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Digital Technologies

Soft Start Update


Development Checklist March 29, 2010

ASHRAE
Jan.17th Montreal,QC
By Andre Patenaude C.E.T.
Emerson Confidential

Topics for ASHRAE


1 2 3 4
Digital Compressor Technology Digital Compressor Efficiency Benefits of Electronic Control Valves Synchronization Controller for Superheat and Digital Compressor Operation

WithRelativelyConstantHeadPressuresandConstantLoads SystemwillRunEffectivelywithMinimumIssues

TheMoreComplicatedthe System,theGreaterthe System the Greater the DifficultyinMaintaining ControlandPeakEfficiency

System Challenges
C- Stores
Design to Max Conditions Capacity Control
Multi Compressor Comp. Un-loaders Comp UnHot Gas Bypass Commercial A/C Precision A/C Air Dryers

Suction Pressure Condensing Pressure Heat Reclaim Sub-Cooling SubDefrost Etc.

Supermarkets S k t

Topics for ASHRAE


1 2 3 4
Digital Compressor Technology Digital Compressor Efficiency Benefits of Electronic Control Valves Synchronization Controller for Superheat and Digital Compressor Operation

Scroll Compressor - Construction p

Compression Area

Crankshaft

All scrolls use 2 pole motors operating at 3500 rpm


Motor

How a Compliant Scroll Works p


Suction Pocket Intermediate Pocket

High Pressure Pocket

Discharge

Copeland ScrollTM Digital Compressor Operation (Capacity Modulation 10 to 100% )


Standard Scroll Digital Scroll

1 mm

Radial Compliance

Axial Compliance

Digital Gas Flow Animation


Capacity Modulation 10 to 100%

Copeland ScrollTM Digital Compressor Operation

1.0 1 0 mm S Scroll ll Separation

Loaded (1) Full Capacity

Unloaded (0) Zero Capacity

16

16

16

16

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

20

40 Time (sec) Ti ( )

60

80

20

40 Time (sec)

60

80

20% Capacity

50% Capacity

Copeland Discus Discus Digital Technology

Capacity Modulation 10 to 100%

Copeland DISCUS

DigitalTM
Here is How to Deliver 50% Capacity

System Needs 50% Capacity

Digital Modulation Concept Applied To Discus Compressors Continuous Modulation 10 100% 3D 4D & 6D Compressors 3D, 4D, Copeland Intellectual Property Patent Pending

IDCM

10 0

10 20

10

10 40

10

10 0

50% Capacity
60

Time (sec)

Close Temperature Control Tem mperature

Time

Discus Digital Refrigerant Gas Flow Loaded


1. 1 2. 3. 4. 4 5.

Enters Compressor Passes Through Body Into Valve Plate Compressed by Pistons Exits Compressor

Valve assembly routes suction g gas above unloader pistons p

Unloader pistons allows suction gas flow into valve plate

Discus Digital Refrigerant Gas Flow Unloaded


Enters Compressor E t C 2. Passes Through Body 3. 4 Unloader Pistons Block Gas Before Entering Valve Plate
1.

Valve assembly routes discharge g gas above unloader pistons p

Unloader pistons block suction gas flow into valve plate

Operating Envelope
Digital Compressor vs. Inverter vs

Digital Scroll Operating Envelope


ZRD125KCE-TFE R407C

Copeland Digital Scroll Launch Package, Page 17

Topics for ASHRAE


1 2 3 4
Digital Compressor Technology Digital Compressor Efficiency Benefits of Electronic Control Valves Synchronization Controller for Superheat and Digital Compressor Operation

Copeland Digital Scroll Launch Package, Page 18

Energy Efficiency

Hot Gas Bypass


Poor. 100% compressor power consumption under all conditions.

Blocked suction unloading


Average/Poor. Better than hot gas bypass only, but power reduction is not linear compared to the amount of unloading. Efficiency drops with additional stages of unloading Effi i d ith dditi l t f l di

Multiple-Step (Tandem) Compressor


Good only at 50% and 100%, where modulation does not 100% require hot gas bypass. Poor in the steps where hot gas bypass must be used.

Energy Efficiency

Inverter Technology gy
Average. Inverter loss accounts for approximately 15% of total power consumption. Inefficient hot gas bypass method must be used for low capacities. Liquid injection must be used under conditions of high ambient temperature. temperature

Digital Scroll Technology


Excellent. No inverter loss and low power consumption in the unloaded state (only 10% of full load power) means low average power consumption and high partial load efficiency

Copeland Scroll DigitalTM Power Savings p g g


100%
Hot Gas By-Pass

90%

Pe ercentage Of Full Power e l

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% 10% 20% 30%
Copeland Scroll Digital S ll Di it l

Energy S i E Savings

Copeland Scroll Digital Reduces Power Consumption Li P C ti Linearly l As It Modulates Capacity

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

Percentage Of Full Capacity

Digital Scroll Offers Superior Part-Load PartEfficiency Versus Hot Gas By-Pass By% Full Capacity Hot Gas Digital IPLV By-Pass Scroll EER EER Weighting
6.7 8.8

25% 50% 75% 100% Integrated Part Load Value

2.9 5.7 8.6 11.5 11 5 6.7

6.3 8.2 10.0 11.3 11 3 8.8

12% 45% 42% 1%


Part-Load Efficiency (IPLV)

100%

Hot Gas By-Pass

Digital Scroll

30% Part-Load Efficiency Improvement With Copeland Scroll Digital!

Performance: Digital Scroll & DC Inverter


Testing Results At China Govt. Laboratory At Hefei

Digital Scroll is 13.75% More Efficient Vs. Japanese OEMs Inverter Scrolls

Digital scroll is 38% More Efficient Vs. Japanese OEMs Inverter Rotary

Digital Scroll S ll

Digital Scroll S ll

Inverter Scroll Japanese OEM A

Inverter Scroll Japanese OEM B


Inverter Rotary Japanese OEM A

IPLV 10 HP
Copeland Digital Scroll Launch Package, Page 23

Partial Load performance Digital Scroll


Snap Shot of Actual Calorimeter Test

Measured Full Load Power 7855.4Watts

Copeland Digital Scroll Launch Package, Page 24

Partial Load performance Digital Scroll


Snap Shot of Actual Calorimeter Test

Measured Unloaded Power 588.0 Watts

Digital Scroll Consumes Less Than 10% of Full L d P F ll Load Power During Unloaded Running D i U l d dR i
Copeland Digital Scroll Launch Package, Page 25

Load Matching

Digital Modulation Over Larger Capacities g g p

Cap pacity (H HP)

Digital Fixed Capacity #2 Digital Fixed Capacity #1 Fixed Capacity #1

Digital Can Be Used In Parallel With Fixed Capacity Scrolls To Get Even Wider S ll T G t E Wid Range Of Capacities Power Savings Still Follow The Same Line Leverages The Cost And Capability Of One Digital Over C bilit O Di it l O Larger Systems

Digital Di it l

Digital Discus Retrofit


Nov08 Nov08

Digital Discus Activated


Digital Discus Activated g

Average Suction 3-4 psi Higher

Significant Reduction in Compressor Cycling

Energy Savings from Increase Suction Pressure


1 Psig Increase In Suction Pressure = 2% Reduction In Compressor Power Consumption.

3.5 psig = 7% x 800,000 Kwh/Store

Savings 56,000 Kwh

56,000 Kwh x 9 Cents Per Kwh

$5,040

$5,040/Store/Year

Note: Based On 80,000 Ft2 Store With 3 Racks

Reliability/Ease of Application
Digital vs Inverter

Inverter Technology Is Complex gy p

Capacity Range Of Inverter Modulation Typically Limited To 40%- 100% Inverter Generates Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) Inverters Are Relatively Expensive Variable S V i bl Speed Compressor Designs Require Special dC D i R i S i l Consideration To Avoid Mechanical Resonances Require Complex Electronic Controls Variable Speed Necessitates Complicated Piping Circuits To Ensure Oil Return Complexity Adversely Affects Reliability Not Easy To Service

Digital Advantage - Reliability g g y

Inherent Reliability From Fixed Capacity Compressor


Copeland Scroll Floating Seal Design Provides Radial And Axial Compliance Which Enhances Liquid Handling Capability Digital Discus based on a Proven Compressor Design Robust, Proven Reliable Oil Lubrication System y

Digital Compressor Inherent Characteristics


Constant Shaft Speed Eliminates Concern On Lubrication Modulated Parts Designed And Tested For 32 Million Cycles

Digital Compressor Systems Inherent Characteristics


S Same Oil Fl Flow Velocity R V l it Regardless of M d l ti R t dl f Modulation Rate No Complex Electronics Means No Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) No Need To Avoid System Natural Frequencies Since The Motor Is y q Turning At The Same Speed Regardless Of Modulation Rate

Digital Advantage Ease of Application g g pp


Digital Scroll System
Capacity Range Electronic Hardware Electromagnetic Interference p y Software Complexity Oil Management Valve & Piping Serviceability Reliability Full Load Efficiency Part L d Efficiency P t Load Effi i Temperature Control Continuous Capacity Control Yes 10-100% Simple No Low Simple Simple Easy High Better C Comparable bl Comparable Yes

AC Inverter System
40-100% Complex Yes High g Complex Complex Difficult Low Good

System Simplicity = Reliability


10 Horsepower, Heat Pump System Example p , p y p
Non Digital Scroll System

Digital Scroll System

Reliability - Oil Return


Consistent Oil Return During Low Loads

No Oil Pump Out During Unloading Pump Out Loaded Cycle Gas Velocity Sufficient To

Return Oil Oil separator not required for most applications

Copeland Digital Scroll Launch Package, Page 36

Digital Advantage

Precise Control Of Suction Pressure And Temperature


Minimum Temperature Fluctuation More Consistent operation of mechanical valves and regulators for parallel set up

Reduced Cycling Of Compressors


Longer Contactor Life L Longer Compressor Lif C Life Reduction in Inrush Current

System Efficiency Improvement


Eliminates Over/Under Shooting Of Suction Pressure Set Point Potential To Run System At Higher Suction Pressure Set Point

Change In System Design


No Need For Uneven Paralleling For Compressor Staging Using Common Compressor Selections Simplifies Replacement Needs

Topics for ASHRAE


1 2 3 4
Digital Compressor Technology Digital Compressor Efficiency Benefits of Electronic Control Valves Synchronization Controller for Superheat and Digital Compressor Operation

EX4/EX5/EX6/EX7/EX8 EX4/EX5/EX6/EX7/EX8 Electrical Control Valve

Benefits of Emersons Electronic Valve g Gate Port Design


Existing Designs

Fl low (capac city)

100%

50% 10% 50% 80% 100%

Emerson EX Valve Gate Port Design

Stroke / Steps

Valve Capacity Range Travel Time EX4 = 0.5 - 5T, 750 Steps / 1.5 Seconds EX5 EX = 1.5 - 14T 1 14T, 750 S 0 Steps / 1.5 S 1 Seconds d EX6 = 3 - 34T, 750 Steps / 1.5 Seconds EX7 = 9 - 94T, 1,600 Steps / 3.2 Seconds EX8 = 25 - 250T, 2,600 Steps / 5.2 Seconds

EXV Range
EX8 (250 tons) EX7 (100 tons) EX6 (30 tons) EX5 (15 tons) tons) EX4 (5 to s) EX6 EX5 EX4 EX7 EX8

10 tons 3 tons 1.5 tons


.5 tons 5 tons

25 tons 15 tons 30 tons

100 tons

250 tons

Electronic Solutions

EC3EC3-X?? Complete Kits

TheMoreComplicatedthe System,theGreaterthe System the Greater the DifficultyinMaintaining ControlandPeakEfficiency

EC3 and EX Valves


Superheat Controller and Electronic Valve

Replaces:
Liq id Line Solenoid Valve Liquid Val e TXV Crankcase Press Regulators

System Ch ll S t Challenges:
Wide Load Variations Floating Head Pressure Inconsistent Liquid Quality Large Evap. Performance (SH Ctrl) Cryogenics (Ultra Low) Poor / Lack of Maintenance

EC3-D72 and EX Valves


Superheat Controller and Electronic Valve

Benefits:
1. Precise Temperature Control 10 to 100% Capacity Modulation 2. Saves Energy / Operating Cost Quicker Pull Down, Without Adjustments Reaches Set Point Faster Reduces Run Time Tighter Superheat Control No Pump Down Required (Most Instances) 3. System Protection Prevents Compressor Flood Back from Burnt out Evaporator Fan Motor Alarm Notification IE Low Superheat 4. Simplifies System with Added Flexibility Reduces Commissioning Time / Labor Cost Lower Refrigerant Charge Due to Low Floating Head

10

Topics for ASHRAE


1 2 3 4
Digital Compressor Technology Digital Compressor Efficiency Benefits of Electronic Control Valves Synchronization Controller for Superheat and Digital Compressor Operation

Digital Scroll System Diagram g y g

Temperature Sensor

CopelandScroll

Working Demo Unit R410A

Discharge Temp Evap Pressure Capacity Scroll Digital

DigitalSystemDynamics SingleCircuit
R-410A Unit

CoiloutTemp

Mechanical TXV Superheat

Rapid Fluctuations in Evaporator Pressure = Will result in Premature Diaphragm Failure. 1,314,000 Fluctuations / Year Diaphragm Design 500,000 Cycles
50

Limitations of Digital Compressors and


W/ Single Circuits

Severe Mechanical Stress on TXV Diaphragm (6 to15 psi for Full Gradient SH) Di h Evaporating and Condensing Pressures Rapidly Changing when Digital Scroll Operates 10 to 15 Years Life Expectancy = 32 Million Scroll Cycles @ 20 Sec. Cycle Time Liquid Slugging

Digital & Superheat Controller Advantage

Need to Synchronize Superheat Control with Digital Scroll Valve Cycling


Superheat Control Active Only when Compressor is p g Pumping Superheat Idle when Compressor Unloaded

Fast Reacting EXV Required to Enable Functionality Opening/Closing Time < Min Compressor Pump Time

Synchronization = Smart Valve Control EC3EC3-D72 Controller

Load > 70% = > 7 Volts


EX Valve Freezes at the Current Freezes Opening % When The Compressor is Unloaded (Not Pumping)

Third Party Controller Johnson Controls C450CPN-1

0-10V Cooling Demand For EC3-D72

Load < 70% = < 7 Volts


EX Valve Closes to 0% When The Compressor is Unloaded (Not Pumping)
Digital Compressor

Temperature Sensor

When the Second Compressor is Active


The Superheat Control Loop is Continually Running p p y g

53

Discharge Temp Evap Pressure Capacity Digital

Digitalat100%Capacity

CoiloutTemp EXValve Superheat

Discharge Temp Evap Pressure Capacity

DigitalReducingtheLoad

CoiloutTemp EXValve Superheat

DigitalatMinimumCapacity
Evap Pressure Discharge Temp Capacity

CoiloutTemp EXValve Superheat

DigitalIncreasingLoad

Emersons Capacity Modulation Solution

Condenser VFD

Digital Scroll (10 to 100%)

Superheat & Digital Scroll Control

Electronic Valve (10 to 100%)

Digital Scroll System Diagram g y g

Temperature Sensor

CopelandScroll

EC3-D72 Superheat and Digital y Synchronization Controller Option 1


Direct connection to an individual PC It requires cross over/link cable Configuration of TCP/IP of PC
TCP/IP Network knowledge required

Option 2
Router with DHCP-Server Automatically assign dynamic IP-address for PC and EC3-X32

Optional: ECD-002

Router R t

EC3EC3-D72 Superheat Controllers with Built in Synchronization Control for Copeland Digital Compressors Set Up

Default Monitoring Page Read Only Read Only

Model and Revision Number IP address Use Discover IP Utility Tool 192.168.001.101 192 168 001 101

Moving Icon Shows Web Page Is Active, Icon Change 1/sec. Ch 1/

Default Monitoring Page Pop Menu Pop Up Menu


Right Mouse Click Within A ti Wi d Withi Active Window To show pop up Window Live Li e Data Rolling 10 min Graph, Only Active when Monitoring Page Is Open Internal Log: 30 day 15min. Log of Suction Pressure Local File: Visualization Of all Files Stored Local on PC

Digital Technologies Seminar

Soft Start Update S ft St t U d t


Development Checklist March 29, 2010 M h 29

ThankYou

Emerson Confidential