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SULPHUR DIOXIDE AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 1.Sulphur dioxide is one of the by-product of contact process.

It is a colourless and poisonous gas with a vary pungent smell. 2.Sulphur dioxide which escape into the air causes air pollution. 3.Sulphur dioxide is an acidic which dissolves in water to form sulphurous acidic, H2SO3. In the atmosphere, sulphur dioxide dissolve in water droplets to form sulphurous acidic.

4.Oxidation of sulphur acid by oxygen produce sulphuric acid, H2SO4, which falls to the earth as acid rain. Sulphur trioxide is also easily oxidised in the air to form sulphur trioxide. Sulphur trioxide dissolve in rainwater to produce sulphuric acid.

USES OF AMMONIA 1.Ammonia that is produce commercially has many uses. 2.It uses: i.In the manufacture of chemical fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate, ammonia

nitric, ammonia phosphate and urea. ii.To manufacture nitric acid and explosive. iii.In the making of synthetic fibre and nylon. iv.As a degreasing agent in aqueous form to remove greasy stains in the kitchen. PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA GAS 1.The physical properties of ammonia gas include the following: i.It colourless and has a pungent odour. ii.It is vary soluble in water and form a weak alkaline solution. iii.It less dense then water. iv.It easily liquified (at about 35.5C) when cool. 2.The chemical properties of ammonia gas: a) Ammonia gas dissolves in water to form a weak alkali. NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) b) The presence of hydroxide icon causes the aqueous solution to become alkaline. Thus aqueous ammonia solution: i. T urns red litmus paper blue. ii. R eacts with acid to form only salt and waterin neutralization reaction. NH3(aq) + HCI(aq) NH4CI(aq) 2NH3 + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq)

iii. R eacts with solution of metallic cations to produce precipitates. Fe+(aq) + 2OH(aq) Fe (OH)2(s) (Form ammonia solution) Dirty green precipitate MANUFACTURE OF AMMONIA IN INDUSTRY 1. Ammonia is manufacture on a large scale in industry through the haber process. In this process, ammonia is formed form direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen gas in the volume ratio 1:3. 2. The gas nitrogen obtain form the fractional distillation of liquefied air. The hydrogen gas is obtained form the cracking of petroleum or from the catalysed reaction of natural gas, CH4, with steam. CH4(g) + H2O(g) CO(g) + 3H2(g) 3.The mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gases is passed over an iron catalyst under controlled optimum condition as below to form ammonia gas. i.Temperature: 450-500C

ii.Pressure: 200-500 atmospheres iii.Catalyst used: Iron fillings N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) 4.Under these control optimum condition, only 15% of the gas mixture turn into ammonia gas. The nitrogen and hydrogen that have not reacted are then flow back over the catalyst again in the reactor chamber. 5.The ammonia product is then cooled at a low temperature so that it condenses into a liquid in the cooling chamber.

AMMONIUM FERTILIZERS 1. Nitrogen is required in large amount by plant to make proteins which are necessary for growth and cell repair. 2. Most plant are not able to get a nitrogen supply directly from the air although it is abundant in the air (78%). Plants can only absorb soluble nitrogen compounds from soil through their roots. 3. The nitrogen compounds are usually soluble nitric salt, ammonia and ammonia salt which are manufacture as chemical fertilizer. 4. Reactions of ammonia with acids produce ammonium fertilizers. NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq) NH4NO3(aq) Ammonium nitrate 3NH3(aq) + H3PO4(aq) (NH4)3PO4(aq) Ammonium phosphate 2NH3(aq) +H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq) Ammonium sulphate

ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS IN MATELS 1. The atom of pure metals are packed together closely. This causes the metal to have a high density . 2. The forces of attraction between atoms (metallic bonds) are strong. More heat energy is needed to overcome the metallic bond so that the atoms are further apart during the melting. This is why metals usually have hight melting point. 3. Heat energy can be transferred easily from one atom to the next by vibration. This make metal good conduct of heat. 4. The freely moving outermost electrons within the metals structure are able to conduct electricity. Metal are, therefore, good electrical conductors. 5. Since atoms of pure metal are of the same size, they are arranged orderly in a regular layered pattern. When a force is applied to metal, layer of atom slide easily over one another. This make pure metals soft, malleable and ductile.

WHAT ARE ALLOYS 1. Pure metal are usually too soft for most uses. They also have a low resistance to corrosion. They rush and tarnish easily. 2. To improve the physical properties of metal, a small amount of another element (usually metal) is added to form another an alloy. 3. An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals (something nonmetal) in a specific proportion. For example: a. Bronze (90% of copper and 10% of tin) b. Steel (99% of iron and 1% of carbon) 4.The purposes of making alloys include the following: a) Increase the strength i. Pure iron is soft and vary malleable. When a small amount of carbon is added to iron, an alloy, steal is formed. The more carbon is added, the stronger the steel becomes. ii. Pure aluminium is light but not strong. With a small amount of copper and magnesium are added to aluminium, a strong, light and durable alloy call duralumin is produced. b) Improving the resistance to corrosion i. Iron rust easily but stainless steel which contains 80.6% of iron, 0.4% of carbon, 18% of chromium and 1% of nickel does not rush. These properties make stainless steel suitable for making surgical instrument and cutlery.

ii. Pure copper tarnish easily. When zinc (30%) is added, the yellow alloy which is known as brass develops a high resistance to corrosion. c) Enhancing the appearance i. Pewter, an alloy of tin (97%), antimony and copper is not only hard but also has a more beautiful white silvery appearance. ii. When copper is mixed with nickel to form cupronickel, an alloy that has an attractive silvery, bright appearance is formed which is suitable for making coins.


Composition Properties Uses High carbon steel 99% iron 1% carbon Strong,hard and high wear resistance Making of cutting tools, hammers and chisels Stainless steel 80.6% iron 0.4% carbon 18%chromium 1% nickel Do not rust and tarnish, strong and durable Making of surgical instrument, knives forks and spoons Brass 70% copper 30% zinc Hard, do not rust, bright appearance

Making of ornaments, electrical wiring and plug. Bronze 90% copper 10% tin Hard, do not corrode easily and durable For casting bells, medals, swords and statues Pewter 96% tin 3% copper 1% antimony Ductile and malleable, white silvery appearance Making of ornaments, souvenirs and mugs Duralumin

93% aluminium 3% copper 3%magnesium Light, strong and durable Making part of aircrafts and racing cars Cupronickel 75%copper 25%nickel Attractive, silvery appearance, hard and tough Making of silver coins


1.Molecule that consist of a large number of small identical or similar units joined together repeatedly are called polymer. 2.The smaller molecules that make up the repeating unit in polymer are caller monomer. 3.The process of joining together a large number of monomers to form a long chain polymer is called polymerisation. 4.Polymer can be naturally occurring or man-made (synthetic). Natural polymer are found in plant and in animals for example of natural polymers are starch cellulose, protein and rubber. 5.Two type of polymerisation in producing synthetic polymer are additional polymerisation. 6.Double bonds between two carbon atoms usually undergo addition polymerisation. Some Common Addition Polymers Name(s) Formula Monomer Properties Uses Polyethylene low density (LDPE) (CH2-CH2)nethylene CH2=CH2 soft, waxy solid film wrap, plastic bags Polyethylene

high density (HDPE) (CH2-CH2)nethylene CH2=CH2 rigid, translucent solid electrical insulation bottles, toys Polypropylene (PP) different grades [CH2CH(CH3)]n propylene CH2=CHCH3 atactic: soft, elastic solid isotactic: hard, strong solid similar to LDPE carpet, upholstery Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)

(CH2CHCl)n vinyl chloride CH2=CHCl strong rigid solid pipes, siding, flooring Poly(vinylidene chloride) (Saran A) (CH2CCl2)n vinylidene chloride CH2=CCl2 dense, high-melting solid seat covers, films Polystyrene (PS) [CH2CH(C6H5)]n styrene CH2=CHC6H5 hard, rigid, clear solid

soluble in organic solvents toys, cabinets packaging (foamed)

WHAT ARE GLASS 1.Glass is one of the most useful but inexpensive materials in the world. Many products are made from glass because of its specials properties. 2.Glass is: a. Transparent, hard but brittle. b. A heat and electric insulator. c. Resistant to corrosion. d. Chemical not reaction and therefore resistant to chemical attack. e. Easy to maintain. Type of glass Composition Properties Uses Fused glass SiO2: 100% Transparent High melting point Good heat insulator Lens Telescope mirrors Laboratory

apparatus Soda-lime glass SiO2: 75% Na2O:15% CaO: 9% Other:1% Low melting point, easily molded into desired shape and size Low resistant to chemical attacks Brittle Drinking glass, bottles Electric bulbs Window glass Borosilicate glass SiO2: 78% B2O3: 12% Na2O: 5% CaO: 3% Al2O3:2% Resistant chemical attack and durable

High melting point Good insulator to heat Cooking utensils Laboratory glassware such as conical flaks and boiling tube Lead crystal glass (flint glass) SiO2: 70% Pbo/PbO2:20% Na2O: 10% High refractive index High density Attractive glittering appearance Lenses and prisms Decorative glassware and art object Imation jewellery

C ERA MI C S 1. Traditional silicate ceramics are made by heating aluminosilicate clay such as kaolin to a vary high temperature. 2. Ceramics have many special properties that make them one of the most useful materials

in our everyday life. That: a. Are hard, strong but brittle b. Have high melting point and remain stable at high temperature c. Are heat and electric instrument d. Are resistant to corrosion and wear e. Are chemically not reactive f. Do not readily deform under stress 3. Ceramic play important role in our daily life. They are uses as a. Construction materials i. Ceramic are strong and hard, uses to make roof tiles, bricks cement, sinks, and toilet bowls. ii. They are also used to make refractory bricks because high resistant to heat. b. Decorative items i. To make pottery, china plates, and porcelain vases since they do not tarnish easily and are durable. ii. They are used to make bathroom fixture such as floor and wall tiles. c. Electrical insulator i. Ceramic are used to make electrical insulator in electrical items such as toasters, fridges and electrical plug.

WHAT ARE COMPOSITE MATERIALS 1. A composite materials (or composite) is a structure of materials that is formed by two or more different substances such as metal, glass, ceramic and polymer. 2. Some common composite materials are: a. Reinforces concrete b. Superconductor c. Fibre optic d. Fibre glass

e. Photochromic glass REINFORCES CONCRETE 1. Concrete is hard, fireproof, waterproof, comparatively cheap and easy to maintain. It is more important construction materials. 2. The reinforces is a combination of concrete and steel. SUPERCONDUCTOR 1. Metal such as copper and aluminium are good conductor of electricity, but 20% of the electric energy is lost in the form of heat during transmission. 2. Super conductor are materials that have no resistance to the flow of electricity at a particular temperature. Hence, 100% electricity transmission is possible. 3. One of the most dramatic properties of a superconductor is its ability to levitate a magnet. Superconductor are used to build magnetically levitate high-speed train (at about 552 km/h). 4. Superconductor are used to make chips for smaller and faster supercomputer. Superconductor also play an important role in high speed data processing in internet communication. FIBRE OPTIC 1. Fibre optic is a composite material that in used to transmit signals for light wave. 2. Fibre optic is used in a. Telecommunicate where the telephone substation are liked by fibre optic cables.

b. Domestic cable television network c. Closed circuit television security system. 3. Fibre optic also used in medical fields. It is used in a number of instrument which enable the investigation for internal body part without having to perform surgery.