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TEPERATURE PIC16F72 OUTPUT DEVICE CONTROLLERCONTROL TEMP.

OUTPUT INDICATOR POWER SUPPLY FOR CONTROLLED DEVICE CONTROLLED MICROCONTROLLER (RELAY) SWITCHES LCD DEVICE (INBUILT ADC) POWER SUPPLY TEMP. SENSOR

PROGRAMMBLE TEMPERATURE CONTORLLER

AN INDUSTRY DEFINED PROBLEM REPORT (IDP PART-1) SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF

DIPLOMA OF ENGINEERING IN ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION


SUBMITTED BY NAME
PATEL SANKET K PATEL KINJAL B PATEL ZALAK S

ENROLLMENR NO
096680311014 096680311028 096680311030

N.B.PATEL POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, PILUDARA

YEAR 2011 EXTERNAL GUIDE


SANJAY PATEL

INTERNAL GUIDE
XXX

INDEX
Chapter1: Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Chapter 7: Chapter 8: Innovation Utility of the Project for Industry Related survey Identification of thrust area and defining objectives with outcome Methodology Related Study Presentation of work Plan Documentation of IDP Preliminary Questioner and Answer and communication Skill

1| Innovation
What is a temperature controller? As the name implies a temperature controller is an instrument used to control temperature. The temperature controller takes an input from a temperature sensor and has an output that is connected to a control element such as a heater or fan. How do temperature controllers work? To accurately control process temperature without extensive operator involvement, a temperature control system relies upon a controller, which accepts a temperature sensor such as a thermocouple or RTD as input. It compares the actual temperature to the desired control temperature, or set point, and provides an output to a control element. The controller is one part of the entire control system, and the whole system should be analyzed in selecting the proper controller. What Are the Different Types of Controllers, and How Do They Work? On/Off Control The output from the device is either on or off, with no middle state. For heating control, the output is on when the temperature is below the set point, and off above set point. On-off control is usually used where a precise control is not necessary, in systems which cannot handle having the energy turned on and off frequently, where the mass of the system is so great that temperatures change extremely slowly, or for a temperature alarm. One special type of on-off control used for alarm is a limit controller. This controller uses a latching relay, which must be manually reset, and is used to shut down a process when a certain temperature is reached. Proportional Control Proportional controls are designed to eliminate the cycling associated with on-off control. A proportional controller decreases the average power supplied to the heater as the temperature approaches set point. This has the effect of slowing down the heater so that it will not overshoot the set point, but will approach the set point and maintain a stable temperature. PID Control This controller combines proportional control with two additional adjustments, which helps the unit automatically compensate for changes in the system. These adjustments, integral and derivative, are expressed in time-based units; they are also referred to by their reciprocals, RESET and RATE, respectively. It provides the most accurate and stable control of the three controller types, and is best used in systems which have a relatively small mass, those which react quickly to changes in the energy added to the process

THE TYPICAL PROGRAMMABLE TEPERATURE CONTROLLER

2| Utility of the Project for Industry


The Prototype Features

Regulated Power supply Unit (PSU) that gives 5V and 500mA DC with Internal thermal overload
protection

Power down indication LM35 Temperature Sensor Rated for full 55 to +150C range Accuracy. . . . . . + -0.25% of range: + -1 c or 0.5C in high resolution Suitable for remote applications 28-Pin, 8-Bit CMOS RISC MCU Inbuilt ADC Fast and compact In System Programmable Prototype User friendly Output on 16*2 LCD Type of unit is Celsius Compact and low weight Low cost and Low Power
Optimized for many medium scale accurate commercial applications such as

Industrial furnace to maintain specific temperature Server room, AC room Thermal management system Electronic protection system Ups/inverter system Industrial process control

3| RELATED SURVEY
SENSOR: It is a sensing device by which physical, mechanical or optical quantity to be measured is directly into an electrical voltage or current proportional to input. LM35 SENSOR: Calibrated directly in Celsius (Centigrade) transformed

Linear + 10.0 mV/C scale factor 0.5C accuracy guarantee able (at +25C) Rated for full 55 to +150C range Suitable for remote applications Low cost due to wafer-level trimming Operates from 4 to 30 volts Less than 60 A current drain Low self-heating, 0.08C in still air Nonlinearity only 14C typical Low impedance output, 0.1 for 1 mA load

MICROCONTROLLER:

PIC16f72 Features High Sink/Source Current: 25mA

Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register

Compare is 16-bit, max. Resolution is 200 ns PWM max. Resolution is 10-bit 8-bit, 5-channel analog-to-digital converter Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (Master/Slave) Brown-out detection circuitry for Brown-out Reset (BOR) 1,000 erase/write cycle FLASH program memory Power-on Reset (POR), Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation Programmable code protection Power saving SLEEP mode In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) via 2 pins

PIN DIAGRAM of PIC16F72:

ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERSION: An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or A to D) is a device that converts a continuous quantity to a discrete time digital representation. An ADC may also provide an isolated measurement. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Typically, an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog or to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current. However, some non-electronic or only partially electronic devices, such as rotary encoders, can also be considered ADCs. The digital output may use different coding schemes. Typically the digital output will be a two's complement binary number that is proportional to the input, but there are other possibilities. An encoder, for example, might output a Gray code. The resolution of the converter indicates the number of discrete values it can produce over the range of analog values. The values are usually stored electronically in binary form, so the resolution is usually expressed in bits. In consequence, the number of discrete values available, or "levels", is a power of two. For example, an ADC with a resolution of 8 bits can encode an analog input to one in 256 different levels, since 28 = 256. The values can represent the ranges from 0 to 255 (i.e. unsigned integer) or from 128 to 127 (i.e. signed integer), depending on the application. Resolution can also be defined electrically, and expressed in volts. The minimum change in voltage required to guarantee a change in the output code level is called the Least significant bit (LSB) voltage. The resolution Q of the ADC is equal to the LSB voltage. The voltage resolution of an ADC is equal to its overall voltage measurement range divided by the number of discrete voltage intervals:

Where N is the number of voltage intervals and EFSR is the full scale voltage range. EFSR is given by

Where VRefHi and VRefLow are the upper and lower extremes, respectively, of the voltages that can be coded. Normally, the number of voltage intervals is given by

Where M is the ADC's resolution in bits

MPLAB: MPLAB IDE is a Windows Operating System (OS) software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers and digital signal controllers. It is called an Integrated Development Environment, or IDE, because it provides a single integrated environment to develop code for embedded microcontrollers. PROTEUS: The Proteus Design Suite is offering the ability to co-simulate both high and low-level micro-controller code in the context of a mixed-mode SPICE circuit simulation. The Proteus Design Suite comprises a fully integrated EDA package with modules for schematic capture (ISIS), circuit simulation (PROSPICE),PCB

layout (ARES) and embedded co-simulation (VSM). The simulation functions take place entirely within the schematic editor whilst ISIS and ARES share a common, easy to use, Windows user interface. All of which reduces the time. ISIS and ARES are themselves tightly integrated, offering both forward and backward annotation and a unique Design Explorer which allows us to navigate and cross probe between the schematic, net list and PCB databases.