Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

A Stand-alone Photovoltaic Supercapacitor Battery Hybrid Energy Storage System

M.E. Glavin, Paul K.W. Chan, S. Armstrong, and W.G Hurley, IEEE Fellow

Power Electronics Research Centre National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. E-mail: margaret.glavin@nuigalway.ie

Abstract—Most of the stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems require an energy storage buffer to supply continuous energy to the load when there is inadequate solar irradiation. Typically, Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries are utilized for this application. However, supplying a large burst of current, such as motor startup, from the battery degrades battery plates, resulting in destruction of the battery. An alterative way of supplying large bursts of current is to combine VRLA batteries and supercapacitors to form a hybrid storage system, where the battery can supply continuous energy and the supercapacitor can supply the instant power to the load. In this paper, the role of the supercapacitor in a PV Energy Control Unit (ECU) is investigated by using Matlab/Simulink models. The ECU monitors and optimizes the power flow from the PV to the battery-supercapacitor hybrid and the load. Three different load conditions are studied, including a peak current load, pulsating current load and a constant current load. The simulation results show that the hybrid storage system can achieve higher specific power than the battery storage system.

Index Terms—Photovoltaic, Lead acid battery, Energy Control Unit (ECU), Supercapacitor.

I.

INTRODUCTION

The world is approaching peak oil and the ability to produce high quality, inexpensive, and economically extractable oil on demand is diminishing. Peak oil and the environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization, has encouraged a growth in the area of renewable energies such as wind and solar power. In remote areas stand-alone photovoltaic systems are most common. A typical stand-alone system Fig. 1(a) incorporates a photovoltaic panel, regulator, energy storage system, and load [1]. Generally the most common storage technology employed is the VRLA battery because of its low cost and wide availability. Photovoltaic panels are not an ideal source for battery charging; the output is unreliable and heavily dependent on weather conditions, therefore an optimum charge/ discharge cycle cannot be guaranteed, resulting in a low battery state of charge (SOC). Low battery SOC leads to sulphation and stratification, both of which shorten battery life [2, 3]. Certain load applications require high current for a period of time e.g. motor starting applications; the starting current requirement can be 6-10 times the normal operating current of the motor. Normally the peak current requirements are satisfied by the VRLA battery. VRLA batteries in this situation are large in order to deal with the high current being removed from the battery. The peak current demand might only need to be met for a few

978-1-4244-1742-1/08/$25.00 c 2008 IEEE

be met for a few 978-1-4244-1742-1/08/$25.00 c 2008 IEEE (a) Figure 1. (b) Block diagram of

(a)

met for a few 978-1-4244-1742-1/08/$25.00 c 2008 IEEE (a) Figure 1. (b) Block diagram of (a)

Figure 1.

(b)

Block diagram of (a) conventional and (b) proposed photovoltaic system

seconds at a particular time. Sizing the battery around this can prove costly; in photovoltaic systems the batteries are replaced typically every 3-5 years depending on the application. By utilizing a battery supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system as shown in Fig. 1(b) the battery size can be reduced and a higher SOC can be maintained. The supercapacitor has a greater power density than the battery, which allows the supercapacitor to provide more power over a short period of time. Conversely, the battery has a much higher energy density when compared to a supercapacitor allowing the battery to store more energy and release it over a long period of time. In Table 1 the battery and the supercapacitor are compared under various headings [4-6]. In the hybrid system the peak power requirements of the load are supplied by the supercapacitor and the VRLA battery supplies the lower continuous power requirements [7-10]. The proposed Energy Control Unit (ECU) aims to optimize the battery supercapacitor hybrid storage system to reduce the size of the battery and extend the life of the battery by avoiding deep discharge through high currents. The ECU monitors the battery, supercapacitor and photovoltaic panel current, voltage and temperature in addition to the load power requirements. The ECU estimates the battery and supercapacitor SOC, optimizes the energy from the photovoltaic panel and controls the flow of energy throughout the system.

1688

TABLE I. BATTERY VERSUS SUPERCAPACITOR PERFORMANCE [6]

 

Lead Acid Battery

Supercapacitor

Specific Energy

10-100

1 – 10

Density (Wh/kg)

Specific Power

<1000

<10,000

Density (W/kg)

Cycle Life

1,000

> 500,000

Charge/Discharge

70 – 85%

85 - 98%

Efficiency

Fast Charge Time

1 - 5h

0.3 – 30 sec

Discharge Time

0.3 – 3h

0.3 – 30s

Matlab/Simulink is used for the design and optimization of the system. This paper outlines the models of the various components. The proposed VRLA battery supercapacitor hybrid storage model is described and simulations are presented comparing the proposed system with conventional battery storage under three different load types; a peak current load, pulsating current load, and a constant current load.

II. MATLAB/SIMULINK MODELS

A.

Photovoltaic Model A simple photovoltaic cell equivalent circuit model

is

shown in Fig. 2 [11]. The model consists of a current

source I ph (represents cell photocurrent), a series resistance R s (the internal resistance of each cell) and a diode. The net output current of the photovoltaic cell is

the differences between the photocurrent I ph and the diode current I D as described by the following equation,

I

s

I

ph

I

D

I

ph

I

o

q V

(

s

I R

s

s

)

e

mkT

1

(1)

where m is the ideality factor of the diode, k is Boltsmann’s constant, T is the absolute temperature of the cell, q is electron charge, V s is the voltage applied across the cell, and I o is the dark saturation current. The cells are connected in series and parallel to form

a PV module. The model simulates a BP solar BP 350

50W photovoltaic panel in Simulink. There are 36 cells in series and 2 parallel branches. In the model, the ideality factor, m, is equal to 2.0077 where it achieves the maximum power point at V s = 17.5V and I s = 2.9A at T = 25 o C. Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 illustrate the simulated I-V and P-

V characteristics of the photovoltaic panel under various

temperature conditions respectively.

B. Battery Model Batteries are the main storage technology used in PV

systems. The battery model is used to analyze the effects

of

different charge rates, state of charge (SOC), and state

of

health (SOH) of the battery. The optimum battery size

for a particular application can be obtained by performing

various test scenarios. Simulations are used to compare different storage technologies without the need for expensive test beds.

technologies without the need for expensive test beds. Figure 2. Photovoltaic cell model Figure 3. I-V

Figure 2.

Photovoltaic cell model

for expensive test beds. Figure 2. Photovoltaic cell model Figure 3. I-V characteristics of BP 350

Figure 3.

I-V characteristics of BP 350 photovoltaic module

Figure 3. I-V characteristics of BP 350 photovoltaic module Figure 4. P-V characteristics of BP 350

Figure 4.

P-V characteristics of BP 350 photovoltaic module

A simple equivalent circuit battery model is shown in Fig. 5. The battery model takes into account the battery state of charge (SOC) and deep of charge (DOC). The battery' s usable capacity decreases with increasing discharge current, the battery DOC measures the fraction of the battery' s charge to usable capacity.The model includes an open circuit battery voltage E oc , internal resistance R 0 and two RC parallel branches [12-14]. The model equations are shown (2) - (6).

E

R

1

oc

R

E

10

0

K

e

(

e K

1

(1

(1

SOC

)

SOC

))

R

2

R

20

DOC

(2)

(3)

(4)

2008 13 th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC 2008)

1689

where:

SOC 1

1

C

n

i

DOC 1

1

C ( i

avg

)

batt

d

i

batt

d

(5)

(6)

SOC is the state of charge of the battery DOC is the deep of charge of the battery C n is the battery capacity C(i avg ) is the current-dependent battery capacity (obtained in datasheet) E 0 is the open circuit voltage when the battery is fully charge K e is a constant R 10 is the 1 st RC branch constant in 1 is the 1 st RC branch time constant in sec K 1 is a constant R 20 is the 2 nd RC branch constant in 2 is the 2 nd RC branch time constant in sec

Fig. 6 shows the simulated discharge characteristics curves for a Yuasa Np18-12 lead acid battery for various C-rates. From testing the Yuasa Np18-12 battery used has E 0 = 12.85, K e = 1.7, R 0 = 0.12 for charging and 0.057 for discharging, R 10 = 0.16 for charging and 0.02 for discharging, K 1 = 7, and R 20 = 0.0055 for both charging and discharging. Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 show the 0.2C pulse charge and 0.2C pulse discharge of the battery respectively.

and 0.2C pulse discharge of the battery respectively. Figure 5. Battery model Figure 6. Battery discharge

Figure 5.

Battery model

of the battery respectively. Figure 5. Battery model Figure 6. Battery discharge characteristics Figure 7. 0.2

Figure 6.

Battery discharge characteristics

5. Battery model Figure 6. Battery discharge characteristics Figure 7. 0.2 pulse charge of Yuasa NP18-12

Figure 7.

0.2 pulse charge of Yuasa NP18-12 battery

Figure 7. 0.2 pulse charge of Yuasa NP18-12 battery Figure 8. 0.2C pulse discharge of Yuasa

Figure 8.

0.2C pulse discharge of Yuasa NP18-12 battery

C. Supercapacitor Model

Fig. 9 shows the classical equivalent circuit model for the supercapacitor [15]. The model consists of three components, the capacitance, the equivalent series resistance (ESR), and the equivalent parallel resistance (EPR). The ESR is a loss term that models the internal heating in the capacitor and is most important during charging and discharging. The EPR models the current leakage effect and will impact the long term energy storage performance of the supercapacitor and C is the capacitance. Equations (7)-(9) describe the ESR, EPR and terminal voltage of the supercapacitor.

where:

v c

ESR

i

c

ESR

V

i

EPR

2

1

ln

2

V

1

( t V C

t

)

1

(

i

e

c

C

c

EPR

) d

V

c

_

init

V 1 is the initial self-discharge voltage at t 1 V 2 is the finial self-discharge voltage at t 2 C is the rated capacitance

(7)

(8)

(9)

1690 2008 13 th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC 2008)

change in voltage at turn on of load change in current at turn on of load V c_init is the initial capacitor voltage i c is the capacitor current

The function of the voltage-dependent capacitor C can be obtained with curve fitting from the charging/discharging measurements. The model is verified with Nesscap 2.7V/600F supercapacitor. Fig. 10 shows the 10A charging, rest and 5A discharging of the model with an ESR of 1m and an EPR of 258 .

III. BATTERY STORAGE SYSTEM

A. Photovoltic Battery Storage Model

The most common setup for standalone photovoltaic systems, shown in Fig. 1(a), consists of a photovoltaic panel, converter, load, and battery storage. The energy produced from the photovoltaic panel is stored in the rechargeable battery to supply the load requirements when discrepancies arise between available and required energy. Deep discharge batteries are designed to be discharged down to as much as 80% depth of discharge (DOD) repeatedly and have thicker plates then car batteries making them the preferable choice for PV storage. Generally the battery is sized to enable it to supply power to the load for a period of 2-3 days, resulting in a large battery pack that will need to be replaced every few years.

battery pack that will need to be replaced every few years. Figure 9. Supercapacitor equivalent circuit

Figure 9.

Supercapacitor equivalent circuit model

few years. Figure 9. Supercapacitor equivalent circuit model Figure 10. Supercapacitor charge/discharge characteristics

Figure 10. Supercapacitor charge/discharge characteristics

B. Battery Management System (BMS)

The Battery Management System (BMS) controls the flow of energy from the photovoltaic panel to the battery and load. The BMS is responsible for calculating the battery SOC, varying the DC-DC converter duty cycle, and implementing the charging algorithm. The BMS is based on SOC estimation. The battery charging/ discharging is dependent on both the battery SOC and the load requirements as described by Table II. The DC-DC converter implements Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), charges the battery, and delivers energy to the load. Sensors and measurement circuits are responsible for measuring the voltages and currents of the solar panel, battery, and load along with the solar panel and battery temperature. This information is used by the control algorithm to enhance the performance of the system, making the best use of the available energy to maintain the battery at a high SOC but also ensuring that the load demand is met at all times.

IV. HYBRID STORAGE SYSTEM

A. Photovoltic Hybrid Storage Model

The proposed Hybrid storage model consists of a VRLA battery bank and a supercapacitor battery bank as shown in Fig. 1(b). The hybrid system adopts the advantages of both technologies, high power density from the supercapacitor and high energy density from the battery. The supercapacitor supplies the high peak power requirements and the battery bank supplies the low power requirements, resulting in a reduction in the battery pack size.

TABLE II.

BATTERY MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS

Condition

Action

PV Power = Load Battery SOC High

PV supplies load No battery charging

PV Power = Load Battery SOC Low

PV supplies load No battery charging

PV Power > Load Battery SOC High

PV supplies load No battery charging

PV Power > Load Battery SOC Low

PV supplies load PV charges battery

PV Power < Load Battery SOC High

PV supplies load Battery supplies load

PV Power < Load Battery SOC Low

PV supplies load Battery supplies load until minimum SOC is reached then shut down load

No PV Power Battery SOC High

Battery supplies load

No PV Power Battery SOC Low

Shut down load

2008 13 th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC 2008)

1691

SOC

B. Proposed Energy Control Unit (ECU)

The Energy Control Unit (ECU) controls the complete photovoltaic system. The ECU is responsible for charging the battery/supercapacitor hybrid and supplying power to the load according to the conditions outlined in Table III. The power available from the photovoltaic panel is used to supply load power, with excess energy being used for battery and supercapacitor charging. The ECU implements MPPT capturing the maximum power available from the panel. Various sensors are utilized throughout the system to measure the voltage and current of the battery, supercapacitor and panel along with the power requirement of the load. These observations enable intelligent decisions to be made about how to best utilize the available energy in order to avoid situations where the load must be shut down due to low battery and supercapacitor SOC under conditions of inadequate solar irradiation.

V. SYSTEM LOAD COMPARISON

The battery management system (BMS) was compared to the proposed hybrid energy control unit (ECU) under different load profiles as outlined below. The solar irradiation profile utilized for the simulations is shown in Fig. 11.

A. Peak Power Load

Fig. 12 shows a peak current load application that has been used to analyses the benefits of the supercapacitor. Examples of peak load applications are motor starting applications were the starting current maybe 6-10 times the continuous operating current of the motor. The profile of Fig. 12 has an initial current of

8.33A and a continuous current of 1.375A with the load operating for 45mins every hour throughout the day. Fig. 13 shows the battery SOC with BMS, battery SOC with ECU and supercapacitor SOC with ECU. In the Hybrid system the battery supplies a continuous current of 0.8A,

a discharge rate of 0.05C, this current supplies power to

the load and also recharges the ultracapacitor. A 12V 1200F supercapacitor supplies the remaining load current.

The hybrid system results in the battery being maintained

at a higher SOC.

TABLE III.

HYBRID SYSTEM CONDITIONS AND ACTIONS

Photovoltaic

Battery

Supercapacitor

Power

SOC

SOC

Supply Load

>0

High

High

Charge Battery

>Load

Low

Low/High

Charge

> Load

High

Low

Supercapacitor

Shutdown

None

Low

Low

Solar Radiation Profile

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 25 Time (Hrs)
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
10
20
25
Time (Hrs)
Figure 11. Solar radiation profile
Peak Current Load Profile
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Current (A)
Solar radiation (W/m 2 )

Time (Hrs)

Figure 12. Peak current load profile

Battery Supercapacitor SOC Peak Current Load 1 BMS battery SOC ECU b attery SOC ECU
Battery Supercapacitor SOC Peak Current Load
1
BMS battery SOC
ECU b
attery SOC
ECU supercapacito
r SOC
0
10
20
25

1.1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6 0.5
0.6
0.5

0.4

Time (Hrs)

Figure 13. Battery supercapacitor SOC for peak current load

B. Pulsating Load

The second load profile used in the analysis is a pulsating current load. A typical application is the transmitting system. In the simulation, the supercapacitors in the hybrid system deliver the pulse power while the battery supplies the remaining constant current.

1692 2008 13 th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC 2008)

SOC

SOC

Fig. 14 shows the profile of the pulsating current load. The load operates for 200s out of 250s. The load has

a low continuous current of 0.42A and a high pulse

current of 2.08A with a duty cycle of 0.5 and a period of 20s, the load operating over 24 hrs.

Fig. 15 shows the battery SOC in BMS, battery SOC

in ECU and supercapacitor SOC with ECU. The Hybrid

system battery supplies a continuous current of 0.8A (0.05C) with the remaining current being supplied by the supercapacitor. The simulation results show that the hybrid system allowed the battery to be maintained at a higher SOC.

C. Constant Power Load

A constant current load of 1.04A (0.06C of the battery) is simulated. The load was analyzed in both BMS

and ECU. In the simulation, the battery current is limited

at 1.04A. Without pulse current in the load profile, all the

current is supplied from the battery in the hybrid system. Fig. 16 shows the SOC in both systems. In the simulation, the hybrid system has a lower SOC then battery system because the battery needs to charge the supercapacitors due to self discharge.

P uls ating C urrent Load

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 Current (A)
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
Current (A)

Time (Hrs)

Figure 14. Pulse current load profile

Battery Supercapacitor SOC Pulse Current 1 BMS bat tery SOC ECU battery SOC ECU supercapacit
Battery Supercapacitor SOC Pulse Current
1
BMS
bat
tery SOC
ECU battery SOC
ECU supercapacit
or SOC
0
5
10
15
20
25

1.1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6 0.5
0.6
0.5

0.4

Time (Hrs)

Figure 15. Battery supercapacitor SOC for pulsating load

Battery Supercapacitor SOC Constant Current Load 1 BMS bat tery SOC ECU bat tery SOC
Battery Supercapacitor SOC Constant Current Load
1
BMS bat
tery SOC
ECU bat
tery SOC
ECU supercapa
citor SOC
0
5
10
20
25

1.1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6 0.5
0.6
0.5

0.4

Time (Hrs)

Figure 16. Battery supercapacitor SOC for constant current load

VI.

OPTIMIZATION

Photovoltaic are unreliable energy sources that are heavily dependent on weather conditions. The power output of the PV panel increases with increasing irradiation but decreases with increasing temperature, operating at its most efficient at high irradiation and low temperature. The power output from a BP 350 50W solar panel for a average day in June (best conditions) and December (worst conditions) is illustrated in Fig. 17, data obtained from [19] for Newcastle, England; which could be typical for a cloudy climate in northern Europe. To ensure that the load requirements can be met throughout the year, photovoltaic systems are sized for worst case conditions, from Fig. 17 sizing is performed according to December figures. Other considerations are

The allowable dept of discharge for VRLA batteries is 80%.

The days of Autonomy, which refers to the number of days a battery system will provide a given load without being recharged by the photovoltaic array or other source is typically 3 to 5 days.

BP350 50W Panel June/December Power 25 June December 20 15 10 5 0 0 5
BP350 50W Panel June/December Power
25
June
December
20
15
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Power (W)

Time (Hrs)

Figure 17. BP350W June and December average power

2008 13 th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC 2008)

1693

Energy audits are performed to obtain information about the load profile that needs to be supplied from the PV system. Many appliances require higher starting power compared to operating power as outlined in Table IV [20]. The proposed ECU supplies this starting power from the supercapacitor. Fig. 18 shows the domestic profile obtained from a flat in Newcastle, England for a week in April. The average power consumption was recorded over 5 minute time intervals throughout 2005[21]. From Fig. 18 various spikes in power can be observed throughout the day. Spikes of approximately 9 times the continuous power requirements are observed, this would result in a large current being removed from the battery reducing the battery SOC. To ensure adequate power is available the battery pack size is increased to supply the large current. The supercapacitor can complement the PV panel and the battery to supply the high power requirements, allowing for a smaller battery pack. The domestic load profile on Monday shown in Fig. 18 was scaled down and simulated with both the BMS and the ECU models to observe the benefits of the supercapacitor in a domestic application. Fig. 19 shows the solar radiation for a typical April day in Newcastle. The output current from the MPPT is shown in Fig. 21. Fig. 22 shows the SOC of the Np18-12 Yuasa lead acid battery and a 12V 1200F supercapacitor. The battery in the hybrid system supplied continuous current of 0.5A (0.03C) with the supercapacitor supplying the remainder. It is observed from Fig. 22 that the hybrid system maintains the battery at a greater SOC with the final SOC for the hybrid system being 72% while the BMS has a battery SOC of 50%. The hybrid system allows for an increase in battery SOC as outlined in Table V with the addition of a 12V 1200F supercapacitor pack. Supercapacitors are currently expensive components, but with the advances in technology and the increasing growth in the market the cost is being reduced. VRLA batteries are generally large in photovoltaic systems and although there is an increase in SOC with the addition of the supercapacitor bank it will prove costly. Additional optimization is required to find the optimum balance between the VRLA battery and the supercapacitor bank. Other battery and fuel cell technology can be investigated to see if they have greater benefit.

TABLE IV.

APPLIANCE STARTING AND CONTINUOUS POWER

Appliance

Starting

Continuous

Ratio

Power

Power

Clothes Washer

5,042

225

22.4

Well Pump 1/2hp

1950

150

13

Clothes Dryer

4208

334

12.6

Fridge/Freezer

2700

600

4.5

Freezer

2100

800

2.6

Vacuum cleaner

2012

818

2.5

Domestic Load Profile April Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Fri day Saturday Sunday 0 0 5
Domestic Load Profile April
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Fri
day
Saturday
Sunday
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
4000 3500
4000
3500

3000

2500 2000 1500 1000 500 Power (W)
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
Power (W)

Time (Hrs)

Figure 18. Domestic load profile for week in April

Solar Radiation Profile

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Solar Radiation (W/m 2 )

Time (Hrs)

Figure 19. Solar radiation for April

MPPT Output Current

1.8 BMS MPPT current 1.6 ECU MPPT current 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2
1.8
BMS MPPT current
1.6
ECU MPPT current
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Time (Hrs)
Current (A)

Figure 20. MPPT output current

VII.

CONCLUSIONS

An Energy Control Unit (ECU) for a photovoltaic battery supercapacitor hybrid system has been developed. Simulations have been performed to compare the ECU to the standard photovoltaic battery storage system under different load conditions; a peak current load, pulsating current load, constant current load, and a domestic profile. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) allows the maximum power to be gained from the photovoltaic panel

1694 2008 13 th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC 2008)

SOC

and the proposed ECU is responsible for calculating the battery and supercapacitor SOC. The ECU controls the system based of the available power, battery/ supercapacitor SOC and the required load power. From the simulations performed the addition of a supercapacitor bank will increase the battery SOC for peak and pulse current loads.

Load C urrent 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15
Load C urrent
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Current (A)

Time (Hrs)

Figure 21. Load current

Battery Supercapacitor SOC Domestic Load

1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 BMS battery SOC 0.4 ECU battery SOC ECU
1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
BMS battery SOC
0.4
ECU battery SOC
ECU super
capacitor SOC
0.3
0.2
0
5
10
15
20
25
Time (Hrs)

Figure 22. Battery supercapacitor SOC

TABLE V.BATTERY SOC COMPARISON

LOAD

ECU Battery

BMS Battery

Increase in

SOC

SOC

SOC

Peak Load

69%

57%

12%

Pulse Load

69%

58%

11%

Constant Load

56%

59%

(3%)

Domestic Load

72%

50%

22%

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This project was supported by Enterprise Ireland under the Commercialisation Fund in Technology Development (CFTD).

REFERENCES

[1] S. Duryea, S. Islam, W. Lawrance, “A Battery Management System for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Energy Systems”, IEEE Industrial Applications Magazine, Vol.7, Issue 3, May-June, 2001, pp.67-72. [2] J.P. Dunlop, B.N. Farhi, “Recommendations for Maximizing Battery Life in Photovoltaic Systems: A Review of Lessons Learned”, Proceedings of Forum 2001 Solar Energy: The Power to Choose, Washington DC, April 21-25, 2001. [3] T. Hund, “Capacity Loss in PV Batteries and Recovery Procedures”, Photovoltaic System Applications Department, Sandia National Laboratories. [4] A. Burke, “Ultracapacitors: Why, How, and Where is the Technology”, Journal of Power Sources, Vol.91, pp.37-50, 2000. [5] B.E. Conway, “Electrochemical Supercapacitors: Scientific Fundamentals and Technological Applications”, Kluwer Academic Press/ Plenum Publishers, New York, 1999. [6] http://www.ewh.ieee.org/r6/scv/pses/ieee_scv_pses_jan05.pdf

[7]

EDLC’s Hybrid Standalone Photovoltaic Power System for Digital Access Equipment”, 22 nd International Telecommunications Energy Conference, 10-14 September 2000, pp.387-393.

[8]

Controlled Battery Ultracapacitor Hybrid”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 236-243, January 2005. [9] R.A. Dougal, S. Liu, R.E. White, “Power and Life Extension of Battery Ultracapacitor Hybrids”, IEEE Transactions on Component and Packaging Technologies, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 120-131, March 2002. [10] S. Liu, R.A. Dougal, E.V. Solodovnik, “Design of Autonomous Photovoltaic Relay Station”, IEEE Proc-Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol. 152, no.6, pp.745-754, November 2005. [11] G. Walker, “Evaluating MPPT converter Topologies using a Matlab PV Model”, Proceedings of the Australasian University Power Engineering Conference, Brisbane, 2000. [12] M. Ceraolo, “New Dynamic Models of Lead Acid Batteries” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1184-1190, November 2000. [13] S. Barsali, M. Ceraolo, “Dynamical Models of Lead Acid Batteries: Implementation Issues”, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol.17, no. 1, pp.16-23, March 2002. [14] R.A. Jackey, “A Simple Effective Lead Acid Battery Modelling Process for Electrical Systems Component Selection”, Mathworks INC [15] R.L. Spyker, R.M. Nelms, “Classical Equivalent Circuit Parameters for a Double Layer Capacitor”, IEEE Tranactions in aerospace and electronic systems, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 829-836, July 2000. [16] Armstrong S., Glavin M.E., Hurley W.G., “Comparison of Battery Charging Algorithms for Stand Alone Photovoltaic Systems”, Proceedings 39 th Power Electronic Specialists Conference, Rhodes Greece, 15-19 June 2008. [17] M. Coleman, W.G. Hurley, C.K. Lee, “An Improved Battery Characterisation Method using a Two Pulse Load Test”, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 708-713, June 2008. [18] Coleman M., Chi Kwan Lee, Chunbo Zhu, Hurley W.G., “State of Charge Determination from EMF Voltage Estimation: Using Impedance, Terminal Voltage, and Current for Lead Acid and Lithium- ion Batteries”, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 2550-2557, October 2007. [19] http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu [20] R.L. Hammand, S. Everingham, “Stationary Batteries in Cycling Photovoltaic Applications”,

L. Gao, R.A. Dougal, S. Liu, “Power Enhancement of an Actively

K. Akiyama, Y. Nozaki, M. Kudo, T. Yachi, “NiMH Batteries and

www.battcon.com/PapersFinal2003/HammondPaperFINAL2003.pdf.

[21] Dr. Ian Knight, N. Kreutzer, “Three European Domestic Electrical Consumption Profiles – July 2006”.

2008 13 th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC 2008)

1695