactylion line while the other branch was positioned on the dactylion.

Iliospinale height The participant assumed a standing position with the feet together and the arms hung by the sides. The base of the anthropometer or fixed branch of the segmometer was placed on the floor. The anthropometer or segmometer was oriented vertically with the moving branch positioned at the marked iliospinale site. The vertical distance from the iliospinale site to the standing surface was measured.

Tibiale laterale height The participant assumed a standing position with the feet together or slightly apart and the arms hung by the sides. This measurement represented the length of the leg. It was usual practice to have the participant stand on an anthropometry box while the base of the anthropometer or fixed branch of the segmometer was on the top of the box and the moving branch was placed on the marked tibiale laterale site. The anthropometer or segmometer was held in the vertical plane. The height from the tibiale laterale to the top of the box was then measured.

Achilles tendon length Participant stood naturally, facing the wall with their feet slightly separated and both hands on the wall to support the body. The participant was asked to lift up the heals to tense the calf muscles. The measurer made a mark at the lateral head of the gastrocnemius of the right leg. The participant was then asked to return to the natural standing position and another mark was made by the measurer at the top point on the
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calcaneus of the foot. The linear distance between the two marks was measured using a segmometer (Zeng, 1992).

Biacromial breadth This distance was measured with the branches of the large sliding caliper placed on the most lateral surface of the acromion processes (below the marked acromiale landmark). The participant stood with the arms hanging at the sides, and the measurer, stood behind the participant, should bring the caliper branches in to the acromion process at an angle of about 30 pointing upwards. Pressure should be applied to compress the overlying tissues, but did not move the shoulders.

Biiliocristal breadth The measurer stood in front of the participant and the branches of the anthropometer are kept at about 45 pointing upwards. Firm pressure was applied by the anthropometrist to reduce the effect of overlying tissues.

Transverse chest breadth The participant assumed a relaxed standing or seated position with the arms abducted sufficiently to allow the caliper branches to be positioned at the lateral borders of the ribs. The measurer stood in front of the participant. The breadth of the thorax was measured perpendicular to its long axis when the scale of the caliper was at the level of the mesosternale, and the blades were positioned at an angle of 30 downward from the horizontal.

Biepicondylar humerus breadth The participant assumed a relaxed standing or seated position. The right arm was raised anteriorly to the horizontal and the forearm was flexed at right angles to the arm. The measurer gripped the small sliding caliper and used the middle fingers to palpate the epicondyles of the humerus, starting proximal to the site. The bony point first felt was the epicondyles. The measurer placed the caliper faced on the
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epicondyles and maintained n strong pressure with the index fingers until the value was read.

Biepicondylar femur breadth The participant assumed a relaxed and seated position with the hand clear of the knee region. The measurer used the middle fingers to palpate the epicondyles of the

femur beginning proximal to the site. The bony point first felt was the epicondyles. The measurer placed the caliper faced on the epicondyles and maintained strong pressure with the index fingers until the value was read.

Hand breadth The participant assumed a relaxed standing position, the right elbow was partially flexed and made a fist. The measurer hold the small bone caliper pointing the branches downwards at a 45o angle, palpated the metacarpale laterale and metacarpale mediale landmark with the third finger then applied the face of the caliper with firm pressure but not to the extent of compressing the width. The distance between the metacarpale laterale and metacarpale mediale was measured (Ross et al., 2003).

3.5.3

Selected physical performance tests

There are a number of methods available for the test of volleyball players physical performance, In this research, we selected medicine ball throwing, T-shuttle run agility test, timed 20 sit-ups and running vertical jump tests, based on a thorough literature review over more than 50 related papers and books and a survey from senior volleyball coaches and academics in volleyball. The main references included The Regulation for the Training of Volleyball Players Physical performance (2004) and The Regulation for the Testing of Volleyball Players Physical performance in the National League matches in 1996(1996) issued by China Volleyball Association, A General Outline for Teaching Volleyball (in China) (Huang, 1991), The Testing Content of American National Volleyball Players Physical Performance (translated by Yang, 1995), The Testing Items for the Physical performance of Volleyball Players in the
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Japanese Volleyball Association (Zhong, 1986), The Evaluation Handbook for Elite Players Physical Competence (Pu, 1989), The Testing Items for Chinese Juvenile Female Volleyball Players (Feng, 2003), Evaluation and Measurement in Sports (Ye, 1995) and Principle and Methods in Sport Science (Chen, 2001), and some research publications in the literature, eg. Gabbett and Georgieff (2007) and Anderson, et al. (2006). The four physical performance indices selected in the investigation are among commonly adopted testing methods for volleyball players at different athletic levels in China.

In addition, a survey was conducted using a questionnaire designed by the researcher, titled "Experts Opinion on Physical Performance, Training and Testing for Elite Women Volleyball Players. The questionnaire was distributed to 16 experts on volleyball (10 senior volleyball coaches, 6 physical education professors with specialty on volleyball), and 15 responses were received. The response in relation to the physical performance test is summarized in the Table 3-6 below.

Table 3-6

Results of the survey on physical performance tests Question Yes


13

Not always
1

No
1

Total
15

Do you think Medicine ball throwing T-shuttle run agility testTimed 20 sit-ups Running vertical jump test can together reflect elite volleyball players basic physical performance? %

86.6

6.7

6.7

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The results of the survey also indicated that our testing methods for the players physical performance were supported by the experts (93.8% of the returning rate, with

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the approval rate 86.6%).

Based on the tests of the four selected physical performance indices, we expect an understanding of both the common physical performance characteristics of Chinese elite women volleyball players and the specific physical performance characteristics of the players at different tactical positions (spikers, second spikers, setters, second setters and liberos). Through analysis of the correlations between the anthropometric profile and the physical performance indices, better methods may be developed for talent identification.

In our investigation, we applied two times the testing method to verify the reliability of the methods over players physical performance. The results demonstrated that all of these tests had a high level of test-retests reliability (Table 3-7). The correlation coefficients at 95% confidence interval all showed significant P (bilateral) values at or less than 0.001.

Table 3-7 Physical performance

Test-retest reliability of four physical performance tests Medicine ball throwing .983** Running vertical jump test .959** T-shuttle run agility test .971** Timed 20 sit-ups .994**

Pearson Correlation Coefficient Significance (bilateral)

.000

.000

.000

.000

3.5.3 Procedures of physical performance tests The tests of physical performance were taken during 2:30 pm to 6:00 pm on the same day of the anthropometry measurements. Before the tests, participants were required to do warm-ups of 10 minutes (jogging and gymnastics) led by the captain of each team.

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Every participant was asked to perform the movements properly and only those whose movements met the criteria were admitted to participate in the testing. Each participant was tested twice, and the better testing result was recorded as the result to be used in further analysis. Each participant had about three to five minutes rest before taking the second test. During the testing, two personnel were needed to conduct the measurements and two assistants to record the results.

Four tests were selected in this study, including medicine ball throwing, running vertical jump, T-shuttle run agility test and timed 20 sit-ups. The order of the measurements was as follows: medicine ball throwing, running vertical jump, T-shuttle run agility test, followed by the timed 20 sit-ups. Arranging measurements in such order aimed at making the amount of exercise progressively increased.

3.5.3.1 Medicine ball throwing Participant was required to hold the ball with two hands and over her head, and then tried her best to throw the ball forward with two arms (see Figure 3-2). The distance was measured to the nearest centimeter and to the second place of decimals (ie. to cm). Each participant was asked to throw the ball twice with a resting interval of 2-3 minutes and the better distance of the two trials was used in statistical analysis.

Figure 3-2

The medicine ball throwing test


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3.5.3.2 Running vertical jump Participants were required to run up three steps, jump on two feet, and touch as high as she could with a right hand. Three trials were measured with a resting interval of 2-3 minutes. The height was measured to the nearest centimeter (ie. to cm). The best performance of the three trials was used in further analysis.

Net jump height was calculated as the height of running vertical jump minus the standing reach height. As for the height of running up touch, the researcher mounted a calibrated chart vertically on a basketball board. Participants put some powder of colored chalk on the middle finger and then run up two or three steps and used the middle finger to make a mark on the board. The recorder stood on a ladder to measure the height of running jump (Zeng, 1992). The measurement method of running vertical jump is shown in Figure 3-3.

Figure 3-3

The running vertical jump test

3.5.3.3 T-shuttle run agility test Three lines were marked on the floor with a distance of five meters between them, and labeled as A, B, C and D respectively as shown in Figures 3-4 and.3-5. The
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participant started from point A (a timer was started), then moved fast to point B, after touched the ball at B with a single hand she returned to point A. Then, the participant run from point A to point C, after touching the ball at C with a single hand then run back to point A. Finally, the participant moved from point A to point D. When all movements completed the timer was stopped, and total the time spent was recorded. Each participant attempted the test twice with an interval of 2-3 minutes and the better time of the two trials was used in statistics.

Figure 3-4

The route of T-shuttle run agility test

Figure 3-5

The T-shuttle run agility test

3.5.3.4 Timed 20 sit-ups Participant was required to do two time trials for 20 sit-ups. Participant started with

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supine position with her legs straight, raised the torso to a sitting position, touched both feet face with two hands, and then returned to the initial position. Two sets of timed 20 sit-ups, with a resting interval of 2-3 minutes, were performed, and the better time of the two was taken for further analysis (Zeng, 1992). Figure 3-6 shows the method of timed 20 sit-ups.

Figure 3-6

The timed 20 sit-ups test

3.5.4 Somatotype Somatotype was predicted using the method described by Norton and Olds (1996).

3.6 Statistical analysis SPSS statistic software package (SPSS Company, America, version 16.0) was used in statistical analysis for the anthropometry and physical performance measurements. Descriptive report was given to all measured and derived variables. Comparisons of mean values between the five volleyball positions used independent group T test. value of 0.05 was set for statistical significance. Pearson Product Moment correlation (two tailed) test was used to analyze correlations between anthropometry and performance variables. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the factors that contributed to the height over net. The R method was employed in selecting representative variables from a number of anthropometric measurements and indices.
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4. Chapter Four: Results


This Chapter presents the results of statistical analysis of all the collected variables. In addition, the data collected from 100 players in this study were compared with those reported in the Chinese and English literature.

The descriptive analysis presented in this Chapter included the maximum, minimum, mean values, standard deviation, standard error, and coefficient of variation of the measured variables. Further statistical results include Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficients, cluster analysis and regression models. 4.1 Results for anthropometric variables and physical performance measurements 4.1.1 Anthropometric variables This study collected the physique measurement data of 100 female volleyball players. The descriptive data of the measured anthropometric variables are presented in Table 4-1. The statistic analyses on the 4 basic measurements (list them here) indicate that, except the sitting height, the other three indices have comparatively larger variability (see Appendix 6).

Table 4-2 presents the somatotype scores obtained from the volleyball players. The means scores indicated that the average physique of elite Chinese women volleyball players is 3.7-2.9-4.0 that belongs to endomorph-ectomorph. Table 4-3 presents the descriptive data of the physical performance tests.

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Table 4-2
Items

Somatotype values for elite Chinese women volleyball players N 100 100 100 Minimum Maximum 2.0 2.0 1.1 6 5.8 7.3 Mean 3.7 2.9 4.0 SE 0.10 0.10 0.11 SD 0.99 1.04 1.11
Coefficient of Variance 27.05% 36.49% 27.48%

Endomorphy Mesomorphy Ectomorphy

Table 4-3

Physical performance testing data for elite Chinese women volleyball players Items
N 87 87 87 87 Minimum Maximum 840 52.5 8.2 15.4 1220 91.0 10.3 24.4 Mean 1050 71.2 9.1 18.2

SE
8.64 0.04 0.19 0.75

SD 80.62 6.97 0.40 1.80

Coefficient of Variance 7.68% 9.79% 4.39% 9.91%

Medicine ball throwing (cm) Running vertical jump (cm) T-shuttle run agility test (s) Timed 20 sit-ups (s)

4.1.2

Derived anthropometry indices

Twenty-two indices were derived from the anthropometric measurements in relation to height, length, breadth, and girth, and two indices were derived in relation to body composition. The descriptive results of these derived indices are presented in Table 4-4.

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Table 4-4

Derived anthropometric indices of elite Chinese women volleyball players


Items

N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Min 46.7 121.7 11.9 29.1 38.1 23.8 50.4 46.3 15.9 14.3 67.7 13.5 3.9 33.3 12.8 11.9 24.5 16.4 52.7 306.3 26.2 11.6

Max 56.3 136.4 15.9 36.8 47.4 28.1 59.7 78.5 23.1 18.6 101.4 17.6 4.8 52.4 18.7 18.3 33.7 23.5 106.5 546.8 90.0 28.9

Mean 52.1 128.9 14.0 32.3 43.5 26.0 56.6 58.5 21.1 16.2 77.0 15.2 4.3 39.3 15.6 14.8 28.9 20.0 77.8 383.6 49.6 19.95

SE 0.17 0.22 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.09 0.14 0.53 0.10 0.08 0.44 0.08 0.02 0.31 0.11 0.11 0.19 0.13 0.98

SD 1.65 2.22 0.65 1.04 1.44 0.86 1.38 5.31 0.96 0.82 4.41 0.76 0.21 3.08 1.10 1.11 1.93 1.27 9.75

Coefficient of Variance 3.17% 1.72% 4.64% 3.22% 3.31% 3.31% 2.44% 9.08% 4.55% 5.06% 5.73% 4.99% 4.91% 7.83% 7.03% 7.52% 6.67% 6.34% 12.54% 9.66% 27.07% 18.30%

Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/Upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index

Biilocristal/biacromial breadth 100 index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index Katoly index Sum of four skinfolds* Body mass index 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

3.70 37.04 1.34 13.42 0.36 3.65

* Sum of four skinfolds included triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf.

Here, the statistics of height indices indicate that the sitting height and standing reach height both have relatively small variability. This means that the sitting height and the standing reach height of elite China women volleyball players are almost at the same
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level. The statistical analyses on the seven length measurements indicate that the lengths of the upper limbs and lower limbs have larger variability among the teams, and the other five indices have smaller variability. This suggests that the variability on upper limbs and lower limbs be related with the comparatively larger variability of standing reach height. That is to say, the distributing otherness of standing reach height determines the variability of both upper limbs length and lower limbs length. The statistic analyses on the six breadth measurements indicate that these indices are all with little variability, and with little influence from age, stature and tactical positions. The statistic analyses on the 10 girth measurements indicate that seven indices of them (e.g. the girth of tensioned upper limbs) have comparatively smaller variability, while the indices (waist girth, gluteal girth and thigh girth) with larger variability belong to same kind and are related with body fat content, and this obviously rest with the body mass requirement for the women volleyball players at different tactical positions. The statistic analyses on the four skinfold measurements indicate that, except the comparatively larger variability on supraspinale indices, the other three indices are all with comparatively smaller variability. This reflects that these eight teams have almost the same nutrition conditions and same training intensity as well.

The statistics of length indices indicate that, except comparatively larger variability at Achilles tendon/calf index, the other five indices are with comparatively smaller variability. Achilles tendon/calf indices are mainly determined by the length of Achilles tendon. This means that there are comparatively larger differences at the length of Achilles tendon of the players in the eight women volleyball teams.

The statistics of breadth indices indicate that, except the comparatively larger variability at the shoulder breadth/pelvis breadth ratio, the other four indices are with comparatively smaller variability. The shoulder breadth/pelvis breadth ratio lies on pelvis breadth and the results reflect comparatively larger differences at pelvis breadth.

The statistics of girth indices indicate that, except comparatively larger variability at
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ankle girth/Achilles tendon indices, the other five indices are with comparatively smaller variability. The past researches prove that ankle girth and Achilles tendon are both related with jumping ability.

Katoly indices depend on the absolute value of body mass and stature, and the body mass index takes dominant position. In our investigation, the comparatively larger variability of Katoly index reveals greater differences among the women volleyball players in the eight teams.

The statistics of four skinfolds indicate comparatively larger variability. This obviously is related with the players body fat content and the greater difference among their body mass.

4.2. Correlations between the anthropometric characteristics and physical performance 4.2.1 Correlations between anthropometric variables and physical performance We selected medicine ball throw, T-shuttle run agility test , timed 20 sit-ups, and running vertical jump to test basic physical fitness (performance) of women volleyball players, and they respectively reflect upper body strength, moving speed and agility, muscle strength at the waist and the abdomen, and jumping ability, which are all requisites in volleyball sport. The medicine ball throw is different from the other three physical fitness indices and has comparatively larger variability, which reflects the great differences among the upper limbs strength of the players in those eight women volleyball teams. Tables 4-5 to 4-8 (see Appendix 6) present the correlation coefficients between the anthropometric measurements (except for four skinfolds) and physical performance measurements (four items).

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4.2.2 Correlations between the derived anthropometric indices and physical performance Tables 4-9 to 4-12 (see Appendix 6) present the correlation coefficients between the derived anthropometric indices and the four physical performance indices. The statistical results indicated that, among the anthropometric indices, there were only three indices being significantly correlated with the testing result of medicine ball throwing. More specifically, the midstylion-dactylion length and the arm flexed and tensed girth demonstrated respectively correlation coefficient of 0.35 and 0.32 with the physical fitness of medicine ball throwing. These reveal that the players with longer palms and stronger arms are usually equipped with more powerful upper limb strength and better throwing ability. Moreover, the Achilles tendon/calf length index is with the correlation coefficient of 0.30 with the physical fitness of medicine ball throwing, and all the other indices are with correlation coefficient less than 0.30. From the perspective of Sports Anatomy, the length of the Achilles tendon is related with the players jumping ability and the flexibility, which is what medicine ball throwing needs as well, and this is why the Achilles tendon/calf length index is correlated with the physical fitness of medicine ball throwing.

4.2.3 Correlations among BMI, sum of four skinfolds and physical performance The statistical results show the BMI demonstrated a significant correlation (P<0.01) with the running vertical jumping height. The sum of four skinfolds showed a significantly negative correlation with the T-shuttle run agility test performance. The medial calf skinfold demonstrated a significantly negative correlation with the running vertical jump (Tables 4-13 to 4-14).

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Table 4-13

Correlations between BMI and physical performance Items N 87 87 87 87 Pearson Correlation 0.2 0.4 0.0 -0.1 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.078 0.000** 0.669 0.352

Medicine ball throwing (cm) Running vertical jump (cm) T-shuttle run agility test (s) Timed 20 sit-ups (s) ** P<0.01 level

Table 4-14 Correlations between sum of four skinfolds and physical performance Items N Pearson Correlation Medicine ball throwing (cm) Running vertical jump (cm) T-shuttle run agility test (s) Timed 20 sit-ups (s) 87 87 87 87 0.1 -0.0 -0.2 -0.2 0.506 0.884 0.030* 0.087 Sig. (2-tailed)

Sum of four skinfolds included triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf. * P<0.05 level

4.2.4 Correlations between the somatotype values and physical performance The results indicated that, only the endomorphy values had a significantly negative correlation with the T-shuttle run agility test performance, and no significant correlations were found between other somatotype values and physical performance (Table 4-15).

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Table 4-15 Items

Correlations between somatotype values and physical performance Somatotype Endomorphy Mesomorphy Ectomorphy N 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 Pearson Correlation 0.05 0.11 -0.04 -0.26 0.01 0.11 -0.20 -0.14 0.11 -0.02 -0.03 0.11 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.648 0.329 0.702 0.017* 0.892 0.300 0.057 0.208 0.333 0.877 0.751 0.307

Medicine ball throwing (cm)

T-shuttle run agility test (s)

Endomorphy Mesomorphy Ectomorphy

Timed 20 sit-ups (s)

Endomorphy Mesomorphy Ectomorphy

Running vertical jump (cm)

Endomorphy Mesomorphy Ectomorphy

* P<0.05 level

4.3. Anthropometric characteristics of the players at the five volleyball positions 4.3.1 Variance analyses of anthropometric indices of the players at different positions (Single factor) One-way ANOVA was used for detecting the differences among the anthropometric indices of the players at different tactical positions. The statistic results are listed in Table 4-16 to Table 4-19.

As shown in Table 4-16 (see Appendix 6), in the 27 anthropometric indices, there exist significant difference in all the four basic indices and the seven length indices. As for the six breadth indices, only one index (metacarpals breadth) is without significant difference (P>0.05), the other five indices are all with significant difference. In terms of the 10 girth indices, only three of them are without significant difference (P>0.05),
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the other seven indices are all significantly different.

As shown in Table 4-17 (see appendix 6), in the 20 evaluation indices of anthropometric profile, only four length indices (forearm length, forearm/upper limb length, upper limb length, calf length) without significant difference, the other indices, altogether 16 indices including height, breadth girth and nutritional indices, all express significant difference.

Table 4-18 indicates that, as for the women volleyball players at different positions, there isnt any significant difference at the body composition indices including triceps skinfold and iliac crest skinfold. However, there exist significant differences at the body composition indices of subscapular skinfold and medial calf skinfold.

Table 4-18

One-way ANOVA for body composition anthropometric indices of players at different positions

Skinfold (mm) Triceps Subscapular Supraspinale Medial calf

Chief Second spikers spikers 15.93 14.19 13.21 11.82 13.10 10.80 10.68 9.15

Setters 15.08 12.75 12.19 11.2

Second Liberos setters 13.48 11.66 10.34 9.18 14.73 13.13 12.27 10.67

F 2.11 3.38 1.80 3.15

P 0.085 0.013 * 0.135 0.018 *

*. P<0.05 level (2-tailed); **. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

Table 4-19 suggests that, as for the players at different positions, the two body composition indices of the sum of 4 skinfolds and body mass (%) all reveal significant difference.

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Table 4-19

One-way ANOVA for body composition evaluation indices of players at different positions

Items

Chief spikers

Second spikers 43.62 18.26

Setters

Second setters

Liberos

Sum of four skinfolds Body mass index

55.34 21.37

51.32 20.62

46.44 19.15

51.15 20.47

3.07 3.01

0.002 * 0.002 *

*. P<0.05 level (2-tailed)

4.3.2

Multiple comparisons for anthropometric profile differences among the players at different positional groups

After the analyses through one-way ANOVA, we applied LSD method to make multiple comparisons over the anthropometric indices of the players at different positional groups. As for details, please refer table 4-20 to 4-24 (see Appendix 6).

In Table 4-20, it is clear that, among basic anthropometric indices, there are 15 indices without significant difference and 25 indices with significant difference, in which the basic anthropometric indices of attaker vs libero group are all significantly different.

Table 4-21 shows that 31 length indices have nonsignificant difference, the other 39 length indices have significant differences (some even with extremely significant differences), among which the length indices in the groups of attaker vs libero, second attaker vs libero and setter vs libero are all significantly different.

Table 4-22 tells that 36 breadth indices have no significant differences, the other 24 breadth indices have significant differences (some even with extremely significant differences). And it is found that the breadth indices in attaker vs libero group are with significant differences, while the breadth indices in the groups of second attaker vs setter, second attaker vs second setter and setter vs second setter are all without significant difference.

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Table 4-23 to Table 4-24 indicate that, in the girth indices, 69 of them are with nonsignificant difference, 31 of them are with significant differences (some even with extremely significant differences). And it is revealed that the girth in the groups of second attaker vs setter, second attaker vs second setter, setter vs second setter, setter vs libero and second setter vs libero are all without significant difference.

4.3.3 Multiple comparisons for derived indices among the players at different positional groups Table 4-25 to 4-34 (see Appendix 6) indicate that, among the derived indices of different groups, 141 of them are with no significant difference, 59 of them are with significant differences (some even with extremely significant differences). And it is revealed that the derived indices in the group of setter vs second setter have no significant difference. Moreover, to different groups, the derived indices of forearm length, forearm / upper limb length, calf length, Achilles tendon/calf length and biilocristal / biacromial breadth are all without significant difference.

4.3.4 Multiple comparisons for evaluation indices of body composition among the players at different positional groups As shown in Table 4-35, among the body composition indices of different groups, 30 of them had no significant difference between the positional groups, 10 of them were with significant differences. Among the these indices, the body composition indices between the spikers and the second spikers groups were significantly different. Moreover, the body composition indices of spikers vs setter, spikers vs libero, second spikers vs second setter, setter vs libero and second setter vs libero were all without significant difference.

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Table 4-35 Multiple comparisons for anthropometric indices of body composition among the players at different positional groups
Items Triceps skinfold (mm) 15.93:13.10 0.029* 15.93:15.07 0.526 15.93:13.48 0.062 Second setters Chief spikers vs Liberos Second spikers vs Setters Second spikers vs Second setters Second spikers vs Liberos Setters vs Second setters Setters vs Liberos Second setters vs Liberos *. P<0.05 level (2-tailed) **. P<0.001 level (2-tailed) 13.48:14.73 0.276 11.66:13.13 0.142 10.34:12.27 0.171 9.18:10.67 0.235 15.07:14.73 0.772 12.75:13.13 0.763 12.19:12.27 0.961 12.75:10.67 0.657 15.07:13.48 0.118 12.75:11.66 0.274 12.19:10.34 0.135 12.75:9.18 0.040* 13.10:14.73 0.212 10.80:13.13 0.024* 10.68:12.27 0.223 9.15:10.67 0.190 13.10:13.48 0.740 10.80:11.66 0.294 10.68:10.34 0.726 9.15:9.18 0.974 13.10:15.07 0.109 10.80:12.75 0.057 10.68:12.19 0.198 9.15:12.75 0.031* 15.93:14.73 0.405 14.19:13.13 0.452 13.21:12.27 0.578 11.81:10.67 0.339 14.19:11.66 0.042* 14.19:12.75 0.312 13.21:10.34 0.044* Subscapula P r skinfold (mm) 14.19:10.80 0.003* 13.21:12.19 0.523 11.81:9.18 0.009* P Supraspinal e skinfold (mm) 13.21:10.68 0.046* 11.81:12.75 0.573 11.81:9.15 0.004* P Medial calf skinfold (mm) P

Chief spikers vs Second spikers Chief spikers vs Setters Chief spikers vs

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Table 4-36

Multiple comparisons for evaluation indices of body composition among the players at different positional groups

Items Chief spikers vs Second spikers Chief spikers vs Setters Chief spikers vs Second setters Chief spikers vs Liberos Second spikers vs Setters Second spikers vs Second setters Second spikers vs Liberos Setters vs Second setters Setters vs Liberos Second setters vs Liberos

Sum of 4 skinfolds Mean value 55.34:43.62

P 0.004*

Body Mass(%) Mean value 21.37:18.26

P 0.006*

55.34:51.32

0.004*

21.37:20.62

0.533

55.34:46.44

0.044*

21.37:19.15

0.060

55.34:51.15

0.392

21.37:20.47

0.476

43.62:51.32

0.041*

18.26:20.62

0.031*

43.62:46.44

0.425

18.26:19.15

0.395

43.62:51.15

0.069

18.26:20.47

0.059

51.32:46.44

0.199

20.62:19.15

0.154

51.32:51.15

0.969

20.62:20.47

0.890

46.44:51.15

0.276

19.15:20.47

0.247

*. P<0.05 level (2-tailed)

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

We made 20 analyses over the correlation of the corresponding evaluation indices of body composition in different positional group. For the detail, please refer to Table 4-36, thereinto, 14 of them were with no significant difference, six of them were with significant differences (some even with extremely significant differences). Importantly,
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comparisons of the indices of body composition between the groups of spiker vs second spiker and second spiker vs second setter were significantly different, while the same indices in the groups of spiker vs libero, second spiker vs second setter, second spiker vs libero, setter vs second setter, setter vs libero and second setter vs libero were all without significant difference.

4.4 Physical performance of the five volleyball position groups From Table 4-37, we find that, at a same physical fitness index, there was little difference among the women volleyball players at different tactical positions. The three indices of medicine ball throwing, T-shuttle run agility test and timed 20 sit-ups were without significant differenceP>0.05, and significant difference only exists at running vertical jumpP<0.05. These mean that the physical fitness of the women volleyball players at different tactical positions are generally the same except the jumping ability.

Table 4-37 One-way ANOVA for physical fitness of players at different tactical positions Items Medicine ball 1062.3 throwing (cm) T-shuttle run 9.16 agility test (s) Timed 20 18.12 sit-ups (s) Running vertical jump (cm) *. P<0.05 level (2-tailed) **. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)
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Chief spiker

Second spiker 1048.2

Setters

Second setters 1031.5

Liberos

1063.2

1041.0

0.47

0.757

9.19

9.05

9.16

8.97

0.81

0.522

18.26

18.29

18.23

17.83

0.15

0.963

72.08

71.18

67.06

74.87

69.81

2.88

0.028*

To investigate whether there is significant difference among the physical fitness of the players at different positions, we made corresponding analyses between the positions and physical fitness. For details, please refer to Table 4-38.

Only two physical fitness indices are found to be significantly different, and they are both from the index of running vertical jump height, which are consistent with the previous results.

In the above analyses, we only knew the index of jump height demonstrated significant difference, but we were not sure at which tactical positions there existed the significant difference. Through the difference analyses over the indices of running vertical jump height among different positional groups, we can now be confirmed that the significant differences only existed between the groups of spiker vs setter and setter vs second setter.

Virtually, for the sake of powerful spikes and effective blocks, volleyball sport put higher requirement of jumping ability to the spiker, second spiker and second setters, and lower requirement to the setters and liberos. This might be the main reason for the larger dispersion of ankle/ Achilles tendon length index among the women volleyball players at different tactical positions.

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Table 4-38

Multiple comparisons for physical fitness among the players at different positional groups
Medicine

Items

ball throwing (cm)

T-shuttle P run agility test 0.572 9.16:9.19 0.794 P

Timed 20 sit-ups (s)

Running P vertical jump (cm) 0.800 72.08:71.18 0.591 P

Chief spikers vs Second spikers Chief spikers vs Setters Chief spikers vs Second setters Chief spikers vs Liberos Second spikers vs Setters Second spikers vs Second setters Second spikers vs Liberos

1062.32: 1048.19

18.12:18.26

1062.32: 1063.19

0.976

9.16:9.05

0.476

18.12:18.29

0.796

72.08:67.06

0.036*

1062.32: 1031.50

0.329

9.16:9.16

0.982

18.12:18.23

0.865

72.08:74.87

0.148

1062.32: 1041.00

0.464

9.16:8.97

0.120

18.12:17.83

0.669

72.08:69.81

0.230

1048.19: 1063.19

0.546

9.19:9.05

0.375

18.26:18.29

0.958

71.18:67.06

0.120

1048.19: 1031.50

0.542

9.19:9.16

0.799

18.26:18.23

0.958

71.18:74.87

0.101

1048.19: 1041.00

0.754

9.19:8.97

0.086

18.26:17.83

0.447

71.18:69.81

0.539

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Setters vs Second setters Setters vs Liberos Second setters vs Liberos

1063.19: 1031.50

0.334

9.05:9.16

0.538

18.29:18.23

0.929

67.06:74.87

0.013*

1063.19: 1041.00 1031.50: 1041.00

0.420

9.05:8.97

0.598

18.29:17.83

0.500

67.06:69.81

0.379

0.761

9.16:8.97

0.159

18.23:17.83

0.552

74.87:69.81

0.056

4.5 Somatotypes of elite Chinese women volleyball players

4.5.1

The somatotypes of elite Chinese women volleyball players

In this study, we analyzed the somatotypes of elite female volleyball players. The distribution of the somatotypes of elite Chinese women volleyball players is presented in Table 4-39. The most is Endomorphic ectomorph (29.0%), the second is Balanced ectomorph (14.0%), the less is Mesomorphic ectomorph (0%).

The results showed that Liaoning team belonged the type of Central. Tianjin team, Shanghai team and Shandong team were the type of Endomorph-ectomorph. Bayi team, Sichuan team and Jiangsu team were the type of Endomorph-ectomorph. Zhejiang team belonged Balanced-ectomorph. The average somatotype index of Chinese elite women volleyball players was the type of balanced ectomorph-endomorph (Tables 4-40).

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Table 4-39 Distributions of the somatotypes of elite Chinese women volleyball players Serial number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Total Somatotyping Ectomorphic endomorph Balanced Endomoph Mesomorphic endomorph Mesomorph-endomorph Endomorphic mesomorph Balanced Mesomorph Ectomorphic mesomorph Mesomorph-ectomorph Mesomorphic ectomorph Balanced ectomorph Endomorphic ectomorph Endomorph-ectomorph Central N 5 11 6 4 2 4 1 3 0 14 29 9 12 100 % 5.0 11.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 4.0 1.0 3.0 0.0 14.0 29.0 9.0 12.0 100

Table 4-40

Somatotype distributions in the eight women volleyball teams Classification Endomorph-ectomorph Endomorphic ectomorph Endomorph-ectomorph Central Endomorphic ectomorph Endomorphic ectomorph Endomorph-ectomorph Balanced-ectomorph Endomorph-ectomorph

Volleyball teams Endomorphy Mesomorphy Ectomorphy Tianjin Bayi Shanghai Liaoning Sichuan Jiangsu Shandong Zhejiang Mean 4.0 3.4 4.2 4.0 3.2 3.7 3.7 3.1 3.7 3.1 2.5 2. 8 3.2 2.3 2.8 3.2 2.9 2.9 4.0 4.5 3. 8 3.6 4.5 4.2 3.7 4.2 4.0

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4.5.2 Comparisons of somatotypes between the five volleyball positions Tables 4-41 to 4-44 show the comparisons of somatotype at the five volleyball positions. For the women volleyball players at different positions, there were significant differences in the endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy indices. The endomorphy and mesomorphy values were the largest in chief spikers and liberos, followed by the setters and second setters, and the second spikers showed the smallest. In respect of ectomorphy, the second spikers had the largest value, while the chief spikers, setters and second setters had the medium values and the liberos had the lowest values (Tables 4-41).

Table 4-41 ANOVA for somatotype value of the players at different tactical positions Items Chief spikers Endomorphy Mesomorphy Ectomorphy **. P<0.01 level 4.00 3.31 3.59 Second spikers 3.16 2.14 4.86 3.83 2.86 3.85 Setters Second setters 3.47 2.63 4.42 3.94 3.45 3.23 3.23 7.10 9.54 0.002** 0.000** 0.000** Liberos F P

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

Table 4-42 Comparisons of somatotype data at the five volleyball positions (see Appendix 6).

Table 4-43 Comparisons of statistics of percentage of somatotyping between players at the five volleyball positions (see Appendix 6).

As for the characteristics of the women volleyball players somatotypes, the chief spikers and liberos shared a same type, both belonging to the central. The second spikers and second setters shared the same type, both belonging to the endomorphic ectomorph, and the setters belonging to the endomorph-ectomorph (Tables 4-44).
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Table 4-44 Comparisons of somatotypes between players at the five volleyball positions Items Chief spikers Second spikers Setters Second setters Liberos N 27 25 15 18 15 100 Mean 4.0-3.3-3.6 3.2-2.1-4.9 3.8-2.9-3.9 3.5-2.6-4.4 3.9-3.5-3.2 3.7-2.9-4.0 Somatotyping Central Endomorphic ectomorph Endomorph-ectomorph Endomorphic ectomorph Central Endomorph-ectomorph

4.5.3

Somatotype values of the five volleyball positional groups

Table 4-45 indicates that, among the somatotype values of different groups, 18 of them were with no significant difference, 12 of them were with significant differences. Importantly, significant differences were found in all the somatotype values of the groups of spikers vs second spikers and second spikers vs liberos. Meanwhile, in the groups of spikers vs second spikers, spikers vs liberos, second spikers vs second setters and setters vs second setters, the somatotype values were all without significant differences (see Appendix 6).

4.6 Clustering analyses for anthropometric profile of elite Chinese women volleyball players The R clustering analysis was used to identify the anthropometric characteristics of players at different positions. Based on regression formula, the R matrix was calculated for correlation coefficient. The serial number for the anthropometric indices and the correlation coefficient (R) distribution after clustering are respectively listed in Tables 4-46 and Table 4-47 (see Appendix 6).

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Based on the correlation coefficient (R) distribution of the anthropometric indices, R=0.646 was used as the clustering standard. There were eight classes as shown in Figure 4-1.

R=0.646

Figure 4-1

Clustering pedigree chart for anthropometric indices

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The Statistical table of R-model cluster for typical indices showed eight indexes were most important anthropometric characteristics indexes, they were: Body mass, Biacromial breadth , Stature, Sitting height, Subscapular skinfold, Ankle girth, Forearm girth and Achilles tendon length, listed in Table 4-48.

Table 4-48 Stage 1

Statistical table of R-model cluster for typical indices Typical indices Body mass Measuring indices 1. Body mass 9. Arm flexed and tensed girth 10. Arm relaxed girth 14. Gluteal girth 13.Waist girth 16. Calf girth 27. Transverse chest breadth 15. Thigh girth 26. Biilocristal breadth 29. Biepicondylar femur breadth 12. Wrist girth 30. Hand breadth 28. Biepicondylar humerus breadth 25. Biacromial breadth 2. Stature 22. Iliospinale height 4. Standing reach height 18. Acromiale-radiale length 21. Acromiale-dactylion length 19. Radiale-stylion length 23. Tibiale-laterale length 20. Midstylion-dactylion length 3. Sitting height 6. Subscapular skinfold 7. Supraspinale skinfold 5. Triceps skinfold 8. Medial calf skinfold 17. Ankle girth 11. Forearm girth 24. Achilles tendon length

2 3

Biacromial breadth Stature

4 5

Sitting height Subscapular skinfold

6 7 8

Ankle girth Forearm girth Achilles tendon length

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4.7 Regression analysis and prediction of physical performance Stepwise regression analysis was performed to eliminate the non-significant anthropometric indices to build up a regression equation for prediction of physical performance.

4.7.1 Regression prediction of medicine ball throwing based on anthropometric indices In this study regression prediction analysis between the results of medicine ball throwing and anthropometric indices was performed for female volleyball players. The results are shown in Table 4-49 and Table 4-50.

Table 4-49 Summary of regression prediction of medicine ball throwing with anthropometric indices Std. Error of the Model 1 2 3 4 R 0.350a 0.427b 0.476c 0.514d R Square 0.12 0.18 0.23 0.26 Adjusted R Square 0.11 0.16 0.20 0.23 Estimate 75.97 73.76 72.15 70.83

a. Prediction constant, Achilles tendon length b. Prediction constant, Achilles tendon length, Arm flexed and tensed girth c. Prediction constant, Achilles tendon length, Arm flexed and tensed girth, Forearm/upper limb length index d. Prediction constant, Achilles tendon length, Arm flexed and tensed girth, Forearm/upper limb length index, Radiale-stylion length, Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index

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Table 4-50 Coefficientsa of regression prediction of medicine ball throwing with anthropometric indices Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Achilles' tendon length index 2 (Constant) Achilles' tendon length index Arm(relaxed, flexed and tensed) girth index 3 (Constant) Achilles' tendon length index Arm(relaxed, flexed and tensed) girth index Forearm/upper limb length index 4 (Constant) Achilles' tendon length index Arm(relaxed, flexed and tensed) girth index Forearm/upper limb length index Ankle girth index Beta 774.560 9.928 505.785 8.244 Std. Error 80.485 2.884 133.619 2.882 0.290 0.350 Standardized Coefficients Beta T 9.624 3.442 3.785 2.861 Sig. 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.005

11.107

4.479

0.252

2.480

0.015

1036.310 8.575

275.650 2.823 0.302

3.760 3.037

0.000 0.003

10.230

4.400

0.232

2.325

0.023

-15.956 1405.011 1.279

7.299 325.834 4.537

-0.212

-2.186 4.312

0.032 0.000 0.779

0.045

0.282

12.925

4.518

0.293

2.860

0.005

-16.989 -2.676

7.183 1.317

-0.226 -0.316

-2.365 -2.031

0.020 0.045

a. Dependent variable vs medicine ball throwing

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Stepwise regression equation Medicine ball throwing=1405.0112.676 X1 12.925 X2 16.989 X3 1.279X4 X1Radiale-stylion length, ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index X2Arm flexed and tensed girth X3Forearm/upper limb length index X4Achilles tendon length

4.7.2 Regression prediction of running vertical jump based on anthropometric indices In this study regression prediction analysis between the results of running vertical jump and anthropometric indices was performed for female volleyball players. The results are shown in Table 4-51 and Table 4-52.

Table 4-51 Summary of regression prediction of running vertical jump with anthropometric indices Std. Error of the Model 1 2 3 R 0.506a 0.543b 0.600c R Square 0.256 0.294 0.359 Adjusted R Square 0.247 0.278 0.336 Estimate 6.0458 5.9234 5.6776

a. Prediction constant, sitting height index b. Prediction constant, sitting height index, biepicondylar fumur breadth c. Prediction constant, sitting height index, biepicondylar fumur breadth, calf girth

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Table 4-52 Coefficientsa of regression prediction of running vertical jump with anthropometric indices Standardize d Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Standing reach -1.527 height index 2 (Constant) Standing reach -1.570 height index Biepicondylar 2.819 femur breadth 3 (Constant) Standing reach -1.547 height index Biepicondylar 5.538 femur breadth Calf girth -1.023 0.352 -0.318 -2.903 0.005 1.575 0.385 3.516 0.001 0.266 -0.513 -5.821 0.000 253.629 35.681 7.108 0.000 1.322 .196 2.133 0.036 0.277 -0.520 -5.663 0.000 245.824 37.119 6.623 0.000 0.282 -0.506 -5.411 0.000 Beta 267.964 Std. Error 36.375 Beta t 7.367 Sig. 0.000

a. Dependent variable vs running vertical jump height

Stepwise regression equation Running vertical jump height =253.631.547 X1 5.538 X21.023 X3 X1Standing reach height index X2Biepicondylar femur breadth X3Calf girth

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4.7.3 Regression prediction of T-shuttle run agility test based on anthropometric indices In this study regression prediction analysis between the results of T-shuttle run agility test and anthropometric indices was performed for female volleyball player. The results are shown in Table 4-53 and Table 4-54.

Table 4-53

Summary of regression prediction of T-shuttle run agility test with anthropometric indices Std. Error of the

Model 1

R 0.288a

R Square 0.083

Adjusted R Square 0.072

Estimate 0.3845

a. Predictors vs (Constant), subscapular skinfold

Table 4-54

Coefficientsa of regression prediction of T-shuttle run agility test with anthropometric indices Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients Beta T 59.357 -0.288 -2.769 Sig. .000 .007

Model 1 (Constant) Subscapula

Beta 9.550 -0.035

Std. Error 0.161 0.013

r skinfold a. Dependent variable vs T-shuttle run agility test

Stepwise regression equation T-shuttle run agility test =9.5500.035 X XSubscapular skinfold

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4.7.4 Regression prediction of timed 20 sit-ups based on anthropometric indices The regression prediction analysis between the results of timed 20 sit-ups and anthropometric indices was performed for female volleyball player. The results are shown in Table 4-55 and Table 4-56.

Table 4-55 Summary of regression prediction of timed 20 sit-ups with anthropometric indices Std. Error of the Model 1 2 3 4 R 0.238a 0.376b 0.439c 0.485d R Square 0.057 0.141 0.192 0.235 Adjusted R Square 0.046 0.121 0.163 0.198 Estimate 1.7605 1.6897 1.6484 1.6138

a. Prediction constant, gluteal girth b. Prediction constant, gluteal girth, forearm girth c. Prediction constant, gluteal girth, forearm girth, radiale-stylion length d. Prediction constant, gluteal girth, forearm girth, radiale-stylion length, ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index

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Table 4-56 Coefficientsa of regression prediction of timed 20 sit-ups with anthropometric indices Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Gluteal girth 2 (Constant) Gluteal girth Forearm girth 3 (Constant) Gluteal girth Forearm girth Forearm length 0.291 index 4 (Constant) Gluteal girth Forearm girth Forearm length 0.366 index Ankle girth/Achilles 0.042 tendon length index a. Dependent variable vs timed 20 sit-ups 0.020 0.224 2.144 0.035 0.129 0.291 2.833 0.006 14.671 -0.159 0.251 4.848 0.043 0.136 -0.398 0.211 3.026 -3.693 1.852 0.003 0.000 0.068 0.127 0.232 2.295 0.024 Beta 27.347 -0.095 23.387 -0.152 0.384 17.742 -0.159 0.340 Std. Error 4.071 0.042 4.143 0.045 0.134 4.731 0.044 0.132 -0.399 0.286 -0.380 0.324 -0.238 Standardized Coefficients Beta T 6.717 -2.259 5.645 -3.375 2.877 3.750 -3.626 2.583 Sig. 0.000 0.026 0.000 0.001 0.005 0.000 0.000 0.012

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Stepwise regression equation Timed 20 sit-ups =14.671-0.159 X1 + 0.251 X2 + 0.366 X3 + 0.042X4 X1Gluteal girth X2Forearm girth X3Radiale-stylion length X4Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index

In summary, the results of this study showed that the medicine ball throwing was correlated to three measured anthropometric variables, including the

midstylion-dactylion length, the arm flexed and tensed girth, and the Achilles tendon/calf length index, with the correlation coefficient of 0.35, 0.32, and 0.30, respectively (all p<0.05).

The running vertical jump test was correlated to the standing reach height index with the correlation coefficient of 0.30. The T-shuttle run agility test was not correlated to any measured anthropometric variables. The timed 20 sit-ups also had correlations with forearm/upper limb length index, forearm length index and Achilles tendon/calf length index (all p<0.05). However, significant correlation coefficients were not found between the physical performance indices and most somatotype variables.

The results revealed that the players at different tactical positions had significantly different anthropometric characteristics. Among the derived indices of different groups, 141 of them showed no significant difference, while 59 of them showed significant differences. We also discovered that there were significantly difference in running vertical jump performance between the spikers and setters, and between the setters and second setters (P<0.05).

In respect of somatotypes, the elite Chinese women volleyball players showed an average score of 3.7-2.9-4.0, which belongs to endomorph-ectomorph. The mean somatotype of the spikers and the liberos shared the same type central, the second
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spikers and the second setters were found to be endomorphic ectomorph, and the setters appeared to be endomorph-ectomorph.

As for the correlations between the volleyball players anthropometric profile and the physical performance testing results, our investigation did not detect any significant correlation coefficients.

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5. Chapter Five: Discussion


5.1 Analysis on anthropometric characteristics of elite Chinese women volleyball players 5.1.1 Introduction This chapter presents the analysis on the anthropometric data of elite Chinese women volleyball players. The discussion focused on the correlation between anthropometric and performance variables, the difference of anthropometric and performance variables between volleyball positions, the somatotypes of the players, and the anthropometric variables that might be useful in recruitment of potential players.

5.1.2 Anthropometric characteristics in elite Chinese women volleyball players Chinese women volleyball team is one of the top teams in the world. These achievements can be attributed to perfect competitive tactics and skills, excellent psychological states, and also the anthropometric characteristics. High-level performance in volleyball is determined by specific physiological, kinesiological and psychological factors, along with appropriate anthropometric characteristics.

It is established that body build plays an important role in achievements in many sport since it provides a basis for the formation and improvement of movement techniques, specific physical performance. Furthermore, the combination of somatometry and natural mechanical abilities of a volleyball player partly determines successful competition in volleyball. These two features are basic factors, which can limit the technical and tactical level of an opponent team during the game (Papadopoulou et al., 2002, Papdopoulou et al., 2002). In addition, Olympic womens volleyball players possess certain body characteristics which have been reported as a discriminating factor between high and low level players (Fleck et al., 1985). The viewpoints of the researchers converge on the fact that ideal physique for a sport is not the sole factor of

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excellence in this sport. Nevertheless, the lack of optimum anthropometric features can become an obstacle for an athlete in achieving higher levels of performance (Carter, 1984, De Garay et al., 1974, Tanner et al., 1964).

For the elite China women volleyball players, their average stature, body mass, sitting height and standing reach height are respectively are 183.6 cm, 70.5 kg, 95.7 cm, and 236.7 cm. From the analyses of the data, we found that the elite Chinese women volleyball players possessed the following anthropometric characteristics: lean figure, long limbs, short sitting height, and long forearm, hand palm, calf and Achilles tendon length; moderate body weight and strong skeleton (especially femur); narrow biilliocristal width, small biilliocristal/biacromiale index breadth ratio, and barrel-shaped trunk; big relax-contraction difference of upper arm girth, small wrist and ankle girth, and small ankle girth/Achilles tendon length radio; and thin skinfolds. These results were in line with anthropometric characteristics of volleyball players presented in some previous studies (Huang and Lu, 1991, Tian, 2006).

5.1.3 Anthropometric comparisons between women volleyball players from China and other countries In this study, the elite world women volleyball players data, obtained from 287 players in 24 teams participated in the 15th World Women Volleyball Tournament in 2006, was compared with the data of 100 elite Chinese women volleyball players from the top eight teams in Chinese Women Volleyball Tournament in 2007-2008. The comparison results are list in Table 5-1.

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Table 5-1 Comparison of anthropometric data between top women volleyball teams in China and in the world China N=100 Stature 183.65.77 182.17.48 184.47.69 180.17.65 177.64.81 181.56.68 (cm) Body mass 70.57.60 (kg) Katoly 383.637.0 384.836.2 380.025.2 380.222.7 390.631.1 383.830.5 index Source: The data of Chinese women volleyball team are from the data collected in this study. The data of the world women volleyball teams are from the statistical data in 15th World Women Volleyball Tournament (Qu, 2007). From Table 5-1, we can find that except the Katoly index, all indices concerned to body height and weight in elite Chinese women volleyball players are higher than the world average level. The absolute value of elite Chinese women volleyball players height is between those of American and European teams, and far above those of Asian and African teams. As for the absolute value of body weight, the average value in elite Chinese women volleyball players is slightly higher than that of the American and European teams, and above the Asian and African teams. In respect of the Katoly index, Chinese women volleyball players showed a lower value than the American and African teams, and above the Asian and European teams. These differences and similarities in anthropometry characteristics may have contributed to the performance of these teams. 70.17.56 70.15.96 68.55.89 69.46.18 69.76.64 America N=96 Europe N=95 Asia N=60 Africa N=36 Average N=387

5.2 Analyses of anthropometric characteristics between different volleyball positions Specific anthropometry characteristics that may contribute to success in sports have
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been a hot subject for sport scientists and coaches. Within a team sport, however, certain positions may require more specific anthropometric characteristics based on the physiological and biomechanical demands during the game (Malousarisa et al., 2008).

In this study, we compared the anthropometric characteristics of elite Chinese women volleyball players between different volleyball positions, using directly measured variables and derivative variables. The study on the anthropometric characteristics among the players of different volleyball positions is to confirm the general suitability of a unified talents-selecting model. However, the results showed that there were significant differences in the players anthropometric characteristics between different volleyball positions, which indicates that the existing unified talents-selecting model may not serve the purpose well.

5.2.1 Anthropometric characteristics of elite Chinese women volleyball players at different volleyball positions The anthropometric results showed that, except hand breadth, arm flexed and tensedarm relaxed girth, forearm girth, thigh girth, all other anthropometric variables were confirmed to be significantly different between the five volleyball positions, especially in stature, body mass, standing reach height, upper limb length, forearm length, midstylion-dactylion length, lower limb, calf length, biacromial breadth, biilocristal breadth, transverse chest breadth and waist girth.

The analysis on derivative variables showed that, different from the measured anthropometric variables, there were no significant differences in the length variables, except the thigh length, between different volleyball positions. Significant differences were also found in girth and breadth variables, especially in Katoly index, biacromial breadth index, transverse chest breadth index, waist girth index, arm flexed and tensed girth index, arm relaxed girth index and calf girth index, and only with an exception of hand breadth. It means that the differences of anthropometric variables between different volleyball positions are mainly expressed in the condition of bones and
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muscles.

5.2.1.1 Analysis of anthropometric characteristics in chief spikers Chief spikers play a crucial role in attacks, whose competence can be a major determinant in a team for success (Zhong and Huang, 1989). A chief spiker can break out opposite blocks and to spike for scores through many ways, in them the most important one is to give a hard attack, and to make the defender impossible to receive the ball. Therefore, the strength and the speed of a spiking are the determinants for chief spikers to win the dominance. Moreover, the tactics of high attack require the spikers possess advantageous stature and strength.

The elite Chinese women volleyball chief spikers can be characterized as higher stature, heavier body mass, bigger Katoly index, stronger muscles and higher body fat in anthropometric variables. The average values of stature, body mass, sitting height, and standing reach height respectively is 185.1 cm, 75.6 kg, 96.0 cm and 239.8 cm. Among the players at five different volleyball positions, the chief spikers anthropometric characteristics were with the strongest and thickest bones and limbs.

Based on the actual anthropometric profile measured for each position, we can predispose some player to the specific position. The results of the anthropometric profile measured in this study underscore the expectations.

5.2.1.2 Analysis of anthropometric characteristics in second spikers Second spikers are mainly in charge of fast attacks in a team, usually attacking at No. 3 position. They are the core of tactical attacks, with fast, variable and flexible attacks to break blocking. Therefore, second spikers are required to be skillful with different styles of fast spiking and covertures. Meanwhile, they are also active members in blocking tasks. The blocking ability is also regarded as an important competence for them (Chen, 1989b). Second spikers are those who jump and move most, as they keep moving between No.3 and No.2 positions to make fast spiking or covering teammates
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attacks ceaselessly. Different from the chief spikers attack at No. 4, the second spikers do not rely on the strength in their spiking, but on the speed, the changes and the height of their spiking. These require the second spikers not only to be taller, but also faster in moving, turning, running up and starting jump. In addition, the second spikers keep moving between No.4 and No.2 position to block, and thereby they are supposed to have good jumping capacity for a wider blocking space. All the above mentioned tasks require the second spikers to be equipped with special anthropometric characteristics.

Elite Chinese women second spikers appeared to have following anthropometric characteristics: relatively higher stature, lighter body mass, and smaller Katoly index. Their average stature was 188.0 cm, body mass 70.3 kg, sitting height 97.5 cm and standing reach height 241.1 cm. Among the players at five different volleyball positions, the second spikers anthropometric characteristics were with the highest stature, thinnest body, and smallest skinfolds.

5.2.1.3 Analysis of anthropometric characteristics in setters In a volleyball game, setters play a key role in initiating tactical attacks and they are the soul for the realization of tactical intention. The tactical level of a volleyball team is mainly relied on the tactics and skills of setters. Statistical data reveal that setters are the players with the most movements to cover all the positions on the court, trying to set up a good first pass to make a powerful and successful attack. Setters should be competent in fast movements, fast start-up, fast stop, fast turn and fast twist after landing. So for a good agility, setters are usually comparatively shorter. However, as setters blocking positions are opposite to the spikers at No.4 position of the opponent team and this requires high blocking capacity of the setters. Therefore, setters stature should not be too short but within the range between spikers and liberos (Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001b). In general, the setters are the lightest, the shortest, the fattest and have the lowest values of humeral and femoral diameters: they differ from the other three forward roles. Setters are the least homogeneous (Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001b).
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Elite Chinese women setters appeared to have the following anthropometric characteristics: well-balanced stature, relatively lighter body mass, and smaller Katoly index. Their average stature was 181.3 cm, body mass 68.5 kg, sitting height 95.1 cm and standing reach height 235.7 cm. Among the players at five different volleyball positions, setters anthropometric characteristics were well-balanced.

5.2.1.4 Analysis of anthropometric characteristics in second setters In modern volleyball games, second setters main functions have gradually shifted from assistance in setting up attacks to assistance in performing attacks. This accounts for the reason why most of the best scorers in recent world series are second setters. Because of the role changes, second setters anthropometric characteristics have shown great changes as well. Especially, their stature is only shorter than the second spikers. Currently, the second setters chief tasks are to move between No.2 and No.3 positions and help the second spikers to put tactics into practice. To cope with the tasks, the second setters are supposed to be swift in moving, turning and jumping.

Anthropometric characteristics of elite Chinese women second setters were found to be: relatively higher, thinner and well-balanced stature. Their average stature was 184.1 cm, body mass 68.2 kg, sitting height was 95.2 cm and standing reach height was 236.8 cm. Their bodies almost shared the same anthropometric characteristics with the second spikers.

5.2.1.5 Analysis of anthropometric characteristics in liberos Liberos are free defenders and can take the place of any players in the back row of the court. The position of liberos is for a better defense to make defense and attack more balanced, in order to enforce the previous comparatively weaker defense, providing a more intense and attractive competition (Chen, 2005). The major task of liberos is to receive ball in back court, and never be allowed to spike. Therefore liberos body figure should characterize as lower centre of gravity and shorter legs, and with good
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physical performance speed, reaction time, and agility, etc.

Elite Chinese women liberos were found to have the following anthropometric characteristics: relatively shorter stature, moderate body mass, shorter-thicker thigh and larger girth indices. Liberos had greater skinfolds than the players at other positions. Their average stature was 175.1 cm, body mass 66.2 kg, sitting height 93.1 cm and average standing reach height was 224.5 cm. Among the players at five different volleyball positions, liberos anthropometric characteristics were the most different from others. They were the shortest, with comparatively shorter limbs and perhaps more body fat.

5.2.2 Analysis of anthropometric characteristics at different volleyball positions between players from China and overseas

5.2.2.1 Comparisons on stature From Table 5-2, it is clear that, to meet stature requirements at different volleyball positions, the second spikers should be the tallest, followed by the spikers, second setters, setters and liberos. The women volleyball players in China and abroad shared the same pattern. It is worth noticing that the stature of the Chinese players at different volleyball positions was all relatively higher than the stature of the players from other world top teams, especially far above the average level of Asian teams. For details, please refer to Table 5-2.

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Table 5-2 Comparison of stature between top women volleyball teams in Chinese and world Second Chief spikers Second spikers N N=101 China America Europe Asia Africa Average 100 96 95 60 36 387 185.13.15 184.77.06 187.14.88 181.26.01 178.64.74 183.35.17 N=103 188.13.87 186.74.41 188.15.87 185.74.64 180.15.21 185.74.80 N=65 N=70 181.31.95 184.13.63 175.16.97 177.35.09 183.64.05 171.87.28 178.94.85 186.9 6.36 171.75.46 175.68.13 180.75.90 170.46.88 176.23.82 178.62.88 170.30.50 177.94.77 182.84.56 171.95.42 Setters setters N=48 Liberos

Source: The data of Chinese women volleyball team were collected in this study. The data of world women volleyball teams are from the statistical data in 15th World Women Volleyball Tournament (Qu, 2007).

5.2.2.2 Comparisons on body mass From Table 5-3, it is shown that body mass of Chinese women volleyball players is found to be the largest in chief spikers, followed by the second spikers, setters, second setters and liberos. This order is quite different from those of other world top teams. In addition, the body mass variations of Chinese women volleyball players at different volleyball positions, except liberos, were all larger than those of the players in world top teams. It was noticeable that the body mass of Chinese chief spikers, and setters were all higher than those of world top teams. For details, please refer to Table 5-3.

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Table 5-3 Comparison of body mass between top women volleyball teams in Chinese and world Chief Second spikers kgSD N spikers N=103 N=101 China America Europe Asia Africa Average 100 96 95 60 36 387 75.67.89 70.19.65 67.85.61 71.45.17 72.55.57 71.56.78 70.36.69 73.66.02 71.75.71 71.64.70 71.35.09 71.75.64 68.54.28 68.84.60 68.64.96 68.56.64 61.53.27 67.24.75 N=65 N=70 68.26.33 70.57.21 71.25.12 69.25.57 71.05.83 70.06.01 66.28.20 64.06.38 63.16.52 63.05.13 66.32.36 64.55.72 Setters setters N=48 Second Liberos

Source: The data of Chinese women volleyball team were collected in this study. The data of world women volleyball teams are from the statistical data in 15th World Women Volleyball Tournament (Qu, 2007).

5.2.2.3 Comparisons on Katoly index Table 5-4 shows that in the worlds top women volleyball teams the Katoly index value decreases in the order of chief spikers, second spikers, second setters, setters and liberos while in the Chinese team, the order was chief spikers, setters, liberos, second spikers and second setters. There is a large difference between the two orders. Furthermore, the distributions of the Katoly indices of Chinese women volleyball players at different volleyball positions, except setters, were all larger than other top team counterparts. The Katoly indices of Chinese women spikers, setters and liberos were all higher than those of the players in world top teams. Table 5-4 presents a comparison of the indices.

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Table 5-4 Comparison of the Katoly indices between top women volleyball teams in China and in the world Chief Second spikers N spikers N=103 N=101 China America Europe Asia Africa Average 100 96 95 60 36 N=65 N=70 Setters setters N=48 Second Liberos

408.340.52 373.633.57 377.921.11 370.533.70 376.935.15 379.146.27 394.129.96 388.128.02 388.128.02 372.433.94 373.723.18 381.024.31 383.728.58 383.728.58 367.029.31 381.424.81 385.521.40 389.423.51 389.423.51 369.420.94 405.829.37 395.420.24 349.117.10 349.117.10 389.214.90

387 389.632.83 385.925.80 377.723.66 376.226.18 375.026.85

Source: The data of Chinese women volleyball team were collected in this study. The data of world women volleyball teams are from the statistical data in 15th World Women Volleyball Tournament (Qu, 2007).

In summary, compared with the players in other world top teams, elite Chinese women volleyball players demonstrated advantages in stature and body mass, and were in the middle for Katoly index. On specific positions, the anthropometric characteristics of Chinese women Chief spikers and setters were higher than the average level of the worlds top teams, suggesting Chinese women volleyball players at attacking positions have advantages in terms of anthropometric characteristics.

5.2.2.4 The differences in the somatotype between different volleyball positions The results revealed that there were significant differences in somatotypes of the women volleyball players between paying positions, indicating the distribution of the somatotypes at different volleyball positions is uneven. The results show that volleyball players at different volleyball positions have different characters of physique and it is due to the different roles on the volleyball court. Therefore, this character
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should be considered for volleyball players talent identification.

In summary, the results of our study indicated that players at different volleyball positions possessed different anthropometric characteristics. These differences agree with the different technical and tactical demands on players at these positions (Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001b). This suggests that position-specific

anthropometric measurements should be considered and a unified talents-selecting model may not suit the purpose.

5.3 The relationship between anthropometric characteristics and physical performance Physical performance is regarded as a combination of inborn genetic quality and the persistently physical work capacity acquired through specific training. It is defined as an athletes basic ability in doing physical exercise (Chen, 2005). It is an important part of competitive sport ability. In a broad sense, it includes physiologic function, physical fitness, and skills. In a narrow sense, physical performance usually refers to the performance in specific testing tasks (Tian, 2006). To assess physical performance, the following areas are often measured: strength, speed, stamina, agility, flexibility and balancing (Liu, 2006). The mastery of sport techniques are closely related with players physical performance. Only with good physical performance players can reach to a high level in skills and tactics (Zeng, 1992).

A competent volleyball player needs a high level of strength in waist, legs, and arm muscles; high speed in reaction, movement, jump, and arm-waving; high jumping ability; good endurance in movement, jump, speed, and competition; good agility,

including the coordination between legs, hands, waist, and torso movements; and good flexibility of shoulders, waist, knees, and wrists joints (Chen, 2005).

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Various tests have been utilized in assessments for the physical performance of volleyball players. For example, Gabbett and colleagues have used following items to measure physical performance of volleyball players: lower-body muscular power (vertical jump, spike jump), upper-hody muscular power (over-head medicine-hall throw), speed (5- and 10-m sprint), agility (T-test), and maximal aerobic power (multistage fitness test) (Gabbett, 2006).

5.3.1 Physical performance of the elite Chinese women volleyball players To assess the volleyball players physical performance and the relationship between physical performance and the anthropometric characteristics, this study focused on four testing items, namely, medicine ball throwing, T-shuttle run agility test, timed 20 sit-ups and running vertical jump.

5.3.1.1 Medicine ball throwing Medicine ball throwing is an often used method in volleyball training because its movement mechanics is similar to those of spiking and serving in volleyball. The distance in medicine ball throwing associates with the explosive force of the muscles on waist, abdomen and upper limbs. Larger physiological cross-sectional area of muscle correlates with greater absolute strength of the muscle.

The statistical results of this study indicated that the longest distance in the medicine ball throwing testing for elite Chinese women volleyball players was 1220 cm, the shortest was 840 cm, and the mean was 1050 cm. Chief spikers and setters showed the best performance, followed by the second spikers, and liberos. The results suggest that the Chinese women volleyball players upper body muscle strength was not homogeneous. However, it should be noted that the performance of medicine ball throwing is also related with the throwing techniques.

5.3.1.2 T-shuttle run agility test In a volleyball game, players should try their best to prevent the ball from touching the
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ground, and this requires players to be quick in reaction and swift in movements. A players moving speed is affected by many factors, including her reacting speed, the lower limbs strength, explosive force and agility (Zhong and Huang, 1989).

T-shuttle run agility test is not only a test for a players moving speed, but also for the players agility at stopping and turning in movement, which is a necessary skill for volleyball players. T-route movement is also an often adopted training for the improvement of moving speed and agility.

The test results of the T-shuttle run agility test indicated that the fastest speed was 8.2 seconds, the slowest was 10.3 seconds, and the average was 9.2 seconds. Among the players at different positions, liberos were the fastest and their average speed was 8.9 seconds, the next was the setters. The second spikers were the slowest because of their highest stature, highest barycenter and longest lower limbs.

5.3.1.3 Timed 20 sit-ups Timed 20 sit-ups is a simple but valid index for the testing of a players muscle strength on waist and abdomen. Waist and abdomen muscles play an important role in agility, swiftness and jumping. Especially in jumping, waist and abdomen muscle strength can improve the starting speed of a jump and is vital not only for the hanging ability, but also for the speed and the power of a spike. Therefore, the training of the muscles on waist and abdomen is usually emphasized in the physical training of volleyball players.

The test results of sit-up indicated that the fastest speed for 20 sit-ups was 15.4 seconds, while the slowest speed was 24.4 seconds, and the average was 18.2 seconds. Among the players at different positions, liberos were the fastest and their average speed was 17.8 seconds, this reflects the fact that liberos always move fast and turn fast to defense back row or to receive the served ball. It shows the importance of the muscle strength on waist and abdomen for the control of body actions. Chief spikers were the next and
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this indicates that, when spiking, spikers will rely on their muscle strength in waist and abdomen for a favorable time in space and a powerful spike.

5.3.1.4 Running vertical jump Volleyball requires a lot of jumping. The players jump to spike and block in the game, so jumping is a very important physical performance (Zhong and Huang, 1989). To some extent jumping ability determines the overall competence of a volleyball player. A players jumping ability is decided by the explosive force of the muscles on lower limbs, waist and abdomen. Three steps running-up jump is not only the key for a spike, but also an often used method for the test of players jumping ability. As for the net jump height, it is measured by a players running-up jump height minus her standing reach height.

The test results showed that the highest runnig vertical jump height among the players was 91 cm, the lowest was 52.5 cm, and the average was 71.2 cm. Second setters had the highest average, 74.9 cm, followed by spikers and second spikers. Such finding explains why second setters can reach the highest success rate for spike even though they are usually shorter than spikers and second spikers.

5.3.2

Relationship performance

between

anthropometric

characteristics

and

physical

Volleyball sport has high requirements in both anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of the players. Therefore, talent identification lays much importance on them. One of the aims of this study was to determine the relationship between anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of the players.

Our analyses of the anthropometric and testing results indicated that most of the anthropometric characteristics of elite Chinese women volleyball players were not significantly correlated with their physical performance. This means that there were many other factors that might have contributed to the seleted physical performance and
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the decisive contributors were not the anthropometric characteristics. The proportion of significant correlations between anthropometric variables and physical performance was lower than we expected, and was only 12% of the total anthropometric variables.

5.3.2.1 The relationship between anthropometric characteristics and upper limb muscle strength The correlation analyses indicated that the performance in medicine ball throw was mainly correlated with the girth of the limbs, the hand palm and forearm and the breadth of chest. Other study also indicated that medicine ball throwing test correlated with the general size of the body, upper extremities length, muscle strength of the trunk and extremities and there was, however, no correlation with body fat (Stamm et al., 2002). Larger girths of limbs indicate stronger muscles. Longer hand palm and forearms mean longer force moment for the waving arm. However, the correlation between the upper limb strength and anthropometry measurements was not significant, suggesting for volleyball players, the swaying strength and the explosive force of upper limbs were not significantly determined by the anthropometric characteristics. Instead, it is mainly improved through training.

5.3.2.2 The relationship between anthropometric characteristics and moving agility The correlation analyses revealed that the T-shuttle run agility test had no significant correlation with anthropometric characteristics, except the negative correlation with the intrinsic factor of endomorphy. Stamms study (2002) indicated that the results of the speed test were worse in volleyball players with higher body fat content (Stamm et al., 2002). Intrinsic factor reflects the body fat content and suggests that the players with less body fat can move faster. The non-significant correlation between anthropometric characteristics and moving agility indicates that they are not the major contributers to the performance in T-shuttle run agility test (Stamm et al., 2000).

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5.3.2.3 The relationship between anthropometric characteristic and muscle strength on waist and abdomen There was no other significant correlation between the variables of anthropometric characteristics and timed 20 sit-ups results. Because the timed 20 sit-ups was used to assess the muscle strength on waist and abdomen, the exception suggests that players with less body fat will have stronger muscle strength on waist and abdomen. There are many factors that may influence the muscle strength on waist and abdomen, and the sit-up test itself might not be sufficient to represent all of them.

5.3.2.4 The relationship between anthropometric characteristics and jumping ability Our analyses revealed that there was no any significant correlation between players anthropometric characteristics and the vertical jump height. This means that women volleyball players jumping abilities are influenced by many factors and players anthropometric characteristics does not make significant influence on the jumping ability. This seems not consistent with the previous findings. In recruitment for volleyball players, the jumping ability is often the first concern, and the corresponding anthropometric characteristics of lower limbs are considered critical, especially on the length of lower limbs, the length of Achilles tendon and the girth of ankles. However, our analyses revealed that the relationship between these two variables was not significant.

In conclusion, correlation analyses showed that very few anthropometric variables were significantly correlated with the four selected physical performance test results. This suggests that the improvements of volleyball players physical performance are not significantly related to these anthropometric characteristics.

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5.4 The differences in physical performance between different volleyball positions You and Huang (2000) have indicated that volleyball players need to be physically competent in areas such as strength (jumping ability, explosive force), and speed (reaction speed, running speed, action speed). In addition, agility, flexibility and stamina also play important roles (You and Huang, 2000).

The specific training for volleyball players is mainly on upper limbs, abdomen, back and lower limbs, which are the more critical muscle groups for performance. For example, to complete a spiking, a player sways the upper arm to make a powerful spike. To stay longer in the air and keep body balanced during spiking and blocking, the strength of trunk muscles play an important role (Xue, 2004).

The present study analyzed the difference of physical performance variables among the women volleyball players at different volleyball positions. The statistical results suggest that physical performance variables for specific positions can hardly be adopted as generally suitable indices.

The results indicated that, in all the four physical performance tests, differences were only found in the variable of running vertical jump height, and mostly the differences were not significant. Only 5% of the anthropometry variables were significantly correlated with performance. In addition, in the physical performance of different positional groups, there were significant differences only between the chief spikers and the setters, second setters and setters.

Jumping ability is crucial for a volleyball player to be competitive. Setters usually take a heavy blocking task in a contest, and good jumping ability is necessary for successful blocks. In the training of Chinese women volleyball players, focus should be given to the setters jumping ability to improve their attacking and defending ability. Fleck et al. (1985) suggested that two of the aims of the physical conditioning of elite women
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volleyball players should be to decrease percent fat and increase vertical jumping distance (Fleck et al., 1985).

5.5. Somatotypes 5.5.1 Introduction on somatotype Heath and Carter defined somatotype as the current physical characteristics of an individual. It is an explicit shape regardless of the body size. It describes the specific body shapes and the comparative body components. Moreover, somatotype may change.

Somatoype is determined as the characteristics of the exterior figuration and the physique style. It is a precise summary and evaluation of the overall figuration features. In other words, body shape type or somatotype is a general descriptor of physical appearance and it is defined as the quantification of the quantification of the present shape and composition of the human body. Extraordinary values have been revealed in the studies about the relationships between somatotype and some diseases, somatotype and nutrition, and somatotype and athletes recruitment. The variation in somatotypes may be due to different genetic and environmental factors of various ethnic groups. Such information offers useful reference for athletes recruitment, sports training, nutrition, anthropology and medical jurisprudence, and also makes meaningful reference for research on the relationships among different ethinic groups (Cui and Wu, 2004).

5.5.2 Somatotype of elite Chinese women volleyball players Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, (2001) have found that somatotype differs in relation to the different volleyball positions (Setters = 3.1-3.6-2.5, Chief spikers = 3.0-3.5-2.8, Second spikers = 2.8-3.1-3.1, Second setters = 3.0-3.2-3.0). Table 5-5 shows the details. The mesomorphic component is maximal in setters, while the ectomorphic component

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is maximal in chief spikers. Although high ectomorphic sores may be advantageous because of the nature of game play in volleyball, in chief spikers, endurance of the opposing attack is the primary concern, whereas the setters require more speed and agility in terms of attack organization. Therefore a greater mesomorphy may be advantageous in sustaining opposing attacks for centers, but, as speed of movement and agility are more essential in the role of setter, high msesomorphy scores would not be advantageous. The somatotype scores of spiker and opposites tend to be intermediate between centers and setters (Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001b).

Table 5-5 Somatotype characteristics for Italian female volleyball players in different volleyball positions Setters (N=47) Endomorphy Mesomorphy Ectomorphy 3.1 3.6 2.5 Chief spikers (N=85) 2.8 3.1 3.1 Second spikers (N=85) 3.0 3.5 2.8 Second setters (N=27) 3.0 3.2 3.0

The deference in anthropometric characteristics agrees with the different technical and tactical demands on players in different positions. An athletes anthropometric characteristics can in some way influence her level of performance, at the same time helping to determine a suitable physique for a certain sport. Therefore, somatotype should be one of the characteristics considered in the success of athletes. Furthermore, as somatotypes differ as a function of positional role in volleyball, sport scientists, coaches and strength and conditioning professionals need to be aware of the specific positional requirements in volleyball in terms of body type. Consideration of an athletes body type when allocating resources, selecting playing position, and within conditioning programs may be beneficial in increasing the effectiveness of players within a team.

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The average somatoype indices of elite Chinese women volleyball players were 3.7-2.9-4.0. According to the principle for somatotype classification, Chinese women volleyball players belong to endomorph-ectomorph. For the players at different positions, the chief spikers and liberos shared the same type central, the second spikers and second setters shared another type endomorphic ectomorph, and setters belonged to endomorph-ectomorph.

Based on the correlation analyses between the players positions and somatoype indices, we find that somatotype is closely related with different volleyball positions. Different volleyball positions require varied tactical skills. Hence somatotype needs to meet such positional requirements.

As for the distribution of somatotype scores of the elite Chinese women volleyball players, the chief spikers and liberos had the largest endomorphy and mesomorphy, but the ectomorphy was on the lower side. It means that the chief spikers and liberos had well-balanced body shape with larger body mass, strong bones and muscles, and possibly high percentage of fat. As for the second spikers, they have the largest ectomorphy, but lowest endomorphy and mesomorphy, suggesting that the second spikers have smaller fat content and thinner bones, and therefore being thin and tall. The setters and second setters have moderate fat content and balanced bones and muscles, and therefore make a slender physique. For the distribution of somatotypes of elite Chinese women volleyball players at different volleyball positions, please refer to Figure 5-1.

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A: Chief spikers X = -0.4 Y= -1 C: Setters E: Liberos X = 0.1 Y= -1.9 X = -0.7 Y= -0.1

B: Second spikers X = 1.7 Y= -3.9 D: Second setters X = 0.9 Y= -2.7

Figure 5-1

Distribution of somatotypes of elite Chinese women volleyball players at different volleyball positions

5.5.3 Comparisons of the somatotype of Chinese and overseas elite women volleyball players Our literature shows the somatotype of the elite women volleyball players in 8 countries. The sample sizes are quite different. We therefore adopt weighted average method to ensure the reliability of our statistical analyses. Table 5-6 has the details.

Elite Chinese women volleyball players average somatotype values are 3.7-2.9-4.0, ie. endomorph-ectomorph. Among the 13 somatotypes, 64% of elite Chinese women volleyball players concentrate on four somatotypes, including endomorphic ectomorph (29%), balanced ectomorph (14%), balanced endomorph (11%) and

ectomorph-endomorph (9%). The highest percentage goes to endomorphic ectomorph.

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Table 5-6 Source

Statistics for Foreign women volleyball players somatotype National team N Somatotype value 19 4.2-3.7-3.3 Central Somatotype

(Kovaleski et al., 1980) (Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001b) (Bayios et al., 2006) (Neni et al., 2007) (Papdopoulou et al., 2002) (Duncan et al., 2006) (Superlak, 2006)

America

Italy

244

3.0-3.3-2.9

Central

Greece

163

3.4-2.7-2.9

Central

Indonesia

66

2.4-3.5-3.7

Mesomorphic-ectomorph

Greece

229

4.5-2.5-2.1

Mesomorphic endomorph

England

25

2.6-1.9-5.3

Endomorphic ectomorph

Portland

28

2.2-3.3-4.1

Mesomorphic endomorph

In the national women volleyball teams of other countries, the average somatotype value is 3.4-2.9-2.9, mainly covered five somatotypes of all 13 somatotypes. Their somatotypes are central (53.3%), mesomorphic endomorph (28.7%), mesomorphicectomorph (11.4%). While the other two types of mesomorphic ectomorph (3.5%) and endomorphic ectomorph (3.1%) are neglected because of the small sample sizes (Bayios et al., 2006, Duncan et al., 2006, Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001b, Kovaleski et al., 1980, Neni et al., 2007, Papadopoulou et al., 2002, Papdopoulou et al., 2002, Superlak, 2006).

Comparative analysis shows that the endomorphy and the ectomorphy scores of

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women volleyball players in other countries are smaller, yet that of the mesomorphy are larger. These indicate that they have comparatively lower body fat content, stronger bones and muscles, and a body with moderate linearity. On the contrary, the scores of the endomorphy and the ectomorphy of Chinese women volleyball players are larger, but the mesomorphy are smaller, indicating Chinese women volleyball players have higher body fat content, weaker bones and muscles, a thinner body with higher linearity.

The distribution of somatotype of Chinese women volleyball players are more dispersing. There are 12 somatotypes among them, while other women volleyball players in the world centralized on only four somatptypes. The distribution of Chinese and foreign elite women volleyball players somatotype are shown in Figure 5-2.

A:

America

X= -0.9

Y= -0.1

BItaly DIndonesia FPoland

X= -0.1 Y= 0.7 X= 1.3 Y= 0.9 X= 1.9 Y= 0.5

CGreece EEngland GChinese

X= -0.5 Y= -0.9 X= 2.7 X=0.3 Y= -4.1 Y=-1.9

Figure 5-2: Distribution of Chinese and foreign elite women volleyball players somatotype

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5.6 Typical anthropometric characteristics of volleyball players Volleyball has very high requirements on the anthropometric characteristics, especially on stature, the length of limbs, thighbones and Achilles tendon, the girth of ankles and the breadth of biiliocristal. In this study, it was found that elite Chinese women volleyball players started very early in their volleyball careers. 17% of them started volleyball training before the age of 10, 33% of them started between the age of 11-12, 44% of them between the age of 13-14, 6% of them between the age of 15-16. As between 10 to 16 years old is exactly the growing period for juvenile, the anthropometric characteristics are of great importance for talent identification.

Due to that heredity plays a significant role in somatotypes, it is proposed that the selection of the female athletes should consider somatotypes at a young age. Many investigators support that the somatotypes of top young female athletes do not substantially differ from the respective top adult athletes somatotype (Malina and Shoup, 1985, Papadopoulou et al., 2002). Somatotype, then, should be one of the characteristics considered in the success of female athletes.

The so-called R type cluster analysis means calculating the correlation coefficient or the distance coefficient of the variables and categorize similar variables or individuals together. We adopt the cluster analysis when there is a need to select several representative variables out of many of them (Wang, 2008).

There are many anthropometric variables that can be measured for the volleyball players. However, it is not practical to measure each of these variables because of the time required to complete the tests. Therefore, it is necessary to make cluster selection to find out the more critical variables and to build new indices system for the women volleyball talent identification. So we perform cluster analyses and based on the correlations among the grouped variables, we gradually obtain the clustering structure of all the anthropometric variables, and thus are able to get the typical variables for the
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talent identification of women volleyball players.

From the clustering pedigree, the hierarchy relations among the variables are very clear. Based on these results, we selected correlation coefficient at R=0.646 and used eight variables and identified several typical anthropometric variables groups (Wang, 2008). The results revealed eight close relationships between these anthropometric variables groups. They were: body mass, stature, biacromial breadthsitting height, subscapular skinfold, ankle girth, forearm girth and Achilles tendon length. Table 4-48 and Figure 5-2 show the details.

Anthropometric assessment includes stature, total body mass, sitting height and circumferences of arms, abdomen, hip, thigh, and the skinfolds triceps, biceps, chest, subscapular, supraspinale, abdominal, and thigh.

Stature and body mass are the required basic anthropometric variables in talent identification for women volleyball players. Height and body mass have been reported to be discriminating factors between successful and non-successful teams in a tournament, so these two factors should be taken into account when selecting female volleyball athletes. MacLaren (1990) suggested that national team coaches must consider the height and weight of the athletes to be selected, as success in volleyball is associated with body height and body weight (MacLaren, 1990). Sitting height gives an indication of the relative length of the legs. Shoulder breadth is related to the bone growth in the upper body and can also indirectly reflect the strength of trunk and shoulder girdle. The biacromiale breadth to biiliocristal breadth ratio also reflects the overall trunk shape and relates to the agility of the body. Subscapular skinfold reveals the thickness of the players fat layer and therefore indirectly reveals the body fat content. Forearm girth indicates the muscle size of the players upper limbs. In volleyball games, the acceleration of spiking and serving are determined by the strength of forearms and wrist, therefore, forearm girth should be seriously considered in talent identification, though it has never been mentioned in the previous studies.
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Zeng (1992) research revealed that players who have longer Achilles tendon and smaller ankle girth usually show better jumping ability (Zeng, 1992). The ankle girth to Achilles tendon length ratio is also an important index for volleyball talent identification, which is supported by our findings.

5.7 Regression model for anthropometric characteristic and physical performance of elite Chinese women volleyball players To further understand the relationships between the anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of elite Chinese women volleyball players, we conducted stepwise regression analyses between the anthropometric variables (including measurement indices and evaluation indices) and physical performance variables (including medicine ball throwing, running vertical jump height, T-shuttle run agility test and timed 20 sit-ups). The statistical results revealed that, in four physical performance variables, only medicine ball throwing and vertical jump height closely associated with anthropometric characteristics, as indicated by a higher correlation coefficient (R>0.50 while the T-shuttle run agility test and timed 20 sit-ups had lower correlation coefficient (R<0.50) with the anthropometric variables. Since our study only analyzed the anthropometric factors among multiple factors that may have influenced physical performance, thus it is not surprising to find lower correlation coefficients. The purpose of stepwise regression analysis is to identify the most important physical performance variables (among the tests we performed) for coaches that can be used in talent identification.

Because of the low correlation between anthropometric characteristics with T-shuttle run time and sit-up performance, only the regressions for medicine ball throwing and vertical jump height are discussed here. The regression models for specific physical performance of elite Chinese women volleyball players are shown in Table 5-7.

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Table 5-7 Summary of the regression models for specific physical performance to anthropometric characteristics of elite Chinese women volleyball players Dependant variable Runnig vertical jump height Regression equation and independent variable 253.631.547 X1 5.538 X21.023 X3 X1Standing reach height X2Femur breadth X3Calf girth 1405.0112.676 X1 12.925 X2 16.989 X3 1.279 X4 X1Ankle girth X2Arm(flexed and tensed) girth X3Forearm length/Upper limb length100 X4Achilles' tendon length 9.5500.035 X XSubscapular skinfold 14.671-0.159 X1 + 0.251 X2 + 0.366 X3 + 0.042X4 X1Gluteal girth X2Forearm girth X3Forearm length X4Ankle girth Physical performance Jumping ability

Medicine ball throw

Upper limbs strength Moving speed and agility Strength of lumbar and abdominal muscle

T-shuttle run agility test

Timed 20 sit-ups

The regression analysis on vertical jump height showed that the jump height was correlated with the standing reach height, the calf girth and the biepicondylar femur breadth. A bigger calf girth usually means stronger calf muscle strength and power, which may directly influence the jumping height. The femur bone breadth indicates stronger and well-developed bones in lower limbs, and correspondingly leads to more powerful explosive force of lower limbs, which may also directly influence the jumping height.

From the regression equation for medicine ball throwing, it can be seen that the performance is determined by tensed arm girth and forearm length-upper limbs length ratio. Here, tensed arm girth reflects the condition of upper limb muscles and their strength, while the forearm length-upper limbs length ratio relates to the torque and the
165

acceleration of the waving arms.

Therefore, in the talent identification for women volleyball players, we may adopt the above predictive models to identify the players with favorable jumping ability and strength.

Table 5-8

Test of regression equation for specific physical performance of elite Chinese women volleyball players

Dependant variable Runnig vertical jump height Medicine ball throw T-shuttle run agility test Timed 20 sit-ups

Results of regression equation 71.2 cm 1050.2 cm 9.12 s 18.14 s

Average of the field measurements 71.2 cm 1050.2 cm 9.12 s 18.16 s

N 87 87 87 87

R 0.600 0.514 0.288 0.485

P 0.000 0.000 0.007 0.000

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6. Chapter Six: Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Research


6.1 Conclusions Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions have been drawn. 1) It was found that except the Katoly index, all indices concerned to body height and weight in elite Chinese women volleyball players are higher than the world average level. The absolute value of elite Chinese women volleyball players height is between those of American and European, and far above those of Asian and African. As for the absolute value of body weight, the level in elite Chinese women volleyball players is slightly higher than American and European level, and above the Asian and African level. While, the Katoly index, Chinese women volleyball athletes is lower than the American and African level, and above the Asian and European level. The comparisons above conclude that the main body anthropometric variables, such as stature, body mass and Katoly index, arent obviously different between elite Chinese women volleyball players and the world players.

2) It was revealed that the medicine ball throwing distance was significantly correlated to the circumferences of upper arm and calf, the length of forearm and hand, and the transverse width of chest. The running vertical jump showed no significant correlation with most of the anthropometric variables except the breadth of biepicondylar femur, and the girth and length of the calf. The performance in T-shuttle run agility test and the timed 20 sit-ups demonstrated no significant correlation to any of the anthropometry variables.

In the past, the jump ability was believed to be the most important factor in selection of volleyball players. Therefore the anthropometric indices utilized mainly focused on the variables that were thought to be closely correlated with the jump ability, such as length of lower limb, length of Achilles tendon, and circumference of ankle, etc. However, the present results showed that there was no significant correlation between
167

the vertical jump performance and above mentioned variables, but to the standing reach height, the breadth of biepicondylar femur, and the circumference of the calf. The results partially rejected the Null Hypothesis that there would be no correlation between the anthropometric variables and the selected performance characteristics in elite female volleyball players.

3) The anthropometric results show that, except palm breadth, relax-contraction difference of upper arm girth, forearm girth, thigh girth, the other anthropometric variables are confirmed to be significantly different between playing positions, especially in stature, body mass, standing reach height, upper limb length, forearm length, palm length, lower limb, calf length, shoulder breadth, pelvis breadth, chest breadth and waist circumference (up to P<0.001). The analysis on the derived anthropometric indices showed that, different from the measured anthropometric variables, there were no significant differences in the length indices, except the thigh length indices, between volleyball positions. Among different volleyball positions, significant differences were found in girth and breadth indices, especially in Katoly index, shoulder breadth index, chest breadth index, waist girth index, upper limb contracting girth index, and calf girth index (P<0.05 to 0.001), only with an exception of hand breadth. These indicated that the differences in anthropometric indices among volleyball positions were mainly related to the relative sizes of bones and muscles. This conclusion rejected the Null Hypothesis that there would be no differences in anthropometric characteristics between volleyball positions of volleyball game.

4) The present results showed no significant differences between the five volleyball positions in the most of the selected physical performance measurements, except the running vertical jump height. The differences in the net jumping height was found only between the chief spikers vs the setters, and the second setters vs the setters (P<0.05). The results suggested that, although volleyball players played different roles in a game, they all possessed similar physical performance. The results generally approved the Null Hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the selected physical
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performance, except the running jump height, between volleyball positions.

5) This study utilized a stepwise regression analysis for the correlations between the selected anthropometric and physical performance variables. Predictive equations for the four physical performance were developed as Running jump height = 253.631.547 (Standing reach height) 5.538 (Femur breadth) 1.023 (Calf girth) Medicine ball throw = 1405.0112.676 (Ankle girth) 12.925 (flexed and tensed arm girth) 16.989 (Forearm length / Upper limb length 100) 1.279 (Achilles' tendon length).

However, the prediction equations for the T-shuttle run agility test and the timed 20 sit-ups demonstrated a lower correlation coefficient with the anthropometric variables, therefore were regarded as not valid. It should be stressed that physical performance is affected by multiple factors, thus it was not surprising to find lower correlation coefficient. The purpose of the stepwise regression analysis was to identify the most relevant anthropometry variables that would be most important to each of the selected physical performance. The information provides new references for talent identification in volleyball. 6.2 Suggestions for future research Based on our investigation, eight measurements were identified as significant contributors to build the anthropometric profile of elite Chinese women volleyball players. The effectiveness of these measurements in the talent identification practice needs to be further validated. It will be recommended to the China Volleyball League and to the coaches of China juvenile women volleyball teams, to trial on these anthropometric indices in recruitment of potential high performance athletes.

Our research revealed that elite women volleyball players at different tactical positions

169

have distinctive characteristics. We expect to make a comparison between our research results and the practical condition of the juvenile women volleyball players, and then to set up a talent-identifying model for different tactical positions.

Further studies should also include collection of anthropometric and performance data of teams of different ranks and from different countries, so that comparisons between the elite and non-elite Chinese volleyball players and players from different countries and/or levels can be made.

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8. Appendices Appendix 1: Definition of terms


Physique Physique mainly includes body constitution, body composition, body type, body carriage, and bone age. It is usually used to study human bodys external condition covering body shape, body configuration, body growth and body build (Tan and Chou, 2003).

Anthropometry Profile Anthropometry profile includes the measurements of body constitution and body type and is an important method for quantified research of the external characteristics of human body (Jin, 2003, Ye, 2002). The anthropometric data have significant values in the research of body growth, body constitution, nutrition and health conditions. Especially, in the field of sports, the anthropometric data can provide valuable information in the recruitment of athletes, the training of physical capacities and the improvement of performance.

Heath-Carter method For the evaluation of somatotypes, the method developed by Heath-Carter is one of the most commonly used methods. According to this method, the somatotype is expressed by three numbers in the order of endomorphy, ectomorphy and mesomorphy. The endomorphy value is used to show the comparative fat content in the body; the mesomorphy value exposes the comparative development of bone and muscle; and the ectomorphy value tells the relative boy shape (Carter and Heath, 1990, Heath and Carter, 1967).

Physical performance It is a collection of basic elements in performing physical activities, particularly in


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relation to sport performance, including strength, power, speed, endurance, agility, and flexibility, etc. (Chen, 1989b). Body mass Mass is the quantity of matter in the body. Mass is calculated through the measurement of weight, i.e. the force that the matter exerts in a standard gravitational field. Stature The perpendicular distance between the transverse planes of the vertex and the inferior aspects of the feet. Sitting height The perpendicular distance between the transverse planes of the vertex and the inferior aspects of the butocks when seated(Zeng, 1992).

Triceps skinfold The participant assumed a relaxed standing position. The landmark of mid-acromiale-radiale and the site for the triceps skinfold were made according to the ISAK manual (Marfell-Jones et al., 2006a). The right arm should be relaxed with the shoulder joint externally rotated to the mid-prone position and elbow extended by the side of the body. The skinfold measurement taken parallel to the long axis of the arm at the triceps skinfold site.

Subscapular skinfold Subscapular skinfold site was in 2 cm along a line running laterally and obliquely downward from the subscapulare landmark at a 45o angle. The participant assumes a relaxed standing position with the arms hanging by the sides. The skinfold measurement taken with the fold running obliquely downward at the subscapular skinfold site. The line of the skinfold was determined by the natural fold lines of the skin.

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Supraspinale The point at the intersection of two lines: the line from the marked iliospinale to the anterior axillary border, and the horizontal line at the level of the marked iliocristale, was marked. The skinfold measurement taken with the fold running obliquely and medially downward at the marked supraspinales skinfold sites.

Medial calf The maximal girth of the calf was determined by trial and error. The level of the maximum girth is determined by trial and error. Participant's right foot was placed on a box with the calf relaxed.The fold was parallel to the long axis of the leg. The skinfold measurement taken vertically at the medial calf skinfold site.

Arm relaxed girth The circumference of the arm at the level of the mid-acromialeradiale site, perpendicular to the long axis of the arm.

Arm flexed and tensed girth The circumference of the arm perpendicular to the long axis of the arm at the level of the peak of the contracted Biceps brachii, when the arm is raised anteriorly to the horizontal.

Forearm girth The maximal circumference of the forearm perpendicular to its long axis, distal to the humeral epicondyles.

Wrist girth The minimal circumference of the wrist perpendicular to the long axis of the forearm, distal to the styloid processes.

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Waist girth The circumference of the abdomen at its narrowest point between the lower costal (10th rib) border and the top of the iliac crest, perpendicular to the long axis of the trunk.

Gluteal (hip) girth The circumference of the buttocks at the level of their greatest posterior protuberance, perpendicular to the long axis of the trunk.

Mid-thigh girth The circumference of the thigh measured at the level of the mid-trochanterion-tibiale laterale site, perpendicular to its long axis.

Calf girth The circumference of the leg at the level of the medial calf skinfold site, perpendicular to its long axis.

Ankle girth The minimal circumference of the ankle superior to the medial malleolus, perpendicular to the long axis of the leg.

Acromiale-radiale length The linear distance between the acromiale and radiale sites.

Radiale-stylion radiale length The linear distance between the radiale and stylion sites.

Midstylion-dactylion length The linear distance between the midstylion and dactylion sites.

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Iliospinale height The vertical distance from the iliopinale site to the standing surface.

Tibiale laterale height The vertical distance from the tibiale laterale site to the standing surface.

Biacromial breadth The linear distance between the most lateral aspects of the acromion processes.

Biiliocristal breadth The linear distance between the most lateral points of the iliac crests. Transverse chest breadth The breadth of the thorax perpendicular to its long axis when the scale of the caliper is at the level of the mesosternale, and the blades are positioned at an angle of 30 downwards from the horizontal. Biepicondylar humerus breadth The linear distance between the most lateral aspect of the lateral humeral epicondyle and the most medial aspect of the medial humeral epicondyle.

Biepicondylar femur breadth The linear distance between the most lateral aspect of the lateral femoral epicondyle and the most medial aspect of the medial femoral epicondyle. (Marfell-Jones et al., 2006a) Standing reach height The vertical distance from the ground to highest point of finger tip when the right arm is raised vertically (Zeng, 1992).

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Hand breadth The distance between the metacarpale laterale and metacarpale mediale (Ross et al., 2003).

The length of Achilles tendon The vertical distance from sphyrion of calf gastrocnenius to point of calcaneus (Zeng, 1992).

Arm flexed and tensedarm-relaxed The girth of arm flexed and tensed minus the girth of arm-relaxed. Upper limb length The linear distance between the acromiale and dactylion sites.

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Appendix 2: Health status assessment

HEALTH STATUS ASSESSMENT PRIOR TO ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT Department of Exercise Science & Sport Management School of Health and Human Sciences Southern Cross University _____________________________________________________________________ This form is used as a pre-participation health and risk factor screening device and should be completed prior to the commencement of an anthropometric measurement The information obtained in this screening will be kept as CONFIDENTIAL. Only the responsible staff member and the medical practitioner may access to the information.

Clients Surname (Mr., Mrs., Ms.) : ______________________________________ Given Names: _______________________________________________________ Date of Birth: ________________________________________________________ Place of Birth: _______________________________________________________ Home Address: ______________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Postcode: __________ Contact Telephone: (Home) _______________ (Work/Mobile) _______________

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(1) PAST MEDICAL HISTORY Have you suffered any of the following conditions at any time: (Please tick the appropriate column)
No Rheumatic or scarlet fever Heart trouble or murmur Heart palpitation High blood pressure Heart attack Chest pain/Angina Stroke Disease of arteries or veins
Undue limiting shortness of breath with exercise

Yes

Details

Fainting or blackout Loss of consciousness or fainting with exercise Epilepsy Lung or bronchial disease Asthma Hay fever Anaemia Diabetes Thyroid disease Arthritis, rheumatism or gout spondylitis, disc trouble or back injury Serious accident or injury Surgical operation Congenital abnormality Other serious illness (or conditions that may affect exercise) For female only: Having normal/regular periods

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(2) PRESENT MEDICAL CONDITIONS Are you currently suffering or have you in the recent past suffered any of the following conditions (Please tick the appropriate column): Initial Exam Yes Cough Stuffy nose or sore throat Tonsillitis, glandular fever Hepatitis Diarrhoea/vomiting Headaches Shortness of breath Pain in chest, left arm or neck at rest, or during physical activities Heart palpitations Cramp in legs Abnormal loss of blood Insomnia Indigestion or constipation Swollen, stiff or painful joints Backache Sports injury or other injury Other symptom or illness, or surgery Any skin infections or diseases Any deterioration performance in training or competitive No Second Exam Yes No

Any other conditions that may contraindicate to exercise or affect exercise capacity For female only: Currently in pregnancy If yes, provide details

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(3) SPORTS TRANING HISTORY When did you start volleyball (or other sport) training: _________________________

How long time you have been in this team: __________________________________

Achievements in the sport: _______________________________________________

Current training (full time, part time, no training due to injuries): ____________________________________________________________________

I attest that the information provided by me in completing this form is to the best of my knowledge a true and accurate reflection of my current health status. In the event that I display symptoms of illness at any point during my participation in this exercise test I will advise the testing staff immediately.

Signed: ________________________

Name: _________________________

Date: __________________________

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Appendix 2: Health status assessment (Chinese)

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

: ______________________________________

: _______________________________________________________

: ________________________________________________________

: ____________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________: __________

____________________

/____________________

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(1) . B S F M GP /

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(2)

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(3) _________________________

__________________________________

: _______________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

: ________________________________ : _________________________

: __________________________

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Appendix 3: Information sheet

INFORMATION SHEET

Name of Project: An Investigation on the Anthropometry Profile and Its Relationship with Physical Capacity of Elite Chinese Women Volleyball Players Researcher Yuyi Zhang Master of Science candidate Department of Exercise and Sports Management Southern Cross University Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia Email: nancy85926@163.com Telephone: + 8613828880906 Supervisors Associate Professor Shi Zhou PhD; Department of Exercise and Sports Management, Southern Cross University Associate Professor Qin Zhang PhD; Department of Physical Education, Shenzhen University You are invited to participate in a research that examines the anthropometric characteristics of elite volleyball players. Volleyball players in the top eight teams of the 2008 Chinese Womens Volleyball Tournament and the National Womens Volleyball team will be invited to participate in the study. The research will be conducted by researchers from Department of Exercise Science and Sport Management, Southern Cross University, Australia. If you have met these criteria and are interested in participating in this project, or want to know more about it before making the decision, you are welcome to discuss with us. What is the research about This study will be the first one in China to systematically analyse the anthropometric
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characteristics, and their relationship with physical performance for elite female volleyball players. The outcomes of the study will contribute to validation of key anthropometric indicators that are meaningful in selection of talented athletes, and physical characteristics required for different positions in a volleyball team. Aims of the research The aims of this study are: to examine the somatotypes and proportions of body parts and their correlations to four selected physical performance indicators of the athletes, and to determine the somatotypes and proportions of body parts and their correlations to selected physical performance indicators, particularly the jumping ability. What will be involved This study will measure 29 anthropometry variables and 4 physical performance, including: Base index (4): stature, sitting height, body mass, standing reach height Skinfold (4): triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, medial calf Girth(9): arm(relaxed, flexed and tensed), forearm, wrist, waist, gluteal, thigh, mid-thigh, calf, ankle Length (6): arm, forearm, thigh, calf, hand, Achilles' tendon Breadth (6): biacromial, biiliocristal, transverse chest, humerus, femur, palm Physical performance: Medicine ball throwing, running-assisted jump, T-shape route fast movement and the time for 20 sit-ups. The researcher will need to know the current health status of potential participants. The testing procedure would require approximately 60 minutes of time to complete. Possible Discomforts and Risks Potential risks of anthropometric measurements are very low in this study. Proper clothing, preferable two-piece swimwear, should be worn in anthropometry measurements. Proper warm-up exercise should be done before the performance tests, that may minimize the risk of injury. Responsibilities of the Researcher The researcher will provide all necessary information to participants. In respect of privacy, any sensitive personal information that is obtained in connection with this study will remain confidential and will be disclosed only with their permission. The original data collected will have to be retained for at least seven years by the researcher as required by the University. In the matter of dressing in anthropometry measurements, researcher should always be sensitive to the cultural beliefs and traditions of the participants. Responsibilities of the participants
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It is important that the participants disclose all current health conditions and discuss with the researcher if there is any concern. For measurements to be made as quickly and efficiently as possible, the participants should be asked to present themselves in minimal clothing. Swimming costumes (two-pieces for females) are ideal for ease of access to all measurement sites. Freedom of Consent Your participation in this research is totally voluntary. It is your decision on participation. If you decide to participate, you are free to withdraw your consent and to discontinue participation at any time. Your withdrawal from the project will not result in any penalty. However, we would appreciate you letting us know your decision. Inquiries If you have any questions, we expect you to ask us. If you have any additional questions at any time please talk to the researchers, Associate Profess Shi Zhou, Associate Professor Qin Zhang and Ms. Yuyi Zhang who will be happy to answer any queries you may have. Associate Professor Qin Zhang Normal College, Room No. 424 Building Shenzhen University Nanshan District Postcode 518060 Work phone number: +86 (075) 5265 58497 Email: zhangqin1506@163.com Email for Prof Shi Zhou: shi.zhou@scu.edu.au Email for Yuyi Zhang: nancy85926@163.com The ethical aspects of this study have been approved by the Southern Cross University Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC). The Approval Number will be confirmed. If you have any complaints or reservations about any ethical aspect of your participation in this research, you may contact the Committee through the Ethics Complaints Officer: Ms Sue Kelly Ethics Complaints Officer and Secretary HREC Southern Cross University PO Box 157 Lismore, NSW, 2480 Telephone (02) 6626-9139 or fax (02) 6626-9145 Email: sue.kelly@scu.edu.au

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All complaints, in the first instance, should be in writing to the above address. All complaints are investigated fully and according to due process under National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans and this University. Any complaint you make will be treated in confidence and investigated, and you will be informed of the outcome.

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Appendix 3: Information sheet (Chinese)

8 (18-28 )

29 ()() T 30
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157, 2480 r: (02) 66203991 (), 0061-13828880906 ) : shi.zhou@scu.edu.au, nancy85926@.163.c (HREC), Sue Kelly 157 , 2480 (02) 6626-9139 or fax (02) 6626-9145
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: sue.kelly@scu.edu.au

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Appendix 4: Informed consent form

Informed Consent to Participation Name of Project: An Investigation on the Anthropometry Profile and Its Relationship with Physical Capacity of Elite Chinese Woman Volleyball Players Researcher Yuyi Zhang Department of Exercise and Sports Management Southern Cross University Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia Email: nancy85926@163.com Telephone: Supervisors Associate Professor Shi Zhou Department of Exercise and Sports Management, Southern Cross University Associate Professor Qin Zhang Department of Physical Education, Shenzhen University I have been provided with information at my level of comprehension about the purpose, methods, demands, risks, inconveniences, discomforts, and possible outcomes of this research (including any likelihood and form of publication of results). I agree to participate in the above project. I have read and understand the details contained in the Information Sheet. I have had the opportunity to ask questions about the study and I am satisfied with the answers received. I understand that any personal information which may identify me will be de-identified at the time of analysis of any data. Therefore, I, or information I have provided, cannot be linked to my person.

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I understand that neither my name nor any identifying information will be disclosed or published, except with my permission. I understand that all information gathered in this research is confidential. It is kept securely and confidentially for 7 years, at the University. I understand that I am free to discontinue participation at any time. I have been informed that prior to data analysis, any data that has been gathered before withdrawal of this consent will be destroyed. I am aware that I can contact the Supervisor or other researchers at any time with further inquiries, if necessary. The ethical aspects of this study have been approved by the Southern Cross University Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC). The Approval Number is (ECN-08-142)

If you have any complaints or reservations about any ethical aspect of your participation in this research, you may contact the Committee through the Ethics Complaints Officer Ms Sue Kelly Ethics Complaints Officer and Secretary HREC Southern Cross University PO Box Lismore 2480 Telephone (02) 6626-9139 or fax (02) 6626-9145 Email: sue.kelly@scu.edu.au All complaints, in the first instance, should be in writing to the above address. All complaints are investigated fully and according to due process under the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans and this University. Any complaint you make will be treated in confidence and you will be informed of the outcome. I understand that I will be given a copy of this consent form for my records. The researcher will also keep a copy. I have read the information above and agree to participate in this study. I am over the age of 18 years. Name of Participant:

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Signature of Participant: Date: I certify that the terms of the Consent Form have been verbally explained to the participant and that the participant appears to understand the terms prior to signing the form. Name & Contact Detail of Witness:

Signature of Witness: Date: NOTE The witness should be independent of the research, where possible. If this is not possible at the place of consent, please inform the researcher and state a reason below. Reason

Name and signature of the researcher (contact details are at the top of this document): Date:

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Appendix 4: Informed consent form (Chinese)

() : (), ()

, .,,, () 5 (ECN 08-142)


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Sue Kelly 157 2480 +612 66260-9139 +612 6626-9145 sue.kelly@scu.edu.au

18 18


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Appendix 5:

Expert Questionnaires
Results Statistics of the Expert Questionnaires Question Yes Not always No

Do you think Medicine ball throwing T-shuttle run agility testTimed 20 sit-ups Running vertical jump test can together reflect elite volleyball players basic physical performance?

T 4

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Appendix 6: Tables for results


Table 4-1 Anthropometric variables for elite Chinese women volleyball players
Items Stature (cm) ( ) Body mass (kg) Sitting height (cm) Standing reach height (cm) Acromiale-radiale length (cm) Radiale-stylion length (cm) Acromiale-dactylion length (cm) Midstylion-dactylion length (cm) Iliospinale height (cm) Tibiale-laterale length (cm) Achilles tendon length (cm) Biacromial breadth (cm) Biilocristal breadth (cm) Transverse chest breadth (cm) N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Minimum Maximum Mean 156.0 51.6 84.2 207.6 20.0 24.6 66.4 16.5 86.3 39.9 21.3 28.5 25.2 24.8 5.5 8.6 6.8 23.5 22.2 21.4 0.3 198.0 103.9 107.0 256.5 29.9 39.5 90.1 22.2 115.5 52.6 38.6 43.5 33.7 32.4 7.5 11.1 8.7 35.0 34.7 32.1 4.2 183.6 70.5 95.7 236.7 25.7 34.1 79.8 19.9 103.9 47.8 27.9 38.7 29.8 27.9 6.5 9.8 7.9 28.7 27.1 25.6 1.7 SE 0.58 0.76 0.35 0.78 0.14 0.20 0.36 0.09 0.47 0.23 0.29 0.19 0.16 0.14 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.20 0.20 0.16 0.07 SD 5.77 7.60 3.53 7.81 1.44 2.04 3.63 0.94 4.74 2.26 2.86 1.92 1.60 1.43 0.33 0.47 0.36 1.96 1.95 1.55 0.72 Coefficient of Variance 3.14% 10.79% 3.69% 3.30% 5.59% 5.98% 4.55% 4.72% 4.56% 4.73% 10.24% 4.96% 5.38%% 5.12% 5.06% 4.78% 4.59% 6.82% 7.21% 4.45% 43.37% 6.13% 5.10% 7.98%

Biepicondylar humerus breadth 100 ( ) Biepicondylar femur breadth 100 ( ) Hand breadth (cm) 100 Arm flexed and tensed girth (cm) 100 Arm relaxed girth (cm) Corrected Arm relaxed girth(cm) Arm flexed and tensed girth 100 minus arm relaxed girth Forearm girth (cm) Wrist girth (cm) Waist girth (cm) 100 100 100 100

21.1 13.2 61.1

33.1 18.0 99.5

24.6 15.7 72.2

0.15 0.08 0.58

1.51 0.80 5.76

211

Gluteal girth (cm) Mid-thigh girth (cm) Calf girth (cm) Corrected Calf girth (cm) Ankle girth (cm) Triceps skinfold (mm) Subscapular skinfold (mm) Supraspinale skinfold (mm) Medial calf skinfold (mm)

100 100 100

87.0 45.9 30.9 30.5

115.3 64.1 44.6 42.4 33.0 26.0 26.0 27.4 22.0

97.3 53.1 36.7 35.7 21.5 14.6 12.5 11.8 10.4

0.50 0.35 0.23 0.20 0.17 0.40 0.37 0.43 0.34

4.95 3.45 2.28 1.94 1.73 3.99 3.70 4.29 3.37

5.09% 6.50% 6.21% 2.98% 0.08% 27.57% 29.58% 36.45% 32.34%

100 100 100 100 100

18.5 7.6 6.4 5.4 4.4

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Table 4-5 Correlations between anthropometric profile and medicine ball throwing Items Body mass (kg) Stature (cm) Sitting height (cm) Standing reach height (cm) Radiale-stylion length (cm) Acromiale-radiale length (cm) Acromiale-dactylion length (cm) Midstylion-dactylion length (cm) Iliospinale height (cm) Tibiale-laterale length (cm) Achilles tendon length (cm) Biacromial breadth (cm) Biilocristal breadth (cm) Transverse chest breadth (cm) Biepicondylar humerus breadth (cm) Biepicondylar femur breadth (cm) Hand breadth (cm) Arm relaxed girth (cm) Arm flexed and tensed girth (cm) Arm flexed and tensed girth minus arm relaxed girth Forearm girth (cm) Wrist Girth (cm) Waist Girth (cm) N 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 Pearson Correlation 0.14 0.19 0.19 0.21 0.23 0.01 0.18 0.35 0.18 0.19 0.18 0.17 0.11 0.21 0.11 0.09 0.12 0.22 0.32 0.23 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.199 0.078 0.077 0.048 * 0.033 * 0.912 0.103 0.001 ** 0.090 0.086 0.096 0.125 0.318 0.047 * 0.303 0.428 0.288 0.038 * 0.002 ** 0.031 *

87 87 87

-0.03 0.05 0.19

0.780 0.656 0.083

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Gluteal girth (cm) Thigh girth (cm) Calf girth (cm) Ankle girth (cm) * P<0.05 level ** P<0.01 level

87 87 87 87

0.24 0.26 0.22 -0.03

0.025 * 0.014 * 0.045 * 0.767

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Table 4-6 Correlations between anthropometric profile and T-shuttle run agility test
Items

Pearson Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed)

Body mass (kg) Stature (cm) Sitting height (cm) Standing reach height (cm) Radiale-stylion length (cm) Acromiale-radiale length (cm) Acromiale-dactylion length (cm) Midstylion-dactylion length (cm) Iliospinale height (cm) Tibiale-laterale length (cm) Achilles tendon length (cm) Biacromial breadth (cm) Biilocristal breadth (cm) Transverse chest breadth (cm) Biepicondylar humerus breadth (cm) Biepicondylar femur breadth (cm) Hand breadth (cm) Arm relaxed girth (cm) Arm flexed and tensed girth (cm) Arm flexed and tensed girth minus arm relaxed girth Forearm girth (cm) Wrist Girth (cm)

87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87

0.05 0.15 0.09 0.20 -0.060 0.081 0.190 -0.007 0.164 0.045 0.149 0.03 -0.04 -0.02 0.16 0.07 0.12 0.00 0.04 0.10

0.669 0.158 0.386 0.066 0.581 0.453 0.083 0.948 0.130 0.676 0.169 0.789 0.688 0.864 0.139 0.512 0.266 0.962 0.704 0.358

87 87

0.08 0.06

0.441 0.571

215

Waist Girth (cm) Gluteal girth (cm) Thigh girth (cm) Calf girth (cm) Ankle girth (cm)

87 87 87 87 87

0.04 -0.05 0.06 0.06 0.06

0.743 0.646 0.584 0.553 0.550

216

Table 4-7 Correlations between anthropometric profile and timed 20 sit-ups


Items

N 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87

Body mass (kg) Stature (cm) Sitting height (cm) Standing reach height (cm) Radiale-stylion length (cm) Acromiale-radiale length (cm) Acromiale-dactylion length (cm) Midstylion-dactylion length (cm) Iliospinale height (cm) Tibiale-laterale length (cm) Achilles tendon length (cm) Biacromial breadth (cm) Biilocristal breadth (cm) Transverse chest breadth (cm) Biepicondylar humerus breadth (cm) Biepicondylar femur breadth (cm) Hand breadth (cm) Arm relaxed girth (cm) Arm flexed and tensed girth (cm) Arm flexed and tensed girth minus arm relaxed girth Forearm girth (cm) Wrist girth (cm) Waist girth (cm) Gluteal girth (cm) Thigh girth (cm) Calf girth (cm) Ankle girth (cm) * P<0.05 level
217

Pearson Correlation -0.100 0.000 0.140 -0.050 -0.060 0.230 0.120 -0.150 0.030 0.070 0.010 -0.040 -0.130 -0.030 -0.080 -0.091 0.030 -0.121 -0.152 -0.070 0.160 -0.050 -0.050 -0.240 -0.110 -0.140 0.080

Sig. (2-tailed) 0.352 0.970 0.194 0.618 0.610 0.035 * 0.284 0.175 0.810 0.513 0.897 0.694 0.221 0.770 0.438 0.403 0.798 0.260 0.173 0.537 0.146 0.636 0.619 0.026 * 0.327 0.194 0.441

Table 4-8 Correlations between anthropometric profile and running vertical jump
Items

N 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87

Body mass (kg) Stature (cm) Sitting height (cm) Standing reach height (cm) Radiale-stylion length (cm) Acromiale-radiale length (cm) Acromiale-dactylion length (cm) Midstylion-dactylion length (cm) Iliospinale heigh (cm)t Tibiale-laterale length (cm) Achilles tendon length (cm) Biacromial breadth (cm) Biilocristal breadth (cm) Transverse chest breadth (cm) Biepicondylar humerus breadth (cm) Biepicondylar femur breadth (cm) Hand breadth (cm)

Pearson Correlation -0.02 0.10 0.08 -0.17 -0.03 -0.16 -0.10 -0.18 -0.03 -0.09 0.02 0.08 0.07 0.02 -0.01 0.16 -0.03

Sig. (2-tailed) 0.872 0.335 0.451 0.119 0.755 0.147 0.379 0.100 0.785 0.390 0.867 0.480 0.518 0.844 0.919 0.143 0.781

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Arm relaxed girth (cm) Arm flexed and tensed girth (cm) Arm flexed and tensed girth minus arm relaxed girth Forearm girth (cm) Wrist Girth (cm) Waist Girth (cm) Gluteal girth (cm) Thigh girth (cm) Calf girth (cm) Ankle girth (cm) * P<0.05 level

87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87

-0.08 0.03 0.22 0.15 -0.08 -0.08 -0.05 0.05 -0.12 -0.04

0.457 0.807 0.038 * 0.162 0.463 0.444 0.633 0.653 0.259 0.722

219

Table 4-9 Correlations coefficients between the derived anthropometric indices and medicine ball throwing
Items

Pearson Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) 0.13 0.228 0.455 0.040 * 0.305 0.242 0.131 0.004 **

Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length index

87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87

0.07 0.13 -0.08 -0.22 0.11 0.13 0.16 0.31

Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index Katoly index * P<0.05 level ** P<0.01 level

87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87

0.09 0.03 -0.04 0.12 0.02 0.12 0.25 0.13 0.17 0.13 -0.33

0.433 0.807 0.700 0.283 0.852 0.278 0.020 * 0.215 0.109 0.219 0.002 **

87

0.17

0.119

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Table 4-10 Correlations between the derived anthropometric indices and T-shuttle run agility test
Items

Pearson Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) 0.642 0.478 0.902 0.469 0.363 0.270 0.487 0.335 0.465 0.172 0.585 0.223 0.896 0.684 0.732 0.452 0.837 0.843 0.805

Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index Katoly index

87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87

-0.05 0.08 -0.01 0.08 -0.10 0.12 0.08 -0.10 -0.08 -0.15 -0.06 -0.13 0.01 -0.04 -0.04 -0.08 -0.02 -0.02 0.03

87

0.00

0.977

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Table 4-11 Correlations between the derived anthropometric indices and timed 20 sit-ups
Items

Pearson Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) 0.158 0.286 0.011 * 0.007 ** 0.395 0.122 0.796 0.031 * 0.620 0.185 0.590 0.708 0.848 0.567 0.163 0.260 0.340 0.193 0.085

Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index Katoly index * P<0.05 level ** P<0.01 level

87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87

0.15 -0.12 0.27 0.29 0.09 0.17 0.03 -0.23 -0.05 -0.14 -0.06 -0.04 0.02 -0.06 -0.15 -0.12 -0.10 -0.14 0.19

87

-0.11

0.307

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Table 4-12 Correlations between derived anthropometric indices and running vertical jump Items N Pearson Correlation Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index Katoly index * P<0.05 level ** P<0.01 level 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 -0.02 0.858 -0.27 -0.15 -0.24 -0.24 -0.11 -0.14 0.01 0.01 0.00 -0.05 -0.10 -0.14 -0.02 -0.13 0.00 -0.18 0.11 -0.05 Sig. (2-tailed) -0.510 0.000 ** 0.012 * 0.169 0.028 * 0.028 * 0.300 0.181 0.928 0.939 0.950 0.621 0.363 0.207 0.828 0.231 0.955 0.104 0.330 0.659

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Table 4-16

One-way ANOVA for anthropometric indices of players at different positions

Items Stature (cm) Body mass (kg) Sitting height (cm) Standing reach height (cm) Acromiale-radiale length (cm) Radiale-stylion length (cm) Acromiale-dactylion length (cm) Midstylion-dactylion length (cm) Iliospinale height (cm) Tibiale-laterale length (cm) Achilles tendon length (cm) Biacromial breadth (cm) Biilocristal breadth (cm) Transverse chest breadth (cm) Biepicondylar humerus breadth (cm) Biepicondylar femur breadth (cm) Hand breadth (cm) Arm relaxed girth (cm) Arm flexed and tensed girth (cm) Arm flexed and tensed girth minus

Chief spikers 75.60 185.09 96.00 239.76 34.52 26.09 48.35 20.30 104.91 48.35 28.13 39.86 30.77 28.88 6.66 10.10 7.97 29.87 28.13 1.74

Second spikers 70.27 188.04 97.51 241.10 34.99 26.15 48.96 20.24 107.20 48.96 29.32 38.76 29.54 27.80 6.52 9.74 7.88 28.24 26.63 1.61

Setters 68.53 181.26 95.11 235.67 33.90 25.66 47.57 19.75 102.51 47.57 28.15 38.63 29.19 27.43 6.45 9.81 7.78 28.11 26.78 1.33

Second setters 68.19 184.09 95.22 236.82 33.98 25.84 47.76 19.90 105.10 47.76 27.29 38.54 29.74 27.72 6.55 9.77 7.82 28.23 26.33 1.89

Liberos 66.16 175.09 93.08 224.50 32.45 24.35 44.97 18.92 96.79 44.97 25.83 36.76 28.86 27.26

5.91 0.000** 25.99 0.000** 4.51 0.002 *

23.18 0.000** 4.52 0.002 *

5.20 0.001** 11.38 0.000** 7.90 0.000**

23.71 0.000** 11.38 0.000** 4.29 0.003 *

8.12 0.000** 5.18 0.001** 5.12 0.001** 4.19 3.86 1.69 3.70 3.30 1.42 0.004 * 0.006 * 0.160 0.008 * 0.014 * 0.232

6.26 9.59 7.69 28.46 27.16 1.63

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arm relaxed girth Forearm girth (cm) Wrist girth (cm) Waist girth (cm) Gluteal girth (cm) Thigh girth (cm) Calf girth (cm) Ankle girth (cm)

25.21 16.10 76.19 100.49 54.55 38.02 22.59

24.31 15.68 70.66 96.42 52.41 36.38 21.21

24.49 15.55 70.75 96.79 52.74 36.40 21.27

24.67 15.63 70.58 95.95 52.31 35.89 21.04

24.14 15.25 70.84 95.16 52.87 36.36 20.85

1.75 3.31 5.26 4.68 1.80 3.41 4.23

0.145 0.014 * 0.001 0.002 * 0.136 0.012 * 0.003 *

*. P<0.05 level (2-tailed)

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

225

Table 4-17

One-way ANOVA for evaluation indices of players at different positions

Items Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb

Chief spikers 51.87 129.54

Second spikers 51.87 128.23

Setters 52.47 130.03

Second setters 51.73 128.65

Liberos 53.18 128.26

F 2.39 2.62

P 0.006 0.004

14.10 32.27

13.91 32.12

14.16 32.35

14.04 32.41

13.90 32.14

0.58 0.27

0.068 0.896

length index Upper limb length 43.72 index Calf length index Lower limb length 56.68 index Achilles tendon/calf 58.23 length index Biacromial breadth 21.54 index Biiliocristal breadth 16.63 index Biilocristal/biacromial 77.21 breadth index Transverse chest 15.61 index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and 4.31 41.17 16.16 4.19 37.57 15.02 4.29 39.03 15.50 4.25 38.34 15.34 4.40 40.47 16.25 2.64 6.75 6.11 0.004 0.000** 0.000** 14.79 15.13 15.06 15.57 5.70 0.000** 76.33 75.64 77.19 78.87 1.21 0.031 * 15.72 16.11 16.16 16.48 5.21 0.000** 20.62 21.31 20.94 21.01 3.65 0.001** 59.89 59.14 57.14 57.50 0.93 0.451 57.01 56.55 57.09 55.28 5.36 0.001** 26.12 26.04 26.24 25.94 25.68 1.00 0.411 43.28 43.76 43.31 43.23 3.28 0.008

226

tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth 15.20 index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles 80.68 tendon length index Katoly index 408.30 373.58 377.98 370.48 376.92 4.90 0.000** 72.88 76.51 78.29 81.40 2.99 0.004 * 29.47 20.54 27.87 19.35 29.09 20.08 28.43 19.51 30.20 20.77 5.05 5.97 0.000** 0.000** 14.17 14.77 14.31 15.52 6.59 0.000**

*. P<0.05 level (2-tailed) **. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

227

Table 4-20

Multiple comparison for basic anthropometric difference among the players at different positional groups

Items Chief spikers Second spikers Mean difference P Chief spikers Setters Mean difference P Chief spikers Second setters Mean difference P Chief spikers Liberos Mean difference P Second spikers Setters Mean difference P Second spikers

Stature (cm) 185.09 188.04 -2.95 0.004 * 185.09 181.26 3.83 0.000** 185.09 184.09 1 0.330 185.09 175.09 10 0.000** 188.04 181.26 6.78 0.000** 188.04

Body mass (kg) 75.60 70.27 5.33 0.012 * 75.60 68.53 7.07 0.003 * 75.60 68.19 7.41 0.002 * 75.60 66.16 9.44 0.001** 70.27 68.53 1.74 0.375 70.27

Sitting height (cm) 96.00 97.51 -1.51 0.119 96.00 95.11 0.89 0.392 96.00 95.22 0.78 0.449 96.00 93.08 2.92 0.028 * 97.51 95.11 2.4 0.010 * 97.51

Standing reach height (cm) 239.76 241.10 -1.34 0.359 239.76 235.67 4.09 0.008 * 239.76 236.82 2.94 0.051 239.76 224.50 15.26 0.000** 241.10 235.67 5.43 0.004 * 241.10

228

Second setters Mean difference P Second spikers Liberos Mean difference P Setters Second setters Mean difference P Setters Liberos Mean difference P Second setters Liberos Mean difference P

184.09 3.95 0.002 * 188.04 175.09 12.95 0.000** 181.26 184.09 -2.83 0.011 * 181.26 175.09 6.17 0.003 * 184.09 175.09 9 0.000**

68.19 2.08 0.311 70.27 66.16 4.11 0.092 68.53 68.19 0.34 0.861 68.53 66.16 2.37 0.329 * 68.19 66.16 2.03 0.427

95.22 2.29 0.016 * 97.51 93.08 4.43 0.001** 95.11 95.22 -0.11 0.902 95.11 93.08 2.03 0.110 95.22 93.08 2.14 0.099

236.82 4.28 0.017 * 241.10 224.50 16.6 0.000** 235.67 236.82 -1.15 0.502 235.67 224.50 11.17 0.000** 236.82 224.50 12.32 0.000**

*. P<0.05 level (2-tailed)

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

229

Table 4-21 Multiple comparison for length indices among the players at different positional groups Items Radiale Acromiale Acromiale Midstylion Tibiale Achilles -stylion -radiale -dactylion -dactylion Iliospinale -laterale tendon length length length length height length length 26.09 26.15 -0.06 0.878 26.09 25.66 0.43 0.207 26.09 25.84 0.25 0.507 26.09 24.35 34.52 34.99 -0.47 0.430 34.52 33.90 0.62 0.369 34.52 33.98 0.54 0.435 34.52 32.45 2.07 0.010** 34.99 33.90 1.09 0.022 * 48.35 48.96 -0.61 0.180 48.35 47.57 0.78 0.135 48.35 47.76 0.59 0.295 48.35 44.97 3.38 0.000** 48.96 47.57 1.39 0.011 * 20.30 20.24 0.06 0.795 20.30 19.75 0.55 0.038 * 20.30 19.90 0.4 0.091 20.30 18.92 1.38 0.000** 20.24 19.75 0.49 0.082 104.91 107.20 -2.29 0.011 * 104.91 102.51 2.4 0.006 * 104.91 105.10 -0.19 0.833 104.91 96.79 8.12 0.000** 107.20 102.51 4.69 0.000** 48.35 48.96 -0.61 0.180 48.35 47.57 0.78 0.135 48.35 47.76 0.59 0.295 48.35 44.97 3.38 0.000** 48.96 47.57 1.39 0.011 * 28.13 29.32 -1.19 0.073 28.13 28.15 -0.02 0.981 28.13 27.29 0.84 0.297 28.13 25.83 2.3 0.003 * 29.32 28.15 1.17 0.222

Chief spikers Second spikers Mean difference P Chief spikers Setters Mean difference P Chief spikers Second setters Mean difference P Chief spikers Liberos

Mean 1.74 difference P 0.000** Second spikers Setters Mean difference P 26.15 25.66 0.49 0.246

230

Second spikers Second setters Mean difference P Second spikers Liberos

26.15 25.84 0.31 0.489 26.15 24.35

34.99 33.98 1.01 0.053 34.99 32.45 2.54 0.000** 33.90 33.98 -0.08 0.867 33.90 32.45 1.45 0.020 * 33.98 32.45 1.53 0.025 *

48.96 47.76 1.2 0.042 * 48.96 44.97 3.99 0.000** 47.57 47.76 -0.19 0.779 47.57 44.97 2.6 0.003 * 47.76 44.97 2.79 0.002 *

20.24 19.90 0.34 0.174 20.24 18.92 1.32 0.000** 19.75 19.90 -0.15 0.620 19.75 18.92 0.83 0.024 * 19.90 18.92 0.98 0.004 *

107.20 105.10 2.1 0.050 * 107.20 96.79 10.41 0.000** 102.51 105.10 -2.59 0.012 * 102.51 96.79 5.72 0.001** 105.10 96.79 8.31 0.000**

48.96 47.76 1.2 0.042 * 48.96 44.97 3.99 0.000** 47.57 47.76 -0.19 0.779 47.57 44.97 2.6 0.003 * 47.76 44.97 2.79 0.003 *

29.32 27.29 2.03 0.025 * 29.32 25.83 3.49 0.000** 28.15 27.29 0.86 0.462 28.15 25.83 2.32 0.039 * 27.29 25.83 1.46 0.146

Mean 1.8 difference P 0.001** Setters Second setters Mean difference P Setters Liberos Mean difference P Second setters Liberos Mean difference P 25.66 25.84 -0.18 0.653 25.66 24.35 1.31 0.015 * 25.84 24.35 1.49 0.010 *

*. P<0.05 level (2-tailed)

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

231

Table 4-22

Multiple comparison for breadth indices among the players at different positional groups

Items Biacromial breadth Chief spikers Second spikers Mean difference P Chief spikers Setters Mean difference P Chief spikers Second setters Mean difference P Chief spikers Liberos Mean difference P Second spikers Setters Mean difference P Second spikers 39.86 38.76 1.1 0.012 * 39.86 38.63 1.23 0.011 * 39.86 38.54 1.32 0.003 * 39.86 36.76 3.1 0.000** 38.76 38.63 0.13 0.794 38.76 Biilocristal breadth 30.77 29.54 1.23 0.001 30.77 29.19 1.58 0.001 30.77 29.74 1.03 0.034 * 30.77 28.86 1.91 0.001** 29.54 29.19 0.35 0.331 29.54

Transverse chest breadth 28.88 27.80 1.08 0.006 * 28.88 27.43 1.45 0.002 * 28.88 27.72 1.16 0.009 * 28.88 27.26 1.62 0.001** 27.80 27.43 0.37 0.381 27.80
232

Biepicondylar humerus breadth 6.66 6.52 0.14 0.130 6.66 6.45 0.21 0.064 6.66 6.55 0.11 0.294 6.66 6.26 0.4 0.001** 6.52 6.45 0.07 0.389 6.52

Biepicondylar femur breadth 10.10 9.74 0.36 0.006 * 10.10 9.81 0.29 0.036 * 10.10 9.77 0.33 0.041 * 10.10 9.59 0.51 0.001** 9.74 9.81 -0.07 0.577 9.74

Second setters Mean difference P Second spikers Liberos Mean difference P Setters Second setters Mean difference P Setters Liberos Mean difference P Second setters Liberos Mean difference P

38.54 0.22 0.616 38.76 36.76 2 0.006 * 38.63 38.54 0.09 0.832 38.63 36.76 1.87 0.026 * 38.54 36.76 1.78 0.020 *

29.74 -0.2 0.635 29.54 28.86 0.68 0.175 29.19 29.74 -0.55 0.286 29.19 28.86 0.33 0.593 29.74 28.86 0.88 0.184

27.72 0.08 0.845 27.80 27.26 0.54 0.199 27.43 27.72 -0.29 0.534 27.43 27.26 0.17 0.699 27.72 27.26 0.46 0.320

6.55 -0.03 0.761 6.52 6.26 0.26 0.006 * 6.45 6.55 -0.1 0.330 6.45 6.26 0.19 0.104 6.55 6.26 0.29 0.011 *

9.77 -0.03 0.812 9.74 9.59 0.15 0.006 * 9.81 9.77 0.04 0.833 9.81 9.59 0.22 0.104 9.77 9.59 0.18 0.310

*. P<0.05 level (2-tailed)

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

233

Table 4-23

Multiple comparison for girth indices among the players at different positional groups (A) Arm flexed and tensed girth 29.91 28.24 1.67 0.006* 29.91 28.11 1.8 0.003* 29.91 28.23 1.68 0.009* 29.91 28.46 1.68 0.048* 28.24 28.11 0.13 0.816 Arm flexed and tensed girth minus arm relaxed girth 1.74 1.61 0.13 0.555 1.74 1.33 0.41 0.129 1.74 1.89 -0.15 0.563 1.74 1.63 0.11 0.678 1.61 1.33 0.28 0.15

Items

Arm relaxed girth

Forearm girth

Wrist Girth

Chief spikers Second spikers Mean difference P Chief spikers Setters Mean difference P Chief spikers Second setters Mean difference P Chief spikers Liberos Mean difference P Second spikers Setters Mean difference P

28.13 26.63 1.5 0.011* 28.13 26.78 1.35 0.019* 28.13 26.33 1.8 0.004* 28.13 27.16 0.97 0.086 26.63 26.78 -0.15 0.796

25.21 24.31 0.9 0.012* 25.21 24.49 0.72 0.052 25.21 24.67 0.54 0.338 25.21 24.14 1.07 0.010* 24.31 24.49 -0.18 0.620

16.10 15.68 0.42 0.062 16.10 15.55 0.55 0.029* 16.10 15.63 0.47 0.042* 16.10 15.25 0.85 0.002* 15.68 15.55 0.13 0.617

234

Second spikers Second setters Mean difference P Second spikers Liberos Mean difference P Setters Second setters Mean difference P Setters Liberos Mean difference P Second setters Liberos Mean difference P

28.24 28.23 0.01 0.980 28.24 28.46 -0.22 0.556 28.11 28.23 -0.12 0.832 28.11 28.46 -0.35 0.332 28.23 28.46 -0.23 0.544

26.63 26.33 0.3 0.626 26.63 27.16 -0.53 0.592 26.78 26.33 0.45 0.399 26.78 27.16 -0.38 0.713 26.33 27.16 -0.83 0.329

1.61 1.89 -0.28 0.159 1.61 1.63 -0.02 0.912 1.33 1.89 -0.56 0.015* 1.33 1.63 -0.3 0.146 1.89 1.63 0.26 0.231

24.31 24.67 -0.36 0.531 24.31 24.14 0.17 0.672 24.49 24.67 -0.18 0.790 24.49 24.14 0.35 0.362 24.67 24.14 0.53 0.451

15.68 15.63 0.05 0.842 15.68 15.25 0.43 0.122 15.55 15.63 -0.08 0.737 15.55 15.25 0.3 0.298 15.63 15.25 0.38 0.158

*. P<0.05 level (2-tailed)

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

235

Table 4-24 Multiple comparison for girth indices among the players at different positional groups (B) Waist Girth Items Chief spikers Second spikers Mean difference P Chief spikers Setters Mean difference P Chief spikers Second setters Mean difference P Chief spikers Liberos Mean difference P Second spikers Setters Mean difference P Second spikers Second setters Mean difference 76.19 70.66 5.53 0.001* 76.19 70.75 5.44 0.006* 76.19 70.58 5.61 0.006* 76.19 70.84 5.35 0.007* 70.66 70.75 -0.09 0.945 70.66 70.58 0.08 Gluteal girth 100.49 96.42 4.07 0.002* 100.49 96.79 3.7 0.013* 100.49 95.95 4.54 0.005* 100.49 95.16 5.33 0.003* 96.42 96.79 -0.37 0.756 96.42 95.95 0.47
236

Thigh girth 54.55 52.41 2.14 0.034* 54.55 52.74 1.81 0.088 54.55 52.31 2.24 0.035* 54.55 52.87 1.68 0.120 52.41 52.74 -0.33 0.759 52.41 52.31 0.1

Calf girth 38.02 36.38 1.64 0.014* 38.02 36.40 1.62 0.025* 38.02 35.89 2.13 0.007* 38.02 36.36 1.66 0.036* 36.38 36.40 -0.02 0.968 36.38 35.89 0.49

Ankle girth 22.59 21.21 1.38 0.015* 22.59 21.27 1.32 0.060 22.59 21.04 1.55 0.018* 22.59 20.85 1.74 0.016* 21.21 21.27 -0.06 0.866 21.21 21.04 0.17

P Second spikers Liberos Mean difference P Setters Second setters Mean difference P Setters Liberos Mean difference P Second setters Liberos Mean difference P

0.964 70.66 70.84 -0.18 0.898 70.75 70.58 0.17 0.927 70.75 70.84 -0.09 0.956 70.58 70.84 -0.26 0.891

0.737 96.42 95.16 1.26 0.404 96.79 95.95 0.84 0.584 96.79 95.16 1.63 0.320 95.95 95.16 0.79 0.675

0.928 52.41 52.87 -0.46 0.691 52.74 52.31 0.43 0.704 52.74 52.87 -0.13 0.906 52.31 52.87 -0.56 0.629

0.482 36.38 36.36 0.02 0.981 36.40 35.89 0.51 0.461 36.40 36.36 0.04 0.949 35.89 36.36 -0.47 0.553

0.633 21.21 20.85 0.36 0.361 21.27 21.04 0.23 0.540 21.27 20.85 0.42 0.319 21.04 20.85 0.19 0.640

*. P<0.05 level (2-tailed)

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

237

Table 4-25 Items

Multiple comparison for derived indices of spikers-second spikers Chief spikers 51.87 129.54 14.10 32.27 43.72 26.12 56.68 58.23 21.54 16.63 77.21 15.61 4.31 41.17 16.16 15.20 29.47 20.54 80.68 408.30 Second spikers 51.87 128.23 13.91 32.12 43.28 26.04 57.01 59.89 20.62 15.72 76.33 14.79 4.19 37.57 15.02 14.17 27.87 19.35 72.88 373.58 Mean difference 0.00 1.31 0.19 0.15 0.44 0.08 -0.33 -1.66 0.92 0.91 0.88 0.82 0.12 3.6 1.14 1.03 1.6 1.19 7.8 34.72 1.000 0.014 * 0.285 0.650 0.294 0.712 0.343 0.222 0.000 ** 0.000 ** 0.347 0.000 ** 0.048* 0.000 ** 0.001 ** 0.001 ** 0.003 * 0.001 ** 0.002 * 0.002 * P

Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index Katoly index *. P<0.05 level (2-tailed)

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

238

Table 4-26 Items

Multiple comparison for derived indices of spikers-setter Chief spikers Setters Mean difference P

Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index Katoly index *. P<0.05 level (2-tailed)

51.87 129.54 14.10 32.27

52.47 130.03 14.16 32.35

-0.6 -0.49 -0.06 -0.08

0.234 0.478 0.725 0.830

43.72 26.12 56.68 58.23

43.76 26.24 56.55 59.14

-0.04 -0.12 0.13 -0.91

0.930 0.650 0.720 0.604

21.54 16.63 77.21

21.31 16.11 75.64

0.23 0.52 1.57

0.383 0.042* 0.129

15.61 4.31 41.17 16.16

15.13 4.29 39.03 15.50

0.48 0.02 2.14 0.66

0.056 0.844 0.039* 0.038*

15.20 29.47 20.54 80.68

14.77 29.09 20.08 76.51

0.43 0.38 0.46 4.17

0.151 0.486 0.216 0.183

408.30

377.98

30.32

0.010 *

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

239

Table 4-27 Multiple comparison for derived indices of spikers vs second setter Items Chief spikers Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index Katoly index *. P<0.05 level (2-tailed) 408.30 370.48 37.82 0.002 * 15.20 29.47 20.54 80.68 14.31 28.43 19.51 78.29 0.89 1.04 1.03 2.39 0.007 * 0.075 0.016 * 0.456 15.61 4.31 41.17 16.16 15.06 4.25 38.34 15.34 0.82 0.55 0.06 2.83 0.029 * 0.389 0.009 * 0.018 * 21.54 16.63 77.21 20.94 16.16 77.19 0.02 0.6 0.47 0.015 * 0.076 0.982 43.72 26.12 56.68 58.23 43.31 25.94 57.09 57.14 1.09 0.41 0.18 -0.41 0.415 0.481 0.238 0.499 51.87 129.54 14.10 32.27 Second setters 51.73 128.65 14.04 32.41 Mean difference 0.14 0.89 0.06 -0.14 0.796 0.108 0.766 0.708 P

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

240

Table 4-28 Items

Multiple comparison for derived indices of attaker vs libero Chief spikers Liberos Mean difference 53.18 128.26 13.90 32.14 43.23 25.68 55.28 57.50 21.01 16.48 78.87 15.57 4.40 40.47 16.25 15.52 30.20 20.77 81.40 376.92 -1.31 1.28 0.2 0.13 0.49 0.44 1.4 0.73 0.53 0.15 -1.66 0.04 -0.09 0.7 -0.09 -0.32 -0.73 -0.23 -0.72 31.38 0.034 * 0.074 0.340 0.733 0.374 0.104 0.004 * 0.644 0.141 0.589 0.315 0.877 0.118 0.483 0.795 0.350 0.174 0.557 0.816 0.016 * P

Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index Katoly index *. P<0.05 level (2-tailed)

51.87 129.54 14.10 32.27 43.72 26.12 56.68 58.23 21.54 16.63 77.21 15.61 4.31 41.17 16.16 15.20 29.47 20.54 80.68 408.30

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

241

Table 4-29 Multiple comparison for derived indices of second attaker vs setter Items Second spikers Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index Katoly index *. P<0.05 level (2-tailed) 373.58 377.98 -4.4 0.651 14.17 27.87 19.35 72.88 14.77 29.09 20.08 76.51 -0.6 -1.22 -0.73 -3.63 0.051 0.048 * 0.024 * 0.177 14.79 4.19 37.57 15.02 15.13 4.29 39.03 15.50 -0.34 -0.1 -1.46 -0.48 0.121 0.163 0.047 * 0.124 20.62 15.72 76.33 21.31 16.11 75.64 0.69 -0.69 -0.39 0.009 * 0.050 * 0.580 43.28 26.04 57.01 59.89 43.76 26.24 56.55 59.14 -0.48 -0.2 0.46 0.75 0.220 0.462 0.243 0.682 51.87 128.23 13.91 32.12 52.47 130.03 14.16 32.35 Setters Mean difference -0.6 -1.8 -0.25 -0.23 0.180 0.020 * 0.246 0.450 P

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

242

Table 4-30 Multiple comparison for derived indices of second spikers vs second setter Items Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index Katoly index *. P<0.05 level (2-tailed)
243

Second spikers 51.87 128.23 13.91 32.12

Second setters 51.73 128.65 14.04 32.41

Mean difference 0.14 - 0.32 -0.13 -0.29

P 0.779 0.481 0.546 0.369

43.28 26.04 57.01 59.89

43.31 25.94 57.09 57.14

-0.03 0.10 -0.08 2.75

0.921 0.705 0.834 0.103

20.62 15.72 76.33

20.94 16.16 77.19

- 0.32 0.44 - 0.86

0.179 0.050 * 0.477

14.79 4.19 37.57 15.02

15.06 4.25 38.34 15.34

-0.27 - 0.06 -0.77 -0.32

0.228 0.388 0.349 0.360

14.17 27.87 19.35 72.88

14.31 28.43 19.51 78.29

- 0.14 - 0.56 - 0.16 - 5.41

0.669 0.375 0.681 0.066

373.58

370.48

3.10

0.767

Table 4-31 Multiple comparison for derived indices of second attaker vs libero Items Second spikers Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index Katoly index *. P<0.05 level (2-tailed) 373.58 376.92 -3.34 0.766 14.17 27.87 19.35 72.88 15.52 30.20 20.77 81.40 -8.52 -1.35 -2.33 -1.42 0.001** 0.000** 0.000** 0.003 * 14.79 4.19 37.57 15.02 15.57 4.40 40.47 16.25 -1.23 -0.78 -0.21 -2.9 0.000** 0.001** 0.000** 0.001** 20.62 15.72 76.33 21.01 16.48 78.87 -2.54 -0.39 -0.76 0.290 0.002 * 0.171 51.87 128.23 13.91 32.12 43.28 26.04 57.01 59.89 53.18 128.26 13.90 32.14 43.23 25.68 55.28 57.50 2.39 Liberos Mean difference -1.31 -0.03 0.01 -0.02 0.05 0.36 1.73 0.024 * 0.963 0.980 0.958 0.918 0.200 0.001** 0.143 P

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

244

Table 4-32 Multiple comparison for derived indices of setter vs second setter Items Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon length index Katoly index Setters 52.47 130.03 14.16 32.35 43.76 26.24 56.55 59.14 21.31 16.11 75.64 15.13 4.29 39.03 15.50 14.77 29.09 20.08 76.51 377.98 Second setters 51.73 128.65 14.04 32.41 43.31 25.94 57.09 57.14 20.94 16.16 77.19 15.06 4.25 38.34 15.34 14.31 28.43 19.51 78.29 370.48 Mean difference 0.74 1.38 0.12 -0.06 0.45 0.3 -0.54 2 0.37 -0.05 -1.55 0.07 0.04 0.69 0.16 0.46 0.66 0.57 -1.78 7.5 P 0.098 0.092 0.600 0.854 0.338 0.349 0.135 0.359 0.146 0.853 0.254 0.772 0.603 0.477 0.581 0.105 0.314 0.154 0.630 0.460

245

Table 4-33

Multiple comparison for derived indices of setter vs libero Setters Liberos Mean difference P

Items

Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length

52.47 130.03 14.16 32.35

53.18 128.26 13.90 32.14 43.23 25.68 55.28 57.50 21.01 16.48 78.87 15.57 4.40 40.47 16.25 15.52 30.20 20.77 81.40 376.92

-0.71 1.77 0.26 0.21 0.53 0.56 1.27 1.64 0.3 -0.37 -3.23 -0.44 -0.11 -1.44 -0.75 -0.75 -1.11 -0.69 -4.89 1.06

0.205 0.088 0.293 0.489 0.306 0.095 0.025 * 0.440 0.477 0.199 0.153 0.028 * 0.139 0.071 0.005 * 0.020 * 0.048 * 0.029 * 0.155 0.921

index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length 59.14 index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial 75.64 breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth 15.50 index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon 76.51 length index Katoly index *. P<0.05 level (2-tailed) 377.98 14.77 29.09 20.08 15.13 4.29 39.03 21.31 16.11 43.76 26.24 56.55

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

246

Table 4-34 Items

Multiple comparison for derived indices of second setter vs libero Second setters 51.73 128.65 14.04 32.41 Liberos 53.18 128.26 13.90 32.14 43.23 25.68 55.28 57.50 21.01 16.48 78.87 15.57 4.40 40.47 16.25 15.52 30.20 20.77 81.40 376.92 Mean difference -1.45 0.39 0.14 0.27 0.08 0.26 1.81 -0.36 -0.07 -0.32 -1.68 -0.51 -0.15 -2.13 -0.91 -1.21 -1.77 -1.26 -3.11 -6.44 P 0.020 * 0.634 0.589 0.438 0.870 0.433 0.001 ** 0.849 0.871 0.306 0.421 0.026 * 0.035 * 0.031 * 0.010 * 0.002 * 0.008 * 0.006 * 0.401 0.596

Sitting height index Standing reach height index Forearm length index Forearm/upper limb length index Upper limb length index Calf length index Lower limb length index Achilles tendon/calf length

43.31 25.94 57.09 57.14

index Biacromial breadth index Biiliocristal breadth index Biilocristal/biacromial 77.19 breadth index Transverse chest index Hand breadth index Waist girth index Arm flexed and tensed girth 15.34 index Arm relaxed girth index Thigh girth index Calf girth index Ankle girth/Achilles tendon 78.29 length index Katoly index *. P<0.05 level (2-tailed) 370.48 14.31 28.43 19.51 15.06 4.25 38.34 20.94 16.16

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)


247

Table 4-42 Comparisons of somatotype data at the five volleyball positions

Positions

Minimum 1.8-1.6-1.1 1.9-0.2-3.1 2.9-2.3-2.9 2.2-0.3-3.1 2.6-2.7-1.7 2.3-1.4-2.4

Maximum 6.1-5.8-5.9 5.6-3.7-7.3 5.4-3.6-4.8 5.3-4.4-6.8 6.2-4.7-3.9 5.7-4.4-5.7

Mean 4.0-3.3-3.6 3.2-2.1-4.9 3.8-2.9-3.9 3.5-2.6-4.4 3.9-3.5-3.2 3.7-2.9-4.0

SD 0.2-0.2-0.2 0.2-0.2-0.2 0.2-0.1-0.1 0.2-0.3-0.3 0.2-0.1-0.2 0.2-0.2-0.2

Variance 1.4-1.1-1.1 0.8-0.9-1.1 0.6-0.2-0.3 0.7-1.5-1.4 0.8-0.3-0.4 0.9-0.8-0.9

Chief spikers 27 Second 25 spikers Setters Second 18 setters Liberos Total 15 100 15

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Table 4-43 Comparisons of statistics of percentage of somatotyping between players at the five volleyball positions Items Chief spikers N Ectomorphic endomorph Balanced Endomoph Mesomorphic endomorph Mesomorphendomorph Endomorphic mesomorph Balanced Mesomorph Ectomorphic mesomorph Mesomorphectomorph Mesomorphic ectomorph Balanced ectomorph Endomorphic ectomorph Endomorphectomorph Central Total 3 2 11.1 7.4 1 0 4.0 0.0 1 0 6.7 0.0 3 0 16.7 0.0 3 4 20.0 26.7 2 % 7.4 Second spikers N 1 % 4.0 Setters N 2 % 13.3 Second setters N 0 % 0.0 Liberos N 0 % 0.0

2 2

7.4 7.4

0 0

0.0 0.0

1 0

6.7 0.0

0 0

0.0 0.0

1 0

6.7 0.0

2 0 1 0 3 3 2 5 27

7.4 0.0 3.7 0.0 11.1 11.1 7.4 18.5

0 0 1 0 5 16 1 0 25

0.0 0.0 4.0 0.0 20.0 64.0 4.0 0.0

0 0 0 0 0 3 4 4 15

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 26.7 26.7

2 0 1 0 4 6 1 1 18

11.1 0.0 5.6 0.0 22.2 33.3 5.6 5.6

0 1 0 0 2 1 1 2 15

0.0 6.7 0.0 0.0 13.3 6.7 6.7 13.3

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Table 4-45

Difference analyses for somatotype values of different positional groups

Items Chief spikers vs Second spikers Chief spikers vs Setters Chief spikers vs Second setters Chief spikers vs Liberos Second spikers vs Setters Second spikers vs Second setters Second spikers vs Liberos Setters vs Second setters Setters vs Liberos Second setters vs Liberos

Endomorphy 4.00:3.16 4.00:3.83 4.00:3.47 4.00:3.94 3.16:3.83

Mesomorphy

P 0.000** 0.131 0.054 0.624 0.008 *

Ectomorphy 3.59:4.86 3.59:3.85 3.59:4.42 3.59:3.23 4.86:3.85

P 0.000 ** 0.366 0.017 * 0.241 0.000 **

0.005 * 3.31:2.14 0.611 0.102 0.864 0.021 3.31:2.86 3.31:2.63 3.31:3.45 2.14:2.86

3.16:3.47

0.243

2.14:2.63

0.141

4.86:4.42

0.205

3.16:3.94

0.010 * 2.14:3.45

0.000**

4.86:3.23

0.000 **

3.83:3.47 3.83:3.94

0.216 0.718

2.86:2.63 2.86:3.45

0.492 0.003 *

3.85:4.42 3.85:3.23

0.097 0.008 *

3.47:3.94

0.125

2.63:3.45

0.021 *

4.42:3.23

0.002 *

*. P<0.05 level (2-tailed)

**. P<0.001 level (2-tailed)

250

Table 4-46

Numbering of anthropometry indices Numbering 1. Body mass 2. Stature 3. Sitting height 4. Standing reach height 5. Triceps skinfold 6. Subscapular skinfold 7.Supraspinale skinfold 8. Medial calf skinfold 9. Arm flexed and tensed girth 10. Arm relaxed girth 11. Forearm girth 12.Wrist girth 13.Waist girth 14. Gluteal girth 15. Thigh girth 16. Calf girth 17. Ankle girth 18. Acromiale-radiale length 19. Radiale-stylion length 20. Midstylion-dactylion length 21. Acromiale-dactylion length 22. Iliospinale height 23. Tibiale-laterale length 24. Achilles tendon length 25. Biacromial breadth 26. Biilocristal breadth 27. Transverse chest breadth 28. Biepicondylar humerus breadth 29. Biepicondylar femur breadth 30. Metacarpals breadth

Indices Basic

Skinfolds

Girth

Length

Breadth

251

Table 4-47 Stage

Statistics table of R-model cluster coefficient Cluster Combined Coefficients Cluster 1 Cluster 2 10 22 4 21 14 19 13 18 23 9 16 27 15 7 8 20 30 26 28 6 29 .888 .888 .850 .847 .828 .812 .803 .796 .788 .787 .779 .739 .727 .710 .706 .699 .677 .674 .656 .654 .651

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

9 2 2 18 1 18 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 6 5 2 12 1 12 5 1

252

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

12 25 2 3 5 17 11 24

.646 .598 .585 .581 .580 .570 .559 .477

253

Publication

Zhang, Y. Y., Chen, X. R., Zhang, Q., Li, L., & Zhou, S. (2009). An investigation on the anthropometry profile and its relationship with selected physical performance measurements of elite Chinese women volleyball players. Paper presented at The 8th Annual Conference of the Society of Chinese Scholars on Exercise Physiology and Fitness. Hong Kong.

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