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arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1
arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1

arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1

arg =

arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 )
arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 )
arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 )

arg =

arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 )

arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 )

arg ( ) = arg =

arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 )
arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 )
arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 )
arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 )
arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 )
arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 )
arg = arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 )

arg ( − 1 ) =

arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 ) = |
arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 ) = |
arg = arg ( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 ) = |

| | = |

( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 ) = | − | =

| |

|
|

+

| −
|

| =

( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 ) = | − | =

( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 ) = | − | =

( ) =

( − ) = arg = arg ( − 1 ) = | − | =

| − | + | − | = , | | ≤ 2 | −
| − | + | − | = , | | ≤ 2 | −
| − | + | − | = , | | ≤ 2 | −
| − | + | − | = , | | ≤ 2 | −
| − | + | − | = , | | ≤ 2 | −
| − | + | − | = , | | ≤ 2 | −

| | + | | = ,

| − | + | − | = , | | ≤ 2 | − |

| | ≤ 2

| − | + | − | = , | | ≤ 2 | − |

| − | + | − | = , | | ≤ 2 | − |
| − | + | − | = , | | ≤ 2 | − |
| − | + | − | = , | | ≤ 2 | − |

| | < | − 1 |

= , | | ≤ 2 | − | < | − 1 | = +
= , | | ≤ 2 | − | < | − 1 | = +
= , | | ≤ 2 | − | < | − 1 | = +

= +

| + (
| + (
| ≤ 2 | − | < | − 1 | = + | + (

− 1 )| < |(

− 1 ) +

|
|

| − 1 | = + | + ( − 1 ) | < | (

x + ( y − 1 )

<
<
| − 1 | = + | + ( − 1 ) | < | (

( x − 1 ) + y

∴ y < x

∴ y < x | − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2

∴ y < x | − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2
∴ y < x | − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2
∴ y < x | − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2
∴ y < x | − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2

| | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2

∴ y < x | − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2

| − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2 ≤ − ≤
| − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2 ≤ − ≤
| − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2 ≤ − ≤
| − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2 ≤ − ≤

| | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2

| − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2 ≤ − ≤ (

≤

− ≤

( )
(
)

1

| − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2 ≤ − ≤ (
| − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2 ≤ − ≤ (
| − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2 ≤ − ≤ (
| − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2 ≤ − ≤ (
| − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2 ≤ − ≤ (

= = − > 0 = 1

| − | < | − 1 | | | ≤ 2 ≤ − ≤ (

= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 )

= +

= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |
= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |
= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |
= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |
= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |

= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |
= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |
= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |

| | = ( )

= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |
= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |
= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |

= +

|
|

+

− 1 ) | = )| =

(
(

− 1 ) )

= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |

+

= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |
= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |

− 2

=
=

+ 1 =

= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |

=

1

2 (

= + | − | = ( ) = + | + − 1 ) |

+ 1 )

| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + −

| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + −
| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + −
| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + −
| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + −
| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + −

| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 |

| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + − 2

=

| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + − 2

+

| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + − 2

− 2 +

| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + − 2

| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + − 2

1

|

(
(
| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + − 2

− 2 ) + (

+ 1 )

= ( − 1 ) +
=
(
− 1 )
+

| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + − 2

=

− 2| | | − 2 + | = | − 1 | = + − 2

+ + | | = + √ 0 − 0 − 2 = 1 +

+ + | | = + √ 0 − 0 − 2 = 1 +
+
+
|
|
=
+
0 − 0 − 2
=
1
+
1
=
2

2

+ + | | = + √ 0 − 0 − 2 = 1 + 1

( 2 , 0 )

2 = 1

+ + | | = + √ 0 − 0 − 2 = 1 + 1
+ + | | = + √ 0 − 0 − 2 = 1 + 1
= 1 2 ∴ √ = 4 arg z −

= 1 2 ∴ √ = 4 arg z −
= 1 2 ∴ √ = 4 arg z −

=1 2 ∴ √ = 4 arg z −

1

2

= 1 2 ∴ √ = 4 arg z −

= 4

= 1 2 ∴ √ = 4 arg z −
= 1 2 ∴ √ = 4 arg z −

arg z

= 1 2 ∴ √ = 4 arg z −
= 1 2 ∴ √ = 4 arg z −