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ingredients

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APFI

2010

Gum Arabic In

Nutritional Applications Beyond Regular Beverage Formulating With Fibre


A premium product of Asia Pacic Food Industry

Enquiry Number

1121

Enquiry Number

1120

CONTENTS
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ingredients
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APFI

34

2010

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3 4 6 Advertisers List Editors Note Mouthfeel: In The Thick Of It
Gums can enhance the mouthfeel, make the avour more pleasant and reduce the aftertaste. By Ross Clark, CP Kelco

32
14 Gum Arabic In Nutritional Applications 24 Toothfriendly Beverages

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With isomaltulose the challenging production of non-carigenic drinks is mastered technically and sensorially. By Jens Bhm, Beneo-Palatinit and Koen van Praet, Beneo Asia Pacic

Despite being a food ingredient that has been used for centuries in various food applications, applications with denable nutritional benets can be created by incorporating gum arabic into various food mediums. By Sarah Sy, Kerry Asia Pacic

26

Calcium Fortication For Dairy

10

Key To A Perfect Body

The type of stabilisers used would depend on the ingredient make-up of the product, and sometimes the special needs of the target market. By Tjut Rostina

18

Beyond Your Regular Beverage

Consumers are increasingly looking at packaged beverages to full alternative needs and benets. By Tan Pok Kiam, KH Roberts

Nutritional, technological as well as economical aspects of calcium in dairy products with a focus on micronised tricalcium citrate. By Dr Gerhard Gerstner, Jungbunzlauer Ladenburg GmbH

30

Tocotrienol: Matters Of The Heart


Instead of focusing on treating the symptoms of heart disease, people are seeking strategies to prevent heart disease from developing in the rst place. By Dr Tieh Koun Koh, Davos Life Sciences

12

Mother Nature Knows Best

Turning chemical substances in naturally occurring plants and fruits into food additive this is giving conventional additives a real run for its money. By Joson Ng

22

Fortied Dairy: A Healthier Gulp


Knowledge and interest in health and nutrition is driving the growth of the functional beverage market to satisfy the needs of this consumer segment. By Simone Bouman, Purac Asia Pacic

32

The APFI special supplements are published by Eastern Trade Media Pte Ltd twice a year. The Publisher reserves the right to accept or reject all editorial or advertising material, and assumes no responsibility for the return of unsolicited artwork or manuscripts. All rights reserved. Reproduction of the magazine, in whole or in part, is prohibited without the prior written consent, not unreasonably withheld, of the publisher. Reprints of articles appearing in previous issues of the magazine can be had on request, subject to a minimum quantity. The views expressed in this journal are not necessarily those of the publisher and while every attempt will be made to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of information appearing in the magazine, the publisher accepts no liability for damages caused by misinterpretation of information, expressed or implied, within the pages of the magazine. All correspondence regarding editorial, editorial contributions or editorial contents should be directed to the Editor.

Nutritional Solutions To Retain Youth

While aging cannot be halted, lifestyle factors can assist with retaining some elements of youth. High on the list is a healthy diet rich in vitamins and phytonutrients. By Magdalene Wong, DSM Nutritional Products Asia Pacic

34

Formulating With Fibre

A Premium Product Of Asia Pacic Food Industry

MICA (P) 179/12/2009 ISSN 0218-2734 Co Reg No: 199908196C

As more consumers understand and embrace the concept of the role that digestive health plays in overall health and wellness, the market for ber enhanced products will grow. By Dr Ram Chaudhri, Fortitech

Cover Picture Courtesy Of Chr Hansen Printed By Miamita Print

ASIA PACIFIC FOOD INDUSTRY ADVERTISING INDEX


EnQuIRy nO.
1130 1120 1129 1123 1122 1124 1125 1127 1128 1132 1121 1109 1131 1126 1133

ADVERTISERS
BENEO-PALATINIT ASIA PACIFIC PTE LTD CARGILL INTERNATIONAL TRADING PTE LTD - CSS CP KELCO DAVOS LIFE SCIENCE PTE LTD FORTITECH ASIA PACIFIC SDN BHD HYDROSOL IDI PTE LTD JUNGBUNZLAUER SINGAPORE PTE LTD KALSEC INC KH ROBERTS PTE LTD KERRY ASIA PACIFIC PURAC S+S INSPECTION ASIA PTE LTD UNITECH INDUSTRIES LTD WACKER CHEMIE AG

PAGE
OBC 1 17 9 29 13 3 31 IBC 5 IFC 11 15 19 21

Dairy Ingredients

Food Industries

and Solutions for

This index is provided as an additional service. The publisher does not assume any liability for errors or omissions.

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To advertise, contact: Randy Teo / Peh Sue ann Tel: 65-6379 2888 Email: salesapfi@epl.com.sg

EDITORS PAGE
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ingredients
A Premium Product Of Asia Pacific Food Industry

apfi

Wealth
Part of a series of supplements from Asia Pacific Food Industry, this ingredient supplement will focus on the various components of formulation that gives the needed oomph when consumed. Making its round at major trade shows within the Asia Pacific region, the ingredients supplement will focus on ingredients that are integral in delivering the desired effect demanded by the market. The move towards healthier foods is growing consistently, if not urgently. In a bid to meet the demand for foods with health benefits, and in a market of well-informed consumers, manufacturers have to consider several factors in formulating the application. All this without compromising on the taste, and mouthfeel experience. Gum arabic, commonly used in hard gummy sweets such as M&Ms, marshmallows and gumdrops have recently been studied for its potential to expand its use. The recent studies on the functional and nutritional benefits of gum arabic have shown that it may provide satiety, promote growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut as a prebiotic, and protects probiotic in various food matrixes. (Page 14) Having calcium in a product is reason for a lot of products to exploit the functional benefits of this mineral, and due to this, a range of mineral salts have been developed to cater to the different food applications. These include conditions such as mouthfeel, taste and solubility. (Page 26) With the increasing global population of elderly consumers, manufacturers are also looking at solutions that would not only deliver the nutrients specifically needed by this target group, but to incorporate them in such a way that will make consumption more pleasant and even enjoyable.

Health is

managing director Kenneth Tan editor Tjut Rostina


tjutrostina@epl.com.sg

editorial assistant Audrey Ang

audreyang@epl.com.sg

senior art director/studio manager Lawrence Lee


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assistant art director Libby Goh

libbygoh@epl.com.sg

business development manager Randy Teo


randyteo@epl.com.sg

advertising sales manager Peh Sue Ann


sueannpeh@epl.com.sg

senior circulation executive Brenda Tan


brenda@epl.com.sg

contributors Dr Ram Chaudhri Dr Gerhard Gerstner Dr Tieh Koun Koh Jens Bhm Joson Ng Koen van Praet Magdalene Wong Ross Clark Sarah Sy Simone Bouman Tan Pok Kiam board of industry consultants
Dr Aaron Brody Managing Director Packaging/Brody, Inc Dr Alastair Hicks Agroindustries and Postharvest Specialist UN Food & Agriculture Organisation Professor Alex Bchanan Professional Fellow Victoria University Dr Nik Ismail Nik Daud Head, Food Quality Research Unit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia/ President Malaysian Institute of Food Technology Kathy Brownlie Global Program Manager Food & Beverage Ingredients Practice Frost & Sullivan Sam S Daniels Consultant World Packaging Organisation

Executive Board chairman Stephen Tay group executive director Kenneth Tan financial controller Robbin Lim

Tjut Rostina

etm

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TradeanMedia Ptecompany Ltd Eastern Holdings Ltd

Head Office & Mailing Address Eastern Trade Media Pte Ltd 1100 Lower Delta Road, EPL Building #04-02, Singapore 169206 Tel: (65) 6379 2888 Fax: (65) 6379 2805 Email: apfood@epl.com.sg

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With a rich legacy of proven expertise, KH Roberts is a premier manufacturer of quality food flavours and specialty ingredients. From concept identification to flavour creation, KH Roberts builds on its long-standing experience and pushes the boundaries of creativity to meet your demands for innovative, next-to-nature and quality products.
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KH Roberts is a HACCP, ISO 22000 and ISO 9001:2008 certified group of companies. 2010 KH Roberts Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.

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APFI INGREDIENTS 2010


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Sugar adds body, mouthfeel, or weight to a beverage and makes the flavour more pleasant. It also has a positive effect on reducing the aftertaste that is sometimes associated with high intensity sweeteners. Formulators have tried to work around these problems with changes in flavours, as well as different combinations of high intensity sweeteners. And yet, there was still something missing in the sensory experience for the consumer. B y u s i n g h y d ro c o l l o i d s or gums, a beverage can be formulated to come closer to the ideal represented by full sugar products. Gums can enhance the mouthfeel, make the flavour more pleasant and reduce the aftertaste. The usage levels are very low. The idea is to not make the product thick and heavy, but make it more similar to the full sugar product, and with far fewer calories. TesTing WaTers A research on the effect of different hydrocolloids was carried out using a model beverage. The same flavour and acid levels were used in all beverages, and a control was sweetened with sucrose. A total of 18 beverages were formulated and tested with detailed sensory and physical analysis. The result shows the nuances of how gums and high intensity sweeteners can work together to come closer to the properties of the full sugar beverage. The sensory testing was carried out by Tragon Corp, based in US, using the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis technique, and a trained panel of 12 people. A total of 37 sensory attributes were evaluated. These covered

In The

Thick
the broad categories of aroma, flavour, texture (mouthfeel) and aftertaste. The gums

Mouthfeel:

Of It

gums can enhance the mouthfeel, make the flavour more pleasant and reduce the aftertaste. By ross Clark, distinguished research fellow, CP Kelco
The most obvious one was that the added viscosity would duplicate the viscosity enhancement found, when sugar is added to water. A 12 percent solution of sucrose is approximately 35 percent more viscous than pure water. The other theory regarding gum function in beverages was less defined. It was based on the observation that for some fruit beverages, the addition of pectin

A broad range of gums was tested. They included pectin, cellulose gum, xanthan gum and gellan. Prior to the study, the popular opinion was that gums could enhance beverages in one of two ways.

James Emery, Douglasville, US

had little effect on the measured viscosity. Nevertheless, the body of the beverage was enhanced. The aim in selecting gums was to look at the many different gums with a broad range of viscosity values, and try to understand what effect they had. Instrumental data was also collected to understand more about the beverages. Viscosity was measured at a range of shear rates and the density of the specific gravity or density

The choice of the gum used characteristics that provide had a substantial effect on the body, as well as understanding orange aroma as the data shows. what other mouthfeel attributes The positive control with sugar were affected. did not have the most aroma, but Although it is common for matching that aroma will make industry experts to use words like the product seem more like sugar body, sliminess and the like, to the consumer. the panel used different words. Notice that some gum choices Therefore some translation is can actually enhance the orange needed between expert and aroma, while others suppress it. consumer language. The panel The ideal choice is not the one used the term thick mouthfeel with maximum orange aroma, to describe what is usually called but the one most like sugar. body. They also used the term In this case, that would be the cellulose gum at Fig 1: Intensity of orange aroma for different 4 mPa*s viscosity or the beverages pectin at 0.2 percent.
HM Pectin 0.1%

was accurately determined. When these instrumental data were combined with the extensive sensory data set, a clear picture of how gums affect beverages emerged. aroma Profile Beginning with the aroma profile for three of the samples, a useful conclusion can be reached. For nearly every aroma parameter, the difference between sugar and artificial sweetener was not a suppression of aroma. It was the fact that the profile was changed. Plus, most of the attributes scored lower with sugar than without. Looking at the graph, it is clear that the addition of pectin with the artificial sweetener made the product a much better match for the sugar control. (Refer to Fig 1)

flavour Profile Of course the aroma is not the only sensory characteristic influenced by gums. Each of these gum choices made the flavour profile more like the sugar beverage. Aroma and flavour are key factors in determining acceptability. However, for many consumers, the problem with artificially sweetened beverages lies with the aftertaste. The sugar beverage has a substantially reduced aftertaste profile. It is also clear that the addition of xanthan gum reduced the aftertaste, and made the artificially sweetened product more like the sugar control. visCosiTy & DensiTy The influence of gum addition on aroma, flavour and aftertaste is clear and significant. Equally significant is the effect these ingredients have on the body or mouthfeel. A common misconception about adding gums to beverages is that the product will become slimy, or have some other negative effect. The work here focused on the

HV CMC 8 mPa*s HA gellan 4 mPa*s LV CMC 4 mPa*s Sugar Control HM Pectin 0.2% HV xanthan 4 mPa*s LV xanthan 4 mPa*s PS gellan 0.25% HV CMC 4 mPa*s Mod HM Pectin 0.2% LA gellan 4 mPa*s Negative Control LV xanthan 8 mPa*s HV xanthan 8 mPa*s LV guar 0.1% Enz mod CMC 0.1% LV CMC 8 mPa*s

syrupy mouthfeel, in place of the expert term sliminess. The relationship between thick mouthfeel and two instrumental measures, viscosity and density, is shown in Fig 2. When these two instrumental measures are combined, a good prediction of the sensory property results. This shows that perceived thickness or body could come from two different physical characteristics provided by gums. The first and most obvious is

APFI INGREDIENTS 2010


8

the increase in viscosity; thick mouthfeel can obviously come from making the product higher in viscosity. Moreover, thick mouthfeel can also come from increasing the density of the beverage. Using a fairly high level of a low viscosity gum like pectin, boosts the density of the beverage while leaving the viscosity relatively unchanged. This added density or weight is sensed by the mouth, and the sensation of thickness results even with little actual viscosity change. The significance of this finding is substantial. When formulating a beverage, the food scientist has more than one strategy available to attain a given mouthfeel. Using either the viscosity or density approach can lead to enhanced body. Combined with the effect of different gums on aroma, flavour and aftertaste, there are many possibilities. The slime faCTor One final mouthfeel parameter re m a i n s t o b e a d d re s s e d ; sliminess. This is a term that is difficult to define, and that has been described in various ways

such as thick and difficult to swallow to like egg whites. Whatever the definition, many food scientists, unfortunately associate this somewhat negative term, with the use of any gum in beverages. The panel of non-food scientists in this research instead used the term syrupy mouthfeel to describe the sensation. The study has shown a clear picture of what can enhance or diminish the sensory property called syrupy mouthfeel. The syrupy mouthfeel property can be predicted very well by using two measurements. One is the viscosity at approximately 100 s-1 shear rate, and the other is the pseudoplasticity index

from the power law relationship of shear stress and shear strain (shear stress=K * shear rate^n). The value of n is equal to one for Newtonian materials and becomes progressively lower as the pseudoplasticity of the sample increases. Simply put, a syrupy product is one that has a fairly high viscosity in the mouth and is not very pseudoplastic. Knowing the cause of this characteristic allows it to be controlled. It should not be regarded as something to avoid 100 percent of the time. liPsmaCKing gooDness The effect that gums can have on reduced sugar beverages is profound. For the food scientist looking to enhance and improve products like this, there are many choices available. More than just the viscosity contributed by the gum should be considered. The effects on aroma, flavour and the critical aftertaste attributes are equally important to the effect on body and mouthfeel. Moreover, it is now clearer how different gums provide body in different ways. This new knowledge will allow important improvements to be made as more reduced sugar products are introduced.
For more information, ENTER No: 1800

Fig 2: Effect of viscosity and density on thick mouthfeel


32.5 30 Thick mouthfeel = 2536 + (2544 * S gravity) + (0.9117 * Viscosity @ 110) Negative Control Ultra Low Viscosity Gums Pectin Samples Cellulose Gum Samples Xanthan Samples Gellan Samples

Thickness Mf Actual

27.5 25 22.5 20

17.5 17.5

20.0

22.5

25.0 27.5 Thickness Mf Predicted

30.0

32.5

PArAMeTer esTiMATes Term Intercept S Gravity Eta @ 110 estimate -2536.026 2544.4819 0.9117106 std error 1110.502 1106.304 0.28516 t ratio -2.28 2.30 3.20 Prob>|t| 0.00385* 0.0374* 0.0065*

Anne-Mette Pedersen, Slagelse, Denmark

Enquiry Number

1123

APFI INGREDIENTS 2010


10

P Williamson, Mlaga, Spain

Hydrocolloid gums, or better known as stabilisers, are an important additive in keeping the ingredients of a food product together. This is especially so for foods made up of large amounts of liquid. The stabilisers help to improve the texture of food, and can sometimes add on to the taste and preservation qualities. Usually made from natural sources, such as beans, seeds and seaweed, only a small amount is needed to gel the components of the product that would otherwise not mix well. The RighT FiT The stabiliser works by preventing the separation of ingredients. This is done by slowing down or preventing the movement of particles. These particles can be droplets of immiscible liquids, air or insoluble solids. To immobilise the particles, the hydrated molecules link to form a three-dimensional network, and this is when gelation occurs. When the separation of the particles are slowed down, thickening occurs as the individual hydrated molecules cause an increase in viscosity. Other then bearing in mind the component makeup of the

Perfect
The type of stabilisers used would depend on the ingredient make-up of the product, and sometimes the special needs of the target market. By Tjut Rostina
food, a lot of manufacturers also have to consider the dietary requirements of the consumers. To know which works best for the food product, it is worthwhile to explore some of the common stabilisers that are available. AlginATes Derived from brown algae, sodium alginate is cold soluble and can form a gel in combination with calcium. It has the ability to function as a stabiliser, thickener as well as an emulsifier. According to New Zealand based ingredients company, Hawkins Watts, alginate is added to hamburger patties and reformed meat pieces. This helps to form a gel network that holds moisture and prevents shrinkage. The other form of alginic acid is propylene glycol alginate, which is stable in acid conditions. The acid is often used as a thickener and emulsion stabiliser in acid sauces, as well as fruit and water ices. CARRAgeenAn Touted as one of the more common stabilisers, it can function as both a stabiliser and emulsifier. This ingredient is extracted from red seaweeds, where three types of carrageenan can be derived from. These three types of carrageenan are known as kappa, iota and lambda. Danisco explains that kappa carrageenan forms a gel on cooling

Stabilisers:

Key T A o

Body

Joyosity

11

in the presence of potassium ions or proteins, whereas iota requires the presence of calcium ions to form a gel. Lambda carrageenan, on the other hand, is incapable of forming gels, but can be used to control viscosity. Some of the applications that demonstrate its properties are ice cream, where it helps to prevent whey separation, and also in chocolate milk, where it prevents the precipitation of cocoa. The company also explains the gels use in meat products, where it is applied to bind moisture, reduce cooking loss and syneresis, as well as improve slicing properties. gUAR gUM Guar gum is extracted from the guar beans, and is often used as a thickening agent. Due to its

high water-binding function, only a small amount is needed to give the needed viscosity to a product. It is also cold soluble, and due to this ability to control the size of ice crystals, it can be used in applications for ice cream. Applications that can benefit from the capabilities of the guar gum are sauces, salad dressings, beverages and dairy. For pastries, the ingredient can prevent the syneresis of the water from the filling to the crust. By doing so, the crust is kept crisp for consumption. XAnThAn gUM Produced by fermentation, xanthan gum dissolves in hot or cold water to form highly viscous, colloidal solutions, suspensions or gels at low concentrations.

Backed by these properties, Jungbunzlauer recommends that xanthan gum be used as a thickener and stabiliser in food applications such as salad dressings and sauces. The ingredient is also used in gluten free baking, as it is stretchy. This gives some form of structure for the baked foods, resulting in softer, less crumbly products. Feel gOOD FACTOR Stabilisers add on to the experience of food enjoyment, and it is important to choose one that is the perfect fit for the product. There are many more stabilisers in the market than those highlighted here, and the list is constantly growing.
For more information, ENTER No: 1801

Natures best solution for true flavour masking


PURAC FIT Plus, a natural and purified lactic acid, successfully masks off-flavours by regulating the pH and serves as a basis for true flavour innovation. Purac is your proven partner in taste enhancement, developing innovative products while providing technical support for nearly 80 years. For more information, please visit www.purac.com/beverages.
3 International Business Park #06-19 Nordic European Centre Singapore 609927 T: +65 63491350 Email: pap@purac.com

PURAC_FIT_Plus_halfpageAD - UK Eng.indd 1

19-5-2010 15:08:21

Enquiry Number

1109

Consumers want great taste and added health benefits in their beverages. This presents a challenge to beverage producers, especially in low-calorie drinks where artificial sweeteners are used. These sweeteners often produce off-flavours and an unpleasant lingering aftertaste.

APFI INGREDIENTS 2010


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When something or someone falls from grace, another will rise to take its place. The laws of nature are applicable in the world of food processing. Artificial ingredients have taken a series of knocks from test laboratories. The media has also in recent years driven the demand for natural ingredients in consumer food and drink. Adding artificial colouring and flavour to food and drinks are commonplace. Though they make our food and drinks more attractive, the question

dim light to prevent degradation of the pigment. As they are reactive towards light, the products are packed in dark packaging with a modified atmosphere to prevent chlorophyll degradation. Carotenoids Giving the enticing orangered colours of oranges and tomatoes are carotenoids. While they are essential to plants for photosynthesis, acting in light harvesting, they are not simply pigments of terrestrial plants. They occur widely in bacteria, fungi and algae, where they can be useful taxonomic markers. The production of carotenoids in

A Pobiedzinski, Olsztyn, Poland

Colouring & Flavouring:

Mother Nature
Turning chemical substances in naturally occurring plants and fruits into food additive this is giving conventional additives a real run for its money. By Joson Ng
S Berghaeuser, Bonn, Germany Sanja Gjenero, Zagreb, Croatia

Knows Best
Vasant Dave, Gujarat, India

at the back of our head remains: How safe are these chemicals? To put everyone at ease, additives extracted from Mother Nature may be the way to go. This movement towards natural products has brought about the proliferation of natural ingredients, as they do not contain any artificial additives synthesised from the chemical industry. In fact, they are grown naturally. All NATurAl ENsEmBlE Natural food colouring points the way to the future as the general public is more aware of what they are putting into their mouths. Chlorophyll Probably one of the safest food additives, chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants and algae. Utilised as a food colour under E140, chlorophyll is mainly extracted from grasses using solvents under

seaweed runs to hundreds of million tonnes per year. Apart from giving food its healthy glow, they are known to prevent cancer, eye and heart diseases. Anthocyanins Blue and red are the colour pigments found mostly in flowers and fruits, as well as in leaves, stem, and roots. Coming at a large quantity, one kg of blackberry can contain approximately 1.15 gram of anthocyanins. The colour of anthocyanins is dependent on the acidity of the fruit. Many anthocyanins are red at acidic conditions and turn blue at less acid conditions. They are used as food additive with E number E163. Natural Taste Colours are without a doubt, for our eyes only.

Flavour on the other hand, must satisfy both our tongue and nose. Whichever way you look at it, the new products of tomorrow will certainly not be bland, mild or boring. According to Mintels forecast, manufacturers will reach for exotic fruits and fresh, soothing flavours with a touch of spice to jazz up their new products. Nature-inspired aromas will also be a real hit as the new product expert, Lynn Dornblaser comments: Todays manufacturer is constantly looking for those tastes and aromas that stand out and capture shoppers imagination. By adding exotic fruits and unusual ingredients to everyday products, companies give people the opportunity to experiment and move out of their comfort zones without breaking the bank. Persimmon Viewed as a unique and exotic fruit, persimmon is poised to make a splash in food and beverage. It is expected to blend with more common fruits, as seen in Japanese yoghurt that contains white peaches, persimmon and apricots. Lavender The flavour is expected to move beyond the home and personal care categories and into food and beverage next year. Already seen in products such as Lindt Chocolat Provences lemon-lavender dream chocolate, lavender can be paired with more familiar ingredients to bring a naturally soothing, aromatic quality to food and drink. Cactus Cactus is already a popular food flavour in Latin America, seen in products like Nopalia Cactus Toasts, which contain both cactus and corn.

For more information, ENTER No: 1802

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14.06.10 16:17

Enquiry Number

1124

APFI INGREDIENTS 2010


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Nutritional Applications
Despite being a food ingredient that has been used for centuries in various food applications, definable nutritional benefits can be created by incorporating gum arabic into various food mediums. By Sarah Sy, commercial director San a Creme, Kerry Asia Pacific

Gum Arabic In

Gum arabic is a natural occurring gum made from the hardened sap of the acacia tree found in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The practical application of the gum also widely known as gum acacia evolved as it spread via international trade beyond its original home in Arabia and Africa. Today, it continues to be used in a variety of ways across a range of industries. It acts as a binder in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic sectors, is part of the printing production process, serves as an important ingredient in shoe polish and is used as a lickable adhesive in postage stamps and cigarette papers. This is a consequence of gum arabics chemical composition. It is made up of a combination of glycoproteins and saccharides, which provide it with the properties of both a glue and binder. But, what is most significant about the ingredient is that it is a glue and binder which is edible. The most important application is in the food industry where it is used as an emulsifier, flavour fixative and stabiliser. Traditionally, gum arabic is assigned the e-number E414, however, when used as a fibre source, it is common to declare it as gum arabic (soluble fibre). It contains 85 percent soluble dietary fiber (dry basis). It has also been granted GRAS status by the FDA in the US. The ingredient is a fast dispersing product that hydrates quickly. It also has little or no impact on viscosity, nor does it gel at concentrations of 30 to 50 percent. It is ideal for low pH and thermally processed products, as it is heat and acid stable. Role In ContemPoRARy FooD InDuStRy Gum arabic is a popular

Fotolia

15

ingredient in, for example, hard gummy sweets such as M&Ms, marshmallows and gumdrops, soft drink syrups and the edible glitter used in cake decorations. Exploring how its uses can be further expanded has been the subject of a significant amount of research in the last number

arabic gum, on satiety perception and energy intake among a 60-person sample volunteer population. The study, a randomised, double-blind, within-subject, five-way cross-over experimental design, involved the administration of one of five

combinations of the blend along with control doses on five separate study days. It found that five and 10 grm doses of the blend resulted in a significantly lower energy intake three hours after consumption. Subjects did not compensate for this. Study participants who

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of years. Recent studies on its functional and nutritional benefits demonstrates that gum arabic: May provide satiety Promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut as a prebiotic Protects probiotic in various food matrixes PRoVIDInG SAtIety Satiety is a feeling of fullness that suppresses hunger and inhibits the desire to eat. It also effects eating patterns and influences changes in food preferences. Together with the Leatherhead Food International and NutriScience in collaboration with University Of Maastricht, an investigation was performed on the effects of a special blend of

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APFI INGREDIENTS 2010


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GRowth oF BeneFICIAl BACteRIA A research study carried out in 2008, set out to investigate the prebiotic efficacy of the special blend of gum arabic. Healthy volunteers consumed various daily doses of the product that had been dissolved in water. Daily consumption of water was taken as the negative control in the four-week test, while drinking 10 grm of inulin per day was set as the positive control. Four weeks quantification of bacterial numbers in stool samples was performed via real time-PCR techniques to establish the effect of the gum arabic. This was supported by questionnaires used to account for possible drawbacks. Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli were identified as the potentially beneficial bacteria for monitoring. Results showed a thirty-fold outgrowth in the former and an eight-fold outgrowth of the latter, when compared with water.

that it could potentially benefit the host by producing short-chain fatty acids during fermentation and minimising the outgrowth of harmful bacteria, such as that resulting from the colonisation of pathogens in gastro-intestinal tract. It also concluded that there are no adverse side effects to the blend such as flatulence and excessive gas production, for example. PRoBIotICS PRoteCtIon Another recent study examined how gum arabic protected bifidobacteria in two beverage mediums; orange and cranberry juice. The blend was added to three samples of the juices and then stored in sealed bottles at four deg centigrade for 60 days. Results showed that the special blend of gum arabic extended the shelf life of probiotic containing juices by 20 days for orange juice and 35 days for cranberry juice.

probiotic support is not dosage dependent, nor do inoculation levels affect the efficacy. Gum ARABIC oPPoRtunItIeS Despite being a food ingredient that has been used for centuries in various food applications, applications with definable nutritional benefits can be created by incorporating gum arabic into various food mediums. These include dairy, beverages, and fats and oils. It can also work in weight management products as a satiety agent and source of fibre. Gum arabic also offers potential business process benefits. It can help reduce the initial cost of probiotic containing products b y p ro v i d i n g m a i n t e n a n c e and protection to the bacteria essentially to them.
For more information, ENTER No: 1803

Dwayne Madden, Loxton, Australia

consumed less at the first meal did not react by eating more at the subsequent one. The studys VAS (visual analogue scale) scores established that there was a significant effect over three hours at each of the doses of the blend. It became clear that the gain in satiety perception over the first three hours was extended even after consumption of the ad libitum meal, suggesting a prolonged perception of satiety. The research established that the blend under investigation is able to reduce energy intake at least up to three hours after consumption in doses ranging between five and 40 grm. Moreover, it provided reduced feelings of hunger over the same period across the same dose range.

Against inulin, the most commonly used prebiotic on the market, it showed a sixfold outgrowth for Lactobacilli and a ten-fold outgrowth of bifidobacteria. Good bacteria in the colon preferentially degraded the gum arabic blend. The research found

Further studies were also performed on margarine products and its efficacy against inulin compared. At a six percent dosage level, the gum arabic blend showed minimal reduction in microbial levels compared to inulin for up to eight weeks. At levels of 0.5 to five percent,

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I N C R E A S I N G LY, p a c k a g e d beverages are no longer expected to just quench thirst, and consumers look beyond this basic functionality to fulfil alternative needs and benefits. Ready-To-Drink (RTD) juices, teas, soy beverages, drinkable dairy products, and even water, can be specifically formulated to deliver desired health benefits; from maintaining health and beauty to boosting immunity system and energy. All this through the inclusion of functional and nutraceutical ingredients.

a number of challenges in meeting the markets expectations, while pushing limits in the fortification o f b e v e r a g e s . I n o rd e r t o achieve the desired benefits for consumers, a suitable and stable concentration of enhancers must be bio available to the consumers. This is especially so in the case of the elderly, as absorption and body utilisation of the active substances may be impaired due to various factors, such as drugs, or natural deterioration of the bodys metabolism.

Beyond

your Regular

Beverage
affect the appearance or flavour of the product, or prevent the active substances from performing upon intake into the body. Such challenges require significant alterations to the beverage formulation to deliver a satisfactory beverage flavour, mouthfeel and/or appearance that the consumers can easily accept. This is especially critical when formulating a functional beverage for the elderly, as not only do their taste and smell sensitivities decrease with age, but their preferences alter with time as well. Collagen PePtide BasiCs Collagen peptide, a hydrolysate derived from mammalian origins, such as porcine, bovine or fish, is formed by enzymatic hydrolysis

Marrying the benets of functional ingredients and avours catered for the elderly will continue to be a focus. By tan Pok kiam, group business manager, kh roberts
funCtional Beverages For years, packaged beverages are the preferred delivery platform for functional benefits. The elderly also welcomes consumption of beverages, which do not require chewing, as they are often affected by the loss of teeth, which may otherwise cause food avoidance. When designed with a convenient on-the-go packaging format, the incidence of functional beverage consumption can also be easily encouraged. In terms of safety, supplements, nutraceuticals and vitamins put into packaged beverages pose fewer risks to consumers health because of their relatively low dosage per unit volume, as compared to health supplements, pills and concentrates. However, manufacturers face

Nitta Gelatin

the flavour Challenge While making sure the fortified drinks deliver their promised benefits, it is pertinent that the product must taste good to the consumers, or cannot deter too much from its original aroma and taste which consumers are familiar with. Ingredient interaction with the nutraceutical components in the functional beverage may

19

of gelatin, which in turn is the product of partial and irreversible hydrolysis of collagen. To produce highly purified collagen peptides, gelatin undergoes two purifications. High quality gelatin is first formed in the initial purification, which is then put through an enzymatic treatment to yield gelatin hydrolysates, otherwise known as collagen peptides. This is followed by a second high-level purification process, which also de-odourises, decolours and sterilises the collagen peptides. The collagen peptides can also be stored at ambient temperature, do not form gel when mixed in water, and can be easily absorbed and digested in the body to aid the production of collagen.

Collagen Benefits Collagen accounts for up to 30 percent of a human bodys proteins, and is distributed predominantly in skin, bone, cartilage and blood. Natural production of collagen in the body keeps the skin firm and smooth, and reduces damage to joints, keeping them supported and flexible. However, with age, the body loses its ability to make collagen, resulting in sagging skin, wrinkles, thin and dull hair, and stiffer joints. Apart from ageing, the imbalance of catabolic and anabolic processes in the body may also result in degradation of collagen. Dermis and cartilage may not be able to regenerate sufficiently, if their metabolism imbalances lead to tissue degradation. As such, collagen supplements

are intended at replenishing the depleting supply of collagen to various parts of the body, maintaining or improving skin tautness, wound healing, and reducing joints pain and swelling. Collagen fortifiCation for elderly An imbalanced diet and absorption problems may result in poor mineral and vitamin intakes for the elderly. In particular, a decline in calcium absorption and vitamin D intake affects bone mass, and eventually lead to osteoporosis and bone fractures. This is especially if the aged have little physical activity. Osteoarthritis is a disease that causes pain in joints owing to meniscus damage or bone fracture, as a result of aging-

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20

related abrasion of cartilage, a cushion of joints, or inflammation or deformation of joints induced by deterioration of muscular power. Hence, the process of absorption and utilisation of the collagen peptides upon ingestion by the elderly are of significant interest. Recent findings compiled by Nitta Gelatin show that upon oral ingestion of collagen peptides, human venous blood contains high levels of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp), a dipeptide of the collagen repeating unit glycinePro-Hyp (Gly-Pro-Hyp). Utilisation of Pro-Hyp in the body has been observed to maintain and promote joint health, by widening the spaces between joints, building bone tissue layers, and preserving the thickness of joint cartilage layers to support the joints. flavours to entiCe By incorporating convenient packaging design, collagenfortified beverage manufacturers would have achieved two of the three key pillars of desirable food and beverage product design flavour, health and convenience. The eventual success of the beverage hinges very much on the overall acceptance by consumers, and beverage flavours serve several functions in beverages fortified with various additives. The flavours may be used to maintain the original beverage taste and aroma that the aging have grown accustomed to, alter or mask unpleasant or incompatible odours, or simply to impart a new, improved and desirable aromatic profile. Some flavours may, in addition to flavouring the drink, also impart a suitable or preferred physical appearance to the product, such as colour and cloudiness. Application of flavours to

beverages is dictated by the nature of the beverage as consumed, and the inclusion of colours can further enhance the positive perceived flavour of the end product. In application, the added flavours and colours must also be stable to heat, light, acids, preservatives, and most importantly, the active substances, like collagen peptides in this case. A longer chain, higher molecular weight collagen peptides, or a high concentration of low molecular weight collagen peptides, may interact with compounds present in beverage flavours. This can result in an undesirable appearance, such as precipitation or colour alterations. In other cases, interaction with peptide molecules may also change or eliminate the aroma profile of the flavour added, as physical adsorption or chemical reactions of peptides with volatile compounds will disrupt the headspace composition of the beverage. Therefore, collagenfortified beverage manufacturers and flavour houses have to work

closely to achieve the perfect composition balance between the active substance and flavour of the fortified drink. Decrease in the enjoyment of food by the elderly has been attributed to a decrease in chemosensory sensitivity. This is sometimes made worse by the various drugs that the elderly may be taking. For instance, humidity changes in the mouth due to certain drugs, may modify the flavour of food and drinks. As a result, higher intensity flavours may be required as people age. Flavour enhancement has also been found to be able to compensate for the chemosensory loss in the elderly more so in beverages than in foods. This allows functional beverage manufacturers to make use of this advantage to intensify the flavours in their products according to preferences of the elderly. Apart from flavour enhancement, studies have shown that the elderly have increased hedonics ratings for food and beverages enriched with flavours that are not an inherent part of the original product. silver lining in the greying Market Extensive research and development have yielded flavours that will transform the product and consumer experience. Marr ying the benefits of functional ingredients and flavours catered for the elderly will continue to be a focus. Despite the growth of many emerging markets, the increasing size of the greying segments in many cities and its potential to be sustained, is certainly a market that will not be overlooked by manufacturers.
For more information, ENTER No: 1804

Ulrik De Wachter, Landskouter, Belgium / CubeStock

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22

diet. Balanced nutrition is highly encouraged, and this affects the trends for functional foods, shifting from fortification with one nutrient, to enrichment with a combination of different nutrients to address specific health issues. Aging populations, changing lifestyles and different diets greatly influence the occurrence of certain diseases. Osteoporosis is an increasing global health problem, attributable to calcium and magnesium deficiencies in the diets. According to the

a combination of convenience, indulgence and health benefits. This match to consumer needs has driven the growing popularity of these products. The fact that dairy is perceived as healthy and nutritious makes these beverages an ideal vehicle for the fortification of extra minerals including calcium. Calcium is an essential mineral needed by the body for numerous functions,

Fortified Dairy:

A Healthier

Gulp
Medical endorsement of exercise, nutrition, and stress management has caused significant changes in lifestyle and buying habits, with people increasingly preferring food products that improve health. Functional beverage companies are providing healthy drink choices that match a particular behaviour of their customers, and so, are convenient to add to their lifestyle. A ToTAl HeAlTH ConCepT The functional food industry is a rapidly growing market segment, and the food and beverage industry needs to anticipate new health trends. Considerable scientific and medical research shows the direct relationship between health and

Knowledge and interest in health and nutrition is driving the growth of the functional beverage market to satisfy the needs of this consumer segment. By Simone Bouman, market unit manager (food division), purac Asia pacific
including building and maintaining bones and teeth, blood clotting, the transmission of ner ve impulses, and the regulation of the hearts rhythm. Ninety-nine percent of the calcium in the human body is stored in the bones and teeth, while the remaining one percent is found in the blood and other tissues. The lack of calcium in the body can cause an array of problems, of which the most serious are osteoporosis and colon cancer. Dairy and non-dairy products for tified with calcium are gaining popularity because of the increased awareness of osteoporosis, and the detrimental effects of an inadequate dietary calcium intake. Besides the traditional sources

World Health Organisation, iron deficiency anaemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world, while zinc deficiency affects one third of the worlds populations. E a t i n g h a b i t s a re a l s o becoming more diverse and sophisticated as consumers seek to achieve optimum performance in their daily life, at work, and during sports or physical activity. Convenient and goodtasting beverages have become extremely successful, pushing beverage manufacturers to consistently introduce products and line extensions to keep pace with this demand. Bone Up WiTH CAlCiUm Milk, yoghurts, yoghurt drinks and smoothies provide consumers with

23

of milk, cheese, beans and dark green leafy vegetables, there is an emergence of more off-the-shelf and ready-to-consume products such as yoghurt drinks, smoothies and soymilk. Beverages that will leave taste buds tingling for more while at the same time providing the recommended daily dose of nutrients for consumers. CAlCiUm ForTiFiCATion oF DAiry proDUCTS Beverage fortification presents a unique set of challenges. An ideal balance must be met in order to formulate an ingredient premix that provides the desired health benefit without altering beverage aroma or taste. In addition, a stable and bioavailable formulation of ingredients is needed. Calcium is a divalent cation that is susceptible to reacting with certain food products ingredients. The addition of calcium to dairy beverages is a tricky process, as proteins naturally present in dairy products are highly sensitive. They tend to coagulate during heat treatment, if proper care is not taken. The solubility of ingredients plays an essential role in fortification. The use of insoluble calcium sources requires thickeners to keep them in suspension, which may result in a slimy mouth-feel and an added gritty taste to the product. Alternatively, the use of highly soluble calcium chloride will cause an immediate protein precipitation that can adversely affect the taste experience of the beverage. Soymilk, for example, is viable substitute to dairy milk that is enjoyed by many around the world, especially for those who are lactose intolerant. Increasing soy milk consumption is not surprising, studies have

shown that soy may have a positive effect on everything from menopausal symptoms to cancer, osteoporosis and heart disease. It is a rich source of protein. However, when compared to regular milk, it contains relatively low levels of calcium. Fortifying soymilk with calcium provides for a high-protein, high-calcium beverage, ideal for healthconscious consumers on-the-go.

methoxylated pectin can result in unwanted gelling. poWer oF minerAl ForTiFiCATion The benefits of fortification are endless. Fortification with vitamins and minerals is one of the most effective methods to improve health and prevent nutritional deficiencies. Apart from calcium fortification, other minerals that may be added to dairy products are magnesium and iron. Iron fortified beverages can help in the prevention of iron deficiency, which may cause anemia, fatigue and dizziness. Iron fortified milk, yoghurts and soft cheeses are popular consumer choices for the support of a healthy energy level. Magnesium has a calming effect on the nervous system, and together with its muscle-relaxing role, it may help those leading a busy and highly stressful life. Dair y beverages fortified with calcium and magnesium promote good sleep, optimise energy metabolism and improve muscle contraction and nerve activity. These products provide consumers with both a physical and mental health benefit, giving consumers the extra boost they may need after a long day. Many people find it difficult to consume sufficient dietary calcium and minerals to ensure good physical and mental health. For time-starved consumers, for tified dair y beverages can supplement their diet to achieve the recommended daily dose of calcium and essential minerals.

FermenTeD DAiry proDUCTS In fermented dairy products such as yoghurt, calcium fortification may be carried out to the pasteurised milk without affecting fermentation, or alternatively calcium can be added to the yoghurt itself. The addition of fruit may further complicate the delicate process of fortification. When fruit is added to the product, the addition of calcium to the fruit preparation is preferred in a twostream process. Generally, sequestrants are added to ensure formulation stability. To prevent the formation of insoluble calcium citrate, it may be necessary to replace part of the citric acid with lactic acid. On the other hand, the choice of high or low

For more information, ENTER No: 1805

APFI INGREDIENTS 2010


24

Toothfriendly Beverages
With isomaltulose the challenging production of non-carigenic drinks is mastered technically and sensorially. By Jens Bhm, commercial managing director, Beneo-Palatinit and Koen van Praet, MD, Beneo Asia Pacific
as a source of energy and convert them into acids. These acids cause a localised drop in pH, dissolving the minerals in the tooth enamel. As a result, tooth enamel, which is actually as hard as a diamond when healthy, becomes brittle and soft. The method known as plaque pH telemetry is used to scientifically examine whether a food, drink or ingredient attacks the tooth structure and enamel. During and directly after consumption, the change in the pH value on the surface of the tooth is measured. If the pH value does not fall below the limit of 5.7 within half an hour of consumption, the food is considered to be non-

Michael Lorenzo, Pasig, Philippines

Mark Webb, W Virginia, US

Dentists warn of the damage that beverages containing carbohydrate can cause to teeth. Dental cavities are one of the most common ailments in the industrialised world; almost everyone has one at some point in their life. The World Health Organisation estimates that 60 90 percent of school children worldwide have dental cavities. This is mainly due to diets containing increasingly higher proportions of easily fermentable carbohydrates. Drinks containing sugar pose a particular problem, b e c a u s e t h e y a re u s u a l l y consumed repeatedly throughout the day in small quantities.

With each sugar-based drink, the pH value in the mouth decreases, tooth enamel is increasingly under attack, and there is less time for neutralisation by saliva. Consequently, cavities will eventually result from frequent, even relatively mild, attacks over time. These attacks result in a continual strain on tooth enamel a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y p re v e n t its reminera-lisation through saliva, which is a natural repair mechanism of the human body if there is enough time. Isomaltulose offers manufacturers a next generation sugar, which is toothfriendly and so facilitates

the development of palatable and non-cariogenic beverages. The ChAllenge: nonCAriogeniC DrinKs Plaque is made up of saliva, food residues, and bacteria and their bacterial metabolic products. These bacteria use sugars and other fermentable carbohydrates

25

Plaque pH profile (schematic) after consumption of three meals and a tea snack

Plaque pH profile (schematic) after consumption of the same meals and between meal acidogenic snacks

cariogenic. This limit was chosen because it is in this range that the solubility of calcium in the enamel and thus the risk of caries increase dramatically. AlTernATive To inTensive sWeeTeners For a long time, only intensive sweeteners were available for use in drinks as toothfriendly alternatives to sucrose. Now, with isomaltulose, there is a fully available carbohydrate with toothfriendly properties. Until recently the production of such beverages has been a challenge to the industry due to several reasons. When manufacturing these drinks, low pH levels should be avoided. This also applies to acids and salts, which prevent the pH level from changing, owing to their elevated buffering capacity. The pH value of the end product should be over or only slightly under 5.7. At the same time, it is important to retain a good taste a big challenge because both sugar and acid fulfil major sensory roles in soft drinks. The production of tooth-friendly and tasty drinks therefore not only requires the right sweetening and flavouring concept, but also an in-depth knowledge of the right balance of sweet and sour in the drinks. Sugar types such as sucrose and glucose-fructose syrup should then be exchanged. Carbohydrates normally found in food are broken down by microorganisms in dental plaque,

causing cariogenic strain on surface of the enamel. Therefore, sweetener types are required to fulfil the needed sensory effects without being broken down by oral microorganisms. non-CAriogeniC sWeeTener It is true that intense sweeteners can provide sweetness without causing damage to teeth but, in the case of drinks sweetened only with intensive sweeteners, the end product lacks a full flavour, mouthfeel, and the associated sensory harmony. This effect is intensified if the drink also has a low acid content. Consequently, to produce a tooth-friendly drink, a noncariogenic sweetener is required, which has the natural sweetness of sugar and the same fully rounded mouthfeel. At the same time, it should also be well tolerated in large quantities. ensure MiCroBiologiCAl sAfeTy The lower the acid content, the higher the susceptibility to microbial spoilage. The pH level of tooth-friendly beverages therefore presents a particular challenge for the filling process. This is because the microbiological sensitivity of

a product determines how safe the filling process needs to be. One procedure that guarantees an exceptionally high level of microbiological safety and maximum product protection is aseptic cold filling. This technology enables tooth-friendly beverages to be filled and sealed in a germ-free environment using sterile containers. Heating the product in its final packaging and adding preservatives can be avoided using this method. Isomaltulose meets these requirements due to its sensory, nutritional and physiological properties. Produced from pure beet sugar, it has similar sensory properties to conventional sugar. The tooth-friendly sugar also gives beverages the accustomed roundness and full mouth feel. This means that even beverages with a pH value around 5.7 can still offer a full-flavoured sweetness. Furthermore, as a fully digestible disaccharide, isomaltulose does not cause any tolerance issues. As such, it opens a promising segment for the beverage industry, which has been reserved for the confectionery industry for some while.
For more information, ENTER No: 1806

Calcium Fortification For Dairy


The global market for dairy products with calcium claims is estimated to reach US$3.8 billion in 2009. Yoghurts with calcium claims are driving growth with total sales of roughly US$1 billion and a 5.1 percent increase in sales over 52 weeks ending August 2009. On top of the standard nutritional claims such as with calcium and high in calcium, health claims are increasingly exploited both in dairy products to further highlight the health benefits of this functional ingredient. However, feasibility of calcium addition has to be considered as milk products represent a complex food matrix from the technological point of view.

Nutritional, technological as well as economical aspects of calcium in dairy products with a focus on micronised tricalcium citrate. By Dr Gerhard Gerstner, business development manager health & nutrition, Jungbunzlauer Ladenburg GmbH
This challenge drives mineral salt suppliers to offer not only one product but rather a range of different calcium salts (tricalcium citrate and calcium lactate gluconate), to be able to align with food manufacturers applications. SoLuBiLity VS CaLCium CoNteNt When fortifying liquid milk

Kyle May, Florida, US

27

products, solubility, dissolution characteristics and stability of ingredients in solution are major issues. There are calcium salts with high solubility like calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, and calcium lactate gluconate, but their drawback is comparably low calcium content (9 13 percent calcium). T h e i n o rg a n i c c a l c i u m chloride (36 percent calcium) displays good solubility, but its use is restricted due to its bitter and salty taste. Other inorganic calcium salts with high calcium content like calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate (38 40 percent calcium), have limited solubility. Tricalcium citrate offers a good combination: The commonly used tetrahydrate form shows a high calcium level (21 percent) and moderate solubility (one grm/L). The ingredient shows improved 2,0

tricalcium citrate has been developed. At higher calcium levels the micronisation grade of tricalcium citrate should be adapted for optimal dispersion and mouthfeel. With the finest micronisation grade (M1098; 98 percent < 10 m) tricalcium citrate could even be suspended in dairy products in concentrations of up to 425 mg Ca/100 ml without negative taste effects. The highly soluble calcium lactate gluconate is known to be used in low fat milk or acidified milk drinks. This organic calcium source displays a neutral taste, and shows a better stability during the heating step compared to other soluble calcium sources. taSte & moutHfeeL Generally, high levels of calcium, particularly insoluble forms like carbonates and phosphates, tend

Fig 1. Solubility of Tricalcium Citrate (TCC) In Water

1,5
Solubility TCC [g/L]

1,0 1,5 0,0 4 5 6 7

30C 60C 90C

solubility at pH-values below 4.5 as found in fruit preparations or fruit juices. Contrar y to other salts, it is more soluble at low temperatures (so-called inverse solubility, see figure 1) which can be an advantage for cold and hot food processing. To further increase the solubility and ease of dispersion, different m i c ro n i s e d g r a d e s o f f i n e

to produce a chalky mouthfeel and may promote astringency or bitter taste in the finished product. Calcium lactate may impart some bitter notes at high concentrations, comparable to characteristics found for calcium chloride. Calcium carbonate may come across as soapy or lemony, and calcium phosphate has a bland

flavour, but imparts a gritty mouthfeel. Negative effects of calcium on taste can be masked with chelating agents (eg: tripotassium citrate), and the use of stabilisers (eg: carrageenan) as well as with the addition of flavourings. Tricalcium citrate is considered to be a neutral tasting salt as masking agents are not necessary, which reduces formulation costs. It is known that using highly soluble calcium salts at high concentrations may lead to adverse effects in dairy applications. The addition of mineral salts, especially calcium, has a strong impact on stability of these products during processing. Due to the fact that more soluble salts result in more free calcium ions in solution, and are available for reaction than less soluble salts, complications in the form of calcium sediments can develop with time or when the product is heated during manufacturing. This is the case, if the natural milk components such as phosphate and proteins react with available calcium. As such, although it might be easier to add highly soluble calcium salts rather than tricalcium citrate to milk products, higher amounts of calcium might be difficult to achieve without control of pH and addition of chelating agents such as potassium citrate. Due to its inverse solubility, tricalcium citrate is less reactive during the heating process, and so minimises precipitates, fouling and cleaning frequency. Since the particle size and solubility are linked with mouthfeel properties, micronised grades for tricalcium citrate was developed, combining dispersion characteristics with a neutral taste profile in final applications. Even if sedimentation at the

APFI INGREDIENTS 2010


28

end of the shelf life occurs, it can be re-dispersed by shaking the container. eCoNomiC CoNSiDeratioNS VS CaLCium CoNteNt Inorganic calcium salts are more economic than organic ones due to their low price and high calcium content. They are chosen if milk beverage manufacturers give priority to price over nutritional value, given that product development and production have accepted or solved technological hurdles.

stands out as the most economic option for calcium addition and is the premium choice for milk products. ProCeSSiNG & aPPLiCatioNS To achieve a stable suspension in liquid milk products within seconds, a jet mixer can be used at 50 deg C. This temperature is recommended for mixing, to lower viscosity and also to avoid damage to the fat matrix of the milk. With conventional

via the fruit preparation might be the optimum solution. Fruit preparations generally have a lower pH and high citric acid/ fruit acid concentration, which has a positive effect on solubility/ dispersibility. Besides the fortification aspect, tricalcium citrate also has a positive stabilising influence in the fr uit preparation as calcium pectinate bridges are built, which improve the firmness of the fruit texture.
Ben Stassen, Weert, The Netherlands

Besides the fortification aspect, tricalcium citrate also has a positive stabilising influence in the fruit preparation as calcium pectinate bridges are built, which improve the firmness of the fruit texture.
moViNG aHeaD The challenge for dairy product manufacturers is to provide a product having high calcium content with good taste and appealing properties. Since micronised tricalcium citrate has been available, it has replaced inorganic as well as organic salts in dairy applications. An important explanation from the technological standpoint is that especially in the milk matrix, a highly dispersible calcium salt has advantages over highly soluble alternatives. Among the organic salts with high bioavailability and more neutral taste profiles, tricalcium citrate (21 percent calcium) stands out as one of the most economic options for calcium addition and is seen to be the main choice for milk products.
For more information, ENTER No: 1807

Comparing the typical used organic sources, they are all in the same price range per kg, except for the more expensive milk minerals. For this reason, the wide range of calcium content of calcium gluconate (nine percent), calcium lactate (13 percent) or calcium lactate gluconate (13 percent) and tricalcium citrate (21 percent) has a considerable impact on the raw material cost when the price of calcium is calculated for the product to be fortified. Among the organic salts with high bioavailability and more neutral taste profiles, tricalcium citrate (21 percent calcium) clearly

stirrers, homogeneous dispersion of tricalcium citrate will take longer, but can be done at cold temperatures (six to eight deg C), preferably by using a concentrated pre-slurry with the calcium salt. At these temperatures, tricalcium citrate can also be added to the product stream together with other dry ingredients. There is no particular sequence to be followed; however, ingredients increasing viscosity such as thickening agents should be added at the end directly before heat treatment. If fruits are used for dairy products, an indirect addition of the ingredient to the milk product

Custom Fortication is the Key


Kids health issues from weight management and general wellness to cognitive function and ADHD have become a global priority. Medical professionals, government agencies and parents are increasingly turning to nutritional support to aid in the management of these health conditions. Grow your opportunities with Fortitech custom nutrient premixes. Any nutrient. Any application. For any health condition. Anywhere in the world.

Get your FREE Tech Paper Growing Opportunities in Kids Health at fortitech.com/grow
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1122

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One of the most obvious criteria of design for heart wellness beverage is the products efficacy based on solid science. In this way, the product launched will be successful and can be enjoyed by as many people as possible. Medical science has made much progress in reducing heart disease globally. However, other than the sound advice of eat right and exercise, many people

heart disease from developing in the first place. NaTuraL SoLuTIoN Tocotrienol and tocopherol are members of the vitamin E family commonly accepted as powerful fat-soluble antioxidants. In the last decade, the ingredient has become increasingly recognised as a natural compound that plays a number of roles in supporting

Matters Of The
HEART
Walter Groesel, Vienna, Austria

Tocotrienol:

indicates that isomeric tocotrienol displays a more varied tissue distribution and response pattern compared to tocopherol. Further studies show that alpha-tocopherol present in mixed vitamin E preparations may actually compete with tocotrienol for binding sites on the alpha-T transfer protein, a protein that transports vitamin E around the human body. As a result, alpha-tocopherol may interfere with, and reduce the bioavailability of tocotrienol by limiting the distribution of tocotrienol to the bodys tissues. As such, its ability to help support healthy cholesterol is compromised. It is important to recognise that tocotrienol preparations that are high in alpha-tocopherol (>30 percent) and low in gamma and delta-tocotrienol, such as those derived from rice bran, may be inferior in maintaining healthy cholesterol levels. This is in comparison with preparations derived from palm oil that are naturally low in alphatocopherol, while containing higher amounts of both gamma and delta-tocotrienol. CarDIovaSCuLar DISeaSe MaNageMeNT Studies through oral administration of tocotrienol have shown an impact on cholesterol levels, with total cholesterol levels falling by over 30 percent, and a reduction in LDL cholesterol of almost 70 percent. In contrast, standard vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) has little or no effect on cholesterol levels. In one study, HDL/LDL cholesterol ratios improved by up to 150 percent following administration of tocotrienol. Numerous clinical studies on the oral administration of tocotrienol have shown effect on

Instead of focusing on treating the symptoms of heart disease, people are seeking strategies to prevent heart disease from developing in the first place. By Dr Tieh Koun Koh, director of sales & marketing, Davos Life Sciences.
obtain little information from their doctors on ways to prevent heart disease. Therefore, it is not surprising why many are now making an effort to learn how to ward off heart disease by monitoring new breakthroughs in medicine and natural remedies. Instead of focusing on treating the symptoms of heart disease, people are seeking strategies to prevent a healthy cardiovascular system. This reduces the likelihood of heart disease and maintains healthy cholesterol levels. The basis of these beneficial properties is thought to be via tocotrienols down-regulation of the enzyme 3-Hydroxy-3methylglutar yl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, which in turn limits cholesterol synthesis in the liver. Recent research

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known cardiovascular disease factors, including reduction of cholesterol levels, cardiovascular inflammation, arterial hardening and triglyceride levels. However, the most commonly used vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) has through various clinical studies been shown to have little or no beneficial effect towards reducing cardiovascular disease. Clinical studies have generated strong evidence of the benefits that tocotrienol can bring to the human cardiovascular system. In one study, after supplementation of 100 mg per day, trial subjects saw their total cholesterol drop by up to 22 percent together, as well as a 20 percent reduction in their LDL cholesterol levels. Furthermore, another study found a significant improve071-10 AD JBCO cpr SG APFI

2-07-2010

ment in arterial compliance, a factor that may have promising implications on reducing arterial hardening and hypertension. Triglyceride levels, which are also strongly associated with heart disease, have also been shown to fall by almost 20 percent. There is additional evidence that the ingredient may assist in reducing premature aging associated with advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) as well as support healthy blood pressure levels, and blood sugar regulation. A G E s a re f o r m e d w h e n high blood sugar levels react with proteins, resulting in a cross-linking process linked to premature aging, tissue stiffness and decreased cellular function.
8:40 Pagina 1

DeLTa & gaMMa Compared to tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol isomers, deltatocotrienol has shown a strong inhibitory effect on monocyte cell adherence. This is due to its ability to inhibit vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1) that play a key role in helping monocytes bind to artery walls, and causing inflammation and arterial hardening. The ingredients impact on hypertension has also been confirmed in human clinical studies, where tocotrienol-rich vitamin E resulted in reductions of aortic systolic blood pressure, and an improvement in total antioxidant status of almost 10 percent.
For more information, ENTER No: 1808

We transform natures plants into useful products and efficient solutions for industries around the globe.

Jungbunzlauer is one of the worlds leading producers of natural and nature-identical biodegradable ingredients. The Swiss-based, international companys roots date back to 1867. Today, Jungbunzlauer specializes in citric acid, xanthan gum, gluconates, specialties, special salts and sweeteners for the food, beverage, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry as well as for various other industrial applications. Jungbunzlauers products are manufactured utilizing fermentation technology, a natural process. All its products can be used, transported and disposed of in a secure and ecologically safe way. The Group operates manufacturing plants in Austria, Canada, France and Germany. Committed to its rigorous quality standards, Jungbunzlauer guarantees for the excellence and sustainability of its products and services.

From nature to ingredients


Citric Acid LIQUINAT (liquid citric acid) Trisodium Citrate Gluconic Acid Glucono-delta-Lactone (GdL) NAGLUSOL (liquid gluconic acid) Sodium Gluconate CITROMA Monosodium Citrate Tricalcium Citrate Trimagnesium Citrate Tripotassium Citrate Zinc Citrate Calcium Lactate Gluconate Potassium Gluconate CITROCOAT (coated acids) CITROFOL (citrate esters) ESSICCUM (dry vinegar flavour) Functional Acids and Salts Sodium Diacetate sub4salt (salt replacer) Erythritol Xanthan Gum

Headquarters JUNGBUNZLAUER AG St. Alban-Vorstadt 90 CH-4002 Basel Switzerland Phone +41 61 2955 100 Fax +41 61 2955 108 headquarters@jungbunzlauer.com www.jungbunzlauer.com JUNGBUNZLAUER SINGAPORE PTE. LTD. 99 Bukit Timah Road # 04-04 Alfa Centre SG-Singapore 229835 Phone +65-6337 2300 Fax +65-6337 5900 Office-sgp@jungbunzlauer.com www.jungbunzlauer.sg

Enquiry Number

1127

APFI INGREDIENTS 2010


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While agin halted, life g cannot be assist with style factors can elements retaining some the list is of youth. High on vitamins aa healthy diet rich in By Magda nd phytonutrients. marketinglene Wong, regiona l Nutritiona manager, DSM l Products Asia Paci c

olutions tional S Nutri UTH


o RetainYO T
The baby boomer generation has the highest focus on valuefor-money. Natural foods are attractive, including those that are fortified for the specific needs of seniors. Food that is easy to prepare, or has a smaller portion size for seniors reduced appetites caters to seniors who may be living alone. An alternative mode of consuming higher level of nutrient is through dietary supplements, which usually come in the form of capsules, tablets, powder or tonics. POWERING THE BODYS ENGINE Hear t health is central to maintaining normal physical activity and ensuring long life. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are now widely re c o g n i s e d b y re g u l a t o r y, scientic authorities as well as consumers to be beneficial for the heart by keeping the heart and blood vessels in good condition. It is well documented that these heart-friendly fatty acids can dose-dependently lower bad cholesterol by dampening production in the liver and increase the levels of good cholesterol. Coenzyme Q10, contributes to heart health by improving blood vessel elasticity, which helps to maintain a healthy blood pressure. Proven through at least ve large published clinical trials, an adequate intake of the B vitamins, particularly folate can also play a role in supporting a healthy heart through the years by reducing high homocysteine levels, which is a risk factor for heart disease. CALORIC RESTRICTION An exciting area of anti-aging research is focused on calorie restriction, a possible way to

MANY look forward to their senior years as a time to relax, enjoy their accomplishments or even pursue unmet dreams. However, this process also generates concerns about retaining good health, energy and vitality. Fortunately, modern science has discovered many ways in which the decline in physical and mental function can potentially be slowed down. Essentially, the strategies involve keeping the body r unning smoothly and maintaining an active engagement with life. Products that focus on a specific health benefit and are easy to use are likely to be most appealing, and are predicted to show strong growth in the coming years. When planning for products targeted at seniors, the product development team and marketer should bear in mind that health conditions may be affecting their lifestyle.

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extend the natural lifespan. It appears that the metabolic and hormonal changes improve the cardiovascular system and may inuence genes involved in aging. Some substances, like pure resveratrol mimic the effects of calorie restriction and offer promise of benecial effects on long-term health, particularly heart health. Early studies show that this antioxidant may provide some of the antiaging effect of calorie restriction. I n n a t u re , t h e n u t r i e n t i s produced by certain plants such

This nding implies that there is a possible role of resveratrol in maintaining heart health through its effect on improving blood ow and hence endothelial integrity. MAINTAINING MOBILITY As a person ages, there is a general decline in muscle mass, along with reduced bone density and arthritic joints. Here, vitamin D may help preserve mobility through a dual role. It is a key nutrient that can reduce the risk of osteoporosis by aiding calcium absorption. Studies also show that it reduces falling and chance of fractures from vitamin Ds positive influence on muscle strength and reducing body sway. Experts now

as peanuts, blueberries and grapes as part of their defence system against environmental stress and disease. In a recent double blind placebo controlled trial, which was presented in conferences in UK and Australia, subjects were given three different doses of pure resveratrol (30, 90 and 270 mg) in supplement form. This was all well absorbed into the blood stream in a dose dependent manner. All three doses of resveratrol increased the dilation of the brachial artery. Already at a dose of 30 mg resveratrol, the diameter of the artery was increased by 62 percent when compared to placebo, rising to 91 percent improvement at the 270 mg dose.

are advocating significantly increased recommended intakes of vitamin D after research showed that higher doses were more effective in improving health. MENTAL PERFORMANCE Micronutrients like vitamins and carotenoids have been shown to impact cognitive performance. Vitamins B6 and B12 deciency, which is common among the elderly, can lead to reduced cognitive performance.

Antioxidants like -Carotene and lutein may help protect the brain by neutralising reactive oxygen species, molecules that can damage cells. Long-term -Carotene supplementation has been linked to improvements in general cognition and verbal memory, and may contribute to preventing cognitive decline. A medium-term study also showed some benet for lutein in increasing verbal uency. Evidence is accumulating on the red wine polyphenol, which may reduce the functional decline in brain cells. Presented in June 2010 at the American Aging Association (AGE) annual conference, the study focuses on the cognitive benet of resveratrol and its ability to improve associative and spatial learning and memory performance. The findings suggest resveratrol supplementation to be a viable approach for delaying age-associated reduction in learning and memor y, and therefore may further help to prevent the normally occurring age-associated deterioration of cognitive performance. Concurrently, a study on resveratrol that has just published showed that a single dose of 250 mg significantly increased blood ow in the brain, and therefore had a positive benefit on brain function. Everyone ages as time progresses and lifestyle inuences h o w q u i c k l y t h e p ro c e s s develops and how to deal with the consequences. Healthy aging strategies by addressing each element of aging with nutritional solutions can be a good platform for food and dietary supplement manufacturers to help improve the individuals quality.
For more information, ENTER No: 1809

Carlos Koblischek, Sevilla, Spain

APFI INGREDIENTS 2010


34

Fibre
WITH
DIETARY bre is a general term that refers to a wide variety of compounds from plants that are resistant to the digestive enzymes produced by humans. As it is resistant to digestive enzymes, it is not broken down or absorbed, which means it does not provide calories or energy to the body. KNOW THE FIBRE TYPE In general, dietary fibres are various forms of complex carbohydrates that have varying abilities to swell by absorbing water into their structural matrix. Fibres that can actually dissolve in water, such as pectin, gums,

Formulating
As more consumers understand and embrace the concept of the role that digestive health plays in overall health and wellness, the market for ber-enhanced products will continue to grow. By Ram Chaudhari, senior executive VP, chief scientic ofcer, Fortitech
and psyllium, are referred to as soluble bre. Insoluble bres or roughage cannot dissolve in water, but they can absorb water. This causes them to swell, making them good bulking agents, which speeds up transit t i m e a n d i m p ro v e s elimination. Examples of insoluble fibres are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignins. Foods high in insoluble bre: whole wheat breads, wheat cereals, wheat bran, rye, rice, barley, most other grains, potatoes, axseeds, and vegetables such as cabbage, beets, carrots, Brussels sprouts, turnips, and cauliower. Foods that are rich in soluble fibre: apples, citrus fruits, pears, carrots, onions, sweet potatoes, squash, legumes, and grains such as barley, oats, oat bran and oatmeal.

Soluble bre mixes with water, turning into a gel-like substance in the process as it passes through the gastrointestinal tract. They have a moderate cholesterollowering effect, and they also slow the absorption of glucose from the intestines and help regulate blood sugar levels. The results of numerous studies indicate that people and/ or cultures with high bre diets, reduce their risk of colorectal cancer by more than 30 percent.

A Kalina, Vinnitsa, Ukraine

35

FORMULATING WITH FIBRE As more consumers understand and embrace the concept of the role that digestive health plays in overall health and wellness, the market for fibre-enhanced products will continue to grow. Inulin and oligofructose (OF) offer a suitable solution to formulating with bre. They naturally occur in several plants, fruits and vegetables such as artichokes, chicory, garlic, leek, onion, wheat, barley and banana. These ingredients offer a range of functional and nutritional benets. As well as providing all of the traditional benets of bre, they also function as prebiotics, which means that they contribute to healthy gut ora. They stimulate the growth and activity of Bidobacteria in the colon, which helps to decrease the risk of many digestive illnesses. At the

also be used to add a creamy texture and improved mouthfeel to low fat foods. Inulin and OF are stable under most conditions. Their hydrolysis is limited to <10 percent under these conditions: Ph 4 for baked goods, milk desserts, spreads, ice cream and chocolate Ph <4 and solids are >70 percent for confections and bakery llings Ph <4 and temperature of < 10 deg C for sorbets, yogurt and sour cream OPTIMAL PREMIXES As more manufacturers understand the market possibilities for

Both parties need to rely on the other to ensure the basic four manufacturing criterion of any successful food product, which includes good taste, consistent product quality/ texture (mouthfeel), acceptable ingredient stability and adequate shelf life, are all met. Developing a custom nutrient premix specifically geared to a particular delivery vehicle will greatly reduce these types of challenges and help to ensure success in the marketplace.

For more information, ENTER No: 1810

Becco Eliacik, Nice, France / Zsuzsanna Kilian, Budapest, Hungary

When the non-digestible bres reach the colon, anaerobic bacteria degrade them in a process called fermentation. This process produces by-products known as short-chain fatty acids, which help maintain proper acid/base balance in the colon, and may also play a role in the prevention of colorectal cancer. In general, high fibre diets are associated with signicantly reduced risks of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all cause mortality. Research in the functionality of dietary bre is now showing its importance in food, especially since diseases like CVD, cancer and obesity are connected with the dietary content of food. Fibre is crucial to maintaining a healthy, optimum digestive system. It can also help control cholesterol, blood sugar levels, and by regulating appetite, it can help to control body weight.

same time, they boost the bodys absorption of calcium in the colon, increasing bone mineral density. As inulin and OF are soluble bres, they can be utilised in a variety of products including bars, beverages, cereals, baked goods, confections and dairy products. They can also reduce the amount of sugar, fat and overall calories in a product without a negative impact on taste and texture. With a avour prole similar to sugar, they have no aftertaste or off notes. Their avour masking ability makes them ideal for masking the bitter notes of many vitamins and minerals. They can

products that deliver gut health benefits, there are a variety of points to consider in the formulation of their products. Manufacturers must remember the importance of the design of their product as it relates to the expectation of the consumer surrounding how that product should look, feel and taste. To overcome the numerous formulation challenges to deliver a product with great consumer appeal, scientic expertise in the area of fortification technology and proper ingredient selection need to come together with the marketing team throughout the entire production process.

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