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Practical Application of Finite Element VII.

Simplified ANSYS model ANSYS 10 or 11 ED (Education version or Academic version) will be used for modelling the structure. A disadvantage of this software is the limitation of nodes (10000 nodes) and the amount of elements (1000 elements). Therefore, the reinforced concrete is restricted to model in the range of element given. The results may be acceptable in this situation.

Figure 5 VII.1. Element types Preprocessor -> Element type -> Add/Edit/Delete -> Add Choose Concrete 65 (SOLID65)

Figure 6 Similarly to choose: BEAM -> PLASTIC 23 (BEAM23) In the OPTION of BEAM23, choose ROUND SOLID BAR at Cross-section K6 VII.2. Real Constants Preprocessor -> Real Constants -> Add/Edit/Delete -> Add - Choosing SOLID65 as SET 1 and no input data at here because the rebar will be modelled as BEAM23. In addition, SOLID65 element only supports 3 rebars however there are 4 rebars in this problems. - Similarly to choose BEAM23 as SET 2: OUTER DIAMETER OD: 0.012 VII.3. Material properties

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Practical Application of Finite Element There are 2 material properties needing to be input. One is concrete, one is rebar. Preprocessor -> Material Props -> Material Models

Figure 7 + Concrete (Material Model Number 1): Structural -> Linear -> Elastics -> Isotropic: o o EX (Youngs modulus): 3E10 PRXY (Poissons ratio): 0.2

Structural -> Nonlinear -> Inelastic -> Rate Independent -> Isotropic Hardening Plasticity -> Mises Plasticity -> Multilinear

In this situation, the ratio between stress and strain must be equal to Youngs module at the first data, and then this ratio is decreased to the last data when the compressive strength increases. As the figure below shown, the cross-area is safe-area, where the reinforced concrete does not crack or crush.

Figure 8 A: Safe area, B: Starting cracking, C: Totally collapsed Strain 0.0005 0.0010 TU T NGUYEN @00221721 Stress 1.5E7 2.1E7 2

Practical Application of Finite Element 0.0015 0.0020 0.0025 0.0030 2.4E7 2.7E7 3.0E7 2.4E7

Structural -> Nonlinear -> Inelastic -> Non-linear Metal Plasticity -> Concrete o o o o Shear transfer coefficients for an open crack (ShrCf-Op): 0.5 Shear transfer coefficients for a closed crack (ShrCf-Cl): 0.9 Uniaxial tensile cracking stress (UnTensSf): 3E6 Uniaxial crushing stress (positive) (UnComSt): 3E7

+ Rebar (Material Properties 2): Structural -> Linear -> Elastics -> Isotropic: o o EX (Youngs modulus): 2E11 PRXY (Poissons ratio): 0.3

Structural -> Nonlinear -> Inelastic -> Rate Independent -> Isotropic Hardening Plasticity -> Mises Plasticity -> Bilinear o o Yield Stress: 460 N/mm2 Tang mod: 0

Figure 9 VII.4. Modelling The beam given is symmetrical geography and concentrated load, therefore, one half of the beam will be taken for simplification of computer model. L = 5.5/2 = 2.75mm D = 0.4m B = 0.25m There are 4 rebars, the cover is 0.05m

Therefore, the model will have 780 nodes (6 nodes in Z direction, 5 nodes in Y direction, 26 nodes in X direction and have 4x5x25 = 500 elements < 1000 elements. Modelling structural form with first-six-nodes in Z direction, after that using COPY function to finish the model. Preprocessor -> Modelling -> Create -> Nodes -> In Active CS Node TU T NGUYEN @00221721 X Y Z 3

Practical Application of Finite Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25

- These nodes need to copy to become the structural model. Co-ordinate Axis X Axis Y Axis Z + Generating node in Y direction Modelling -> Create -> Copy -> Nodes -> Copy - ITEM NUMBER OF COPIES: 5 - DX (X-offset in active CS): 0 - DY (X-offset in active CS): 0.1 - DZ (X-offset in active CS): 0 + Generating node in X direction - ITEM NUMBER OF COPIES: 26 - DX (X-offset in active CS): 0.11 - DY (X-offset in active CS): 0 - DZ (X-offset in active CS): 0 VII.5. Creating element SOLID65 will be created with all nodes. The node list should be opened to simply create each element. Element Attributes of SOLID65: Element type of number : SOLID65 Material Number: 1 Real Constant set number: 1 Distance from NODE I to NODE J 0.11 0.1 0.05

Creating SOLID65 element, Command-line should be input E,1,31,32,2,7,37,38,8 because of a simple creation in three-dimension (3D). Similar way to the other SOLID65 element.

Element Concrete block 1 Concrete block 2

Input Command-line E,1,31,32,2,7,37,38,8 E,2,32,33,3,8,38,39,9

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Practical Application of Finite Element Concrete block 3 Concrete block 4 Concrete block 5 E,3,33,34,4,9,39,40,10 E,4,34,35,5,10,40,41,11 E,5,35,36,6,11,41,42,12

Element Attributes of BEAM23: Element type of number : BEAM23 Material Number: 2 Real Constant set number: 2

Element Rebar 1 Rebar 2 Rebar 3 Rebar 4

Node I 8 9 10 11

Node J 38 39 40 41

Comment on creating To simply create element in 3D, at command-line: e,8,38 for Rebar 1. Similarly to creating node, the rebar 1 should be copy to the end of the beam: ITEM NUMBER OF COPIES: 25, and NODE NUMBER INCREMENT: 30

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ELEMENTS FEB 12 2010 11:21:44

Reinforcement

Figure 10 Rebar created in concrete

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Practical Application of Finite Element


ELEMENTS FEB 12 2010 12:12:54

Y Z X

Reinforcement

Figure 11 Structural Model finished

VII.6. Applying boundary condition Solution Type o o Solution -> Analysis Type -> New Analysis -> Choose Structural Solution -> Soln Controls Frequency: Write every substep (Investigation cracks start to take shape in the reinforced concrete) Number of substeps: 20 Max no. of substeps: 1000000 Min no. of substeps: 20 Define loads: o Solution -> Define Loads -> Apply -> Structural -> Displacement -> On Node UX is applied for nodes from 751 to 780 at the end of the structural model. UY and UZ is applied for nodes 1,2,3,4,5, 6.

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Practical Application of Finite Element


TS FEB 12 2010 16:51:33

Y Z X

Support of the beam

Figure 12 o Solution -> Define Loads -> Apply -> Pressure -> On Elements (External load applieds for investigating cracks and crush of concrete at L/3 = 1.8666) The 500000N applies at sixteenth element on top of the reinforced concrete. VII.7. Results To view the region of crack and crush: - General PostProc -> Read Results -> By Pick, - General PostProc -> Plot Results -> Concrete Plot -> Crack/Crush o Plot symbols are located at: Integration pts o Plot crack faces for: any cracks Time history:

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Practical Application of Finite Element

Figure 13 Time history Investigation of a cracked line is at 0.9 of time-line:


CRACKS AND CRUSHING STEP=1 SUB =18 TIME=.9 FEB 12 2010 15:56:05

Y Z X

Figure 14 No Crack and Crush However, crack and crush start occurring in concrete block at the last step:

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Practical Application of Finite Element


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CRACKS AND CRUSHING STEP=1 SUB =999999 TIME=1 FEB 12 2010 16:06:37

Y Z X

Figure 15 Crack and crush with Element Centroids

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CRACKS AND CRUSHING STEP=1 SUB =999999 TIME=1 FEB 12 2010 16:11:52

Figure 16 View at the region of crack

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Practical Application of Finite Element


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CRACKS AND CRUSHING STEP=1 SUB =999999 TIME=1 FEB 12 2010 22:18:49

Y Z X

Figure 17 Crack and Crush with Integration pts Reinforced concrete has more cracked line when the analysis of plastic criteria with 170kN
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CRACKS AND CRUSHING STEP=1 SUB =11 TIME=.002737 FEB 12 2010 15:09:47

Region of crack and crush

Y Z X

Figure 17 Analysis of plastic criteria

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