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EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V.

Petkov 1
Offset Cancellation Overview
Techniques:
Autozero (sampled)
Chopper stabilization (continuous-time)
Objective:
Reject offset and 1/f noise
Reference
Ch. Enz and G. C. Temes, Circuit Techniques for Reducing the
Effects of Op-Amp Imperfections, Proc. IEEE, Nov. 1996, pp.
1584-1614.
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 2
Outline
Autozero technique:
Offset cancellation
Output
Input
Using auxiliary amplifier
Flicker noise rejection
Design example: capacitive sensor interface
Chopper stabilization
Principle of operation
Residual offset and nested chopper stabilization
Comparison and summary
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 3
Output Offset Cancellation
Output still corrupted by
switch charge injection
bottom plate sampling
Requires
( )
in
C os in out
os C
AV
V V V A V
AV V
=
=
=
: 2 Phase
: 1 Phase DD os
V AV <
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 4
Multistage Implementation
R. Poujois and J. Borel, "A low drift fully integrated MOSFET operational amplifier,"
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 13, pp. 499 - 503, August 1978.
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 5
Input Offset Cancellation
( )
( )
1 A
V
V
1 A
V
V A V
V V V A V
: (b) Phase
1 A
A
V V V
V V A V
: (a) Phase
os
res , os
os
in o
c os in o
os o c
o os o
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+ =
+
= =
+ =
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 6
Multistage Cancellation
Open switches left to right
Residual offset from S
1
S
N-1
cancelled by final stage
Capacitive coupling reduces gain
Application: comparators
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 7
Example: Offset Compensated SC Gain Stage
S1
S2
C1
S1
C2
S2 S1
S2
V
i
V
o
V
os
V
C1
V
C2
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 8
SC Gain Stage:
1
Assuming infinite open-loop gain.
S1
C1
S1
C2
S1
S2
V
i
V
o
V
os
V
C1
V
C2
( )
os i
C C tot
os C
os i C
V C C V C
V C V C Q
V V
V V V
2 1 1
2 2 1 1
2
1
1
+ =
+ =
=
=

EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 9


SC Gain Stage:
2
( )
( )
i o
tot tot
os i tot
os o tot
os o C
os C
V
C
C
V
Q Q
V C C V C Q
V C C V C Q
V V V
V V
2
1
2 1 1
2 1 2
2
1
1 2
1
2
=
=
+ =
+ =
=
=

S2
C1
C2
S2
S2
V
o
V
os
V
C1
V
C2
Charge on C1, C2 is redistributed
Total charge stays same!
At end of phase 2:
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 10
SC Gain Stage Implementation
S1
S2
C1
S1
C2
S2 S1
S2
V
i
V
o
V
os
V
C1
V
C2
C
x
Amplifier must be unity-gain stable
Output pulled back to V
os
in each cycle
No feedback during clock non-overlap
C
x
(deglitching capacitor)
Charge injected at input node
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 11
Offset Cancellation Options
M. Degrauwe, E. Vittoz, and I. Verbauwhede,
"A micropower CMOS-instrumentation
amplifier," IEEE Journal of Solid-State
Circuits, vol. 20, pp. 805 - 807, June 1985.
At input
Charge injection degrades performance
At output
Requires low-gain amplifier or two stages
At input of auxiliary amplifier
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 12
Auxiliary Amplifier Offset Cancellation
( ) ( )
( )
( )
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ + =
+
+
+ +
+
=
= =
=
4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 1
4 4 3 4 4 2 1 4 4 3 4 4 2 1
offset referred input
2 sw
1
2
2
2 OS
1
2
2
1 sw 1 OS
1
2 OS 2 2 2 1 sw 1 1 OS 1 out
2 sw 2 OS
2
2
1 sw 1 OS
2
1
2
2 OS 2 2 1 OS 1 o 2
amp aux
2 OS 2 2
amp main
1 OS 1 1 out
V
A
A
A 1
V
A
A
A 1
V V
A
V A V A V A V A V
V V
A 1
A
V V
A 1
A
V
V V A V A V V
V V A V V A V
2 node b, phase :
1 node a, phase :
: Injection Charge Switch
2
1
sw
sw
V
V
Offset, charge injection attenuated if A
1
>> A
2
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 13
Aux Amp Options
M. Degrauwe, E. Vittoz, and I. Verbauwhede, "A
micropower CMOS-instrumentation amplifier,"
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 20, pp.
805 - 807, June 1985.
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 14
CDS and Flicker Noise
S1
S2
A . S/H
S2
V
i
V
o
V
1
V
2
V
1/f
S1
S2
T = 1/f
s
time
[kT]
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 15
Flicker Noise Analysis
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
43 42 1
4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 2 1
3 2 1
s H
T
s
f nieq
st
V
f f i o
n
d
nieq
e s V s V
e
T
kT V kT V kT V A kT V
)
`

|
.
|

\
|
+ =

2
/ 1
d
error referred input
/ 1 / 1
signal
1
by t Delay
Transform Laplace
2
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 16
Flicker Noise Frequency Response
( )
2
sin
2
cos 1
1
1
2
2
T
j
T
e
e s H
T
j
T
s
n

+ =
=
=

( )
( )
s
j s
n
j s
n
f
f T
s H
T
T
T T T
T T
s H
2
sin 2
4
sin 2
4
sin 4
2
cos 1 2
2
sin
2
cos
2
cos 2 1
2
sin
2
cos 1
2
1
2 2
2 2
2

= =
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ + =
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=

4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 1
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 17
Flicker Noise Spectrum
K 1 := f
s
1 :=
S
f
f ( )
K
f
:= H
f
f ( ) 2 sin
f
2 f
s

\
|
.
:=
0 1 2 3 4 5
0
1
2
3
4
5
H
f
f ( )
2
S
f
f ( ) H
f
f ( )
2

f
Flicker noise is differentiated
Essentially removed at low
frequency
Choosing f
s
/2 sufficiently large
effectively removes flicker noise
Noise above f
s
/2 folds to
baseband
Thermal noise folded to 0 f
s
/2
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 18
Design Example:Capacitive Sensor Interface
S+
S-
M
M
S+
S-
C
So
- C
C
So
+ C
x
o
- x
x
o
+ x
x
C
S+
C
S-
(a)
(b)
Principle of capacitive sensing:
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 19
Capacitance-to-Voltage (C/V) Conversion
C
S
- C
C
S
+ C
C
I
C
I
V
M
V
O
S
+
S-
M
Mechanical
Element
M
I
O
V
C
C 2
V

=
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 20
Correlated Double-Sampling (CDS)
Phase 1 Phase 2
Reset
Phase 3
kT
C(kT-T/2) C(kT)
(k-1)T kT-T/2
Noise
cancelation
Sensing
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
For DC signal:
M
I
O
V
C
C 2
V

=
For AC (low-frequency) signal:
( )
( )
Error
C
2
T
kT C V kT C V
2 kT V
I
1 2
o
+
|
.
|

\
|

=
C
I+
C
I-
V
1
(a)
C
H+
C
H-
C
S+
C
S-
C
I+
C
I-
V
1
C
S+
C
S-
C
H+
C
H-
V
o
C
I+
C
I-
V
2
C
S+
C
S-
(b)
V
1
(c)
M
M
M
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 21
CDS Front-End Schematic
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 22
Initial Design Decisions
Process: 0.5m 5V CMOS
Electrostatic force-feedback allocate feedback phase in timing diagram
Sampling frequency chosen based on resolution and stability requirements
- f
s
=500kHz for this example
Input common-mode feedback (ICMFB) for the C/V converter
- Advantages: reduces DC offset and drift
- Disadvantages: additional amplifier; increases C
p
; affects settling
- Can be omitted if common-mode voltage step at input is small
(typically the case in two-chip solutions with large C
p
)
Amplifier topology
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 23
Amplifier Topology
Small sensor output:
Small signal swing in the front-end
Telescopic double-cascoded amplifier:
High DC gain
Few noise contributing devices
Sensing on negative edge of V
M
:
PMOS input
Choice of V
ICM
:
Equal to V
1
(minimize delay)
( )
( )
I
1 2
o
C
2
T
kT C V kT C V
2 kT V
|
.
|

\
|

=
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 24
Settling accuracy:
- Accelerometer with full-scale range of 5g and noise floor of 150g
- Settling error: =3x10
-5
Phase A: t
A
=(3/16)T
s
=375ns
- Only C/V converter operates
- Single-pole stage settling:
Phase B: t
B
=(1/4)T
s
=500ns
- Three stages in series
- Use C/V bandwidth from Phase A (maximally relaxed conditions)
- Second and third stages require 5.3MHz bandwidth
Amplifier Design - Settling
T
S
=2s

RST

1

C
2
Feedback Phase A
C
1
Phase B
( )
MHz 5 . 4
1
ln
t
2
1
2
1
f
A
CV
CV _ BW
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 25
Amplifier Design Noise Analysis
(
(

+ + =

P _ Leff
CV _ Leff
e Pr P P
S
CV
CV _ Leff
B
CV
2
xn
C
C
N R N 1
f
1
n
C
T k
F
1
3
16
f
v
R
P
C
I
V
Out
C
PA
C
PS
C
S
2
na
v
2
nRp
v
2
pre _ n
v
V
X
Preamp
Mechanical
Element
C
L
2
pre CV
P
P
CV
e Pr
CV _ BW
2
T
PS S
CV
CV _ Leff CV
P
A
1
n
n
F
F
2
1
N
f
C
C C
n
C F
3 N
=

|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
Noise factors:
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 26
Amplifier Design Noise Analysis
(
(

+ + =

P _ Leff
CV _ Leff
e Pr P P
S
CV
CV _ Leff
B
CV
2
xn
C
C
N R N 1
f
1
n
C
T k
F
1
3
16
f
v
Choosing C
I
tradeoff between SNR and speed
C
L
is scaled according to noise requirements (tradeoff with power)
Parasitics (R
p
and C
p
) should always be minimized
This example:
Noise contributions:
- Amplifier (C/V): 60%
- R
p
: 35%
- Preamp: 5%
Capacitance resolution:
Hz nV 330
f
v
2
xn
=

Hz aF 08 . 0
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 27
Chopper Stabilization
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 28
Chopper Amp Bandwidth & Delay
Example 1:
Amplifier is ideal LPF
Gain A
o
BW 2 f
s
DC gain ~ 0.8 A
o
Example 2:
Amplifier introduces 90
o
phase shift
DC gain is 0
( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) | | y x y x y x
y x y x y x
+ + =
+ + =
sin sin cos sin
cos cos cos cos
2
1
2
1
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 29
Chopper Results
K. Hsieh, P. R. Gray, D. Senderowicz, and D. G. Messerschmitt, "A low-noise chopper-stabilized
differential switched-capacitor filtering technique," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 16,
pp. 708 - 715, December 1981.
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 30
Chopper Residual Offset
A. Bakker, K. Thiele, and J. H. Huijsing, "A CMOS nested-chopper instrumentation amplifier with 100-nV offset,"
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 35, pp. 1877 - 1883, December 2000.
Spikes from input chopper
due to charge injection
mismatch.
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 31
Nested Chopper Amplifier
Inner chopper runs at high frequency to remove 1/f noise
Outer chopper runs at low frequency to minimize spiking and remove
residual offset from inner chopper. 1/f-noise is no issue since it has been
reduced by inner chopper.
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 32
Results
EECS 240 Lecture 18: Offset Cancellation V. Petkov 33
Comparison
Autozero
Samples Signal
No continuous time
operation
Flicker noise removed
No need for LPF
Increased baseband noise
due to thermal noise folding
Chopper Stabilization
Modulates Signal
Compatible with continuous
time operation
Flicker noise to high frequency
Requires LPF to remove noise
Virtually no thermal noise
folding if f
clk
>> B
Finite BW amp reduces gain