You are on page 1of 47

Petroleum Development Oman L.L.C.

UNRESTRICTED Dec 2004

Document ID: SP-1174 Filing key :

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines


(Amendments/Supplements to API Std 1104)

Keywords: API 1104 Flowlines Inspection Off-plot Pipelines Procedure Qualification Record Production Welding Testing Welding Procedure Specification Welder Qualification This document is the property of Petroleum Development Oman, LLC. Neither the whole nor any part of this document may be disclosed to others or reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means (electronic, mechanical, reprographic recording or otherwise) without prior written consent of the owner.

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

Authorised For Issue

Signed :............................................................ UER (TTO/1) CFDH Materials and Corrosion

The following table lists the most recent revisions to this document. Details of all revisions prior to these are held on file by the issuing department. Version No. Version 1.0 Version 1.1 Version 2.0 Date 05/04/00 05/06/00 30/12/04 Author OTT/15 OTT/15 TTO/15 Scope / Remarks Revision and re-formatting of original issue of ERD 43-06. Wording of 5.6.7.1 corrected, 9.3.1, 9.3.4 and 10.1 amended, Appendices re-numbered, new Appendix 4 added, minor textual corrections. Revised based on field experience and developments to international standards

December 2004

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Contents
Authorised For Issue ..................................................................................................................i Contents.......................................................................................................................................ii 1. Introduction.............................................................................................................................1 1.1 Purpose..............................................................................................................................1 1.2 Changes to the Specification............................................................................................1 1.3 Effective period................................................................................................................1 1.4 Review and Improvement................................................................................................1 1.5 Process Owner's Responsibility........................................................................................1 2. Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines...............................................2 2.1 Specification Requirements..............................................................................................2 Process Deliverables...............................................................................................................2 2.3 Performance Levels / Indicators.......................................................................................2 2.4 Performance Monitoring..................................................................................................2 Appendix 1 Glossary of Definitions, Terms and Abbreviations...........................................3 Appendix 2 Amendments/Supplements to API Std 1104......................................................5 1 General......................................................................................................................................5 1.1 Scope.................................................................................................................................5 2. Referenced Publications.........................................................................................................5 3 Definition of Terms..................................................................................................................5 4 Specifications............................................................................................................................5 4.1 Equipment.........................................................................................................................5 4.2 Materials...........................................................................................................................5 4.2.1 Pipe and fittings.....................................................................................................................5 4.2.2 Filler metal............................................................................................................................6 4.2.3 Shielding Gases.....................................................................................................................7 4.3 Quality System..................................................................................................................7 5 Qualification of Welding Procedures for Welds Containing Filler Metal Additives......7 5.1 Procedure Qualification....................................................................................................7 5.2 Record...............................................................................................................................8 5.3 Procedure Specification....................................................................................................8 5.3.1 General..................................................................................................................................8 5.3.2 Specification information......................................................................................................8 5.4.2 Changes requiring re-qualification.....................................................................................11 5.5 Welding of Test Joints - Butt Welds..............................................................................13 Testing of Welded Joints - Butt Welds..............................................................................13 5.6.1 Preparation...........................................................................................................................13 5.6.6 Macroscopic examination and hardness tests.....................................................................14 5.6.7 Charpy V-Notch Impact Testing.........................................................................................15 5.6.8 Retests..................................................................................................................................15 5.7 Welding of Test Joints - Fillet Welds and Branch welds..............................................16 5.8 Testing of Welded Joints - Fillet Welds and Branch welds..........................................16 5.8.4 Macroscopic Examination and Hardness Testing..............................................................16 5.9 Records...........................................................................................................................16 6 Qualification of Welders.......................................................................................................17 6.1 General............................................................................................................................17 6.2 Single Qualification........................................................................................................17 6.2.1 General................................................................................................................................17

SP-1174

ii

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

6.2.2 Scope...................................................................................................................................17 6.3 Multiple Qualification....................................................................................................17 6.4 Visual Examination........................................................................................................17 6.5 Destructive Testing.........................................................................................................18 6.5.1 Sampling of test butt welds.................................................................................................18 6.5.2 Tensile-strength, nick break and bend-test procedures for butt welds..............................18 6.6 Radiography - Butt Welds Only.....................................................................................18 6.6.1 General................................................................................................................................18 6.7 Retesting.........................................................................................................................18 6.8 Records...........................................................................................................................18 7 Production Welding...............................................................................................................19 7.1 General............................................................................................................................19 7.2 Alignment.......................................................................................................................19 7.3 Use of Line-Up Clamp for Butt Welds..........................................................................20 7.4 Bevel...............................................................................................................................20 7.4.2 Field bevel...........................................................................................................................20 7.7 Cleaning Between Beads................................................................................................20 7.8 Position Welding............................................................................................................21 7.8.2 Filler and finish beads.........................................................................................................21 Roll Welding.........................................................................................................................21 7.9.1 Alignment............................................................................................................................21 7.10 Identification of Welds.................................................................................................21 7.11 Pre- and Post-Heat Treatment......................................................................................21 Preheat and interpass temperature control and measurement.....................................................21 7.11.2 Post-weld heat treatment...................................................................................................22 7.12 Separation Of Girth Welds...........................................................................................22 7.13 Weld Interruption.........................................................................................................22 7.14 Weld Finishing.............................................................................................................22 7.15 Fillet Welds...................................................................................................................23 7.16 Branch Welds...............................................................................................................23 8 Inspection and Testing of Production Welds......................................................................23 8.2 Methods of Inspection....................................................................................................23 8.3 Qualification of Inspection Personnel ...........................................................................23 8.4 Certification of Non-Destructive Testing Personnel.....................................................23 8.4.1 Procedures...........................................................................................................................23 8.5 Extent of Inspection and Testing...................................................................................24 8.6 Certificate of Conformity...............................................................................................24 9 Acceptance Standards for Non-Destructive Testing..........................................................25 9.1 General............................................................................................................................25 9.3 Radiographic Testing......................................................................................................25 9.3.1 Inadequate Penetration without High-Low.........................................................................25 9.3.4 Incomplete Fusion...............................................................................................................25 9.3.8 Slag Inclusions....................................................................................................................25 9.3.10 Cracks................................................................................................................................25 9.3.14 Excess Reinforcement and Penetration............................................................................25 10 Repair and Removal of Defects..........................................................................................26 10.1 Authorisation for repair................................................................................................26 10.2 Repair Procedure..........................................................................................................26 10.3 Acceptance Criteria......................................................................................................26 12 Automatic Welding With Filler-Metal Additions............................................................26 13 Automatic Welding Without Filler-Metal Additions......................................................27 14 Documentation.....................................................................................................................28 14.1 General..........................................................................................................................28

December 2004

iii

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Appendices to API Std 1104....................................................................................................28 A Alternative Acceptance Standards for Girth Welds.........................................................28 A1 General............................................................................................................................28 B In-Service Welding...............................................................................................................29 Table A Charpy V-Notch Test Temperature.....................................................................29 Table B Charpy V-Notch Energy Requirements...............................................................29 Figure A Location of Macrosection and Impact Test Specimens....................................30 Figure B Orientation and Location of Charpy Impact Specimens..................................31 Figure C Hardness Indent Locations..................................................................................32 Appendix 3 References............................................................................................................33 Appendix 4 WPS and PQR Forms.........................................................................................35 Appendix 5.................................................................................................................................41 User Comment Form................................................................................................................42

SP-1174

iv

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

1.
1.1

Introduction
Purpose
This specification revises Specification for Welding of Class 2 Pipelines and Flowlines, issued in July 2000. The purpose of this specification is to define the minimum technical requirements for the welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines as defined in PDO SP-1211 (Nov 2004) where the applicable Code has been defined as ASME B31.4, Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids or ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems. The basis of this specification is API Std 1104, Nineteenth Edition, September 1999 including Errata dated October 31, 2001.

1.2

Changes to the Specification


This specification shall not be changed without approval from the Custodian, CFDH Materials and Corrosion, who owns this specification. If you think any part of this specification is not correct, write your comments on a copy of the User Comments Form. The form is included as the last page of this specification. Send the copy with your comments and personal details to DCS.

1.3

Effective period
The requirements of this specification shall remain in force indefinitely unless superseded by an authorised revision.

1.4

Review and Improvement


This specification will be reviewed and updated once every three years. authority will be CFDH Materials and Corrosion. The review

1.5

Process Owner's Responsibility


The owner of this specification, CFDH Materials and Corrosion, is responsible for authorising all proposed deviations or amendments to the specification and for the instigation of periodic reviews and updates in accordance with Clauses 1.2 and 1.4.

December 2004

Page 1

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

2.

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines


This Specification gives the minimum technical requirements for the welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines and ancillary equipment where the applicable Code has been defined by the Company as ASME B31.4 or ASME B31.8. This specification is based on API Std 1104, nineteenth edition, September 1999, including errata dated October 31 2001. Appendix 2 gives amendments and supplements to the base standard. Tables or figures supplementary to those of API Std 1104 have been designated with capital letters. This document is not applicable to: Welding of Class 1 pipelines as defined in SP-1211, (covered by PDO specification SP-1177) Welding of on-plot pipework (covered by PDO specification SP-1173), pressure vessels, storage tanks or structural steelwork. Welding on pressurised pipelines (covered by PDO specification SP-1167).

2.1

Specification Requirements

Welding, fabrication and inspection shall be in accordance with the requirements of API Std 1104, nineteenth edition,(including errata dated October 31 2001), as amended and supplemented by Appendix 2 of this specification. The amendments and supplements given in Appendix 2 are considered necessary to ensure integrity of the welded pipelines in accordance with PDO and Shell Group requirements. The Clause numbering in Appendix 2 follows that of API Std 1104. Where clauses of API Std 1104 are not amended or supplemented by Appendix 2, they shall apply in their entirety.

Process Deliverables
Process deliverables comprise field welded Class 2 and Class 3 pipelines and related welded fabrications designed to ASME B31.4 or ASME B31.8 and intended for off-plot oil and gas service.

2.3

Performance Levels / Indicators


See relevant API Std 1104 weld inspection and testing acceptance criteria and the amendments/supplements given in Appendix 2 of this specification.

2.4

Performance Monitoring
Requirements for monitoring welding process variables, welder performance and weld quality are detailed in relevant sections of API Std 1104 as amended by Appendix 2 of this specification.

SP-1174

Page 2

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

Appendix 1 Glossary of Definitions, Terms and Abbreviations


Certain terms and abbreviations used in this document are defined below. The listed definitions shall be considered to supplement those given in API Std 1104.

General Definitions
Contractor The party which carries out all or part of the design, engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning or management of a project, or operation or maintenance of a facility. The Company may undertake all or part of the duties of the Contractor. The party which manufactures or supplies equipment and services to perform the duties specified by the Contractor. Petroleum Developmant Oman LLC. The Company will generally specify the technical requirements. The Company may also include an agent or consultant authorised to act for, and on behalf of, the Company. The Company, Consultant or Contractor who uses this document. The person within the Company responsible for the discipline to which the standard belongs Indicates a requirement. Any deviation to a requirement shall be approved by the CFDH. Indicates a recommendation. A deviation to a recommendation shall be approved by Company Welding TA 2. Indicates a possible course of action.

Manufacturer/ Supplier Company

User Corporate Functional Discipline Head shall should

may

Specific Definitions
Nominal thickness Nominal thickness t shall have the following meanings: - butt joint; parent metal thickness, which for joints between dissimilar thicknesses is that of the thinner material. - fillet weld; parent metal thickness, which for joints between dissimilar thicknesses is that of the thicker material. - set-on branch connection; thickness of branch pipe - set-through branch connection; thickness of main pipe. A photocopy of an original document which has been reendorsed and signed by the organisation producing the photocopy to verify that none of the information has been adulterated. The Contractor nominated authority on the quality aspects of welding. The Welding co-ordinator shall be a Welding Engineer meeting the recommendations for European Welding Engineer (refer ISO 14731). However, other national/international qualifications may be considered at the discretion of the Company. The Welding Co-ordinator shall be approved by the Company TA-2 (Welding).

Verified Copy

Welding Co-ordinator

Abbreviations
December 2004 Page 3 SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

AFC ANSI API ASME AWS CE CFDH CSWIP D DCS DNV EMR ERS FCAW FL GMAW GTAW HAZ HV MT NACE NDT PAMS PCN PQR PT PWHT SAW SMAW SMYS t TA TWI WPS

Approved for Construction American National Standards Institute American Petroleum Institute American Society of Mechanical Engineers American Welding Society Carbon Equivalent Corporate Functional Discipline Head Certification Scheme for Welding Inspection Personnel Nominal Outside Diameter Document Control Section Det Norske Veritas Extra Moisture Resistant Engineering Research Station (British Gas) Flux Cored Arc Welding Fusion Line Gas Metal Arc Welding Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Heat Affected Zone Vickers Hardness Magnetic Particle Testing National Association of Corrosion Engineers Non-destructive Testing Portable Arc Monitoring System Personnel Certification in NDT Procedure Qualification Record Penetrant Testing Post Weld Heat Treatment Submerged Arc Welding Shielded Metal Arc Welding Specified Minimum Yield Stress Nominal Thickness Technical Authority, as defined in ERD-00-02 and PDO GU-272. The Welding Institute Welding Procedure Specification

SP-1174

Page 4

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

Appendix 2 Amendments/Supplements to API Std 1104 1 General


1.1 Scope

Replace existing section as follows: This specification covers the arc welding of butt and fillet welds in carbon and low alloy steels for Class 2 and Class 3 pipelines and related facilities. Welding may be carried out by a SMAW, GTAW, GMAW, SAW, or gas shielded FCAW process, or a combination of these processes. A manual, semi-automatic, or automatic welding technique, or combination of these techniques may be used. Roll welding shall only be accepted by the Company when an automatic welding process is used. Gas welding and flash butt welding processes shall not be used. GMAW, GTAW, and gas shielded FCAW shall be restricted to construction areas protected against wind and draught. This specification also covers the procedure requirements and acceptance standards to be applied to test and production welds destructively tested and non-destructively tested by radiographic, ultrasonic, magnetic particle or liquid penetrant techniques.

2. 3 4

Referenced Publications
See also Appendix 3 of this specification.

Definition of Terms
See also Appendix 1 of this specification.

Specifications
4.1 Equipment

Welding plant, instrumentation, tools, and accessories shall be suitably maintained in accordance with manufacturers instructions and shall have adequate capacity for the welding procedures to be employed. Welding plant electrical output, portable voltmeters, portable ammeters, wire feed speed meters and gas flow meters shall be calibrated prior to welding, and thereafter at intervals defined in the Contractors calibration procedure. A log of the calibration status shall be maintained. Pipe handling equipment, rollers, and line-up clamps shall not damage the pipes and shall achieve the specified fit-up.

4.2
4.2.1

Materials
Pipe and fittings

Replace existing section as follows: Pipe shall be in accordance with one of the following or equivalent: DEP 31.40.20.35 DEP 31.40.20.37 Fittings shall be in accordance with PPS Specifications

December 2004

Page 5

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

The Contractor shall obtain verified copies of the materials certificates for all free-issue items to be welded. Contractor-supplied items shall have original or verified copies of materials certification. Items without materials certificates shall not be used unless they are re-certified through re-testing and material is positively identified by suitable marking on the pipe. 4.2.2 4.2.2.1 Filler metal Type and size

Replace existing section as follows: AWS A5.2 filler metals shall not be used. Only Company-approved Manufacturers shall be used. Each lot of consumables shall be tested in accordance with the AWS A 5.01, class 4 or 5 for covered electrodes, class S-3 for solid wires and class T-3 for flux cored wires, as a minimum. The level of testing shall be schedule J. The test certificate shall be in accordance with ISO 10474 type 3.1.B. Where the service has been designated by the Company as sour, the certificate shall show that the deposited nickel (Ni) content in the weld metal does not exceed 1.0%. Fluxes shall be tested and certified in combination with the filler metal. All filler metals shall have classification society, e.g., Lloyds, DNV, type approval. When low hydrogen electrodes are used to weld materials with SMYS 415 N/mm 2 (MPa) and above (i.e. API 5L X60 and above), consideration should be given to use electrodes packed in hermitically sealed tins/ containers.

4.2.2.2 Storage and Handling of Filler Metals and Fluxes Electrodes, filler wires, and fluxes shall be stored in a dry storage room in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Consumables shall remain in their original containers, which shall be marked with the manufacturers name, the consumable trade name, and the batch number. Consumables in containers that are not identifiable and traceable shall be removed from the job site to the satisfaction of the Company. The storage room shall have a maximum relative humidity of 50%, which shall be monitored in accordance with an agreed procedure. Different storage conditions that are recommended by the filler metal or flux manufacturers may be applied, however, prior approval of Company Welding TA 2 shall be obtained. Consumables that show signs of damage or deterioration, e.g., cracked or flaked-coatings, rusty or dirty core wires, flaked or damaged copper coating, shall be disposed of to the satisfaction of the Company. All manual electrodes shall be properly identifiable up to the time of usage, each electrode being distinguishable by a coding marked near the grip end. Electrodes without a code marking shall not be used. Wire spools shall be stored in cabinets with suppliers wrapping in place and shall remain clearly identifiable up to the point of usage. Unidentifiable wire shall not be used. Flux shall be handled and stored in accordance with the flux manufacturers recommendations. The Contractor shall furnish the Company with datasheets for the flux prior to its arrival at site. Flux shall remain identifiable and traceable. Recycling shall not be permitted.

SP-1174

Page 6

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

SMAW electrodes shall be stored and treated prior to use as specified by the Manufacturer. Electrodes supplied in hermetically sealed containers and Extra Moisture Resistant (EMR) electrodes shall be used as per manufacturers instructions. Other basic low-hydrogen electrodes, after removal from the containers, shall be baked in ovens in accordance with the manufacturers instructions such that the diffusible hydrogen content does not exceed 10ml/100 g of deposited weld metal. After baking, the electrodes shall be transferred to holding ovens set at 1500 C from where they shall be issued to heated quivers maintained at 700C minimum. Low hydrogen consumables shall not be stored in the same heated cabinets as other types of consumables. The maximum stacking height shall be four layers. The baking ovens and the holding ovens shall have automatic heat controls and a temperature read-out display. Consumable control shall be such that any basic low-hydrogen electrodes shall be used within four hours of issue to a quiver. Those electrodes not used within four hours shall be returned to the baking oven. Electrodes shall be baked a maximum of two times, (i.e. one initial bake and one re-bake). The Contractor shall have a system of identification for rebaked electrodes. Prior to the commencement of qualification or production welding, whichever is sooner, the Contractor shall submit a consumable handling procedure to the Company for review and approval. Test welding and/or production welding shall not commence until the consumable handling procedure has been approved by Company Welding TA 2 or higher. 4.2.3 Shielding Gases

4.2.3.1 Types Add the following: Shielding and purge gases shall be certified as complying with ISO 14175 or equivalent. The purity or component concentrations of the gas shall be as specified on the WPS and shall be the same for procedure qualification and production welding. 4.2.3.2 Storage and Handling Add the following: Gases in containers that are unidentifiable shall not be used. Add the following new section:

4.3

Quality System

The Contractor shall maintain and operate a quality system that shall be in accordance with ISO 9001: 2000 and SP-1171. A quality system based on alternative standards to those of ISO-9001 may be considered for agreement by the Company. All welding and related activities shall satisfy the requirements of ISO 3834-2 and additional requirements of this standard (certification by Third Party Inspection Agency is recommended but not mandatory). It is recommended to follow the guideline given in PD CR 13576.

Qualification of Welding Procedures for Welds Containing Filler Metal Additives


5.1 Procedure Qualification

Add the following:

December 2004

Page 7

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

General WPS proposals for qualification shall be submitted to the Company a minimum of two weeks prior to the proposed date of test welding. The WPS proposals shall be endorsed and signed by the Contractor's authorised representative prior to submission. The Company welding TA-2 shall indicate approval of the WPS proposals by endorsingApproved for Qualification, the contract number, the date, and signature. Only WPSs so endorsed shall be used for test welding.
Note: Any welding procedure qualified to meet project specific requirements for which the Company has paid/reimbursed the cost of qualification shall be owned by the Company. The Company will keep original PQR copies.

Where possible, PDO pre-qualified PQRs in accordance with PR-1274 should be used. Other previously qualified welding procedures may be employed subject to the following: The PQR is fully in accordance with this specification. The WPS is amended to reflect the project specific details. The welding shall be within the essential variables defined in this specification. The WPS and PQR are owned and controlled by the Contractor. The WPS and PQR are approved by the welding TA-2 for each project.

5.2

Record

Delete Figures 1 and 2. Replace the third sentence with the following: The forms appended as Appendix 4 of this specification should be used for the WPS and PQR. Add the following: The PQR shall include materials certificates for the items included in the test weld. Welding parameters should be recorded by means of a calibrated portable arc monitoring system (PAMS) with printout facility. The print-outs, where obtained, shall be included in the PQR.

5.3
5.3.1

Procedure Specification
General

Add the following: The WPS shall show the following non-technical information: Date Revision number Contract number Project title Contractors Logo Contractors signature and endorsement Client: PDO 5.3.2 5.3.2.2 Specification information Pipe and fitting materials

Add the following: The maximum carbon equivalent of the materials for which the procedure is applicable shall be shown on the WPS. CE = % C + %Mn/6 + (%Cr + % Mo + % V)/5 + (%Cu + % Ni)/15

SP-1174

Page 8

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

5.3.2.3 Diameters and Wall Thicknesses Replace existing section as follows: The diameter range shall be as shown in the following table. Test Weld Outside Diameter, D < 323.9 mm >323.9 mm Qualified Diameter Range 0.5 OD to 2 OD > 0.5 OD

The wall thickness range shall be 0.5t to 1.5t of the test weld. For branches (including weldolets) D means outside diameter of the branch/weldolet at the weld toe. 5.3.2.4 Joint design

Add the following: The WPS shall include a sketch of the joint preparation indicating the dimensions and allowable tolerances of the bevel angle, root gap, and root face. Permanent backing bars shall not be used. Joint designs shall be as shown in ASME B31.4/B31.8. 5.3.2.5 Filler metal and number of beads

Add the following: Details of the filler metal sizes, classification, and manufacturer/brand name shall be stated on the WPS for each pass. Details of consumable pre-treatment shall also be included in the WPS. For SMAW, maximum bead width should be restricted to 2.5 times the electrode diameter. Based on the minimum linepipe thickness of 4.8 mm normally specified for pipelines, joints shall be completed with a minimum of three passes. 5.3.2.6 Electrical characteristics

Add the following: The travel speed and, where applicable, electrode stick-out, contact tube-to-work distance, and wire feed speed shall be specified for each bead. The Contractor shall control the welding parameters so that the heat input variation is not greater than that of the qualified heat input range, in accordance with clauses 5.3.2.17 and 5.4.2.15 of this specification. 5.3.2.7 Flame characteristics

Replace existing section as follows: Oxyfuel gas welding shall not be used. 5.3.2.8 Position

Add the following: WPSs for manually welded linepipe butt joints shall be qualified in the 5G position to cover production welding positions. Automatic welds shall be qualified for each position to be used in production. Branches, attachment welds and ancillary piping may be

December 2004

Page 9

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

qualified in the production welding position or, to cover all positions, in the 6G position, at the option of the Contractor. Direction of welding Add the following: For the following, the root bead shall be deposited with a vertical-up progression: Tie-in welds Welds where an external line-up clamp is used Welds to fittings Full penetration repairs Welds where temporary tack welds have been employed for alignment. For the following, the complete weld shall be made with a vertical-up progression: Welds to valves Fillet welds. 5.3.2.10 Time between passes Add the following: The hot (second) pass shall be deposited immediately after completion of the root run and the time lapse shall not be greater than that used in procedure qualification. The maximum time for other passes shall not be greater than that used in procedure qualification but should not be more than 5 minutes for cellulosic electrodes. 5.3.2.11 Type and removal of line-up clamp Replace last sentence as follows: An internal or external line-up clamp shall be used for all girth welds except where it is demonstrated that to do so would be impractical in which case tack welding may be permitted by Company approval. An internal line-up clamp shall not be removed until deposition is completed of the first two passes or 4mm thickness of weld, whichever is greater. An external line-up clamp shall not be removed until the root bead is at least 50% complete, equally distributed around the joint. The minimum number of passes to be deposited before the pipe is lowered off shall be stated. See also clause 7.3 of this specification. 5.3.2.12 Cleaning and/or grinding Add the following: The WPS shall state the methods and types of tools to be used for inter-run cleaning, final weld surface preparation, and treatment to the backside of the weld, if any. See also section 7.7 of this specification. 5.3.2.13 Pre- and post-heat treatment Add the following: The maximum interpass temperature and temperature control methods shall also be specified. See also clause 7.11.1 of this specification.

SP-1174

Page 10

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

5.3.2.15 Shielding flux Add the following: The type of flux, the AWS flux classification, the manufacturer and brand name and the size shall also be specified. 5.3.2.16 Speed of travel Replace existing section as follows: Speed of travel shall be shown in millimetres per minute or millimetres per second. Add the following new sections, 5.3.2.17 5.3.2.20: 5.3.2.17 Heat input range The allowable range of heat input rates to be applied by each welding process for each pass shall be specified. Heat Input (kJ/mm) = (Volts x Amps x 60) / (1000 x Welding Speed (mm/min.) 5.3.2.18 Number of welders The WPS shall designate the number of root pass welders and hot pass (second pass) welders. For pipe of greater than NPS 12, a minimum of two welders shall be employed for all passes. 5.3.2.19 Partially completed joint The minimum number of passes before the joint is allowed to cool to ambient temperature shall be specified. The minimum shall be three passes or one third of the joint whichever is greater. See also clause 7.13 of this specification. 5.3.2.20 Tungsten electrode for GTAW The AWS electrode class shall be specified in the WPS. 5.4.2 5.4.2.2 Changes requiring re-qualification Base material

Add the following: A change to a higher grade of material within the allowable range than that already qualified shall constitute an essential variable. An increase in the carbon equivalent value greater than 0.03 units for sour service and 0.04 units for non-sour from that qualified shall also be considered an essential variable. Procedures qualified using API 5L Grade X 60 or X 52 also qualify lower strength API 5L materials including Grade B. 5.4.2.5 Wall Thickness

Change title and replace as follows:

December 2004

Page 11

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Pipe Diameter and Wall Thickness Any change outside the limits given in section 5.3.2.3 of this specification shall also constitute an essential variable. 5.4.2.6 Filler metal

Add the following new sub-clause c: c. A change in the diameter of electrode or filler wire. One size increase is acceptable for passes other than root and hot passes. For API 5L Grade X 60 and higher grades, any change in the brand name constitutes an essential variable. It is permissible to change the specific make of filler metal to another with the same compulsory part of the classification when an additional test piece is welded. This test piece shall be welded using the identical welding parameters as the original weld procedure test and only weld impact test specimens shall be tested. 5.4.2.10 Shielding gas and flow rate Add the following: A change of shielding or backing gas flow rate to one outside the range 20% of the average value qualified and specified shall also constitute an essential variable. 5.4.2.12 Speed of travel Replace existing section as follows: Any change in the range of qualified speed of travel, or electrode run out length, shall constitute an essential variable. See also 5.4.2.15 5.4.2.13 Preheat Delete the existing section and replace as follows: Any decrease below the qualified minimum preheat temperature or any increase greater than 100C in the specified minimum preheat shall constitute an essential variable. Add the following new sections, 5.4.2.15 5.4.2.21: 5.4.2.15 Welding current or heat input Any change in average welding heat input per pass outside the range 15% of that qualified shall be considered an essential variable. Amps, volts and travel speed (or electrode run-out length) may be varied to the extent that the heat input variation is maintained within the 15% range. For sour service, the heat input shall not fall below that recorded during procedure approval testing. 5.4.2.16 Wire feed speed Any change outside of the range specified on the approved for construction WPS shall constitute an essential variable. 5.4.2.17 Number and sequence of weld beads Any change in the sequence of deposition, e.g. a change from temper bead deposition pattern, shall constitute an essential variable.

SP-1174

Page 12

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

5.4.2.18 Number of welders For pipe with D over 323.9 millimetres, any change in the number of root pass and hot (second) pass welders shall constitute an essential variable. 5.4.2.19 Removal of line-up clamp Removal of the line-up clamp at a stage earlier than stated in the approved for construction WPS shall constitute an essential variable. 5.4.2.20 Partially completed joint Any change in the minimum number of runs before the joint is allowed to cool shall constitute an essential variable. Tungsten Electrode Classification Where the GTAW process is used, any change in the tungsten electrode AWS class and size shall constitute an essential variable.

5.5

Welding of Test Joints - Butt Welds

Replace existing section as follows: Two pipe nipples of sufficient length to accommodate production line-up and clamping equipment shall be welded together. Sufficient test welds shall be made to extract all the destructive test specimens required for qualification testing. Test welding shall be witnessed by the Company. The Contractor shall give the Company a minimum of 48 hours notice of the intention to proceed with test welding. Immediately prior to test welding, the Contractor shall have available at the test site for Company inspection, the following documents: WPS endorsed Approved for Qualification Materials certificates, or verified copies, traceable to the items to be welded. Batch certificates, or verified copies, traceable to the welding consumables. The approved consumable handling procedure.

The Contractor shall have a minimum of one Company approved calibrated portable arc monitoring system with hard copy facility available at the test site to record welding parameters. For pipe of D up to 323.9 millimetres, test welding shall be performed by one welder.

Testing of Welded Joints - Butt Welds


5.6.1 Preparation

Delete the existing section and replace as follows: 5.6.1.1 Non-destructive testing of test welds

Test welds shall be subjected to NDT as detailed below before sectioning for destructive testing in accordance with 5.6.1.2. Any specified post-weld heat treatment shall be completed prior to NDT. The test weld shall not be subjected to PWHT or NDT until a minimum of 24 hours has elapsed after the completion of welding.

December 2004

Page 13

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

The NDT shall consist of the following: Visual examination Magnetic particle testing Radiographic testing supplemented, if specified by the Company, by ultrasonic testing. Ultrasonic testing on test welds where any bead has been deposited by GMAW, semiautomatic or automatic GTAW, or FCAW. NDT on all test welds shall be performed with the weld at ambient temperature using the equipment and Company-approved procedures that will be employed for production. NDT of a test weld may serve as a qualification test for the NDT procedures and shall be witnessed by the Company. The acceptance criteria shall be as stated in Section 9 of this specification. Any weld that fails to meet the acceptance criteria shall not be offered for destructive testing. 5.6.1.2 Destructive testing of test welds

Following Company approval of the NDT, all test welds shall be sectioned at the locations shown in Figure 3 of API Std 1104 and Figure A of this specification. Sectioning and testing shall be performed at a Company-approved test laboratory. Testing for procedure qualification shall be performed in accordance with API Std 1104 and the additional requirements of this specification. All testing shall be witnessed by a Company Representative, Welding TA-3 or higher, or a Company approved third party inspection agency. The Contractor shall be responsible for the engagement and hiring of the inspection agency. All test reports shall be endorsed and signed by the testing organisation, the Contractor, and the inspection agency, who witnessed the testing. The inspection agency shall also issue a certificate of conformance which states that the testing practices and procedures were in compliance with API Std 1104 and this specification. The test reports and the certificate of conformance shall be included in the PQR. Add the following new sections, 5.6.6 5.6.8: 5.6.6 5.6.6.1 Macroscopic examination and hardness tests Preparation

Specimens shall be prepared for macroscopic examination by grinding to a 600 grit paper finish. The prepared surfaces shall be etched using a suitable etchant to reveal clearly the weld, HAZ and the presence of macro defects. The sections of the weld taken for macroscopic examination shall be used for hardness testing. 5.6.6.2 Method

The hardness shall be measured in accordance with ASTM E92, using HV10. For pipe butt welds, the hardness indentations shall be as shown in Figure C of this specification. For pipe of t less than 10 millimetres, the mid-thickness traverse may be omitted. The macro-sections shall be examined at a minimum magnification of x5. photographs showing the hardness indentations shall be included in the PQR. 5.6.6.3 Requirements Macro-

The macro-sections shall not show defects exceeding the acceptance standards given in Section 9 of this specification. Each specimen shall exhibit a smooth and regular profile and the reinforcement shall blend smoothly with the parent metal. Slight intermittent undercut with a maximum depth of 10% of the pipe wall thickness or 0.4 millimetres, whichever is the smaller, shall be deemed acceptable. Excess penetration shall not exceed the requirements of clause 9.3.14 of this specification. Joint misalignment shall not exceed 1.6 millimetres.

SP-1174

Page 14

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

For material designated to meet the requirements of either sour service, NACE MR 0175; maximum root and mid-thickness hardness for weld and HAZ shall be 250 HV10. The maximum cap hardness shall be 275 HV10. For material not designated to meet the requirements of either sour service, NACE MR0175; maximum hardness shall be 325 HV 10. 5.6.7 Charpy V-Notch Impact Testing

Impact testing shall be in accordance with ASTM A370 and this specification. Each procedure qualification shall include impact testing when the nominal pipe wall thickness exceeds 5 millimetres. 5.6.7.1 Preparation

One set of three specimens shall be taken at each of the following positions: root weld centre line root fusion line (50% intersection of notch) root fusion line + 2 millimetres When the wall thickness exceeds 20 millimetres, an additional set of three specimens shall be taken at each of the following positions: cap weld centre line cap fusion line (50% intersection of notch) cap fusion line + 2 millimetres These requirements are summarised in Figure B of this specification. Specimens shall, be 10 x 10 millimetres full size wherever possible. Where these dimensions are not possible, sub-size 10 x 6.7 millimetres shall be extracted. If the latter are not possible, the specimens shall be 10 x 5 millimetres. Where machining requirements reduce specimen thickness, the maximum feasible thickness below 5 millimetres shall be tested and shall meet the acceptance criteria for 10 x 5 millimetre specimens. 5.6.7.2 Test temperatures and acceptance criteria

The test temperature shall be in accordance with Table A of this specification. Where the minimum design temperature, T, is not specified, testing shall be performed at 0C. For each set of three specimens, only one of the individual values may be below the minimum average energy requirement with an absolute minimum as defined by the minimum individual acceptance criterion. The acceptance criteria are detailed in Table B of this specification. 5.6.8 5.6.8.1 Retests General

If the results of destructive testing are unsatisfactory owing to defective specimen preparation or a localised weld defect, the Contractor shall inform the Company and obtain approval to proceed with retests as detailed below. 5.6.8.2 Tensile tests and bend tests

If one tensile or bend specimen does not meet the acceptance criteria, two additional specimens shall be tested. Both of the additional specimens shall meet the acceptance criteria.

December 2004

Page 15

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

5.6.8.3

Hardness tests

If one hardness result exceeds the specified maximum then three further impressions shall be made in close proximity to that which failed such that they do not mutually interfere. If all of the further tests are below the specified maximum then the test shall be accepted. 5.6.8.4 Charpy v-notch impact tests

If the specified minimum average value has been achieved and more than one specimen is below the specified minimum average value, or one specimen is below the specified minimum individual value, a retest of three further specimens shall be made. All three individual retest values shall equal or exceed the specified minimum average value. 5.6.8.5 New procedure requirement

If the test joint fails to meet the minimum requirements, a new WPS proposal shall be established and qualification welding and testing repeated.

5.7

Welding of Test Joints - Fillet Welds


Change title to:

5.7

Welding of Test Joints - Fillet Welds and Branch welds

Add the following at the end of the section Low-hydrogen electrodes shall be used for all fillet welds and wherever SMAW is used for the welding of branches. Test welding shall be witnessed by the Company and shall commence only after the WPS proposal has been approved by the Company Welding TA 2 and endorsed Approved for Qualification.

5.8

Testing of Welded Joints - Fillet Welds


Change title to:

5.8

Testing of Welded Joints - Fillet Welds and Branch welds

Test welds shall be visually inspected and magnetic particle tested after a minimum of 24 hours has elapsed after completion of welding. If the weld is deemed acceptable in accordance with the appropriate acceptance criteria detailed in Section 9 of this specification and API Std 1104, it may be offered for destructive testing. Add the following new section: 5.8.4 Macroscopic Examination and Hardness Testing

Macroscopic examination and hardness measurement shall be carried out in accordance with section 5.6.6 of this specification. Specimens for examination and testing shall be extracted from locations denoted in Figure A of this specification for butt welds. Hardness traverses shall be as shown in Figure C of this specification. Add the following new section:

5.9

Records

The procedure qualification record shall include the following: Approved for qualification WPS

SP-1174

Page 16

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

Print-outs from the PAMS for each pass Visual inspection and NDT reports Heat treatment reports Original laboratory test certificates, including macrophotographs Original or verified copies of materials certificates for the test coupon materials Original or verified copies of batch certificates for the consumables employed for test welding. The PQR shall be submitted to the Company for review and approval with the revised WPS for production welding.

Qualification of Welders
6.1 General

Add the following: Welders who weld procedure qualification test coupons that are satisfactory shall be deemed as being qualified. Welders shall have a valid Company qualification within the validity defined in this specification or they shall be qualified on contract materials using the Approved For Construction WPS. Qualification shall be valid for a period of six months. This period may be extended by a further six months when it can be shown by NDT from production welding that the welder has produced satisfactory welds using the approved for construction WPS. The Contractor shall keep a performance record for all qualified welders. The performance record shall show continuing satisfactory performance with objective evidence including statistical detail of weld repair rate. Welders shall be re-qualified when the Company has reason to question the welder's ability to make welds that meet this specification.

6.2
6.2.1

Single Qualification
General

Delete first sentence and replace as follows: The use of segments of pipe nipples shall not be permitted. Each of the two pipe nipples used to make the test weld shall be a minimum length of D or they shall be of sufficient length to accommodate the alignment device being used, whichever is greater. 6.2.2 Scope

Add the following sub-clause h. h. For base material grades of SMYS up to and including 360 N/mm2 (MPa), material strength is not an essential variable. For SMYS > 360 N/mm2 (MPa), a welder qualification using material of a given SMYS qualifies the welder for materials of equal or lower SMYS.

6.3

Multiple Qualification

Delete this section in its entirety.

6.4

Visual Examination

Delete existing section and replace with the following:

December 2004

Page 17

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Performance of visual examination and the acceptance criteria shall be as defined in section 9 of this specification.

6.5
6.5.1

Destructive Testing
Sampling of test butt welds

Delete existing section and replace with the following: Butt weld test pieces shall be subjected to bend testing. Sample removal shall be in accordance with Figure 12 and Table 3 of API Std 1104. For Grades up to API 5L X52 grade, radiography may be used instead of bend mechanical testing. 6.5.2 Tensile-strength, nick break and bend-test procedures for butt welds

Delete existing section and replace with the following: The specimens shall be prepared for bend testing and the tests performed as described in section 5.6.4 or 5.6.5 of API Std 1104. Tensile and nick break testing is not required. 6.5.3 Sampling of test branch welds Branch weld test pieces shall be subject to macro and hardness testing. Four macro specimens and three hardness assessments shall be required. Sample removal shall be from the 3, 6, 9 and 12 oclock positions and either the 3 oclock or 9 oclock hardness assessment may be omitted. Preparation, method and requirements shall be in accordance with clause 5.6.6. Hardness traverses shall be as shown in Figure C of this specification. If one hardness result exceeds the specified maximum then three further impressions shall be made in close proximity to that which failed such that they do not mutually interfere. If all of the further tests are below the specified maximum then the test shall be accepted.

6.6
6.6.1

Radiography - Butt Welds Only


General

Add the following: Ultrasonic testing shall also be performed on test welds where any bead has been deposited by GMAW, semi-automatic or automatic GTAW, or FCAW.

6.7

Retesting

Replace existing section as follows: If the test weld does not meet the specified acceptance criteria, the welder may carry out two repeat tests provided that the failure can be attributed to unavoidable conditions and not lack of training. Both of the repeat welds shall meet the specified acceptance criteria. Failure of one or both repeat welds shall result in disqualification of the welder until such time as the Contractor can demonstrate to the Company by records that satisfactory training has been received. The welder may then be presented for further qualification testing.

6.8

Records

Add the following:

SP-1174

Page 18

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

The Contractor shall maintain the records of the tests and test results of each welder. The Contractor shall assign to each welder a unique identification number, letter, or symbol to ensure traceability to specific welds. If the welder ceases to work for the Contractor, the unique identification shall not be re-assigned to another welder. The Contractor shall issue each qualified welder a badge, endorsed by the Company, bearing the welders name, photograph, identification and WPSs for which the qualification is valid. Welders not wearing badges shall be suspended from production welding until such time as the badge can be produced.

7 7

Design and Preparation of a Joint for Production Welding


Change title as follows:

Production Welding
7.1 General

Replace existing section as follows: Limitations imposed by the essential variables detailed in this specification and API Std 1104 shall be adhered to in production welding. No production welding shall be carried out before the WPSs have been endorsed as 'Approved for Construction' by the Company Welding TA-2 and the welders qualified to weld using the approved WPSs. The approved WPSs shall be available at the construction site. Welding operations shall not be performed when a welding inspector is not present at the construction site. The preparation and welding of pipeline components shall be in accordance with the qualified and approved WPS. Fusion faces and the surrounding surfaces within a minimum of 25 millimetres of the joint shall be free from heavy scale, moisture, oil, paint, or any other substance which may have a deleterious effect on the weld quality or progress. If welding works are to be performed in the vicinity of equipment already installed, adequate protection shall be provided to prevent damage from weld spatter. Arcs shall be struck only on fusion faces or on striking plates provided as an aid to arc starting. Stray arc strikes shall be removed by grinding. The ground area shall be magnetic particle tested and thickness checked. Where the thickness is below the specified minimum, the section of pipe shall be removed. The Contractor shall ensure a good earth connection and periodically examine the condition of the earth cables and attachments. Any arcing from a poor connection shall be treated as an arc strike. Connections shall be made to the work by copper or brass clamps. Earth cables shall not be welded to pipeline components. A Company-approved circular cap to prevent entry of foreign material shall be used to cover open ends of the pipe when interruptions to work expected to last two or more hours occur. All open ends of pipe strings shall be capped off and sealed when welding is completed.

7.2

Alignment

Replace existing section as follows:

December 2004

Page 19

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

The pipeline components shall be firmly supported in both the vertical and horizontal plane and no welding shall be carried out until the alignment specified in the approved WPS has been achieved. Any misalignment shall be reduced to a minimum by rotation of the pipe to achieve the best fit. Hammering or heating of the pipe shall not be permitted. If the offset exceeds 1.6 millimetres, provided that it is caused by dimensional variations within the specified tolerances, or where alignment of two pipeline components of different nominal thickness and the same outside diameter is required, joint design shall be in accordance with ASME B31.4 or B31.8. Any taper shall not be steeper than 1 in 4. When a pipe with one longitudinal seam is used, this seam shall be within the top 120 of the circumference. The longitudinal seams of consecutive pipes shall be offset by at least 45. Tack welds shall be avoided wherever possible. Where demonstrated to be unavoidable and approved by the Company, temporary bar tacks shall be employed using compatible material (i.e. of the same general type as the pipe). Preheat shall be employed if required by the WPS and welding parameters shall be in accordance with the appropriate fill pass. Tack welders shall be qualified to weld with the WPS. The minimum length of tack weld shall be 25 millimetres. On components up to and including 114.3 millimetres outside diameter, three equally spaced tacks shall be deposited. For components of outside diameter greater than 114.3 millimetres, four equally spaced tacks shall be deposited.

7.3

Use of Line-Up Clamp for Butt Welds

Add the following: Root bead segments used with external line-up clamps shall be cleaned, feathered at each end and visually inspected prior to completion of the root pass. Any segment which does not meet the acceptance criteria of Section 9 of API Std 1104 and this specification shall be removed and re-deposited before completion of the root pass. Pipe shall not be moved or lowered off until the second pass has been completed.

7.4
7.4.2

Bevel
Field bevel

Replace existing section as follows: Component ends shall be bevelled by machining, grinding, or machine thermal cutting. Edges shall be left free of slag and the cut surface shall be ground to a smooth, uniform finish with the removal of a minimum of 0.5 millimetres of metal. The new bevel shall be visually examined and magnetic particle tested using a Company approved procedure. Burns, small score marks, indentations, other imperfections, and linear indications shall be unacceptable and the bevel shall be re-prepared. Repair by welding shall not be permitted. Where pipes are cut, pipe markings shall be transferred to the off-cut in order to maintain identification.

7.7

Cleaning Between Beads

Delete, When automatic or semi-automatic welding is used,.... and replace with the following: For all types of welding,....

SP-1174

Page 20

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

7.8
7.8.2

Position Welding
Filler and finish beads

Replace last sentence of first paragraph as follows: The weld metal reinforcement at the cap shall not exceed the requirements of clause 9.3.14 of this specification.

Roll Welding
7.9.1 Alignment

Replace existing section as follows: Roll welding shall be restricted to fully automatic welding processes and then only when the pipe can be adequately supported on rollers with drives coupled electrically to the welding machine. All equipment shall be subject to Company approval.

7.10 Identification of Welds


Replace existing section as follows: Prior to commencing the root pass, the welder shall clearly mark the pipe adjacent to the weld with the symbol or identification assigned to him. Where tack welding has been approved by the Company, no marks shall be made for the tack welding. Marking shall be made with weather-proof chalk, paint, chloride-free crayon, or pen. Die stamps shall not be used. The root pass welder shall make a mark at the top of the pipe. Where two welders make the root pass, they shall each make a mark at the top of the pipe on the side where they are about to weld. Subsequent welders shall mark the pipe below the first code in the sequence which they work. The identification marks shall not be removed until the welds have been inspected both visually and non-destructively and accepted.

7.11 Pre- and Post-Heat Treatment


Replace existing section as follows: Preheat and interpass temperature control and measurement 7.11.1.1 General

Preheating shall be carried out using either electrical resistance heaters, induction heaters, or oxy-propane rosebud torches. Welding or cutting torches shall not be used. Induction coils shall not be energised during welding. For induction heating, the Contractor shall submit a detailed procedure, which shall be qualified on a minimum of five test welds. Preheat shall be applied to a minimum bandwidth of 75 millimetres either side of the joint and shall be maintained over the full length of the joint until the weld is completed. Temperature measurement shall be by thermocouple, thermomelt crayon, contact pyrometer, or combination of these. Requirements The minimum preheat shall be 50C when the steel surface temperature is below 20C.

December 2004

Page 21

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

For material strength grades below X60, (SMYS <413 N/mm 2) no further preheat is required for pipe wall thicknesses less than 32 mm provided the maximum carbon equivalent of the materials to be welded is below 0.4. In all other cases the minimum preheat temperature shall be the higher of 100C and the value calculated in accordance with BS EN 1011-2. For calculations to BS EN 1011-2, the carbon equivalent value shall be the maximum derived from the project materials specification and the heat input shall be the minimum specified in the WPS proposal. The maximum interpass temperature shall be 250C and the minimum shall not be below the minimum preheat temperature. 7.11.2 Post-weld heat treatment The necessity for post weld heat treatment shall be determined from ASME B31.8 Section 825 or ASME B31.4 Section 434, as applicable. For welds in pipe of grades X60 and above, the temperature range shall be 560-600C. For other grades, the temperature range shall be 580-620C. The holding time shall be 2.5 minutes per millimetre of wall thickness, with a minimum time of one hour. The heating and cooling rate shall be a maximum of 300 C per hour. Pipe ends shall be covered when heat treating welds. A number of thermocouples shall be used in order to give reliable temperature measurement as follows: Less than 8-inch NPS - 1 8-inch NPS up to and including 20-inch NPS - 2 spaced 180 apart Over 20-inch NPS - 3 spaced at 120 apart. Extra thermocouples shall be used to achieve a maximum separation of 800 millimetres. A post weld heat treatment procedure shall be submitted for Company approval prior to test welding. Add the following new sections, 7.12 7.16:

7.12 Separation Of Girth Welds


The minimum allowable distance between girth welds shall be D or 50 millimetres whichever is the larger. If not feasible both girth welds shall be radio-graphed (in addition to the requirements specified elsewhere in this specification) and shall meet requirements of this specification.

7.13 Weld Interruption


Interruption of welding should be avoided. Where interruption is unavoidable, a minimum of three passes or one third of the joint thickness, whichever is greater, shall have been deposited. The weld shall be wrapped in a dry thermal insulating blanket for slow cooling. On resumption of welding any preheat requirements specified in the approved WPS shall be applied.

7.14 Weld Finishing


Welds shall be left as welded and shall not be treated with a flame torch or other mechanical means to change their appearance other than cleaning and dressing operations specified in the WPS. Welds shall not be peened. When fabrication is completed, all surfaces adjacent to the welds shall be cleaned of spatter, burrs and other imperfections that could interfere with radiographic or ultrasonic inspection.

SP-1174

Page 22

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

7.15 Fillet Welds


All fillet welds shall be made using the SMAW process with basic low-hydrogen electrodes. The welds shall be multipass made in the vertical up direction with a flat or convex profile. Leg lengths shall be equal unless shown otherwise on AFC drawings.

7.16 Branch Welds


Branch welds up to 2 shall be made using the GTAW process for the root and hot pass. The remaining passes may be completed using either GTAW or SMAW (low-hydrogen electrodes). Branch welds over 2 may be made using either GTAW and /or SMAW (lowhydrogen electrodes). The welds shall be multi-pass and deposited in the vertical up direction.

Inspection and Testing of Production Welds


8.2 Methods of Inspection

Replace existing section as follows: Welds shall be evaluated to the requirements of Section 9 of API Std 1104 and this specification. Written NDT procedures shall be approved by the Company prior to test or production welding as applicable. NDT procedures shall be in accordance with Section 11 of API Std 1104 and this specification. Company approval shall be based on qualification tests which may be carried out as part of the Welding Procedure Qualification testing, (see Clause 5.6.1.1). The primary NDT method should be X-ray radiography. Gamma radiography may be used with an Iridum-192 source subject to achieving the specified radiographic quality.

8.3

Qualification of Inspection Personnel

Replace existing section as follows: As a minimum, welding inspection personnel shall hold a valid qualification of one of the following: CSWIP Welding Inspector ERS Welding Inspector AWS Certified Welding Inspector

8.4
8.4.1

Certification of Non-Destructive Testing Personnel


Procedures

Replace existing section as follows: All personnel shall be qualified and certificated for the method of NDT to be carried out in accordance with ISO 9712, to NDT Level 2 or higher. The roles and responsibilities of NDT personnel shall be as defined in the levels of competence in ISO 9712. Personnel certified to ASNT Level II are acceptable provided that the certifying Level III NDT Engineer has been approved by the Company. The Company approved Level III NDT ( full time employee of NDT Company) shall monitor the performance of NDT personnel certified to ASNT Level II and shall take corrective measures whenever the performance of ASNT Level II technicians is not satisfactory. Level III NDT personnel shall meet the requirements specified in ASNT-TC-1A by examination Equivalent inspection and NDT qualifications e.g. CSWIP/PCN Tester/Practitioner/ Interpreter (Welds), Level 2, may be accepted at the sole discretion of the Company.

December 2004

Page 23

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

If, in the opinion of the Company, welding examination or non-destructive examination personnel fail to perform to a satisfactory standard they shall be disqualified from the works until such time that it can be demonstrated by the Contractor that they have achieved a satisfactory standard by undertaking, at the Contractor's expense, a test by a third party agency approved by the Company. Add the following new sections, 8.5 and 8.6:

8.5

Extent of Inspection and Testing

Prior to welding, the Contractor shall examine free-issue materials for damage and compliance with the relevant materials specification. This examination shall include a review of the materials certificates. Items supplied without materials certificates shall not be used without written Company approval. All damage and discrepancies shall be reported immediately to the Company. After signed acceptance by the Contractor, any discovered damage shall be the responsibility of the Contractor. During production welding the welding parameters shall be checked against the approved WPS. Monitoring frequency shall be specified in the Contractor's Quality Control/ inspection and test plan. All welds shall be inspected visually. The following radiographic inspection frequencies apply to Class 2 pipelines. For Class 3 pipelines these frequencies may be reduced to one half of the specified levels. For lines classed ANSI 600 or less, the frequency of radiographic inspection shall be 10% of the number of joints. When an unacceptable weld is discovered, two additional welds made by the same welder shall be radiographed. Should the two additional welds be acceptable, the unacceptable weld may be repaired. Should one or both of the additional welds be unacceptable then a further two or four welds shall be radiographed. If these additional welds are acceptable, the unacceptable welds may be repaired. Should any of these additional welds be unacceptable then all of the subject welders completed welds shall be radiographed. Additional radiographs shall be over and above the 10% requirement. The Contractor shall ensure that a minimum of 5% of the welds made by each welder, or grouping of welders, are subjected to random non-destructive examination. For lines classed above ANSI 600, radiographic frequency shall be 100%. Ultrasonic and magnetic particle examination may supplement radiography and shall be used to interpret doubtful indications in the radiographs. All fillet and branch welds shall receive magnetic particle inspection. The Company shall have the final disposition on any weld. Any weld not accepted by the Company shall be rectified in accordance with API Std 1104 and this specification.

8.6

Certificate of Conformity

On satisfactory completion of the pipeline, the Contractor (or Manufacturer) shall issue a declaration of compliance with this specification. The format of Declaration of Compliance is shown in appendix 5. The Declaration of Compliance shall be signed by the Contractors QA/QC in-charge of the project who is approved by the Company for the contract.

SP-1174

Page 24

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

Acceptance Standards for Non-Destructive Testing


9.1 General

Add the following: All welds shall be visually inspected and cracks, craters, pinholes, weld spatter, residual slag, or arc strikes shall not be acceptable.

9.3
9.3.1

Radiographic Testing
Inadequate Penetration without High-Low

Add the following: When the fluid service is designated as sour, this type of defect shall be unacceptable. 9.3.4 Incomplete Fusion

Add the following: When the fluid service is designated as sour, any root IF shall be unacceptable. 9.3.8 9.3.8.1 Add the following: Tungsten and copper inclusions shall be treated as slag inclusions for the purposes of assessment. 9.3.10 Cracks Replace existing section as follows: Cracks of any type shall be unacceptable. Add the following new section: 9.3.14 Excess Reinforcement and Penetration Weld reinforcement, when measured from the adjacent parent material surface, shall not exceed the following values: Slag Inclusions

Wall thickness (mm) 6.4 and under 6.4 - 12.7 Over 12.7

External weld reinforcement (mm) 1.6 2.5 3.0

Internal protrusion of the weld root shall not exceed 1.5mm. When measuring internal protrusion, the line of the pipe bore outside the HAZ should be taken as the reference. Local profile changes adjacent to the fusion line should be discounted.

December 2004

Page 25

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

10

Repair and Removal of Defects


10.1 Authorisation for repair
Replace existing section as follows: Welds containing unacceptable defects shall be repaired only if approved by the Company. A weld with unacceptable defects may be repaired only once. If the repair is unacceptable then the complete weld and HAZ shall be removed. Root sealing runs shall not be permitted. Single run repairs may be permitted subject to Company approval. All repairs shall be performed in accordance with an approved repair welding WPS and shall be executed by qualified welders. The repair welding WPS may be identical to, but separate from, the original welding procedure with the addition of the following: Method of defect removal NDT requirements to determine complete removal of defect

10.2 Repair Procedure


Replace existing section as follows: Defects necessitating repair shall be entirely removed to sound metal. All slag and scale generated shall be removed. The removal of weld metal or portions of the parent material may be done using machining, grinding, chipping, oxygen gouging, or air carbon-arc gouging. When thermal gouging methods are used preheat, as stated in the WPS, shall be employed. Thermal gouging methods shall not be used for removal of the weld root. After thermal gouging, the edges shall be dressed to remove the hardened surface. The repair weld grooves shall be visually and magnetic particle inspected prior to rewelding. The total repair length shall not exceed 40% of the total weld length. For partial penetration repairs, the maximum length of a single repair portion shall be 30% of the total weld length. For full penetration repairs, the maximum length of a single repair portion shall be 20% of the total weld length. Groove taper shall be included in the measurements.

10.3 Acceptance Criteria


Add the following: All repairs which require excavation and rewelding shall be re-radiographed. The radiograph shall extend for a distance of 50 millimetres beyond either end of the repaired area.

12

Automatic Welding With Filler-Metal Additions


Replace existing section as follows: Requirements for automatic welding are included in the preceding sections of this specification.

SP-1174

Page 26

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

13

Automatic Welding Without Filler-Metal Additions


Replace existing section as follows: Welding without filler metal addition is not permitted. Add the following new section:

December 2004

Page 27

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

14
14.1

Documentation
General
The Contractor shall maintain a record system which ensures weld traceability. The Contractor shall be responsible for compiling the following document packages which shall be submitted to the Company upon completion of the works: (a) Declaration/Certificate of Compliance Copy of approved Welding Procedure Register Copies of approved WPSs Copies of approved repair WPSs Copies of all supporting PQRs List of approved welders and their identification List of Company welders' cards Copies of PDO endorsed Welders Qualification Cards List of approved NDT operators Copies of NDT operator qualification certificates List of Company-approved deviations to the Code and this specification Copies of Company-approved deviations to the Code or this specification List of consumable batch certificates Copies of consumable batch certificates List of materials certificates Copies of materials certificates List of test equipment Copies of calibration certificates (b) List of as-built drawings As built drawings showing unique weld numbers List of weld history sheets Copies of weld history sheets which shall show for each weld weld number isometric and line number material specifications and identification the WPS employed the welders' identity symbols date welded visual inspection disposition NDT reports where applicable (to be attached to weld history sheet) type of repair, if applicable, and WPS NDT reports for repairs (to be attached to weld history sheet) PWHT if applicable (chart to be attached to weld history sheet) batch number of consumables employed Radiographs - indexed and stored in a fireproof container List of site test records Copies of site test records List of non-conformances/corrective actions issued during external or internal audits Copies of non-conformances/corrective actions issued during external or internal audits

Appendices to API Std 1104 A

Alternative Acceptance Standards for Girth Welds


A1 General

Add the following: This Appendix shall be applied only when specified by the Company.

SP-1174

Page 28

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

In-Service Welding
Delete this Appendix in its entirety.

Table A Charpy V-Notch Test Temperature


Nominal Wall Thickness (t) mm* t < 16 25 > t > 16 t > 25 T = Minimum Design Temperature. * If the pipe conforms to ISO 3813-3 then the test temperature should be in accordance with table 6 of ISO 3813-3 Test Temperature C* T T-10 T-20

Table B Charpy V-Notch Energy Requirements


Steel Grade API Std 5L or Equivalent Yield Strength B X42 X46 X52 X56 X60 X65 X70 Specimen Size (mm) Charpy Energy (J) Min Average 27 21 18 29 23 19 32 25 21 36 28 24 39 30 26 41 32 27 45 35 30 48 37 32 Min Single 19 15 13 22 17 15 24 19 16 27 21 18 29 23 20 31 24 21 34 27 23 36 28 24

10 X 10 10 X 6.7 10 X 5 10 X 10 10X 6.7 10 x 5 10 x 10 10 x 6.7 10 x 5 10 x 10 10 x 6.7 10 x 5 10 x 10 10 x 6.7 10 x 5 10 x 10 10 x 6.7 10 x 5 10 x 10 10 x 6.7 10 x 5 10 x 10 10 x 6.7 10 x 5

December 2004

Page 29

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Figure A Location of Macrosection and Impact Test Specimens


Top of pipe Macrosection/hardness

Weld metal

Fusion line Fusion line + 2mm

Impact specimens

Macrosection/hardness

(a). Pipe diameters up to and including 4 inches (114.3mm)

Top of pipe Macrosection/hardness Macrosection/hardness

Weld metal Fusion line Fusion line + 2mm Impact specimens

Macrosection/hardness

(b). Pipe diameters greater than 4 inches (114.3mm)

Note: If additional impact specimens are required due to the wall thickness exceeding 20 mm these shall be taken from location A

SP-1174

Page 30

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

Figure B Orientation and Location of Charpy Impact Specimens


C/L _ t < 20mm t

Notch 2mm

Weld metal specimen

C/L Specimen axis _ t < 20mm Notch 2mm

FL

FL + 2

Heat affected zone specimens

C/L t > 20mm

2mm

2mm Weld metal specimens

C/L t > 20mm

FL

FL + 2

2mm

FL

FL + 2

2mm

Heat affected zone specimens

December 2004

Page 31

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Figure C Hardness Indent Locations

1.5 + 0.5 mm X X X X X X XXX X X X X X X X XXX X X X X X X

0.5t

XXX

XXX

XXX X

X XXX

1.5+ 0.5 mm -

Hardness indentations in the HAZ spaced at 0.5mm One indentation of every set of 3 shall be as close to the fusion line as possible but shall not intersect it

1.5 + 0.5 mm -

0.5 X LEG LENGTH

SP-1174

Page 32

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

Appendix 3 References
In this specification, reference is made to the following publications:
Notes: (1) See also additional references listed in API Std 1104 Section 1.3. (2) Unless specifically designated by date, the latest edition of each publication shall be used together with any amendments.

PDO Standards
Technical Authorities System Guideline for Granting Technical Authority System Specification for Welding on Pressurised Pipes Specification for Quality Assurance of Design, Construction and Engineering Works Specification for Welding of On-Plot Pipework Specification for Welding of Class 1 Pipelines Pipeline Engineering Standard Welding Procedure Qualification Records for Class 2 Pipelines Health, Safety and Environmental Manual ERD 00-02 GU-272 SP-1167 SP-1171 SP-1173 SP-1177 SP-1211 PR-1274 HSE Manual

Shell Group Standards


Linepipe for Non-Critical Service (Amendments/Supplements to ISO 3183-1) Linepipe for Critical Service (Amendments/Supplements to ISO 3183-3) DEP 31.40.20.35-Gen DEP 31.40.20.37-Gen

ASME Standards
Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems ASME B31.4 ASME B31.8

API Standards
Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities, Nineteenth Edition, API Std 1104 September 1999 including Errata dated October 31, 2001

ASTM Standards
Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products Standard Test Method for Vickers Hardness of Metallic Materials ASTM A370 ASTM E92

AWS Standards
Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines Iron and Steel Oxyfuel Gas Welding Rods AWS 5.01 AWS A5.2

December 2004

Page 33

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

NACE Standards
Sulphide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment NACE MR0175

British and European Standards


Welding Recommendations for welding of metallic materials- Part 2: Arc Welding of Ferritic steels General Criteria for Suppliers Certificate of Conformity BS EN 1011-2 BS EN 45014

International Standards
Quality requirements for welding Fusion welding of metallic materials part 2 Comprehensive quality requirements Quality Management Systems Requirements Non-Destructive Testing Qualification and Certification of Personnel Steel and Steel Products Inspection Documents Welding Consumables Shielding Gases for Arc Welding and Cutting Welding Co-ordination - Tasks and Responsibilities ISO 3834-2 (Note 2) ISO 9001 : 2000 ISO 9712 ISO 10474 ISO 14175 ISO 14731 (Note 1)

Note 1 Also published as EN 719 Note 2 Also published as EN 729

SP-1174

Page 34

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

Appendix 4 WPS and PQR Forms

Note:

Electronic copies of the forms included in this Appendix may be obtained from: The Head of Quality Management Services, PDO.

December 2004

Page 35

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

SP-1174

Page 36

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

December 2004

Page 37

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

SP-1174

Page 38

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

December 2004

Page 39

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

SP-1174

Page 40

December 2004

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

Version 2.0

Appendix 5 DECLARATION/CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE FOR PIPELINE FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION

Description of pipeline Identification no./Drawing No. Installed by: For Design conditions: Design temperature: Medium contained: Designed by: We hereby declare that above pipeline has been fabricated, installed, examined and tested in accordance with this SP-1174

Company:

Signature (Name, position, date) Project QA/QC In-charge Specimen of declaration/certificate of compliance for pipeline fabrication and installation

December 2004

Page 41

SP-1174

Version 2.0

Specification for Welding of Class 2 and Class 3 Pipelines

User Comment Form


User Comment Form If you find something that is incorrect, ambiguous or could be better in this document, write your comments and suggestions on this form. Send the form to the Document Control Section (DCS). They make a record of your comment and send the form to the correct CFDH. The form has spaces for your personal details. This lets DCS or the CFDH ask you about your comments and tell you about the decision. Procedure Details Number: Page Number: Comments: Title: Issue Date:

Heading Number:

Figure Number:

Suggestions:

Users personal details Name:

Ref. Ind.:

Signature:

Date: Phone:

Document Control Section Actions Comment Date: Number: Recd.: CFDH Actions Recd. Decision: Date: Reject: Accept, revise at next issue: Accept, issue temporary amendment Comments: To CFDH: Inits.:

CFDH Ref. Ind.:

Ref. Ind.:

Date:

Originator Advised:

Date:

Inits.:

Document Control Section Advised:

Date:

Inits.:

SP-1174

Page 42

December 2004