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Applied Superconductivity

A.M. Wolsky, E.J. Daniels, R.F. Giese, J.B.L. Harkness, L.R. Johnson, D.M. Rote, S.A. Zwick
Argonne National Laboratory Illinois with Argonne,

in collaboration

R.A. Thomas,
Brookhaven Upton,

E.B. Forsyth
Laboratory

National

New York

J.D. Rogers
Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico

J.B. Kirtley
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts

B.W. McConnell
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

J.G. DeSteese, J.A. Dirks, M. K. Drost, S.B. Merrick, R.M. Smith, T.A. Williams
Pacific Northwest Richland, Laboratory Washington

T.A.
University

Lipo
of Wisconsin

Madison, Wisconsin Z Department of Defense DC

Washington,

NOYES

DATA

CORPORATION
New Jersey, U.S.A.

Park Ridge,

Copyright 01989 by Noyes Data Corporation Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 88-38251 ISBN: O-8155-1 191-4 Printed in the United States Published in the United States of America Noyes Data Corporation Mill Road, Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656 10987654321 by

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication

Data

Applied superconductivity / by A.M. Wolsky . . . [et al.1 in collaboration with R.A. Thomas. . . [et al.1 ; Department of Defense. cm. P. Bibliography: p. Includes index. ISBN 0-8155-l 191-4 : 1. Superconductors. 2. Superconductors--Industrial applications. I. Wolsky, A.M. II. United States. Dept. of Defense. TK7872.S8A67 1989 537.623--dcl9 88-38251 CIP

Acknowledgments

The thank

Argonne their Ridge for

National colleagues National their full Energy,

Laboratory at Brookhaven (LANL), Laboratory and prompt of the

(ANL)

staff

who

organized

this

information Los Alamos (MIT), W. Laboratory Kenneth Conservation saw the need His John (ORNL), (BNL) final G.

National and

Laboratory Institute Pacific

(BNL), Northwest

National Oak (PNL) Klein, for

Laboratory

Massachusetts (ORNL), cooperation

of Technology

in its preparation. and Distribution, immediately this Eric Energy, made

Director

of the Office U.S. the evaluation James (LANL),

Energy

Storage of that

and Renewable a preliminary (PNL), leadership DeSteese John provided comments draft The nett, pletion

Department of the impact

of advances Benjamin (BNL), which

in superconductivity. study. Forsyth to the W. McConnell and

promoted

cooperation Richard A.

possible

L. Kirtley,

Jr. (MIT), Thomas of their

D. Rogers important of

clarifications anonymous are appreciated thank Roger and

initial much. and

considerations. contributed

The thoughtful

four

peer

reviewers,

of this report, ANL Bryan of authors of this

very

B. Poeppel Lou

Donald were

W. Capone

for

valuable C. BencomKaatz

discussions

technical document,

issues. In addition, Mary as was the word

the contributions crucial processing done

of Floyd to the timely by Letitia

J. Schmidt,

Bluth

and her staff.

vii

NOTICE
The ment agency implied, curacy, product, infringe materials by of in this book the were prepared States as accounts and the U.S. Government of work Departnor any express or for the acapparatus, not any specific or imply States state or

sponsored

Argonne

National

Laboratory United

Defense.

Neither

thereof,

nor the Publisher, or usefulness rights.

makes any warranty, or responsibility of any information, that herein to

or assumes any completeness, privately

legal liability

or process disclosed, owned product, process,

or represents Reference

its use would

commercial manufacturer,

or service by trade or favoring herein do not

name, trademark, constitute

or otherwise, or any agency authors

does not necessarily thereof

its endorsement, Government opinions reflect of

recommendation, expressed

by the United necessarily

or the Publisher.

The views and

those of the United

States Government

or any agency thereof

or the Publisher. Final determination of the suitability of any information for use purbe exbe

contemplated sponsibility poses only. ercised when potentially and expert

by any user, and the manner The reader is warned materials such as found that

of that use, is the sole refor informational must always could

of the user. The book is intended dealing with

caution

and processes which in the superconductor before implementation.

hazardous,

industry;

advice should be obtained

VIII

Foreword

The book. The would

impact

of

recent indicate

superconducting results, research goals

materials as well which

research

is discussed and,

in this

Projected discussions enable

and desired

as actual appear

achievements, realistic

are covered. if reached,

diverse

commercial

applications only

of the new materials. circumstances, temperature) which are unusual expense differ and

Materials for too each great

become material. to permit

superconducting These to arrange widespread

in certain (e.g., low

circumstances

have been expensive although medical rial become further lower some magnetic

and maintain. commercial (MRI)

In the past, that applications and-most

has been physics, matethat that will

of superconductivity, in high-energy recently-industrial of materials likelihood that advances

practical The

applications imaging and

have been achieved discovery above is hope

resonance recent

separation. progress the cost

sudden there

of a family for further

superconducting

at temperatures Now,

77 K raises the

is at hand. of applications

and enable adoption

of the technology

by utilities

and industry. The book is organized and applied such research as to make The which Electricity its contents overview follow accessible presents and the the to readers principal with chaltopic:

varying benefits a
l l l

interests available.

backgrounds. sections for

lenges facing

on superconductivity

potential

economic

The eight

each address a specific

Renewable Generators Transformers

Sources

Generation

AC Transmission Superconducting Motors Industrial Magnetic Separations Levitation and Material for Transportation
V

0 0 0
l

Magnetic

Energy

Storage

Handling

vi

Foreword

In addition, ductivity ment applications

an Addendum research research

covers

potential as set forth

military program.

applications Both

of superconDepart-

and development

in a menu

for a 5-year

of Defense

and development

large- and small-scale

are considered. in the book in Applied and Impacts, L.R. is from the following documents: A Preliminary E.J. Rote, Daniels, and with S.A. R.A. J.D. Ridge S.B. 1988. and Developfor Exploitaissued by the Evaluation R.F. Giese, of Thomas Rogers National Merrick, Zwick

The information Advances of Goals J.B.L. Argonne and of E.B.

Superconductivity: by A.M. Wolsky, D.M. National J.B. Dirks, of McConnell Johnson,

Harkness, National Forsyth of

Laboratory, of Brookhaven National B.W.

in collaboration Kirtley of M.K.

Laboratory; Oak Drost,

Los Alamos J.G.

Laboratory; J.A.

of Massachusetts

Institute Laboratory; R.M.

Technology; DeSteese, T.A. and

Smith,

Williams

Pacific

Northwest January Research

Laboratory;

prepared

for the US. of

Department

of Energy,

Department ment tion (DSRD) of

Defense Options:

Superconductivity A Study July in Military 1987. in such a way

of Possible Directions Applications,

Superconductivity of Defense,

Department The table

of contents

is organized

as to serve as a subject in the book.

index

and provides

easy access to the information

contained

Advanced composition and production methods developed by Noyes Data Corporation are employed to bring this durably bound book to you in a minimum of time. Special techniques are used to close the gap between manuscript and completed book. In order to keep the price of the book to a reasonable level, it has been partially reproduced by photo-offset directly from the original reports and the cost saving passed on to the reader. Due to this method of publishing, certain portions of the book may be less legible than desired.

Contents and Subject Index

1. INTRODUCTION. Purpose Organization

and Scope.

..................................... ................................. of This Report ...........................

.I
.2 .2

2. OVERVIEW...........................................3 A.M. Wolsky, E. J. Daniels, SOURCES and T.A. Impacts and R. F. Giese ELECTRICITY GENERATION

3. RENEWABLE R. M. Smith, Potential

FOR Williams

......

.I2

A.M. Wolsk y, . G. DeSteese, . A. Dirks, M. K. Drost,


Summary........................................1 of HTSCs on Renewable Energy

S. B. Merrick, 3 14

Technologies

...

Background

Introduction.

................................... ................................... Approach. ..................................


Scope......................................1 Impact Classification. Energy System

.I4
14

.I5
5 15

System

Neutral Enhanced Improved New Organization. Superconductor Hydroelectric

impact.

...................... ............................
Storage Capability. Potential. ............... ................. Energy Technologies. ... Integration.

.I5
16 16 16

....................

Energy

Conversion Impacts Energy. Central

................................
on Renewable

.I6
17 17 18 .............. 19

...........................
........................ Concepts. Receiver

Solar Salt Gradient Solar Thermal Solar Thermal

Ponds.

...................... Solar Photovoltaic Cells ......................... .................... Geothermal Energy Conversion


Dish Concept ix

.21 .23 .24

Contents

and Subject

index

Wind

Energy

Conversion. Energy Conversion.

............
Conversion

Ocean Thermal Biomass Fusion Conclusions 4. GENERATORS Energy Power

......

..........
Conversion.

Magnetohydrodynamic Generation

Energy

............

.......................

. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

25 26 28 29 30 31 .33 34 37 37 38 39 40 41 48 48

E .J. Daniels

........................... and J. L. Kktley, Jr. Summary. .......................... Impact of HTSCs on Generators. Introduction. ......................
Superconductors Other Applications Case Study: Development Conclusions Reference Applied 300-MVA Effortsand

........... ..... ..... ......

to Generators. Turbogenerators Impediments

...................

....................... ........................
.................................

5. TRANSFORMERS.. Summary. Potential

49
50 Transformers Transformers

R. F. Giese and B. W: McConnell

.....................................
Application of HTSCs to Power

....... .....

51 51 52 52 54 56 56 57 .58 .59

Introduction. Application Method Results.. Transformer Conclusions References. 6. AC TRANSMISSION. R. F. Giese, R.A. Summary. Preliminary

.................................
of Superconductors of Analysis. ................................. to Power

..........................

...................... Design Features. .................................. .................................. ..................................


Thomas and E. B. Forsyth

...................................... Economic

Introduction. Assumptions Economic Capital

........................ ..................................
Analysis the Power for Transmission System

.61
.61 2

Method.......................................6 About

........

.62
.63

Assumptions Costs

...........................
Losses and Refrigeration.

Cost of Energy

...........

................................
Properties Losses. Losses. and Current-Dependent Losses

.63 .64
4

Losses........................................6 Superconductor Voltage-Dependent Cryogenic Refrigerator Total Capital Losses. Enclosure Efficiency.

....................... ......................

.. .64 .66 .66


.67

.........................

................................ Costs ..................................

.67 .67

Contents

and Subject

Index

xi

Cost of the Losses. Capital Comparison Systems. with

Costs and Total

.............................. System Cost. ..................


HPOPT and Aerial/Underground System Losses.

.68 .68 .68 .68 .70 .73 .77 .77


.79

..................................

......... ....... Assumptions Regarding Properties of Cable Materials. l,OOO-MVA Transmission Systems .................... Conclusions ................................... Comparison of Electrical Losses and Costs .............
Cost of the Aerial/Underground Comparison Future of High-T, Superconducting ....................... Cable System with NbaSn Cable System Systems Studies

......................... ..................... Enclosures and Optimization. References. ................................... Supplement: Levelized Annual Cost Method ............... Introduction. ..................................

.81 .81 .82 .83 .83 .... .84 230-kV Superconducting AC Power Transmission System. 500-kV HPOPT Cellulose-Insulated Naturally Cooled System. .. .85 .86 500-kV Aerial/Underground System ................... .87 Conclusions, ..................................
MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE.

7. SUPERCONDUCTING R. F. Giese

.........

.88 9

and J. D. Rogers
Load-Leveling Superconducting Magnetic .90 .90 .90 .91 .92 6 and T.A. Lipo 7 ................ .98 .98 .99 102 103 Super105 105 Motors

Summary........................................8 HTSCs in Diurnal Energy Storage Introduction. Discussion Conclusions References. .................................. .................................. .................................... ................................... ...................................

8.MOTORS............................................g E .J. Daniels, Potential B. In/: McConnell Application Summary........................................9 of HTSCs to Motors. ........................... Introduction. Applications Conclusions References. Supplement: conducting Motivation Application HTSC HTSC HTSC Introduction. .................................. to Motors.

................................... ...................................
The Potential for High-Temperature AC and DC Motors. for Development Considerations

....................... ..................................
of HTSC for HTSC Electric Machines.

....... ...........

105 106 107 108 111 113

DC Motors Induction

HTSC Synchronous

............................... ........................ Motors.


Motors. .......................... Hybrid.

Induction/Synchronous

.................

xii

Contents

and Subject

Index

HTSC HTSC

Reluctance Homopolar

Motor. Inductor

.......................... Motors. ....................

113 114 116 116 HANDLING.

Conclusions References 9. INDUSTRIAL E. J. Daniels, Summary. Industrial

...................................
for Supplement, ........................ MATERIAL S.A. Zwick,

SEPARATIONSAND 6. W. McConnell,

......

118

J. 6. L. Harkness, 119 121 121 121 126 127 ....... 129 129 130 13 1 132 ........ 133 133 133 135 135 Separation 138 138 139 140 141 142 143 144

D. M. Rote, and A. M. Wolsk y ...................................... Applications for HTSCs

...................... Introduction. .................................. Materials Separation. ............................. ................... Materials Handling and Fabrication. References. ...................................
Application of HTSCs to Magnetic Separations. Introduction. Discussion ..................................

Potential

.................................... ......................... Summary and Conclusions References. ...................................


Potential OGMS HTSC for Magnetic Separation of Gases from Gases. of Gases. Introduction. OGMS

.................................. ................
Systems ............................ ................................... for High-Gradient Magnetic

Systems for Separation

References. Supplement: of Oxygen

Estimates from Air.

.............................. Flow Equations .................................


Properties. andNO .............................

Magnetic

............................ Diffusion Relations. ............................. Limiting Magnetic Effects. ......................... Estimation of Diffusion Rates. ...................... References. ...................................
Valuesfor02 10. MAGNETIC Larry LEVITATION FOR TRANSPORTATION

............

146 147

R. Johnson

Summary. Application Advanced

......................................
of HTSCs to Magnetically .................................. Transportation Trains. Technology of Magnetically of High-T, Technology Needs Options. ..................... Levitated Vehicles. .............. ........................... Ground Levitated Trains ........

149 149 149 149 150

Background. Conventional

Levitated-Vehicle Advantages Advantages Levitation Applicability U.S. Travel Opportunity

.......

151 152

Superconductors

for Magneticto 153

.......................
Technology Development

of Magnetic-Levitation

.......................... .......

for U.S. Technology

155

Contents

and Subject

Index

xiii

Bibliography.

. ..

. .

. .

. . .. . .

. ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . 156
7

APPENDICES..........................................15 . J. Daniels, Appendix R. F. Giese and A.M. A: Economic Wolsky Assumptions. for Preliminary

...................
Economic Evaluation

158 158

Summary.

....................................
for Superconductivity. ................

Baseline Assumptions of Applications introduction.

158 158 162 165 5 for 165 165 166 167 ...... 169 170 175 175 176 177 177 177 178 178 178 of High179 ..I7 9 179 180 184 185 191 191 193 193 193 194

................................ .......................... Example Calculations. ................ Appendix 6: Superconductor Performance


Summary.....................................16 Charge to Authors: Higher-Temperature Experimental Analytical Reference ADDENDUM I-MILITARY Potential Army Benchmark Performance Parameters

................. .......................... ....................... Considerations. ..................................


Superconductors Results. RESEARCH Applications Applications. Applications. AND DEVELOPMENT.

Introduction.

....................................
of High-Temperature ........................

Superconductivity Small-Scale Large-Scale Potential

.............................. ........................
of High-Temperature

Navy Applications Applications. Applications.

Superconductivity. Small-Scale Large-Scale Potential Air

.............................

........................ ........................
of High-Temperature

Force Applications Applications. Security

Superconductivity. Small-Scale Potential

............................. ........................ ........................ Large-Scale Applications.


National Agency Applications .................... Superconductivity. ................................ .................................... Accomplishments and Experience and Experience.

Temperature Analog.. Digital. DOD Ceramic Rationale DSRD

DOD Superconductivity

......
.....

Processing Accomplishments

for Program Scope of DSRD ................... ...................... Program Work Statements. of and Search for High Temperature Materials. ........................ T,. ...................... Depth, h. ................ Temperature, Field Penetration

Characterization Superconducting Transition Magnetic

Energy Gap, 2A

..............................
(JJ) Tunneling with and Weak-Link Electromagnetic Fields. ..

Josephson Junction Phenomena. Interaction

................................ of HTS Materials

194

xiv

Contents

and Subject

Index

Interactions Radiation. Thermodynamic Critical

of HTS Materials ................................. Properties. Fields Suitable

and Devices with ......................

Optical 195 195 195

Magnetic

......................... Introduction for Pinning of Material Supercurrent

Approaches Vortices.

to Controlled

Inhomogeneities

.................................. Determination of the Magnetic-Field/Current-Density/ Temperature Mitigation Mechanical Thermal Atomic Effects Critical Surface. Flux .................... Creep, Aspects and Jumps. ............ ..... of Magnetic Flow, Effects. ........................ ......................... ..................... Ginzburg-LandauTheory ........ Macroscopic with Structure Microscopic and Other

196 196 196 197 198 198 198 9 199 200

and Thermomechanical and Magnetocaloric Effects.

................

Electromigration

Level Structure of Ionizing

Chemistry..................................19 Radiation. with (GLAG) Experimental Experimental Considerations Comparison Comparison

Abrikosov-Gorkov Electronic-Energy-Band

Theories.

.....

201 201 204 204

Normal-State

.............................. Processing .................................... Introduction. ................................


Thin Film Materials, Devices and Circuits.

.............

206

Introduction. Thin-Film Materials Device

Deposition.

............................. ........................
of Films. ............... Processing.

.206
208 209 210 217 220 222 227 231

Characterization and Structure

................. Bulk Superconductors .......................... Single Crystals ............................... ............ Small Scale Applications and Demonstrations. Magnetometers and Gradiometers. .................. ........ Hybrid Semiconductor-Superconductor Systems. mm Wave Receivers. ..........................
Infrared Digital Digital Systems Large-Scale Shields Sources (Mid (Mid Sensors Systems Systems ..............................

.236
239 242 246 249 252

......................... (Memories). ......................


(Logic). Devices ......................... Vehicle.

Three-Terminal Refrigeration

Demonstration Applications (Near Term). (Near Term) for

................... ............
Wave

...............................
and Demonstrations.

.254
258 262 265 Systems 267 (SMES) 270

...........................
and Millimeter

Supermagnets Supermagnets Superconducting Term).

for Microwave Electric Magnetic

..........................
Ship Propulsion Energy Storage

and Far Term)

...........................

................................

Contents

and Subject

Index

xv

Electromagnetic Directed Magnetic Mine Energy Bearings

Launchers Weapons (Mid

(Mid Term). (DEW) (Mid (Mid

Term).

.......... ......

. 273

Term)

.................

. 276 . 278
280

Term) ......... .............. ELF Communication (Far Term) ............... ........................ Other Applications .................. DSRD Budget Recommendations. Sweeping Supermagnets Pulsed Power Systems (Far Term). ADDENDUM II: MILITARY Summary. SYSTEM APPLICATIONS.

. 282 . 285 . 288


288

......

......................... .............................. Introduction. Findings .................................


Executive Status of Superconducting Theory, Technology, (LTS) and Materials

.295 . 296 . 298


,300 .300

..............................
Superconductors

....... ...... High Temperature Superconductors (HTS). .............. Status of Supporting Technologies ....................... Cryogenic Cooling. .................... High Strength Materials .......... Military Applications of Superconductors ............................... Introduction. ............................ Electronics. Overview. ........................... IR Sensors. ........................... Microwave and MMW Sensors ............... ..................... DC to UHF Sensors. Magnetic Sensors. ....................... Signal Processing. ....................... ...................... AID Converters .............. Delay Line Signal Processor .......... Digital Signal and Data Processing ....................... High Power Applications. ...................... Magnets-Applications ....................... Electrical Machinery Launchers ..............................
Low Temperature U.S. and Foreign Superconductivity Conclusions Appendix Terms Research Expenditures in High Temperature

,300 ,302 ,304 ,304 .304 .306 .306 .306 .306 .306 ,307 ,310 ,310
.310

.310 .310 ,313 ,315 .315 .315


.317 ,321

............................ ................................... ............................... Recommendations.


..................................... of Reference. Presented

Membership. Briefings Directions Applications Temperature

........................... ................................
to the DSB Task Force and Development on Military of Superconductors

.322 .325 ,327 .327


.329 .330 High

..................
Into

of Research

Superconductors.

1. Introduction.

................... ............................

.332 .332

xvi

Contents

2. General

Issues.

.........................
for Electronics.

. . . 332
333

............... .................. 4. High Power Applications. ........................ Cryogenic Technology


3. HTS Materials Superconductors Cryocoolers and Their Cryogenic Requirements

. .

............................. ..................... Ground-Based Systems. Large Systems. ......................... Small Systems. ......................... .................... Space System Cryogenics ....................... High Strength Materials ................ A Josephson 4-Bit Microprocessor
Back-Up R&D Data on Japanese ................................... Funding for Superconductivity

. . .334 . 336 . . .336 . . 338


. . . 339 . . 339 339 343

. . . 346 . . .347 . . 353


354

Government. Corporate

............................ ..................... Expenditures


Superconductivity Funding ($M).

. . . 356
356

ISTEC ................................. High Temperature Glossary of Terms.

....

..........................

. . . 361 362 .

1 Introduction

Applied

Superconductivity

PURPOSE

MD

SCOPE

This document is meant to aid the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Energy Storage and Distribution, by discussing the likely impacts of recent results from research on superconducting materials. Substantial discussion is also given to the impacts of hoped for, but not yet achieved, advances. These discussions indicate research goals that appear realistic and, if reached, would enable commercial application of the new materials. The discussions that follow concern terrestrial applications that would substantially affect the production and use of electricity. Such applications occur on the utility side of the meter (e.g., transmission of electricity) and on the customer side (e.g., magnetically levitated trains). The prospects for such applications cannot now be described precisely. The engineering properties of the recently discovered superconductors have not yet been explored, and forecasts of energy prices and supplies are difficult at best. However, promising applications and needed property improvements can be discerned, and these are emphasized. One area of application, utility system process monitoring and control, was not discussed but does deserve future consideration. Two other areas of application, digital computation and measurement of very weak magnetic fields, are not discussed because their direct impact on energy production and use appears negligible. Nonetheless, products made for these applications may have significant impact on the economy (e.g., Moreover, the measurement of weak fields may enhance geologic exploration). manufacture of these products will increase the number of persons familiar with superconductivity, thus increasing the likelihood that superconducting solutions will be found to problems that now appear remote from superconductivity.

ORGANIZATION

OF THIS REPORT

This report is organized to make its contents accessible to various readers, each The Overview (Sec. 2) introduces the with his or her own interest and background. principal challenges facing applied research on superconductivity and the economic benefits that may result from success. The sections that follow the Overview, prepared by different teams of experts, each address a particular topic. Because these sections vary in length and technical detail, a summary of each has been prepared to serve as an introduction. Finally, the base economic assumptions used by the authors and information about the properties of one bulk sample of YBa2Cu307_x (one of the new superconductors) are presented in Apps. A and B, respectively.

2 Overview

A.M. Wolsky, E.J. Daniels, and RF. Giese Argonne National Laboratory

Applied Superconductivity

The recent and sudden discovery of a family of materials that become superconducting at temperatures above 77 K raises the likelihood that further advances are at hand and that these advances will lead to commercial applications that conserve energy. Materials in their superconducting state offer a means to circulate direct electric currents (DC) with no resistive loss. Materials in their superconducting state also offer a means to convey low-frequency alternating currents (i.e., AC at 60 Hz) with unusually small losses. The absence or significant reduction of losses prompts universal interest in superconductors as energy savers. Materials become superconducting only in certain circumstances, which differ for each material. These circumstances (e.g., low temperature) are unusual and have been expensive to arrange and maintain. In the past, that expense has been too great to permit widespread commercial applications of superconductivity, although commercial applications have been made in high-energy physics, medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and -- most recently -- industrial materials separation. Now, there is hope for further advances that will lower the cost of applications and enable adoption of the technology by utilities and industry. The most well-known characteristic affecting superconductivity is the temperature of the material. Niobium-tin, Nb$n, becomes superconducting when its temperature is less than 16.05 K; the corresponding transition temperature for niobiumtitanium, NbTi, is 9.8 K. (On this scale, the Kelvin scale, room temperature is generally considered as 298 K.) The total cost of refrigeration to cool these materials to 1.8-4 K and maintain their operating temperatures is formidable. This cost includes capital and Capital is required to purchase thermal insulation, which slows operating components. the rate at which ambient heat reaches the superconductor and, in some cases, to purchase equipment to refrigerate the coolant. Operating costs pay for the coolant (i.e., helium) makeup and, in some cases, for the energy required to remove the heat that penetrates the thermal insulation. As noted above, the new materials (e.g., YBa2Cu307_x) become superconducting at temperatures in the range 77-100 K. This range of temperatures is above a significant threshold -- it provides the opportunity to use liquid nitrogen instead of liquid helium as Furthermore, operating in this temperature regime would the superconductor coolant. reduce the total cost of refrigeration for two reasons: (1) for the same insulation, the rate of heat transfer from ambient temperature to cold superconductor declines as the cold temperature increases (alternatively, the same heat-transfer rate may be obtained with less costly thermal insulation) and (2) the cost of removing the heat that penetrates the thermal insulation declines as the cold temperature increases. The cost savings for heat removal depend on the type of refrigeration and insulation system used in a particular superconductor application. Under idealized conditions, the energy required to remove one unit of heat at 77 K is less than 5% of the energy required to remove the same amount at 4 K, and the amount of heat that can be removed by the vaporization of 1 L of liquid nitrogen is 60 times that of 1 L of liquid helium. Because the cost of liquid nitrogen (per liter) is less than 10% of the cost of a significant potential for cost reduction in the liquid helium, this represents As a practical example, a typical MRI solenoid, refrigeration of superconductors.

Overview

maintained below 4.2 K, provides a magnetic field of 1.5-2.0 T in a l-m bore. The capital cost of the thermal insulation (also known as a cryostat) is about $100,000, and the annual cost of liquid helium makeup is about $30,000. Were the solenoid maintained at 77 K, the capital cost of the needed thermal insulation would be $50,000, and the annual cost of liquid nitrogen makeup would be $3,000 - a very substantial reduction in the total cost of refrigeration. The second circumstance affecting superconductivity is the strength of the magnetic field around the material. if this field strength is too great, superconductivity cannot be achieved. The new materials are expected to maintain superconductivity at field strengths greater than those that would prevent superconductivity in the This property could enable the production of lighter-weight commercial materials. magnets with strong fields induced by currents circulating within the superconductor itself. Present practice is to insert iron, with a density of 7.9 g/cm, within the core of an electromagnet, where the field it contributes is at most 2.2 T. However, magnetic field strength is also limited by the ability to accept the mechanical stress that the magnetic field exerts on the currents that produce it. For example, the outward stress or pressure on the interior walls of a long, air-filled solenoid producing the magnetic field B is given by 3.9 atm x (B/l T)2 - thus, a 5-T field exerts a stress of 97.5 atm -and the concomitant tension (tangent to the solenoids wall and perpendicular to its radius) is given by the product of that pressure and the solenoids radius. The third circumstance affecting superconductivity is the electric current density, usually described in amperes per square centimeter (A/cm2), within the The maximum or critical current density depends on the material, its material. temperature, and the magnetic field around it. Although the popular press has given much more attention to the critical temperature than to the critical current density, the latter is now equally important, or more so, for the following reasons: 1. Weight. The weight of material (the density of YBa2Cu307_x is about 6.3 g/cm3) required to convey a given total current for a given distance is inversely proportional to the current density within the material. Reduced weight means reduced cost for supporting structures or increased payload for levitation (cranes or trains). This is a reason for avoiding the use of iron. The volume of material required to convey a given total Size. current for a given distance is inversely proportional to the current density within the material. Reduced size means increased opportunity to replace equipment for which floor space has already been allotted. Flexibility. Over equal lengths, material with a large cross section is less flexible than material with a small cross section, and thus less easily wound in the form of wire or tape. The needed cross section is inversely proportional to the current density within the superconducting filaments embodied in the wire. Increased flexibility means increased ease of handling and increased reliability in the face of mechanical perturbations.

2.

3.

Applied Superconductivity

4.

Cost of Raw Materials. The cost of raw materials is likely to be proportional to the weight or volume of the final product superconductor, which (as noted above) is inversely proportional to the current density within it.

In addition to current density, three other classes of engineering properties deserve attention. The first is the ability of new superconductors to join with or be coated by other materials. Present practice often requires that superconductors form composites with other materials. For example, the tape used in Brookhaven National Laboratorys transmission line is a sandwich of stainless steel (for strength), Nb3Sn, and copper (to shunt current during a fault). The usefulness of new superconductors will almost certainly increase when they, too, can be part of such composites. The second class of properties involves chemical stability. The new materials show a propensity to lose oxygen and, with it, their superconducting properties. It may be important to know if the composites required for electrical systems also act to preserve the chemical stability of the superconductor. The third class of properties affects the AC losses in the new superconductors. As already noted, superconductors circulate only direct currents without loss. However, many applications in the electric power system require superconductors to experience time-dependent magnetic fields, or AC currents. Hysteresis loss deserves attention, as does the effect on losses of the condition of the superconductors surface. When superconductors with favorable properties ;Ipe fabricated, they are likely to find profitable applications on both sides of the meter. Below, we describe our essential findings, including the essential findings of the topical sections that follow. Some of these findings are also presented in Table 2.1. 1. The critical current densities that have been observed in bulk samples of the new superconductors are too small to permit their terrestrial commercial application. Research should be devoted to increasing these critical current densities. Because the chemical stability of the new superconductors in the presence of oxygen (e.g., air) and water is unknown, their potential for terrestrial application cannot be evaluated without speculation. Research should be devoted to measuring the chemical stability of these materials and, if needed, to developing suitable protective coatings. These coatings might also serve to add mechanical strength (e.g., stainless steel) or provide a heat sink and electrical shunt (e.g., copper and aluminum). The AC properties of the new superconductors are unknown. Thus, their potential for application in generators, transformers, AC power lines, and motors cannot be evaluated without Research should be devoted to measuring the AC speculation. properties of new superconductors.

2.

3.

Overview

TABLE 2.1 Design Goala and Economic Benefits for Selected &@icatiOns

Application

Design Operating Current Dtnsity (10 A/cm2)

Life-Cycle Dollar Savings of High-T System (%I Design Operating Field (T) Compared with Liquid Helium Systema Compared with Conventional Systemb

Geerators,c Transform rs, P 1,000 MVA

300 MU

3d 10

2 0.30g

27e 36

63e 60

Transmission lines, 113,000 HVA, 230 kV SMES systems, 5,000 MWh Motors
Haglev systems

23h

no.1

23

43i

60i

1.6-5

5-a

Note

0.1-0.251 1 3p

2-3 3 2-5

llrn NA 15

21m NA 20

Magnetic

separators

aSavings bSavings

= [(LHe - High = [(Conventional

T,)/LHe] - High

x 100. T,)/Conventional]

x 100.

Generators, which account for l-22 of the capital cost of conventional power plants, convert shaft power to electrical power. The rest of the plant produces shaft power and is unaffected by superconductivity. Superconductivity may substantially affect future power plants using MHD or fusion. dDesired bulk critical current density = 4.5 x IO4 A/cm2; operating current density in wire (including copper cladding) = lo4 A/cm2. eBased on materials and operating costs, with refrigeration costs proportional to refrigeration power. fl MVA = 1 MU, if there is go.30 T maximum in the coil no phase windings difference and 1.75 between T in the current and voltage. transformer core.

hBulk critical current density = 230 x lo4 A/cm2; bulk operating current den,sity = 23 x lo4 A/cm2, or equivalent operating surface current = 500 A/cm. tconventional underground transmission. JDesired bulk critical current density = 70 x lo4 A/cm2. kDepends on utility characteristics (e.g., load shape and capacity mix). Based on copper windings with a iron core. mAssuming a 20% capital cost reduction for coolant refrigeration. Based on both U.S. and Japanese research during the 1970s. Not available. pBased on a small prototype.

Applied Superconductivity

4.

Although the foregoing research and the for below may increase the efficiency and transmission from all sources, the different. In particular, the choice selected conventional sources may be following examples:

specific advances called of electricity production impact on each may be between renewable and We offer the affected.

- Peaking power is now supplied by units fueled by natural gas. In the future, such units may compete with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the peak market. Thus, SMES may provide the means for solar energy (e.g., wind power or photovoltaic cells) to displace natural gas. Solar energy will continue to compete with coal and nuclear fuel, burned in otherwise idle capacity (if any), for the SMES charging market. - Because of their ability to charge and discharge rapidly, SMES units may also play a role in absorbing transient and discharging level power. This conversion of transient to level output may ease the burden of incorporating generation into the grid. - The cost of electricity ocean thermal energy using superconducting, lines under water. 5. delivered to the shoreline conversion facilities might rather than conventional, small power input wind

from offshore be reduced by transmission

If current densities of about IO4 A/cm2 can be achieved in wire (including copper cladding) at about 77 K and 2 T, and if the superconductor otherwise behaves as Nb3Sn or NbTi, then large (300-MWe) generators using the new superconductors will be more economical than either conventional generators or low-T generators. In particular, a high-T, 300-MWe generator mig& have an efficiency of 99.7% (compared with efficiencies of 99.5% for a low-T, generator and 98.6% for a conventional generator). Increased efficiency would reduce the quantity of air pollution from combustion or reduce the cost of air-pollution control. Engineering research and economic evaluation should be devoted to smaller generators (e.g., 60 MWe), for which there is now a greater demand than for 300-MWe generators. If current densities of about 10 x lo4 A/cm2 can be achieved at 77 K, and if the material otherwise behaves as Nb3Sn or NbTi, then the cost of service of a l,OOO-MWe, high-T, superconducting transformer would be 64% of the cost of service of a low-T, transformer and 40% of the cost of service of a conventional transformer. These cost comparisons reflect the higher efficiency of the high-T, transformer (99.92%) compared with the

6.

Overview

lower efficiencies of (99.7%) transformers. 7.

the

low-T,

(99.85%)

and

conventional

If current densities of about 100 x lo* A/cm2 can be achieved in wire at 77 K and 1.8-5.0 T, and if the material otherwise behaves as NbTi, then the capital cost of large (l,OOO-MWe, 5,000-MWh) SMES facilities might be reduced by 3-8%. The low end of this range accounts for savings in thermal insulation and refrigeration, whereas the high end includes savings from inexpensive (2.2-e/g) Under reasonable assumptions, these superconductor materials. savings might make SMES competitive with gas-fired peaking plants. Lower current densities (e.g., 60 x lo* A/cm21 might be sufficient to make SMES economical. Research should be devoted to determining the effect of increased specific heat, concomitant with the increase in operating temperature from 1.8 to 77 K, on SMES reliability. If operating current densities of about 23 x IO* A/cm2, with critical current densities of about 230 x lo* A/cm2, can be achieved in tapes at 77 K and less than 1 T, and if the material otherwise behaves as Nb3Sn, then the cost of service for a 66-mi, lO,OOO-MWe, AC superconducting transmission line appears to be roughly 60% of the cost of service of conventional underground, This cost advantage reflects lower oil-filled-pipe transmission. transmission loss (0.73%) in the superconducting line than in the conventional underground line (3.60%). Both lines are more expensive than a conventional aerial transmission line. However, concern about the health and environmental effects from aerial transmission and the ability to obtain aerial rights of way may result in future mandates to construct underground lines. Research and economic evaluation should be devoted to lowercapacity (e.g., 300-1,000 MWe) transmission lines, for which there is a greater demand than for lO,OOO-MWe lines. If current densities of about 0.1-0.25 x lo* A/cm2 could be achieved in wire at 77 K in the range of 2-3 T, and if the material otherwise behaves as Nb3Sn or NbTi, then a conservative estimate indicates that a large (e.g., 1,500-hp) high-T, superconducting motor, with an iron alloy core, might provide shaft power for 90% of the cost of service of a conventional motor. This saving reflects the assumed high efficiency (97%) of the high-T, superconducting AC motor and the lower efficiency (95%) of a conventional AC motor. If the capital cost of the system were reduced by about 20% by redesign of the refrigeration system, the high-T, superconducting motors cost of service would be about 80% that of a conventional motor.

8.

9.

10

Applied Superconductivity

10.

Most recently, low-T, superconductors have been commercially applied to high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) of magnetic contaminants in kaolin processing. Superconductors offer a number of advantages in industrial processing (e.g., reduced weight, increased throughput, and reduced floor space), in addition to their 80% reduction in power consumption (including refrigeration power) compared with conventional HGMS. The primary advantage of high-T, superconductors for industrial applications, compared with low-T, systems, would be a capital cost reduction of lo-1596 due to elimination of the helium refrigeration/reliquefaction system. Thus, compared with low-T, or conventional HGMS, the cost savings of a high-T, superconducting HGMS system would be about 15 or 2096, respectively. In addition to competing with conventional HGMS systems in industry, high-T, superconducting magnets may be applicable to other industrial processes, including (1) gas/gas separation, (2) materials handling, and (3) materials fabrication (e.g., press fitting of components). High-speed rail is being actively considered for at least a dozen corridors in the United States. Like other systems, magnetic levitation (maglev) is unlikely to be economical without indirect benefits being added. Advances in superconductivity are unlikely to change this situation, because present designs allocate only about 1% of the system capital cost to the levitating magnets on the train. However, if the new superconductors can operate at 77 K as well as NbTi operates at 4.2 K, these superconductors may offer an ease of operation and promise an increase in system reliability that will make high-T, maglev systems the preferred choice among high-speed rail technologies.

11.

Many of the superconductor applications discussed above and illustrated in Table 2.1 exhibit large economic savings, even for the liquid-helium-cooled versions. .Moreover, several have been developed through the prototype stage. Why have none of them been commercialized? First, most technologies employing superconductivity have large economies of scale that require large capital investments and the associated financial risks. Second, many of the technologies (generators, transformers, transmission lines, and SMES) are in the electric utility sector. This sector has curtailed investments in recent years because of (1) recent completion of a large capacity-expansion program, (2) slow growth in electricity demand, (3) an existing capacity that consists of equipment with long lifetimes, and (4) an uncertain regulatory environment. Also, the electric utility industry places a very high premium on system reliability. These factors have combined to delay the adoption of any new, superconducting technologies. The overall impact of successful development of the new Not only is there a superconductors cannot be gauged precisely. but both conventional and concerning the emerging technologies, However, if even superconductor technologies continue to improve. potential improvement in energy efficiency is realized, the associated high-temperature large uncertainty low-temperaturea fraction of the economic benefits

Overview

11

may be important. In 1983, about 7% of the electricity generated in the United States was lost before it reached the customers meters. Superconductivity may enable increased profitability and improved electrical system efficiency, with concomitant reductions in environmental impact. For example, a 3.6% loss is expected from a 66-mi conventional, underground AC transmission line, while the loss from the competing superconducting, underground AC transmission line is expected to be only 0.7%. Improvements are also likely to extend to the customers side of the meter. About 64% of the electricity sold is transformed to shaft power by motors with efficiencies that now range from 72% for small motors to 95% for large industrial motors (e.g., 1,500 hp or The efficiency of large motors might well be raised to 97%. Further, 1,119 kWe). materials-separation processing in industry is now energy-intensive (about 3 quads per year*). As familiarity with new superconductors increases, magnetic separation may replace present practice in several applications (e.g., cleaning boiler feedwater). At present, no one knows if or when needed advances will be made. Enthusiasm among researchers is very high, and progress is reported each week. If confirmed, a recent announcement that critical current densities of about lo3 A/cm2, at 1 T, have been observed in a bulk superconductor marks an important step toward commercially useful material.

*One quad = 1Ol5 Btu.

3 Renewable Sources for Electricity Generation


Summary
A.M. Wolsky Argonne National Laboratory

Potential Impacts of HTSCs on Renewable Energy Technologies


J.G. DeSteese, J.A. Dirks, M.K. Drost, S.B. Merrick, R.M. Smith, and T A. Williams Pacific Northwest Laboratory

12

Renewable

Sources for Electricity

Generation

13

II

Summary

This section transmission in $is

calls attention to the fact that more efficient electrical generation and will lower the cost of electricity derived from all forms of primary energy. advances In superconductivity wlll have a bC3iYYti irn~~& 'th bn Vsk tit

respect,

cwev+&2&&
However, attention is also called to the great importance of storage in conjunction with generation from wind and solar energy. Advances in superconductivity promise to lower the cost of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and make it the lowest-cost form of storage. Thus, the total cost of a system including wind energy and SMES, or solar energy and SMES, would be lowered. Such combined systems should be compared with combined systems using SMES and conventional sources of electricity (e.g., off-peak power from coal or nuclear units). The result of this comparison will depend on the load profile, existing stock of generation capacity, fuel prices, and environmental regulation. (Section 7 describes SMES.) Advances in superconductivity may also reduce the cost of electricity delivered to the shoreline from ocean thermal energy conversion systems, if underwater superconducting transmission lines are less costly than underwater conventional transmission lines. Section 6 compares the cost of superconducting and conventional transmission underground.

14

Applied Superconductivity

Potential impacts of HTSCs on Renewable Energy Technologies

3.1

BACKGROUND

This section summarizes a preliminary Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessment of the potential for superconducting materials and devices to change or enhance the future value of renewable energy technologies. The approach taken was to identify the possible interfaces between these technologies and high-temperature (greater than 70 K) superconducting subsystems and project the nature of resulting changes in overall system performance. Four impact categories were considered: neutral impact, enhanced energy storage capability, improved system integration, and new energy conversion potential. The value of incorporating superconductors appears to range from a neutral impact for the renewable technologies that are operated as base-load systems to the facilitation of advanced energy conversion opportunities that are impractical with normal conductors. The smallest impacts are in technologies such as geothermal energy conversion, where superconductors add no value to the intrinsic power or availability of the resource. In such a system, superconductors might replace conventional electric-power generating, transmission, protection, and control components: this is also possible with other thermal or hydroelectric power systems. Superconductors do not appear capable of improving the energy conversion process of intermittent resources, such as solar energy systems, but benefits are likely to be realized from superconductor-enhanced energy storage, stand-alone capability, and/or utility system integration. The highest value expected from superconductor applications was found to be in technologies where a new intrinsic capability might be provided in the energy conversion An example is the possible facilitation of magnetohydrodynamic conversion process. from resources such as biomass, where previously the magnet power required with lowconductivity, low-temperature working fluids would have made these concepts Finally, assuming that fusion power will become possible and can be impractical. the plasma containment and energy conversion considered a renewable resource, processes would be impractical without the incorporation of superconducting subsystems.

3.2 INTRODUCTION Recent indications that a new class of metallic oxide superconductors exhibit superconductivity at liquid nitrogen temperatures and above have fueled speculation on their practical value. Participants in the April 1987 meeting on superconductors held by

Renewable Sources for Electricity Generation

15

the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Storage and Distribution, were assigned to assess the benefits and changes that may be sssociated with hightemperature superconductors in a number of possible applications. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was assigned the task of assessing the potential for the new superconductors to change or enhance the future performance and value of renewable energy technologies. This section presents the results of the PNL effort in this activity up to the July 1, 1987, deadline for the delivery of preliminary results.

3.2.1 Approach The approach taken was to review systems from a top-down perspective to identify possible opportunities for inserting or substituting high-temperature (greater than 70-K) superconducting subsystems in the place of normally conducting components. The nature of the resulting changes in overall system performance and other significant characteristics was projected at least qualitatively for all cases considered, and quantitatively when appropriate data were at hand.

3.2.2 Scope For the purposes of this assessment, the term renewable technologies was taken to mean electric power production from inexhaustible energy resources. These include hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, ocean-thermal, ocean-mechanical, and biomass resources. Fusion power is also classified as a renewable technology in this assessment, because the deuterium fuel can be derived from seawater, an inexhaustible resource.

3.2.3 System Impact Classification From the overall system-level perspective, superconductors may have an impact on an electric-power-producing technology in four principal ways, according to the nature of the resource. The four impact categories considered were:
l l l l

Neutral impact, Enhanced energy storage capability, Improved system integration, and New energy conversion potential.

Neutral Impact

Some systems, such as the larger-scale geothermal power plants, produce an intrinsic base-load, grid-synchronized AC output. In renewable resource systems of this type, superconductors may replace conventional electric-power generating, transmission, protection, and control components in the same manner as is possible with regular fossilor nuclear-fueled stations. The resource side of the system is constrained by the geographical location, thermal power, and diversity of the source, which neither gains

16

Applied Superconductivity

nor loses value from superconductors being incorporated in the balance of the system. In situations of this type, the value added by superconductors is identical to that achieved in systems powered by nonrenewable fuels. Inasmuch as superconductors make no difference to the performance of the energy conversion technology, impacts of this type are considered to be neutral.

Enhanced Energy Storage Capability Systems that convert solar energy to electric power typically produce an intermittent output, requiring energy storage if a constant output is desired. Energy storage in this type of renewable technology is a significant advantage that can increase system flexibility and, in some cases, reduce the delivered energy cost. Superconducting magnetic energy storage could enhance the storage potential of such systems and could, therefore, be a means of extending their overall performance and value.

Improved System Integration Intermittent power systems typically require energy storage and power conditioning to be compatible with end-use needs and/or utility integration. Superconducting generation, storage, and transmission can influence and enhance intermittent power technologies by introducing new system integration options. As an example, the ability of SMES to rapidly switch from charge to discharge or vice versa makes it attractive for use in controlling unstable systems. This may be needed at the grid interface to inhibit any plant output variations that might cause undesirable voltage fluctuations on the transmission system. The high round-trip cycle efficiency potential of superconducting systems could provide energy-management and cost advantages.

New Energy Conversion Potential The final category of impact is the potential for superconducting devices, such as high-field-strength magnets, to facilitate previously impractical energy conversion For example, low-temperature, low-conductivity, magnetohydrodynamic, and options. magnetofluid mechanical concepts would fall into this category.

3.2.4

Organization

Section 3.3 contains a portfolio of technology-specific reviews summarizing the potential influence of high-temperature superconductors on each of the renewable technologies considered. The technologies are reviewed in the following order:
l l l l l

Hydroelectric energy Solar salt gradient ponds Solar thermal central receiver concepts Solar thermal dish concept Solar photovoltaic cells

Renewable

Sources for Electricity

Generation

17

l l l l l l

Geothermal energy conversion Wind energy conversion Ocean thermal energy conversion Biomass energy conversion Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion Fusion power generation

The results of this assessment are summarized by the matrix in Sec. 3.4, which shows the overall impact of superconductors on the above systems according to impact category.

3.3

SUPERCONDUCTOR

IMPACTS ON RENEWABLE

ENERGY

TECHNOLOGIES

3.3.1

Hydroelectric

Energy

Technology

Description

Hydropower constitutes about 12% of the nations electric energy generation. Hydroelectric energy is converted from the fluid-mechanical energy of rivers, streams, and sometimes ocean water, by causing this water to flow through turbines located in a dam. The dam typically provides storage for large volumes of water, generally sufficient contain multiple generators and are for base-load or load-following use. Dams typically capable of delivering bulk power (loo-6,600 MW) to the transmission grid. A major exception to this generalization is the TVA system, which collects water from a number of sources through an elaborate system of penstocks. Smaller hydropower projects are often built without dammed storage on rivers, streams, and irrigation canals with variable water flow rates. Generators of this type generally have capacities of between 1 and 80 MW.

Current

System

Integration

Approach

Most hydroelectric energy is generated at the synchronous power frequency of the electric grid and is transformed to high voltages on site to supply bulk power transmission lines. Some hydropower projects also supply bulk power directly to large The smaller generators (more than 80 MW) are typically industrial users located nearby. base-loaded to the capacity provided by the stream flow, which may vary or even be interrupted during the year. Most of the generators in this class are connected to the utility grid and, in many cases, supply power that the utility is obliged to purchase under the requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA).

18

Applied Superconductivity

Performance

Characteristics

Hydropower is the most flexible resource and can be brought on line within minutes of the start-up command. The water storage provided by dams and the ability to respond to rapid fluctuations in demand allow hydroelectric systems to be dispatched as load-following units. Hydroelectric systems are typically the lowest-cost base-load or load-following capacity available.

Impact of Superconductors The use of superconductors in hydropower systems can be expected mainly to improve generator efficiency, reduce electric losses, and increase the capacity in the power buses connecting generator outputs to the primary side of the transmission transformer. In large systems, generator efficiency may be improved by 24%. The size, efficiency, cost, and routing of bus ducts may be similarly improved. When practical materials and components are developed, superconductors should find relatively early application in the larger hydroelectric plants. This is because the existing facilities and caliber of personnel should be well suited to accommodate the complexity of whatever cryogenic refrigeration system may be required. There is less application potential at the lower end of the power range, where operations and There is probably a negligible prospect for personnel are typically less sophisticated. Dammed systems have inherent storage, and SMES applications in any hydroplants. storage systems are generally not cost-effective to implement on small systems. If storage were desirable where it did not already exist, comparisons between options in the 5,000-7,000 MWh, 660-1,000 MW energy storage and power ranges show that underground pumped hydropower storage would be much cheaper ($740/kW) than a SMES system ($1,90O/kW). However, in a few particular cases, a SMES system could possibly be viable despite its cost, if environmental restrictions were to eliminate pumped hydropower or other cheaper storage options. The transmission systems that deliver hydropower to load centers are potentially amenable to the use of superconductors, based on the operational and economic criteria that would apply to conventional systems.

3.3.2 Solar Salt Gradient Ponds

Technology Description The solar salt gradient pond is a device for trapping and storing solar energy. The salt gradient pond achieves this by means of a concentration gradient, where salinity increases from a low value at the pond surface to high salinity a meter or two below the surface. Hence, deeper waters are heavier than the water above them. This eliminates buoyancy-induced convection, impeding the upward movement of the warmed water. Buoyancy-induced convection is the major heat-loss mechanism in a solar pond.

Renewable Sources for Electricity

Generation

19

In practice, the salt gradient pond has three layers: a thin surface convecting zone, the salt gradient zone, and the storage zone located under the salt gradient zone. Useful energy is absorbed in the storage zone, resulting in the storage zone having a temperature substantially above ambient. In operating ponds, temperatures above 100C By extracting storage zone water from the have been achieved in the storage zone. pond, a heat source is made available for a low-temperature organic Rankine-cycle heat engine, which can be used to drive an electric alternator. Studies from the early 1980s project a levelized energy cost of about lOQ/kWh for large solar salt ponds.

Current System Integration Approach A solar salt gradient pond system is normally designed to deliver synchronized AC power directly to the grid without on-site electric energy storage.

Performance

Characteristics

The solar salt gradient pond concept is a low-temperature solar energy conversion concept that results in low efficiency. In many cases, however, the pond can be constructed at a very low cost, offsetting the efficiency penalty. The major feature of this concept, compared with other solar thermal concepts, is that the storage zone A solar salt gradient pond may take provides very large amounts of thermal storage. several years to warm up, but once it is warm, the plants output will not be affected by diurnal or short-term weather-induced variations in incident solar radiation. There will be a significant seasonal variation in output, but overall, a solar salt gradient pond power plant can be considered as a base-load power generator. For economical operation, solar power plants must be located in areas with high incident solar radiation, such as the southwestern United States.

Impact of Superconductors The impact of superconductors would be essentially neutral in this technology. Application potential would exist in the generator and transmission system according to the same criteria that apply to these components in nonrenewable base-load systems. Storage is an intrinsic feature of solar salt gradient ponds. Therefore, superconducting storage would add little value.

3.3.3 Solar Thermal Central Receiver

Concepts

Technology Description The central receiver concept calls for a field of mirrors or heliostats that completely or partially surround a tower-mounted receiver. The heliostats can move about two axes and track the sun as it moves through the sky, concentrating the incident solar radiation on the tower-mounted receiver. The reflected solar radiant energy is

20

Applied Superconductivity

absorbed on the receiver, converted to thermal energy, and transferred to a heattransfer fluid. Molten salt, liquid sodium, and water/steam have been proposed as heattransfer fluids. The heat-transfer fluid is transported to ground level, where it is used to generate steam for a Rankine-cycle heat engine. The heat engine provides shaft power to a conventional electric generator. To extend the amount of time that a central receiver can provide energy, a storage subsystem is included. During operation, a fraction of the thermal energy in the heat-transfer fluid is used to charge a thermal storage unit. The stored energy is then available to generate steam for the heat engine during periods when solar radiation is not available. A similar system uses parabolic trough collectors to focus solar radiation on a linear receiver tube, where it is used to heat a heat-transfer fluid (such as oil). With the exception of the collector, the trough system is similar to the central receiver system. Statements regarding performance characteristics, current approach for end use integration, and impact of superconduction on the technology will apply equally to both trough and central receiver systems. Recent evaluations of solar thermal technology project a levelized energy cost of for central receiver plants. Trough systems are projected to be much more with levelized costs approaching 15@/kWh.

S-?C/kWh expensive,

Current

System

Integration

Approach

difficult system.

Only one prototype central receiver plant is in operation. Therefore, it is to predict the preferred approach for integrating this technology into a utility There are at least three options:
l

Quasi Base-Load. A central receiver power plant can be designed to operate with capacity factors equal to conventional base-load plants. This is accomplished by adding substantial thermal storage. Reasonable designs have been proposed with annual capacity factors up to 0.8. Unlike conventional plants, the solar plant (even with storage) is still vulnerable to unusual weather conditions, such as a long period of cloudy weather. Peak Load. A central receiver amount of storage and operated plant can be designed as a peaking plant. with a small

Hybrid. A central receiver plant can use fossil fuels to either increase the temperature of the Rankine-cycle heat source or replace solar energy during periods of low insolation. In the second case, storage is not required.

Performance

Characteristics

to have

Depending on the design of the plant, a central receiver facility can be designed a capacity factor between 0.25 (no storage) and 0.8 (maximum reasonable

Renewable

Sources for Electricity

Generation

21

storage), but in all cases, the plant is vulnerable to unusual weather. The use of thermal because this type of storage is essentially is an advantage, energy storage commercialized and inexpensive ($12/kWh thermal). For economical operation, a solar power plant must be located in areas with high incident solar radiation, such as the southwestern United States.

Impact of Superconductors Superconductor application potential would exist in the generator and transmission system according to the same criteria that apply to these components in Because the solar central receiver can reach high nonrenewable base-load systems. capacity factors with inexpensive thermal storage, there appears to be little prospect Superconducting that electric energy storage, of any form, would be competitive. magnetic energy storage might be cost-effective in particular cases, such as the integration of a stand-alone power system for a remote community or industry not connected to the grid. Liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems have been considered for fluid. application with central receiver systems , using sodium as a heat-transfer Superconducting magnets can provide many times the magnetic field strength of The application of conventional magnets and can be more cost-effective. superconducting magnets could facilitate the use of liquid-metal MHD energy conversion in the central receiver concept, thereby greatly increasing its relative importance as a renewable resource.

3.3.4 Solar Thermal Dish Concept

Technology

Description

This concept involves an array of parabolic dish-shaped collectors that track the sun in two axes, redirecting the incident radiation onto individual receivers located at The cavity-type receiver absorbs the solar the focal point of each concentrator. radiation on the heater tubes of a small (about 2%kWe) heat engine. Stirling-cycle, and supercritical organic Rankine-cycle heat engines have been Brayton-cycle, proposed. In all cases, the heat engine drives a generator to produce electricity, which is transported to either a storage unit or the utility power grid. When storage is included, battery storage has typically been selected for use with solar dish concepts. An alternative solar thermal dish concept uses an array of dish receivers to produce thermal energy, which is then transported to a central heat engine. Thermal energy can be transported by a heat-transfer fluid or in a thermochemical transport system. Either way, the thermal energy generated by a large number of receivers is transported to a central Rankine-cycle heat engine, which generates electricity. To extend the amount of time that the dish concept can provide energy, a thermal storage system can be included. During operation, a fraction of the thermal energy from the dish

22

Applied Superconductivity

array is used to charge storage. The energy is then available to generate heat engine during periods when solar radiation is not available.

steam in the

The dish systems using dish-mounted heat engines and electric storage have been extensively investigated, but electric storage using batteries has proved to be very expensive. The dish concept with a central heat engine is being considered as an alternative, but the thermal energy transport system has also proved to be expensive. The dish concept with a central heat engine has performance characteristics similar to those of a central receiver system, and the impact of superconductivity on this concept should be about the same: therefore, this discussion will concentrate on the dish system using small dish-mounted heat engines.

Current System

integration Approach

Two approaches for integrating the solar thermal dish concept into a utility system have been proposed. First, the dish system can be installed without any battery In this ease, the dish systems storage and feed power into the grid as it is produced. The second approach is to include a small amount of depend on system-wide storage. storage to allow the power to be delivered during peak demand periods, but the economics of battery storage are so unattractive that adding more storage will rapidly make the solar thermal dish concept uneconomical.

Performance

Characteristics

The solar thermal dish concept is characterized by high efficiency but is strongly Compared with other solar thermal concepts, penalized by expensive battery storage. the dish concept normally shows the lowest cost up to a capacity factor of 0.27. Above this capacity factor, storage must be included, and the cost of the concept soon exceeds Due to the modular nature of this concept, that of the other solar thermal technologies. it is particularly suitable for remote installations, but the lack of cost-effective electric storage again offsets this advantage. For economical operation, solar thermal dish power plants must be located in areas with high incident solar radiation, such as the southwestern United States.

Impact of Superconductors Superconductors could replace generation and transmission system components of the solar thermal dish system, with potential advantages similar to those achievable with Costsuperconductor applications to these components in nonrenewable systems. effective SMES would have a major impact, because the application potential of the solar thermal dish concept is currently limited by battery storage. Large-scale superconducting storage could improve grid-wide storage, eliminating the need for onsite battery storage. Small-scale superconducting storage could replace on-site batteries and improve the prospects for remote applications.

Renewable

Sources

for Electricitv

Generation

23

3.3.5

Solar

Photovoltaic

Cells

Technology

Description

Solar photovoltaic cells convert solar power directly into DC electric power. The solar cell is a semiconductor (typically silicon or gallium arsenide) that exhibits a photoelectric effect when illuminated by sunlight. The freed electrons are gathered and transported from the cells by metallic contacts on each cells surface. The cells are arranged in modules, which can either be fixed (typically pointing due south with a tilt equal to the latitude of the installation) or mounted in arrays of modules that track the sun in one or two axes. Sun-tracking arrays can also employ devices to concentrate the solar radiation. Photovoltaic cells represent the least site-restricted solar technology. However, due to the periodic nature of the solar resource, a typical photovoltaic system operates at a capacity factor of 20-30%.

Current

System Integration

Approach

The use of photovoltaic cells in large-scale commercial power applications has been prevented, to date, by their high cost. Worldwide, in 1986, over 80% of the photovoltaic panels purchased for electric power production were used in stand-alone Photovoltaic cells are often the lowest-cost power alternative in remote applications. applications. Small stand-alone applications with constant or variable power demand (e.g., telerepeaters or railroad signals) are cost-effective and work very well with photovoltaic cells and battery storage. Larger stand-alone photovoltaic systems that could be used to power entire communities not connected to the electric power grid would require energy storage. However, the cost and efficiency of current electric energy storage technology (batteries) precludes their use in this application. Thus, photovoltaic systems of this type are currently considered as fuel-saver systems for more conventional generating technologies. Grid-connected photovoltaic systems would require DC-to-AC inverters and power conditioning. Currently envisioned plants would supply energy to the grid as it is produced (sun-following mode).

Performance

Characteristics

Fixed flat plate photovoltaic arrays have lower efficiency and capacity factors than tracking arrays; however, fixed arrays do not require complex tracking mechanisms. Most stand-alone (non-grid-connected) applications use this technology. One-axis tracking improves the performance of photovoltaic arrays over fixed arrays by allowing higher input (and hence output) during the day. The capacity factor is increased by more than 10% over that of a fixed array.

24

Applied Superconductivity

Two-axis tracking maximizes the output of a photovoltaic array by always keeping the array normal to the suns rays. The capacity factor is more than 25% higher than that of a fixed array. Concentrating photovoltaic arrays use either mirrors or Fresnel lenses to concentrate the solar radiation on the cells. Concentrators are used with more efficient and more costly cells to decrease the number of cells required. However, the use of concentrators precludes using the diffuse portion of the solar radiation.

Impact of Superconductors The primary potential value of superconductors could be to provide costeffective energy storage for photovoltaic systems of most sizes (except very small standalone units, in which SMES would probably not replace batteries cost-effectively). The inherent DC output of photovoltaic systems is highly compatible with superconducting storage. Energy storage might be provided as either utility system-level storage or dedicated plant storage. Cost-effective SMES could vastly increase the potential market for power from large photovoltaic systems and would allow the output of the plant to be stored and dispatched by the utility at the time of its maximum need. Thus, instead of having the output be completely sun-following, a photovoltaic plant could be designed to operate at any capacity factor from the base-load to peaking mode. Superconducting devices may also have the potential to improve both the efficiency and economics of solar cell production (for example, as a component of the doping process).

3.3.6 Geothermal

Energy Convemion

Technology

Description

Geothermal technologies employ conventional steam-turbine generation to produce electricity from the naturally occurring heat sources below the Heat can be extracted from any part of the earth and used to raise earths surface. steam; however, extraction costs can be prohibitive if the resource is not close to the surface. Four geothermal resources currently under consideration are hydrothermal deposits (steam and hot water), geopressure, hot dry rock, and magma. The most economical method is to use the naturally occurring hydrothermal deposits found in areas near volcanic zones.
technology

Current System Integration Approach Currently, geothermal electric plants operate as grid-connected, base-load The average geothermal unit is available on-line more than 95% of the time.

capacity.

Renewable

Sources

for Electricity

Generation

25

Performance

Characteristics

Dry-steam (superheated steam with little or no liquid) geothermal resources can be directly coupled to a steam turbine. Wet-steam or hot-water resources that are under high pressure currently use flash systems to generate steam suitable for input to the turbine. Dual-flash, binary-cycle, and flow systems are also being developed to make lower-temperature sources economical. Geopressured geothermal technology is based on high-pressure geothermal resources (3,000-10,000 lb/in.2 above hydrostatic pressure). This technology is still in the research phase, but it would employ conventional electrical generation technologies. Hot-dry-rock geothermal technology is still in the research phase and would also employ conventional electrical generation technologies. Magma technology is still only a hypothetical concept, but it would most likely use conventional steam-turbine technology to generate electricity.

Impact of Superconductors The impact of superconductors on large-scale, grid-connected geothermal energy conversion appears, in general, to be neutral. The resource side of the system is constrained by the geographical location, thermal power, and diversity of the source, which neither gains nor loses value if superconductors are incorporated in the balance of Superconducting components may replace conventional electric power the system. generating, transmission, protection, and control components of geothermal plants in the same manner as is possible with regular fossil- or nuclear-fueled stations. The use of SMES could possibly allow geothermal plants to operate in a load-following mode, which could offer the potential of new stand-alone (non-grid-connected) development of the Superconducting magnets could possibly find application in devices smaller resources. that remove materials in geothermal fluids that cause corrosion and fouling.

3.3.7 Wind Energy Conversion

Technology

Description

Wind energy conversion systems extract power from the wind by the use of a wind turbine-alternator set. The kinetic energy of the wind is first converted into mechanical energy, and then electrical energy. The amount of power that can be obtained from the wind increases with the square of the blade diameter and the cube of the wind speed.

Current System Integration Approach The majority of wind turbines installed today have a rated output of between 50 and 100 kW and are deployed in arrays known as wind farms delivering AC power

26

Applied Superconductivity

directly to the grid. Power-conditioning equipment relatively poor intrinsic quality of the power produced applications are limited to water pumping, because unpredictable. If wind power is used in a stand-alone high-cost battery storage is often required.

is often required to improve the by wind farms. Most stand-alone the resource is intermittent and electrical application, relatively

Performance

Characteristics

There are two basic types of wind turbines: vertical axis and horizontal axis. Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) are by far the most common type currently in use. They operate with the blade either up- or downwind and produce higher torques than the vertical axis wind turbines, which are suitable for providing mechanical energy or producing electricity. Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are the most efficient variety, extracting the most power from the wind at any given speed. They also operate at higher speeds than other wind turbines, require no equipment to point them into the wind, and enable the generator to be located on the ground. Gusts of wind traveling across hundreds of generators in the wind farm pose special control problems for the facility operator to ensure system stability and maintain adequate power quality. Though fewer, larger wind turbines are expected both to enable lower-cost power production and to simplify the control of wind farms, multiple small turbines are currently preferred, because mass production techniques can be used in their manufacture. Turbines with outputs of up to several megawatts have been built, but technical problems have delayed their development towards commercialization.

Impact

of Superconductors

Due to the variability, seasonality, and unpredictability of wind resources, wind turbines are generally not considered for stand-alone applications. Thus, in this type of system, SMES would probably be of minimal benefit. However, in grid-connected applications, SMES could be used to interface wind turbines with the grid, permitting dispatch by the utility at the time of its maximum need. Power conditioning using superconducting components may become an efficient and cost-effective means of removing voltage and frequency transients induced by variations in wind velocity.

3.3-a

Ocean

Thermal

Energy

Conversion

Technology

Description conversion (OTEC) exploits the small thermal differential water and water at depths of about 1,000 m. There are currently under consideration: openand closed-cycle plants evaporate the warm surface water and use the drive a turbogenerator. Closed-cycle OTEC systems use

Ocean thermal energy (about 2OC) between surface two types of OTEC plants Open-cycle OTEC systems. resulting low-density steam to

Renewable Sources for Electricity Generation

27

the warm surface water to boil a different working fluorocarbons), which then drives the turbogenerator.

fluid

(ammonia,

propane,

or

Current System Integration Approach OTEC facilities produce energy continuously with very little diurnal or seasonal variation in energy output. Shore-based OTEC generating stations often require prohibitively long lengths of large-diameter inlet pipe to transport cold water from suitable depths. Offshore plants may dispense with the need for an extremely long coldwater inlet, but they still require some method of transporting generated power to shore. With a suitable means of transmission, AC power may be generated and delivered directly to the grid. The best resource areas in the Gulf of Mexico are often more than 100 mi offshore, so the ability to transmit electricity to the grid remains one of the main limitations to current application of this technology. For this reason, the offshore production of many electric-energy-intensive products (e.g., aluminum, ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen, magnesium, methanol, etc.) has been proposed as a more costeffective use of OTEC power.

Performance

Characteristics

It has been estimated that more than 14 x lo6 MW may be generated through the conversion of less than 0.1% of the heat energy stored in tropical surface waters. This represents more than 20 times the current generating capacity of the United States. Desalinated water produced in open-cycle plants may be used for drinking water or irrigation in arid regions. In addition, cold-water return from an OTEC plant may be used to cool nearby buildings. Several serious drawbacks remain prior to commercialization of OTEC technology. Extremely large low-pressure turbine sizes are required to gather energy from the low-density steam generated in open-cycle systems, seawater is extremely corrosive to the heat-exchanger elements, and the removal of dissolved gases from the seawater through the OTEC process may alter the ecological balance of the surrounding region. The main drawbacks of the closed-cycle design have been fouling and corrosion of the large and very costly heat exchangers. Low-cost, easily deployable deep-water pipe and suitable means for transporting or storing the electricity generated offshore need to be developed before this resource can be fully exploited.

Impact of Superconductors There are several areas where advances in superconducting technology may contribute to improvements in the performance and operating efficiency of OTEC generating stations. Extremely large quantities of both warm and cold water must be pumped through an OTEC plant. Superconducting motors may improve the efficiency of the inlet water pumps. Significant frictional losses in the extremely large low-density steam turbines may be substantially eliminated through the application of

28

Applied Superconductivity

superconducting magnetically levitated bearings. In addition, the cold inlet water may provide an excellent heat-sink for the superconductor refrigeration equipment. The lack of a suitable means of transportation of power generated in OTEC generating stations is presently a significant limiting factor to this technology. Excitation current losses in conventional AC transmission cables limit their usefulness to distances of less than 30 mi. The development of an undersea superconducting transmission cable may open new markets for OTEC-generated power. As the critical temperatures of the new generation of superconductor materials continue to rise, it may one day be possible to deploy superconducting power transmission cables cooled simply by the surrounding seawater. It may also be feasible to employ tankers equipped with giant SMES coils to store offshore OTEC-generated power for later transportation to shore.

3.3.9

Biomass Energy Conversion

Technology

Description

Biomass energy is derived from plant or animal matter. There are numerous methods of extracting this energy currently in practice, and others have been proposed. Biomass conversion can be used to produce heat or electricity near the feedstock source, or the feedstock can be converted to other, more-transportable fuels. The most common methods considered are direct burning; producing synthesis gas under oxygenated, aerobic, or anaerobic conditions; producing alcohols by hydrolysis and fermentation; or producing methane by anaerobic digestion.

Current System Integration Approach Due to the extremely high cost of transporting the biomass feedstocks and their generally low energy density, biomass facilities are typically located close to the feedstock source. Direct burning applications (e.g., wood-fired boilers) are typically used to raise steam for use in a process or for generating electricity. Other biomass processes that produce liquid or gaseous fuels typically have their output transported in fuel form to other end users. However, if biomass processes can be made economical, electricity may be made during the process, or the fuel may be used to generate electricity at the site.

Performance

Characteristics

Direct burning of biomass waste is often used to provide heat, steam, and electricity. Typical feedstocks are wood wastes and peat. When electricity or steam is being produced, conventional steam-boiler technology similar to that used in coal plants is used.

Renewable Sources for Electricity

Generation

29

Ethanol is typically produced by fermentation from feedstocks containing starch, The main differences between the fermentation processes occur sugar, or cellulose. because of the differences in the pretreatment the various feedstocks require. Methanol production from wood biomass is generally accomplished by wood gasification, modification and cleaning of the resulting gas, and then liquefaction. Methane from biomass is produced by anaerobic digestion by various types of animal manures, aquatic plants, sewage bacteria. Typical feedstocks are wet biomass: sludge, or food processing wastes.

Impact

of Superconductors will probably have a neutral impact on most biomass conversion systems that produce electric power directly are large enough, find beneficial application in associated generation and as is the case with other renewable and nonrenewable energy

Superconductors options. If the biomass may superconductors transmission components, systems.

3.3.10

Magnetohydrodynamic

Energy

Conversion

Technology

Description

In a conventional electric power generator, electric current and voltage are induced in conductors that are caused to move orthogonally to the direction of a magnetic field. In a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, a conducting fluid replaces the solid conductor windings in the conventional machine. Many device configurations and fluid systems have been proposed, including DC and AC machines energized by nuclear-heated inert gas plasmas, combustion products, liquid metals, and two-phase working fluids. In most concepts, the heated working fluid expands into a duct containing a magnetic field perpendicular to the flow direction. Electric current is generated in the fluid in a direction mutually perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the flow. Insulated electrodes built into the side of the duct collect the current and connect with power-conditioning equipment for delivery of energy to the grid.

Current

System

Integration

Approach

While MHD research and development has been going on for nearly 30 yr in the United States, no machine has been developed past the pilot plant size or connected to the grid on a continuous basis. The DOE-funded MHD experiment conducted by Mountain States Energy Corp. in Butte, Montana, has operated for about 150 h. The DC output (about 1.5 MW) of this coal-fired machine has been inverted to AC and supplied to the grid for short durations. Most MHD plant designs are large base-load systems, connected to the grid through inverters in the case of DC machines. Large DC machines could also supply DC bulk power transmission lines directly. MHD plants may be developed to

30

Applied

Superconductivity

generate AC power, possibly with a continuing need for power conditioning the synchronization, waveform, and harmonic quality of the output.

to improve

Performance

Characteristics

MHD operation in the United States to date has been less than that needed to encourage the expectation of near-term commercialization. The Soviet Union has, however, forged ahead in this area and has several experimental units. One is a 250-MW MHD system topping a gas-turbine/combined-cycle plant of equal size that is planned for on-line operation following an experimental evaluation period.

Impact of Superconductors The power of an MHD generator is proportional to the fluid conductivity and the square of fluid velocity and magnetic field strength. The one-to-two order of magnitude increase in magnetic field strength provided by superconductors over conventional magnets could improve the performance of essentially all MHD devices. However, of particular value, the availability of superconducting magnets opens up the potential for operation at lower MHD temperatures and with fluids of lower conductivity. The renewable energy technologies that may become attractive in combination with MHD conversion include biomass and waste combustion, ocean energy, and some solar thermal concepts. The use of superconductors in MHD systems would also be applicable to the power buses and the balance of the transmission system, according to criteria that would apply to conventional nonrenewable energy systems. There is probably a negligible prospect for SMES applications plants, because almost all concepts appear to be base-load systems. possible and economical to drive a low-temperature MHD generator and store the output in a shipboard SMES. in land-based MHD However, it may be by an OTEC source

3.3.11

Fusion Power Generation

Technology

Description

Nuclear fusion is the joining together, or fusing, of nuclei from light elements, such as the deuterium or tritium isotopes of hydrogen, to form a new atom (helium) with The mass difference between the fusion less mass than the sum of the reactants. products and the reactants is converted to heat, which can then be used to generate electrical energy. While nuclear fusion is not usually classified as a renewable resource, the abundant supply of deuterium fuel that can be easily extracted from sea water may enable fusion to become a virtually inexhaustible energy resource. Three primary methods are available These are high-energy laser-induced fusion, While great catalyzed cold nuclear fusion. for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. magnetic-confinement fusion, and muonstrides have been made in each of these

Renewable Sources for Electricity

Generation

31

technologies, output.

none

has

as yet

approached

the break-even

point

to yield

a net power

Current System Integration

Approach

One approach to nuclear fusion generation involves the use of high-energy lasers to compress a fuel pellet to an equivalent of more than lo6 atm pressure and over The development of higher-efficiency lasers is necessary prior to 100 x 106 Oc. achieving the break-even point where this technology approaches viability. Another option involves the generation of intense magnetic fields to confine the high-temperature plasma fuel until fusion occurs. Superconducting magnets offer the most plausible means of efficiently generating the intense magnetic fields necessary to enable this technology to become viable. A third approach, which is beginning to show great promise, is known as muon-catalyzed cold nuclear fusion. This method involves the generation of negatively charged muons with a particle accelerator. These particles bind to the hydrogen atoms and facilitate the fusion process. Cold fusion technology is presently limited by the efficiency with which the muons may be generated in the particle accelerator. Advances in accelerator design employing high-intensity superconducting magnets may soon enable commercial cold fusion generation to become a reality.

Performance Characteristics When fusion power generation becomes a reality, heat generated in the reaction process will most likely be used to generate steam to run a conventional turbogenerator. The ionized plasma produced may also be used to generate electricity magnetohydrodynamically.

Impact of Superconductors While laser-induced fusion is likely to experience little initial impact from advances in superconductor technology, both magnetically confined and muon-catalyzed fusion are likely to make significant use of advanced superconducting magnets. As fusion power generation becomes a reality, superconducting alternators and MHD generators should further enhance its performance and efficiency.

3.4

CONCLUSIONS

The principal impacts of superconductors on the 11 renewable energy technologies considered in this section are summarized in Table 3.1. The impact categories are (1) neutral impact, (2) enhanced energy storage capability, (3) improved system integration, and (4) new energy conversion potential, as discussed in Sec. 3.2.3.

32

Applied Superconductivity

TABLE 3.1 Impact Matrix for Superconductors

in Renewable

Energy Technologiesa

Impact (1) (2) Enhanced Storage

Category (4) New Potential

Technology

Neutralb

(3) Improved System Integration

Hydroelectric energy Solar salt gradient ponds Solar central receivers Solar thermal dishes Solar photovoltaic cells Geothermal energy Wind energy systems OTEC systems Biomass conversion MHD conversion Fusion power generation

X X X X X X

(X)

(X) (Xl
(Xl

(X) (X)

(X) (X) (X)

X X

X
(Xl

X X

aThe

dominant impact category is indicated by an X for each technolSecondary, conditional, or hypothetical impacts are indicated by ogy. If the primary impact is neutral, secondary (X) where appropriate. impacts generally reflect special-case considerations.

bAll technologies with impacts in Category 1 (neutral) can benefit from superconductors replacing conventional electric-power generation, and control components in the same manner as transmission, protection, is possible with conventional fossilor nuclear-fueled systems.

4 Generators

Summary
E.J. Daniels Argonne National Laboratory

Impact of HTSCs on Generators


J.L. Kirtley, Jr. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

33

34

Applied Superconductivity

Summary

Section

4 indicates

the following:

1.

Compared to a conventional 300-MW generator, a liquid-heliumcooled generator is projected to be more cost-effective (due to its higher efficiency); this would be the case even if the capital cost of the conventional generator were zero. The gain in efficiency due to reduction of refrigeration power requirements for a high-temperature superconductor is a modest 0.2%. However, the capital cost of the higher-temperature superconducting generator would be reduced significantly by the reduction in refrigeration system costs. If the refrigeration cost is proportional to refrigeration power, the cost of the $500,000 refrigeration system could be virtually eliminated. Unless the current density of wire, including both copper stabilizer and high-temperature superconductor, is on the order of lo4 A/cm2 (i.e., equivalent to that of the low-temperature conductor), the cost savings due to elimination of the helium refrigeration system will be offset by increased superconductor materials costs to achieve the 300-MW rated power. For example, at lo3 A/cm2, the higher-temperature superconductor machine would have a cost of $800,000 in excess of that of a machine based on the lower-temperature superconductors.

2.

3.

Therefore, the conclusions regarding economics are that superconducting machines are more cost-effective than conventional machines and higher-temperature more cost-effective than superconducting machines are lower-temperature superconducting machines at current densities of lo4 A/cm2. The analyses leading to these conclusions are summarized in Table 4.1, which presents five 300-MW generators: a conventional system, a helium-cooled system, and three nitrogen-cooled systems at different current densities. The costs and losses are those estimated by Kirtley. The value of losses is based on a 65% capacity factor, rather than the 80% used in the Kirtley analysis, and is presented on an annual basis. As shown, the total annual value of the conventional machine losses is $1.4 million. The total annual costs of the helium-cooled superconducting machine are more than $0.9 million less, including the annual capital costs at an 18.7% fixed charge rate. Even if the cost of the conventional machine were zero, the value of the annual losses of the conventional materials cost and losses of the helium-cooled machine would exceed the At a current density of 0.075 x lo4 A/cm2, superconducting machine by $0.75 million.

Generators

35

TABLE 4.1 Comparison of Conventional and Alternative Superconducting 300~MVA Generators

Nitrogen-Cooled Conventional System 298.23 98.6 a84= 4.17 1,411 165 HeliumCooled Systema 298.23 99.57 1,238 1.28 433 231 0 075 It 10 A/cm2 (Ml) 296.70 99.67 3,200 0.98 331 598

Systemsb

Parameter Rating (MU) Efficiency (I) Materials cost ($103) Losses (NW) Levelized val e of losses ($10 Y/yr) Annual capitalized materials cost ($103/y=)

043) 296.22 99.71 879 0.86 290 164

(M5) 298.23 99.72 739 0.84 283 138

1,576

664

929

454

421

aCurrent

density

= 0.80

x lo4 A/cm2. superconductors of a capital


machine

bThe five hypothetical Sec. 4.4. Estimated


cooled

(Ml through M5) are fully cost multiplier


to

described a helium-

in

on the basis

of

1.4 for

superconducting

relative

a conventional

machine.

superconductors is somewhat lower than that for the helium-cooled generator. However, this gain is offset by increased At a current density of 0.75 x lo4 A/cm2, the reduction in materials materials costs. costs makes the higher-temperature superconducting system more cost-effective than the lower-temperature system. If the current densities of the two superconductors are the higher-temperature system will have a cost advantage of about equivalent, $25O,OOO/yr. Section 4 also points out that the advantage of superconductors with higher transition temperatures would also be enhanced by expected improvements in reliability and availability when operating at liquid nitrogen temperatures relative to liquid helium temperatures. Higher-temperature superconducting machines may be cost-effective compared with conventional machines at smaller capacities. This is apparently attributable to the consideration that the capital cost of higher-temperature superconducting machines is significantly lower than that of the machines based on Therefore, a smaller absolute difference in losses helium-cooled superconductors.

the annual value of losses for the higher-temperature

36

Applied Superconductivity

(associated with the use of smaller machines) would be adequate to justify the capital cost premium of a higher-temperature superconducting machine relative to a conventional generator. To date, have been built. almost completed Electric built a Hitachi built a United Kingdom, several small generators incorporating low-temperature superconductors The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), with DOE support, has construction of a IO-MW generator. In the early 199Os, General ZO-MW machine and, in Japan, Mitsubishi built a 30-MW machine and SO-MW machine. In addition, other work is underway in Japan, the Europe, and the USSR.

In the early and mid-1970s, smaller machines were built: 5-MVA Westinghouse, 3-MVA MIT, 60-kVA MIT, and 45-kVA MIT. These machines were tested by using them as synchronous condensers -- i.e., they were spun with no input of shaft power; instead of generating electricity, they shifted the phase between current and voltage.

Generators

37

Impact of HTSCs on Generators

4.1

INTRODUCTION

This section discusses the possible impact on generators of superconductors capable of operating at temperatures achievable with liquid nitrogen coolant. Such conductors can be very useful in electric machinery if they can be fabricated into windings with appropriate cross sections carrying sufficiently high current densities in reasonable magnetic fields. Superconductors with transition temperatures may be exploited in at least three ways: 1. as high as that of boiling liquid

nitrogen

For the same type of thermal isolation systems used in prototype superconducting machines, higher operating temperatures will reduce the power required to provide refrigeration; Thermal expensive, Thermal between that isolation systems can be more reliable and efficient stability operating simplified, leading designs; and to less-

2.

3.

limits may be increased by increasing the margin temperature and transition temperature. modes of exploitation will be used in some combination.

It is likely

all three

of these

Cryogenic cooling exhibits a very strong economy of scale: although it takes a lot of work to refrigerate any space to liquid helium temperature, it does not take much more work to refrigerate a large space than a small space. For this reason, it has been generally accepted that superconducting technology is applicable only to the largest machines or to those with the most stringent power density requirements. Because the effort required for refrigeration to liquid nitrogen temperature is only on the order of l-2% of the effort required for refrigeration to liquid helium temperature, it is reasonable to expect that a much broader range of machines will be candidates for the application of superconductivity. The improvement in efficiency afforded by the reduction in cooling energy may be reduced if the superconductor is more limited in current density or magnetic flux density than its liquid-helium-temperature counterpart. A numerical study has been done to establish quantitatively, in one class of machines, the benefits of a number of postulated superconductors. The machine chosen is a turbogenerator rated at 300 MVA and 3,600 rpm.

38

Applied Superconductivity

4.2

SUPERCONDUCTORS

APPLIED TO GENRRATORS

Because superconductors carry current with no dissipation, their application to a large electric machine should increase its efficiency, but the need to cool the field However, even with superconductors that winding will tend to counter this advantage. must be cooled to liquid helium temperatures, turbine generators will be more efficient Estimates are that a superconducting than their normally conducting counterparts. machine rated at 300 MW would have a net efficiency, including refrigeration power, of 99.596, as opposed to 98.6% for a conventional machine. The reduction in refrigeration afforded by higher temperatures would improve efficiency still further, perhaps by another 0.2%. The usefulness of superconductors in electric machinery does not arise solely because of lossless conduction. It comes in part from their ability to carry very large current densities and from the high flux densities that can be produced. High current density allows a field winding in a generator, for instance, to produce both magnetization and reaction in a space containing no magnetic iron. This, in turn, allows the armature to be located in a low-permeance space (no iron), so that it can carry large reaction currents with little reactive voltage drop. Absence of iron has other useful attributes, such as an increase in the armature space factor and a reduction in core losses. An increase in useful flux density helps still further by shortening the armature path around each unit of flux, thus reducing the ratio of armature loss to power produced. The usefulness of superconductors in machines, therefore, depends on their having reasonably high useful current and flux density limits, as well as lossless conduction. These limits have an impact on the efficiency and on the first cost of the generator. It appears that a wire (made of copper cladding and superconductor) capable of carrying a current density of lo4 A/cm2 in a flux density of 2 T could be very useful. Two thirds of the wires cross-section might be copper, with the remaining third being superconductor. In this case, the current density in the superconducting material would be 3 x lo4 A/cm2, a value that could be comfortably achieved in superconducting material having a critical current density of 4.5 x IO4 A/cm. Hereafter, for ease of will be used to mean superconducting wire like that expression, superconductor described above, and current density will mean the ratio of the current to the crosssectional area of the wire. A major effect of the increase in operating temperature will be to make superconductors attractive for smaller machines, because the effort required to cool small spaces to liquid helium temperature is still substantial. Thus, for small machines the efficiency impact of cooling is larger than the gain in efficiency from the use of superconductors. Since cooling to liquid nitrogen temperatures takes only about 1% of the energy required to cool to liquid helium temperatures, it is reasonable to expect the boundary between the domain of superconducting machines and normally conducting machines will move downward with respect to size. There is some disagreement over just where that boundary is located for machines cooled by liquid helium, but it is certainly in the range of hundreds of megawatts. It is conceivable, therefore, that if liquid-nitrogen-temperature superconductors become practical, the boundary may be as small as one or only a few megawatts. This is small enough that all utility generators and many other applications would be within the domain of superconductivity.

Generators

39

Another major effect of the increase in operating temperatures will be a major reduction in the complexity of the thermal isolation system. In machines using liquid helium, it is necessary to use vacuum insulation, intermediate-temperature thermalradiation barriers, and vapor cooling of both structural shaft elements and current leads. Vacuum insulation, in particular, adds substantially to the cost, complexity, and potential unreliability of a machine. With the lower cost of refrigeration to 77 K, it is likely that much of this complexity can be eliminated, including the need for vacuum in difficult places. Superconductors, when applied to synchronous machines, are used in the field winding. Two attributes of the field winding are of concern to us. First, it is a winding, with a complex shape; second, the absolute current that the field must carry must not be either too large or too small. Taken together, these attributes restrict the type of superconductor that might be used in generators. The superconductor must be capable of fabrication. The complex shape of the field winding would indicate flexible wires or tapes (wires are better), but it is possible that innovative developments in fabrication might make other forms useful. In addition, the field winding of a generator is subject to very large forces arising from the magnetic field produced by the field winding, by reaction forces from the armature winding, and from rotation. The conductor used must be capable of withstanding these forces or be compatible with a scheme that can provide sufficiently strong support. This means that the support structure must provide enough restraint for the superconductor, allow for proper cooling, and accommodate thermal contraction. For operational reasons, it is necessary to control the current in this winding. Fairly large and rapid variations in this current are required. Thus, the field current cannot be too large or too small. If the field current were too large, leads required to carry current from the slip rings or rotating exciter would impose too large a thermal load. If the current were too small, control voltages would become too high. Field currents in the range of 103-lo4 A seem reasonable; these current values imply a conductor size of 3-10 mm (in conductors with lo4 A/cm2).

4.3

OTHER

APPLICATIONS

For reasons discussed in Sec. 4.2, a substantial increase in transition temperature is likely to extend the range of machines for which superconductivity will be helpful to much smaller ratings. It is possible superconducting windings will be economically justified in machines with ratings as small as a few megawatts. Superconducting machines have high power density, and so they have been investigated for such applications as high-power ship drives (tens of megawatts) and air and space applications. Refrigeration has always been something of a problem for these applications, because the refrigerator is of substantial size, complexity, and cost. Clearly, the advent of SUperCQndUCtOrS that could be cooled by liquid nitrogen would virtually eliminate this difficulty for many such applications. Further, it is reasonable to expect that other applications, not now considered feasible, will become so. One could imagine superconducting electric locomotives, pump drives, etc.

40

Applied Superconductivity

4.4

CASE STUDY:

JOO-MVA TURBOGENERATORS

In order to quantify the potential impact of liquid nitrogen temperature The case used was that of superconductors, a first-cut design study was made. 300-MVA, two-pole generators. This size was chosen because (1) it seems likely to be a common size for generators in the near future, (2) a starting point design already and (3) a comparison between conventional and liquid-helium-temperature exists, superconducting machines is available. In this study, six machines were designed. One of these, the base case machine, is assumed to be built using a liquid-helium-temperature superconductor. This machine is actually a modification of one designed b Westinghouse Corp. as part of an Electric P Four different liquid-nitrogen-temperature Power Research Institute (EPRI) program. superconductors were suggested in the call for this paper (see Table 4.2). These all have limited flux density capabilities, so a fifth, hypothetical conductor (M5) was added; this superconductor is assumed to have the same current and flux limitations as the liquidhelium-temperature superconductors. Table 4.3 lists the study results. Briefly, while it is possible to design a generator using the lower-current materials, such a machine does not appear to be economically feasible. On the other hand, the higher-rated superconductor results in an economically attractive design. The reduction in refrigeration capital cost and losses are large enough to reduce the importance of the cost of the superconducting material. Table 4.4 presents a more detailed listing of the pertinent design details, and Table 4.5 presents a complete listing of the spreadsheet that produced these results. Direct comparison with a conventional generator is difficult, because the dissimilarities in construction make our estimates of capital cost crude. However, evaluating losses at 5C/kWh, we note that the base case superconducting generator prevails over the conventional machine on the basis of losses. A 300-MVA conventional generator has an efficiency of about 98.6%. The base case superconducting generator has an efficiency of about 99.5%. The difference between these two efficiencies TABLE 4.2 Assumed Superconductors for translates to about 2.7 MW at full load. 300-MVA Generatorsa Now, a loss of 5C/kWh is, at 80% capacity factor, worth about $351/kW-yr, and that, at a 12% discount rate over 20 yr, is worth about $2,657/kW. Thus, the losses alone Cost Current Den ity give the superconducting generator a total Material (104 A/J) ($/kg) cost advantage of roughly $7 million. It is more difficult to estimate how much more expensive the superconducting machine might be, but the difference is not likely to be great. For reference, the refrigeration equipment for the liquid-helium-temperature machine will cost in the vicinity of $0.5 million. Ml M2 M3 M4 220 440 220 440 0.1 0.1 1 1

?4sss flux

density density

= 6,000 kg/m3, limir = 2 T.

and

Generators

41

TABLE 4.3 Comparative Costs of 100~MVA Generators ($103)a

Component Refrigerator cap. Superconductor Armature copper Back iron Rotor steel Losses Capital cOstC Total aComponent costs
greater or less

Ml (506jb 1,852 29 27 560 (854) 1,962 367

M2 (506) 3,973 29 27 560 (854) 4,083 1,687


ate

M3 (503) (51) 16 13 166 (1,131) (359) (1,354)


expressed

M4

MS (499)

(503) 166 16 13 166 (1,131) (141) (1,219)


as

0 0 0

(1,236; (499) (1,547)

for other systems than an unspecified

increments

base value.
(i.e., cost is this much

bParentheses lower than The capital refrigeration generator.

indicate negative values the base-case value). cost is the sum of system; they are the not

costs of materials the manufactured

and the cost of the

4.5 DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS AND IlUPEDIMENTS Turbogenerators with superconducting field windings have already been substantially developed, and any development using higher-temperature materials will benefit from this earlier work. Generators built with liquid-nitrogen-temperature superconductors will not differ in many respects from the types of machines already built (e.g., with respect to armature windings). The major differences will be that the liquidnitrogen-temperature machines will require less-elaborate thermal isolation systems. It is possible that so-called liquid-nitrogen-temperature superconductors may at temperatures lower than 77 K. The reason for this is that substantially higher margins for current density and magnetic flux density might be reached by cooling to a lower temperature. In essence, the advent of higher-temperature superconductors adds a degree of freedom to the design. It will be necessary to investigate the behavior This investigation, in turn, will require an of designs over this degree of freedom. understanding of many characteristics of the superconducting material at different temperatures.
be operated

42

Applied

Superconductivity

TABLE 4.4 Summary of 100~MVA Generator Des&m

Base

Parameter

Case

Ml

I42

M3

n4

MS

Machine dimensions (m) Field inner radius Field outer radius Rotor outer radius Armature inner radius Armature outer radius Core inner radius Core outer radius Active length Curre t den ity of field (10' A/cmqja Maximum flux density (T) Efficiency (I)

0.197 0.279 0.379 0.429 0.694 0.795

1.262 1.90 0.80

0.260 0.460 0.535 0.560 0.710 0.735 1.003 5.20 0.075

0.260 0.460 0.535 0.560 0.710 0.735 1.003 5.20 0.075

0.320 0.345 0.445 0.495 0.670 0.720 1.005 5.00 0.75

0.320 0.345 0.445 0.495 0.670 0.720 1.005 5.00 0.75

0.197 0.279 0.379 0.429 0.694 0.795 1.262 1.90 0.80

5.96 99.57

1.56 99.67

1.56 99.67

1.90 99.71

1.90

5.96

99.71

99.72

'Current density in the copper windings on the armature is 1.2 x lo6 A/m2 in all cases.

Logical the following: 1.

steps in developing

electric

machinery with the new materials

include

Development of forms of the material that can be fabricated into field windings. These could be wires, tapes, or green forms that can be sintered into place. Full characterization of the behavior of the material, including:

2.

Magnetic flux density vs. current density frontier, as a function of temperature; Dissipation resulting from time-varying magnetic fields; and Determination of sensitivities of other material properties on stress.

3.

Temperature optimization (determination of the best design temperature). Cooling will be easier at higher temperatures, but lower temperatures will provide batter material performance.

TABLE 4.5 Details of lOO-MVA Superconducting

Generators:

Zeroth-Order

Design

Variable/Parameter Performance Rating (MW) Sync. reactance (X) Efficiency t%) Maximum field CT) Input Variables Machine dimensions Field inner radius (m) Field thickness (m) Rotation gap (m) Armature thickness (m) Active length (m) Rotational speed (rad/s) Pole pairs Rotor shell thickness (m) Arm to shield space (m) TT length (m) Field angle Arm angle Power factor Field space factor Arm space factor Material parameters

Symbol

Cold

Ml

H2

H3

H4

M5

MU xd eta Bmar

298.23 53 99.57 5.96

296.70 69 99.67 1.56

296.70 69 99.67 1.56

296.22 47 99.71 1.95

296.22 47 99.71 1.95

298.23 53 99.72 5.96

Rfi ff Ta L m P gas :kt th; pf lamf lame


irs

0.197 0.082 0.150 0.265 1.900 377 1 0.1 0.101 2.269 0.2 1.047 0.900 0.5 0.15

0.260 0.200 0.100 0.150 5.200 377 1 0.075 0.025 0.2 2.269 1.047 0.900 0.6 0.15

0.260 0.200 0.100 0.150 5.200 377 1 0.075 0.025 0.2 2.269 1.047 0.900

0.320 0.025 0.100 0.175 4.600 377 1 0.1 0.050 0.2 2.269 1.047 0.900 0.6 0.15

0.320 0.025 0.100 0.175 4.600 377 1 0.1 0.050 0.2 2.269 1.047 0.900 0.6 0.15

0.197 0.082 0.150 0.265 1.900 377 1 0.1 0.101 0.2 2.269 1.047 0.900 0.5 0.15

Field current density (i06 Aim2) Arm current density (10 A/m )

ifa

80.0 1.20

7.50 1.20

7.50 1.20

75.0 1.20

75.0 1.20

80.0 1.20

TABLE

4.5 (Contd)

% D B _7 g v,

Variable/Parameter

Symbol

Cold

Ml

M2

M3

t44

MS

Sat. flux density (T) TT conductance W;; TT strength (10 Pa Field density (kg m ) Arm density (kg/m ) Steel density (kg/m32 Arm conductivity (10 S) Free space permeability (10m6 Derived dimensions

b sat gtt Sgtt rhof rho, rho, N/A2) sig, 0

1.4 1,790 200 0,400 8,400 7,800 67.0 1.26

1.4 1,607 200 6,000 a ,400 7,800 67.0 1.26

1.4 1,607 200 6,000 8,400 7,800 67.0 1.26

1.4 1,607 200 6,000 8,400 7,800 67.0 1.26

1.4 1,607 200 6,000 8,400 7,800 67.0 1.26

1.4 1,790

?J
2 0 L? P

a ,400 a ,400
7,800 67.0 1.26

200

4 a _. 2

P F angle (rad) Shield radius (m) Field outer radius (m) Armature inner radius (m) Armature outer radius (m) Self length (m) Field length (m) Heuristic rules

psi
rS if: al R a0 1,

1f
trqf fvc etac eta,

0.451 0.795 0.279 0.429 0.694 2.649 2.376

0.451 0.735 0.460 0.560 0.710 6.047 5.92

0.451 0.735 0.460 0.560 0.710 6.047 5.92

0.451 0.670 0.345 0.445 0.620 5.310 5.265

0.451 0.670 0.345 0.445 0.620 5.310 5.265

0.451 0.795 0.279 0.429 0.694 2.649 2.376

Torque factor Vapor cooling factor Carnot efficiency efficien y Refrig. Windage loss (10 6 W) Field concentration Miscellaneous Armature coefficients ratio

P W
cfc

10 0.25 0.0135 0.1 0.1 1.15

10 0.25 0.345 0.4 0.1 1.15

10 0.25 0.345 0.4 0.1 1.15

10 0.25 0.345 0.4 0.1 1.15

10 0.25 0.345 0.4 0.1 1.15

10 0.25 0.345 0.4 0.1 1.15

0.618

0.789

0.789

0.718

0.718

0.618

TABLE

4.5

(Contd)

Variable/Parameter

Symbol

Cold

Ml

H2

M3

H4

H5

Field ratio Field coefficient Arm coefficient Y coefficient Self coefficient Mot coefficient Flux coefficient Permeance coefficient

E kf ka ky k1 2 AP

0.706 0.799 0.955 0.648 0.263 0.192 0.321 1.07 1.06

0.565 0.799 0.955 0.819 0.120 0.123 0.542 1.14 1.06

0.565 0.799 0.955 0.819 0.120 0.123 0.542 1.14 1.06

0.928 0.799 0.955 0.202 0.181 0.154 0.090 1.00 1.06

0.928 0.799 0.955 0.202 0.181 0.154 0.090 1.00 1.06

0.706 0.799 0.955 0.648 0.263 0.192 0.321 1.07 1.06

Machine

rating xa 1. Power (T) b=f 0.398 0.752 298 5.19 0.475 0.685 297 1.36 0.475 0.685 297 1.36 0.365 0.779 296 1.69 0.365 0.779 296 1.69 0.398 0.752 298 5.19

Internal reactance Voltage ragi Rating (10 W) Fundamental field Thermal calculations

Maximum torque (1 6 Nom) TT thickne s (10 -8 m) 9) TT area (m Low-temp. heat leak (W) Back iron field (T) Back iron thickness (m) Mass calculations Shield outer radius Arm ass (kg) Field mass (kg) (m)

t=q, ttt ;E br th

7.91 80.9 0.284 634.4 0.822 0.467

7.87 29.6 0.171 343.7 0.511 0.268

1.87 29.6 0.171 343.7 0.511 0.268

1.86 52.5 0.228 457.5 0.640 0.306

1.86 52.5 0.228 457.5 0.640 0.306

7.91 80.9 0.284 634.4 0.822 0.467

rSOl.lt massa assf

1.262 3,120 1,224

1.003 4,560 9,641

1.003 4,560 9,641

0.976 3,917 990

0.976 3,917 990

1.262 3,120 1,224

a ;:

2 z

TABLE

4.5 (Contd)

b D

Variable/Parameter

Symbol

Cold

Ml

M2

M3

M4

MS

B r:
E v,

Shield mass (kg) Torque tube mass Rotor shell mass Losses (103 W)

(kg) (kg)

mass masst massr

62,321 3,070 3,831

69,114 4,217 30,696

69,114 4,217 30,696

65,578 5,032 10,192

65,518 5,032 10,192

62,327 3,070 3,831

ii s R z-. r 2.

2
Refrig. input power Armature loss Core loss Total losses Core loss density Financial parameters

P,
pda

PC

hot
pcd

470 505 218 1,290 0.0035

2.49 627 242 972 0.0035

2.49 627 242 972 0.0035

3.32 535 230 868 0.0035

3.32 535 230 868 0.0035

4.60 505 218 828 0.0035

Interest rate Tax rate Lifetime (yr) Operating hours per year Power price ($/kWh) Caoitalized Dower ($/kW) Ta; kicker Costs of materials

f t

hrs

0.12 0.36 life 7,012 0.05 2,657 0.62

0.12 0.36 20 7,012 0.05 2,657 0.62

0.12 0.36 20 7,012 0.05 2,657 0.62

0.12 0.36 20 7,012 0.05 2,657 0.62

0.12 0.36 20 7,012 0.05 2,657 0.62

0.12 0.36 20 7,012 0.05 2,657 0.62

fp
dPr tax

($/kg)
220 20 4 20 220 20 4 20 440 20 4 20 220 20 4 20 440 20 4 20 220 20 4 20

Superconductor Armature copper Back iron Rotor structural

TABLE 4.5 (Contd)

Variable/Parameter Cost details ($103)

Symbol

Cold

Ml

H2

H3

H4

MS

Refrigerator cap Superconductor Armature copper Back iron Rotor steel Losses Capital cost Modified Total for tax base

kref Ks,p K ;;: rs cost ;Pwr Kmod


tot

519 269 249 138 62

13 2,121 690 276 91

13 4,242 698 276 91

16 218 304 262 78

16 436 78
262 304 2,305 1,097 683 2,988

1,238 3,436
771 4,201

3,200 2,582
1,992 4,514

5,321 2,582
3,312 5,894

2,305 a79
541 2,052

20 269 62 249 138 2,200 739 460 2,660

for Delta cob case ($10 5 )a

Refrigerator cap Superconductor Armature copper Back iron Rotor steel Losses Capital cost Total Parentheses indicate negative values (i.e.,
cost

(506) 1,852 29 21 560 (854) 1,962 361 is this

(506) 3,913 29 27 560 (854) 4,083 1,681

(503) (51) 16 13 166 (1,131) (359) (1,354)

(503) 166 16 13 166 (1,131) (141) (1,219) value).

(499) 0 0 0 (1,236; (499) (1,541) c, 2 2 f

much lower

than the base-case

48

Applied Superconductivity

4.

Design and fabrication of a prototype. Because of prior experience with liquid-helium-temperature machines, this prototype could be fairly large. Conceivably, a prototype machine could be made as a modification to an existing experiment.

The major impediment to adoption of this technology is the current shrunken market for large electric machinery in this country. Because there have been virtually no orders for new power plants, the result of a sharp reduction in load growth rates, manufacturers of turbine generators have been retrenching. If and when demand growth catches up with installed capacity, the turbogenerator market wilI improve.

4.6

CONCLUSIONS of higher-temperature advantages over (liquid-nitrogenliquid-helium-cooled

A cursory look at the possible advantages cooled) superconductors indicates substantial superconductors:
l

Higher temperatures would result in a sharp reduction in the cost of equipment to refrigerate the field winding and a hundred-fold reduction in the power required to keep the field winding cool. Operation at liquid nitrogen substantially the thermal isolation increase thermal stability margins capacity of the materials. temperatures would simplify scheme of the rotor and would because of the increased heat

These advantages may result and the power level at which smaller. These conclusions
l

in superconducting generators becoming more superconducting machines begin to be practical

attractive becoming

are contingent

on the following

requirements:

The new class of superconductors can be made so as to be capable of fabrication into complex shapes, such as field windings. The new superconducting wire (including superconductor stabilizer) can be made with reasonably high current density (lo4 A/cm2) in reasonably high magnetic fields (at least 2 T). The new superconductors such as unusual sensitivity do not turn out to have to strain or alternating and limits

any other traps, magnetic fields.

4.7 1.

REFERENCE Westinghouse Electric Corp., Superconducting Generation Design, Electric Research Institute Report EPRI-EL-577 (Research Project 429-l) (Nov. 1977). Power

5 Transformers

Summary R.F. Giese


Argonne National Laboratory

Potential Application B.W. McConnell

of HTSCs to Power Transformers

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

50

Applied Superconductivity

Summary

One-sixth of the annual losses associated with transmitting electricity over the national grid occur in power transformers. Losses in power transformers are equal in magnitude to the output of five large-scale, base-load power plants. Installation of superconducting power transformers could reduce these losses.

Section 5 considers a design for a l,OOO-MVA generation step-up transformer with superconducting windings. incorporating Nb3Sn developed by Westinghouse Electric Corp. under contract to DOE in 1981. This design, together with the cost assumptions, formed the basis of B.W. McConnells following evaluation of the potential impact of the new high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) on power transformers. Since almost nothing is known concerning the AC properties of the new HTSCs, Nb3Sn properties were assumed (except for the high critical temperature). The results of this analysis indicate that use of the new HTSCs will result in total life-cycle costs that are 35% lower than for Nb3Sn and 60% lower than for conventional power transformers of this size. To date, no full-scale superconducting power transformer has been built or tested. This is probably due in large part to the high value electric utilities assign to reliability; failure of the power transformer could result in a shutdown of the entire generating plant. Furthermore, although the cost savings associated with the superconducting power transformer appear to be substantial, the power transformer itself represents only a small part of the entire generating plant.

Transformers

51

Potential Application of HTSCs to Power Transformers

5.1 INTRODUCTION at temperatures above the The recent discoveries of materials that are superconducting boiling point (77 K) of liquid nitrogen (LN2) may allow the development of power apparatus with significantly higher operating efficiencies and, hence, greatly reduced These materials also might have the advantage of remaining in the operating costs. superconducting state at significantly higher magnetic fields than previously seen in Type I and II superconductors. (However, the high field region has not yet been studied in At present, these high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) appear to be detail.) extremely brittle and have a low current density (nominally 100 A/cm). However, reports of wires and ribbons fabricated from the materials offer hope that potential fabrication problems can be solved. In addition, IBMs announced increase of the current density in thin films by a factor of 100 is encouraging. The use of LN2 as a coolant implies immediate economic advantages over the previously required liquid helium (LHe). LN2 is considerably less expensive, because the basic raw material is free and the production process is considerably more efficient. In fact, the process is so inexpensive that the operation of HTSC apparatus at LN2 temperatures may well be considered for other technical reasons, even if highertemperature superconductors are found. This section presents a first evaluation of power transformers ss one technological application of the new HTSCs. This evaluation is based on the following general assumptions: 1. Extension of previous HTSC operating region These materials will working configurations Adequate bulk current designs using is possible. LHe superconductors to the

2.

prove no more difficult than existing applications carrying capability

to fabricate using Nb3Sn.

into

3. 4.

can be obtained. or can be

The AC properties made favorable.

of the

materials

will be favorable

operating possible. operating

In addition, the best technological estimates of realistic improvements in efficiencies consistent with other engineering constraints are applied where No credit is taken for the higher heat capacities or the greater thermal These latter credits may well further range present at LN2 temperatures.

52

Applied Superconductivity

improve the HTSC economic advantage and may provide for technical solutions to some perplexing problems seen in LHe designs. Also, no credit is taken for the elimination of any iron or the subsequent reduction in losses that may be possible with these materials. Transformer technology is evaluated using the set of baseline economic assumptions presented in App. A. The total life-cycle costs (TLCC) are compared for conventional and HTSC applications, and a time to break-even is estimated. Potential problems and research areas for the technology are summarized.

5.2 APPLICATION OF SUPERCONDUCTORS

TO POWER TRANSFORMERS

5.2.1

Method of Analysis

The application of high-magnetic-field, high-current-density Type II superconductors has presented a challenge to power engineers for the last 30 years. However, the design of a power transformer using Type II superconductors has proven to be an extremely difficult engineering problem. First attempts at designing a superconducting transformer began in 1961 and continued through 1981. Over a ZO-yr period, a truly viable design was not found. However, near the end of this period, a joint did succeed in achieving a transformer design DOE/Westinghouse (DOE/WH) project that showed favorable economic results and appeared capable of prolonged steady-state Prior to this 1981 design, designs were unsuccessful due to a lack of operation. knowledge of AC losses in Type II superconductors, the excessive volumes of the configurations, and high AC losses due to large AC magnetic fields or large superconductor volumes. The 1981 DOE/WH study produced a design for a l,OOO-MVA generation step-up transformer, which had superconducting windings and operated at LHe temperatures. The study included an economic comparison of the new design with a conventional design of the same rating. The superconducting design was seen to have an economic advantage as a result of (1) a careful design of the conductors and windings, which substantially reduced AC losses, and (2) the inclusion of all costs associated with ownership over the transformers useful lifetimes (i.e., TLCC). This evaluation of HTSC application to transformers is based on (1) a careful extension of the results of the 1981 study using the ANL guidelines for TLCC analysis in the economic evaluation, (2) the inclusion of common costs that were not previously considered, and (3) a conservative replacement of the HTSC design during the design life of the system. This last change in the economic evaluation is based upon the present trend of replacing or overhauling large power transformers at the midpoint of the 30-yr book life. In this evaluation, the conventional transformer is not replaced during its lifetime; however, the HTSC transformer is replaced at the 10th and 20th years. The design parameters of the generator step-up transformer Power Voltage Basic impulse level 1,000 MVA 22-500 kV 1,300 kV under study are:

Transformers

53

Impedance Construction

12% Three-phase,

core-form

The original economic study considered only the components of the two designs that would differ (i.e., core, windings, refrigeration, and losses). Other items, such as the tank, manufacturing, instrumentation, and bushings, were not included because their costs were judged to be the same for both designs. Relative costs were computed, with 100 being the total cost of the items considered for a conventional unit. The present study includes these latter costs to obtain a more realistic economic evaluation. The economic parameters used in the present study are those provided in App. A. The losses include (1) for the conventional design, conductor IR losses, iron (hysteresis) and stray (or unknown) losses, and dielectric losses and (2) for the superconducting design, conductor AC losses, iron and stray losses, dielectric losses, heat leakage through the leads and dewar, and input power to the refrigerator. The procedure for adapting the results of the previous study at LHe temperature to a design at LN2 temperature was to identify the most significant items that would be changed and to estimate the impact of these changes on the cost. The items that were identified are:
1.

Refrigeration Power losses,

plant, for refrigerator to remove low-temperature

2.

requirements

3. 4.

Superconducting Thermal insulation

windings, around

and superconducting windings.

The refrigeration plant is required to remove about 2,000 W from the lowtemperature area. From Fig. 10 of Ref. 1, the efficiency of such a refrigerator is about 18% of the Carnot efficiency. Combined with a Carnot efficiency of 77/(300 - 77) and expressed as a reciprocal of efficiency, the coefficient of performance for an LN2 refrigerator is calculated to be 16.1. For this study, a more conservative value of 20 is assumed. Using the two coefficients-of-performance (COP) values, the cost of an LN2 refrigerator was determined (from Fig. 11 of Ref. 1) to be about one-eighth that of an LHe refrigerator. The second item to be altered was the cost of powering the was accounted for by multiplying the portion of the cost of losses refrigeration by the ratio (20/400) of the COP of the two systems. refrigeration plant itself and the cost of refrigeration power, the sufficiently low that it no longer represents a significant portion Therefore, the result is not sensitive to the exact value of the applied refrigeration. This attributable to the In both cases, the resultant value is of the total cost. correction factors.

Finally, the superconducting windings and the thermal insulation were assumed to be equal to LHe values. These represent a small portion of the total costs. The HTSC materials are undefined at this time, although there are indications that their brittleness and difficult handling characteristics will be quite similar to those of Nb3Sn. Since

54

Applied Superconductivity

fabrication costs will be a large part of the total cost of this material and fabrication processes may be quite similar, it is reasonable to assume that the cost of the new material will be close to that of the old. Perturbations on the costs of these materials were evaluated, and an extreme case, which demonstrates the effect on the final result, is included in Fig. 5.1.

5.2.2

Reaulta

The results of the comparison are shown in Table 5.1, with the base data for the conventional and LHe-cooled units taken from Table 6 of Ref. 2. The assumption is made and that the previously ignored costs of the tank, manufacturing, instrumentation, bushings account for about 94% of the capital cost of a conventional transformer. This value is added to the cost of all three designs, and the other component costs are adjusted so that the TLCC of the conventional transformer continues to be expressed as 100, as in the original study. The result of this adjustment 60% for the complete transformer. is to show a present-value, life-cycle savings of

On the basis of the data from Table 5.1, the effect of significant changes in the Factors of up to 10 times were cost of the superconducting materials was explored.

go-

Conventional

Superconductor (Materials costs = 10 x costs of LHe

10

HTSC (Materials costs = costs of LHe superconductor)

00 0

12

20

24

28

Time i;r)
FIGURE 5.1 Relative Costs of 1,006-MVA Power Transformers (costs are normalized to the cumulative costs of the eomrentional system in year 30)

Transformers

55

TABLE 5.1 Relative Costs of 1,000~MVA Transformers (costs are normalized to the cumulative costs of the conventional system in yeer 30)

Conventional Cost Item Conventional materials Superconducting materials Refrigeration plant Miscellaneous costs Efficiency Cost of lossesb Total life-cycle Percent savingsd aIncludes tank, costsC Case 1 0.47 0 0 7.28 0.997 92.25 100.00 Case 2 0.63 0 0 9.83 0.997 92.25 102.71 -3

Superconducting LHe 0.38 0.50 1.76 12.67 0.9985 46.14 62.20 38 HTSC 0.38 0.50 0.22 12.67 0.9992 25.53 39.61 60

manufacturing,

instrumentation,

and bushings. book life,

bPl-esent value based on 11.55% discount rate, 30-yr and 4% inflation; the capacity factor is 80%.

The conventional Case 1 unit is assumed to have a full operating life of 30 yt. The conventional Case 2 unit is replaced at 15 yr, and the superconducting units are replaced in the 10th and 20th years. The present values of the capital costs are adjusted to reflect these assumptions. dCompared with the conventional Case 1 unit.

applied to this cost, and the effect on present-value cost of the LN3 superconducting transformer was computed. The results of this comparison indicate that significant variations in the value of these materials do not greatly change the final result. The fabricated materials cost used in the LHe study was $150/lb. Figure 5.1 shows the relative costs of the three designs as a function of time and includes a case where the cost of the LN3 superconducting materials exceeds the cost of LHe superconducting materials ten-fold. The payback time for the LN2 design, about three years, is still less than five years if the superconducting material is ten times as costly. Also, the conventional transformer has several distinct capital advantages in this analysis. If the superconducting transformers are assumed to have an effective life of 30 yr, the break-even time is about six months for the HTSC base case. The incremental capital costs were calculated to be $4,835/MVA, which means that an HTSC transformer in the l,OOO-MVA size range can have about 250% greater equivalent capital costs than a conventional transformer.

56

Applied Superconductivity

5.3 TRANSFORMER Several design this study:


l

DESIGN FEATURES features should be considered in an evaluation of the results of

The LHe transformer design is based on using Nb$n as the superconductor, with a current density of about lo5 A/cm2. Present superconducting materials at higher temperatures may not be able to sustain currents of this level within the near future. If the current density cannot be increased to at least this level, the HTSC transformer size would become excessive. The LHe transformer design had an unresolved technical problem If a quench occurred as a result concerning short-circuit conditions. of overcurrent, the LHe refrigeration could not provide adequate cooling to return the windings to the superconducting state. Because of the substantially lower cost of LN2 refrigeration, sufficient cooling capacity could feasibly be included to overcome this problem. concern when a complicated Reliability becomes a primary apparatus, such as a cryogenic refrigerator, is installed in a system. However, replacing an LHe refrigerator with an LN2 unit greatly simplifies the system, and the cost of the LN2 unit is sufficiently low that redundancy can be built into the system with little economic penalty. A central concept in the transformer design used in this study is a configuration of four windings, with a main and an auxiliary winding At a selected overcurrent level, the main at each voltage level. windings switch to the normal conduction state in response to the magnetic leakage field strength, with the auxiliary windings then carrying the current and limiting it to a small multiple of the fullload current while remaining superconducting. The LHe or LNg superconducting designs will be physically the same volume as a conventional unit, but they should have a moderate weight advantage. Hence, transportation costs will be comparable.

5.4

CONCLUSIONS

The technology of power transformers, which represents a potential application for the new HTSCs, has been evaluated. This evaluation was predominantly an economic scoping study developed from previous work on a similar device using earlier, LHe-based technology. Power transformers show a strong potential for significant cost reductions using HTSCs when evaluated on a life-cycle basis. Break-even occurs at between six months and three years, and the analysis is considered to be conservative (i.e., favorable to conventional technologies).

Transformers

57

These evaluations assume that the new HTSCs can be made to perform at least as well as LHe superconducting materials in their magnetic, current density, and material properties. Specifically, the AC properties of the HTSCs have not yet been determined, but they are expected to be similar to the earlier Type II superconductors. If this is indeed the case, AC power applications may not be so easily achievable. However, the knowledge gained in applying LHe materials to both AC and DC power devices should reduce the amount of time required to achieve useful applications. For example, the 20-yr period required to produce a reasonable power transformer may be cut in half for the HTSC application. Several key areas of research appear to have been uncovered by this evaluation. The obvious need for higher current densities and bulk current capability has been previously stated by many researchers. A better understanding of HTSC physics and material properties is also needed. In particular, experimental and theoretical research on HTSC properties under time-varying magnetic fields must be conducted as soon as possible. If the HTSCs reported to exist above 150 K are consistently reproducible, some severe thermal difficulties encountered in earlier designs for transformers may be essentially solved by operating these HTSC materials at LN2 temperatures. A more detailed study of the application of HTSCs to transformers could also identify certain needed properties that may be producible by materials researchers.

5.5 REFERENCES
1.

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Application of Low Temperature Technology Transformers, U.S. Dept. of Energy Report DOE-ET-29324-l (Feb. 1982).

to Power

2.

Riemersma, H., et al., Application of Superconducting Technology to Power Transformers, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS-100(7):3398-3407 (July 1991).

6 AC Transmission

Summary R.F. Giese


Argonne National Laboratory

Preliminary Economic Analysis of an HTSC Power Transmission System


R.A. Thomas and E.B. Forsyth Brookhaven National Laboratory

Supplement: Levelized Annual Cost Method R.A. Thomas and E.B. Forsyth
Brookhaven National Laboratory

58

AC Transmission

59

Summary

The annual losses associated with transmitting electricity over the national grid are equal to about one quad.* One-third of these losses (equal in magnitude to the output of ten large-scale, base-load power plants) occur in the transmission system. Installation of a superconducting transmission grid could greatly reduce these losses. Both AC and DC superconducting systems have been proposed. The DC system requires the use of AC-to-DC and DC-to-AC converters. The combined losses of these converters may exceed the losses of a conventional transmission line shorter than several hundred miles. Therefore, current research is concentrating on development of a superconducting AC transmission line. Recently, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has designed, built, and tested a helically wound, superconducting, coaxial cable 115 m in length and made of Nb3Sn. The cable system exhibits three types of losses: (1) current-induced losses in the superconducting cable, (2) voltage-induced losses in the dielectric, and (3) losses associated with refrigeration. In order to keep the current-induced losses at an acceptable level, current must be a factor of 8-10 lower than the critical current. Section 6 presents an analysis of the potential impacts of high-temperature lines that is based upon a superconductors on superconducting transmission DOE-sponsored analysis performed by the Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) in 1977. Almost nothing is known concerning the AC properties of the new hightemperature superconductors, so this analysis assumed AC properties identical to those of Nb3Sn. Because the refrigeration losses exhibit strong economies of scale (due to surface-to-volume effects), the PECO analysis is based on a very large transmission line (10,000 MVA). The required critical current for this system is 200 x lo* A/cm2. Modifying the PECO analysis to account for the higher critical temperature (77 K) results in a reduction of the system cost, including capitalized energy costs, of about 30%. Table 6.1 summarizes the losses and transmission costs of service for the new superconducting material and two conventional systems: (1) an underground high-pressure, oil-filled-pipe transmission (HPOPT) line and (2) a combined aerial/underground system. Each system is 66 mi in length, haa a capacity of The superconducting system has the 10,000 MVA, and has a substation at each end. lowest losses and a cost of service that is higher than that of the aerial/underground system, but lower than that of the HPOPT system. Recent studies have high-intensity electromagnetic indicated fields. possible adverse health effects associated If this finding should lead to the requirement with that

*One quad = 1015 Btu.

60

Applied Superconductivity

TABLE 6.1 Comparison of Losses and Costs of Service for Superconducting and Conventional Transmission Systems

System

Loss (Xl

Cost of Service, Transmission Only (miLLs/kUh)

77-K superconducting (underground) High-pressure, oilfilled pipe (underground) Aerial/underground

0.73 3.60

3.46 6.05

1.68

2.08

all future transmission lines be placed underground, superconducting could turn out to be the lowest-cost alternative.

transmission

lines

The losses associated with a transmission line of more typical size (1,000 MVA, LOO km) were also analyzed. In this case, several systems designed for a variety of voltage-current conditions were all found to have refrigeration losses of less than 0.2%. The cost-effectiveness of these systems was not analyzed.

AC Transmission

61

Preliminary Economic Analysis of an HTSC Power Transmission System

6.1

INTRODUCTION

The economic evaluation of power transmission cables has a long history and is fraught with uncertainties. This is especially true of force-cooled cables, since the force-cooling components and their energy costs add another axis to the optimization of all the other components of the system. Moreover, because power transmission cables generally have a physical life of more than 40 yr, the evaluation of the cost of losses (or of energy for refrigeration) re uires knowledge of the cost of energy 40 yr in the future. As.H.D. Short comments: 4 [Ejngineers, when discussing costs, should tread cautiously -- for there are many pitfalls in the imponderable paths of accountancy . . . . The design of any cable transmission circuit is more a matter of sound engineering judgment, having due regard to circuit security, standby and overload capacities, and its intrinsic commercial features, rather than academic formulae which attempt to convert the future into the present. Neither mans organic computer, nor any man-made computer, is clever enough to foretell the future, and let us pray they never will be, for then life itself would be intolerable. The calculations by Short.* presented below should be viewed with the skeptical attitude expressed

The costs associated with this section have been extrapolated from an earlier, comprehensive study on underground power transmission systems. That study was produced under a DOE contract by the Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) in 1977. The superconducting system considered there was for the transmission of a very large block of power (10,000 MVA) and used three 230-kV circuits. In the near term, there appears to be no need to transmit such a large amount of power underground over a long distance, but the use of the cost figures from the PECO study allows different transmission systems to be compared rapidly, and it also highlights where attention should be focused to produce an economically competitive system. It is recommended that a careful systems study be performed on a system with circuits rated at 500 MVA

*Shorts

comments

are part

of the Discussion

of Walldorf

and Eichs article

(Ref.

2).

62

Applied Superconductivity

(as compared with the 3,330-MVA circuits of the PECO study) to obtain appraisal of the potential of the new superconducting materials.*

a more realistic

A subsection on 500-MVA-per-circuit power transmission systems appears near the end of this section; Experimental data are available on superconducting cables of of the engineering knowledge about such systems is much this sixe,4 and the extent greater. If it is assumed that the characteristics of the superconducting material should be similar to those of materials used in present cables, it is possible to derive specifications for the new superconductors. Such specifications are given in Sec. 6.9.

6.2

METHOD Two methods are widely used in the economic evaluation of power transmission

cables: 1. The cost is given as the sum of all the capital costs, capitalization of the energy for losses and refrigeration present worth over the physical life of the installation. plus the to their

2.

The cost is expressed as a levelized annual cost obtained by converting the capital cost to an annual payment and adding the annual cost of losses. In this method, the conversion of the capital cost to an annual payment should be based on the economic or book life of the system, while the annual cost of losses should reflect the cost of the energy for losses and refrigeration over the physical life of the cable. as a per-unit cost, where per kilometer (or mile) the unit is either cost or cost per megavolt-

These costs are then usually expressed per megawatt-hour (or megawatt-year) amp per kilometer (or mile).

In the baseline assumptions given in second method. Studies done in the past articles have all used the first method. The values used in the PECO study, so the first assumptions will be those suggested in App. supplement to this section.

App. A, Daniels et al. recommend the and explained in textbooks and journal numbers presented below are scaled from method will be used, but the economic A. The second method is applied in the

6.3

ASSUMPTIONS

AROUT THE POWER TRANSMISSION

SYSIEM of 66 mi since this

The power transmission system (106 km). The system cost is to include

is to move 10,000 MVA over a distance the cost of substations and their losses,

*For clarification with the actual 6.10.

of the meaning of these circuit power-level maximum continuous thermal rating of the

designations as compared circuit, see Sets. 6.3 and

AC Transmission

63

cost varies with the type of transmission cable used. (Direct-current lines, for example, have a high substation cost.) The cost for compensation is also included. The system Therefore, the superconducting must be able to operate after a single contingency. system consists of three 3,500-MVA (230-kV) circuits in three separate cryogenic enclosures, but it is capable of carrying 5,100 MVA on the two circuits remaining if one of the circuits should fail. In addition, if two of the circuits should fail, it is possible to carry 7,500 MVA on the remaining circuit for a period of up to four hours. Finally, the cables are each capable of carrying a fault current of 122.5 kA for the clearing time of 3.25 cycles. (The current carried by each cable is 12.55 kA at the 5,000-MVA maximum steady-state power level.)

6.4 ECONOMIC ASSUMPTIONS

6.4.1

Coat of Energy for Losses and Refrigeration

The economic assumptions are generally those given in App. A, but they are modified according to the recommendations given in EPRIs Technical Assessment Guide. According to the EPRI guide,* the cost of energy for losses and refrigeration should include an energy cost and a demand cost. The energy cost should be evaluated at the average incremental cost generation ... . The average incremental cost of generation is close to the average cost of fuel per kWh of generator output. Also, the demand cost should be evaluated at the incremental cost of increasing the size of new a kilowatt of incremental loss would be facilities. For transmission facilities, evaluated at two-thirds the cost required to supply a kilowatt of new load. Therefore, the fuel cost of electricity was taken as 1.7elkWh and the demand cost as $1,20O/kW. (The PECO study used 1.76e/kWh and $460/kW.) Next, in order to calculate the capitalized energy cost over the life of the system, it is necessary to compute the 40-yr annual . ..qrrying charge rate for the cost of energy for losses and refrigeration. The 40-yr carrying charge rate is the inverse of the following sum: 40 (1 + e) ci=l (1 + r1*

where e is the inflation rate, 4%, and r is the discount rate, 11.55%. This gives a carrying charge rate of 7.73%. (The rate for the PECO study was 16.3%.) This means that the energy component (as opposed to the demand component) of the capitalized cost of energy for losses and refrigeration will be 2.1 times more important in this evaluation than in the ten-year-old PECO study. It is not clear why the 40-yr carrying charge rate for energy was such a high value for the PECO study.

*A copy of this guide could not be obtained in time to use for this report. are taken from the direct quotations in Walldorf and Eich (Ref. 2).

The quotations

64

Applied

Superconductivity

The demand component of the cost of energy is also much greater in this study than it was in the PECO study. The total capitalized cost of one watt of energy for the 40-yr operating life of the cable was $1.41 in 1976 dollars. In this study, it is $3.13 in 1987 dollars (2.22 times greater). Capital costs in general increased by a factor of 1.80 Therefore, the capitalized energy costs, as over this same time period (see below). compared with capital costs, will be 24% more important in this study than they were in the PECO study.

6.4.2

Capital

Coats

In order to properly scale the capital costs from 1976 dollars as given in the PECO study to 1987 dollars, the Producer Price Index was used. The latest edition of the Statistical Abstract of the United States: 19878 has values only for the years through 1985, so the 1987 value was obtained by using the change in the index from 1984 to 1985 This approach gives a multiplication factor of 1.80 for the and extrapolating to 1987. 1976 prices if the Producer Price Index for either capital equipment or electrical machinery and equipment is used. The costs for excavation, backfilling, and clearing and roads will be scaled by using the index for pipeline construction, which is about the same as the index for the cost of construction of dams and reclamation projects. This factor is 1.73. The right-of-way cost is more difficult to scale, because the route includes not farmland, but also suburban and urban areas. (A high percentage of the route is farmland.) Farmland prices peaked in 1982 and are now only about 1.54 times what they were in 1976, but suburban and urban land prices have increased much more dramatically. (The Statistical Abstract does not tabulate these land prices, but it indicates that the cost of shelter increased by about 2.36 times its 1976 cost.) As a compromise, the 1.80 factor will also be used for the right-of-way cost.

only rural

6.5

LOSSES In order to calculate losses, it is necessary to make of the superconductor, the coolant, and the cryogenic assumptions enclosure. about the

properties

6.5.1

Superconductor

Properties

and Current-Dependent

Losses

Conventional Type II superconducting cables are operated at only about oneeighth of their critical current density, for two reasons: (1) it is necessary to stay far below the critical current if the losses are to be kept low and (2) by remaining far below the critical current level, it is possible Por the superconductor to carry the large fault currents that sometimes occur in power transmission networks. If the superconducting cable is to be made using superconducting tapes, it is not necessary to specify a critical current density, because the thickness of the superconducting layers is limited only by mechanical considerations. (It must be possible to bend the tape around the core of the cable without damaging its electrical properties.) The specifications need only give the linear current density (i.e., the critical current per unit of tape width). For Nb3Sn

AC Transmission

65

superconducting tapes, the AC critical current was specified as 2,000 A/cm at 8 K for two cycles at 60 Hz. The actual tapes produced sometimes had values as low as 1,800 A/cm, but they were accepted for test purposes. (For the Nb3Sn tapes, this works out to a critical current density of about 200 x IO4 A/cm2.) BNL chose Nb3Sn over NbTi for testing because of Nb3Sns higher operating temperature, which promised lessexpensive refrigeration. The second critical parameter is the AC loss specified in watts per square centimeter of tape surface area. For the Nb3Sn tape laminates, this value was experimentally determined to be less than 30 VW/cm2 at 500 A/cm and 8 K, even after the laminates were wound into a cable and then removed and individually tested. The losses of the superconducting portion of the tape laminates were only 10 VW/cm2 (also at 500 A/cm and 8 K). It was discovered, however, that the fabricated cable exhibited losses that were proportional to the number of tape edges rather than to the surface area of the tapes, perhaps indicating that the edge losses were the major contributing factor to the current-dependent losses. Therefore, it will be assumed that the total current-dependent losses of the fabricated cable hysteretic, resistive, and eddy current losses) are a equivalent to a loss of 275 uW/cm at 500 A/cm and at operating temperature. Once the mechanism that produces current-dependent losses is better understood, it may be possible to reduce these losses significantly. If the inner conductor diameter is the same as that in the PECO study, 9.56 cm, then the linear current density is 418 A/cm at the maximum steady-state rating of 5,000 MVA. In order to have a cable that is surge impedance loaded, the operating stress would have to be about 10 MV/m. However, if the coolant is subcooled liquid nitrogen, then the cable can be operated at a maximum cable stress as high as 20 MV/m. To take advantage of the higher operating stress and produce smaller cables that would still be matched to their load, it would be necessary to have superconducting tapes that could operate at twice the linear current densities of the conventional Nb3Sn tapes. It is unclear whether cables using the new superconductors can be operated at linear (circumferential) current densities as high as those used in present materials, so it is probably wise not to assume operation at twice those values. If the cables are operated at 20 MV/m and at 418 A/cm on the inner conductor, then the diameter of the outer conductor changes from 12.62 to 10.98 cm (only 13%), and the cable is not as well matched to the load. Moreover, the dielectric losses double. Therefore, a design value of 10 MV/m will be used. The outer conductor diameter will be 12.62 cm, and the 5,000-MVA outer conductor current density will be 317 A/cm. For the PECO 230-kV cable design, the current-dependent loss per phase was 0.451 W/m (1.352 W/m per circuit) at 3,333 MVA. (The loss has been found experimentally to be proportional to the square of the current.)

66

Applied Superconductivity

6.5.2

Voltage-Dependent The capacitance

Losses of the cable is calculated from

oEr --

F m

and is found to be 441 pF/m. If the dielectric loss tangent of the insulating polymer and screens is 1.0 x 10d4, the dielectric loss (in W/m) is P = V2wC (tan 6) the loss is 293 mW/m per

For 230-kV, phase-to-phase voltage (132.8-kV, line-to-ground), phase, or 0.879 W/m per circuit.

6.5.3 Cryogenic

Knclosure Losses

The heat inleak depends on the diameter of the enclosure and the amount and type of thermal insulation used. To keep the analysis simple, it will be assumed that the enclosure is the same size as in the PECO study and uses three inches of insulation. The heat inleak consists of three parts: (1) conductive heat leak at the metal vacuum seals at the end of each 62-it section, (2) conductive heat leak at each of the five bicycle-wheeltype supports for the inner pipe, and (3) radiative heat inleak from the outer pipe surface to the inner. In changing the operating temperature from 7 to 77.4 K, the radiative heat flow is reduced by only 0.45%. The conductive heat flow will change by the ratio of X2 (300 K - 77.4 K) to ~1 (300 K - 7 K), where X is the mean thermal conductivity. For alloys, A increases by about 20%, so the conductive heat flow decreases by only 9.7% by It is calculated that the two ends contribute an going to the higher temperature. effective heat leak of 0.245 W/m, and the five bicycle-wheel supports give an additional 0.093 W/m. Calculations of the additional heat leak due to the thermal insulation were done multilayer for three types of evacuated insulation with the following results: superinsulation, 0.267 W/m; perlite, 4.19 W/m; and Cab-0-Sil with 55% copper opacifier, 1.41 W/m. The latter two have a much higher loss but are effective even in a relatively poor vacuum (about 20 urn or less). Since the system is assumed to be operating above the freezing point of nitrogen, cryopumping may be ineffective in producing the vacuum required for superinsulation (less than 1 urn). It appears impossible to produce an economical system at about 77 K that dispenses with the vacuum entirely, because the heat inleak would increase by a factor of perhaps as much as 1,000. On the other hand, if the effective use of superinsulation were to require that the vacuum space be dynamically pumped, the extra cost for energy to run the vacuum pumps and the decreased reliability would tend to favor an opacified powder.

AC Transmission

67

6.5.4

Refrigerator

Efficiency

The refrigerators for the PECO study were assumed to operate at an efficiency of 26% of the Carnot efficiency. The survey by Strobridge indicated that the efficiency of refrigerators (as a percent of Carnot efficiency) depends only on capacity, not on operating temperature. Nevertheless, it will be assumed that the nitrogen refrigerators operate at 30% of Carnot efficiency, or 9.6 W/W. Using the assumptions given above for energy cost and demand cost, and converting energy cost to a capitalized cost of energy for refrigeration, the capitalized cost of removing an additional watt per meter is found to be $30/m ($9.15/ft).

6.5.5 Total Losses If superinsulation is used, the total of the losses at 3,333 MVA is 2.836 W/m per circuit. They are distributed as follows: 21% enclosure losses, 48% current-dependent losses, and 31% voltage-dependent losses.

6.6 CAPITAL COSTS It is necessary to determine which capital cost might change by going from Nb3Sn to the new high-T, materials. Since operation at 77 K will almost certainly require an evacuated enclosure, the cost of the enclosure will not change significantly, although it can be assumed that the enclosure will not have to be dynamically pumped. The cost of the helium is eliminated. Not enough is known about the processing that will be required for the superconducting tapes to determine whether their cost will be greater or less than the cost of Nb3Sn tapes. The present superconducting tapes are made in a relatively simple manner by dipping Nb-l%Zr foil in tin and then reacting it at high temperature. It is then soldered to a copper tape and a stainless steel tape to form a I-mil-thick laminate. The base materials are cheaper for the new superconductors, but the processing may be considerably more difficult and expensive. Therefore, the assumption that the cable cost does not change is purely speculative. The only other major cost that might change would be the cost of the refrigerators. To calculate a refrigerator cost, it would be necessary to know much more about the operating conditions that will be required by the new cables in order to give low losses at useful current levels. In the 1976 PECO study, the refrigerators contributed 12.4% of the total. Therefore, not much additional uncertainty will be introduced by keeping the unscaled cost of refrigerators the same.

68

Applied Superconductivity

6.7

COST OF THE

LOSSES

The calculation of the losses is based on the information in Table 6.2. The total transmission and refrigeration losses, then, are 2.84 kW/km x 106.2 km x 3 circuits x 9.6 W/W = 8.67 MW. There is an additional refrigeration load produced by the six cryogenic terminations on each circuit. This load is expected to be about 2.7 kW, which is equivalent to about one kilometer of cable. So the total loss value is increased by 10% to account for these end effects and other losses, giving 8.67 MW x 1.10 = 9.54 MW.

TABLE 6.2 Losses per Kilometer per Ciiuit at 3,333 WA per Circuit

Source

W/km

Voltage-dependent loss Current-dependent loss Enclosure heat inlealc Total

879 1,352 605 2,836

The annual loss in MWh is to be based on load values of 9,000 MW and 7,200 MW for six months each. This varying load affects the current-dependent losses only. Instead of 1.352 kW/km, these losses become 1.352 kW/km x [0.9(2) x 0.5 + 0.72(2) x 0.51 = 898 W/km. Then the annual loss in MWh is 2.382 kW/km x 106.2 km x 3 circuits x 9.6 W/W x 1.10 x 8,760 h = 70,190 MWh. The results are shown in Table 6.3.

6.8 CAPITAL COSlS AND TOTAL SYSTEM COST When the assumptions stated above are applied to the PECO study data to get costs in 1987 dollars, the results are as shown in Tables 6.4 and 6.5.

6.8.1

Comparison

with HPOPT and AeriaUUnderground

Systems

The PECO study also evaluated a high-pressure, oil-pipe-type (HPOPT) system and an aerial/underground system. Using the assumptions that were applied to the AC superconducting system, a similar recalculation of the SOO-kV HPOPT system is shown in Table 6.6. Sixteen three-phase circuits using naturally cooled, cellulose-insulated cables are required to deliver the 10,000 MVA (see Tables 6.7 and 6.8).

6.8.2 Cost of the Aerial/Underground

System

Losses

The 500-kV aerial/underground system is a five-circuit system. Sixty miles of the system are aerial and use separate towers for each SOO-kV circuit. Each cable of the aerial circuit is a three-conductor bundle. The last six miles of the system are underground in an urban area. The underground portion is also rated at 500-kV and is insulated by gaseous sulfur fluoride (SF6) (see Tables 6.9-6.11).

AC Transmission 69

TABLE

6.3 Capitalized

Costs of Losses for Transmission Systems,

230-kV Superconducting Three Circuits

Transmission and refrigeration Total losses (M!Jja Total annual Losses (MWl~/yr)~ Annual energy cost ($103/yr)c Capitalized ener y cost ($103jd Demand cost (jlOqjave Subtotal ($10 ) Substations Transformer losses (MWja Total annual losses (MWh/yrjb Annual energy cost ($103/yrIc Capitalized ener y cost ($1031d Demand cost (210J IaPe Subtotal ($10 ) Series compensation Total Losses (MWja Total annual Losses (MWh/yrjb Annual energy cost ($103/yrIc Capitalized ener y cost ($103jd Demand cost (j.L05jave Subtotal ($10 ) Total capitalized cost of energy Losses ($103)

9.54

70,190 1,193 15,440


11,448 26.,889

63.13 395,000 6,715 86,892 75,756 162,648

0.164 955 16 210 197 407 189,944

aBased on a LO,OOO-KW Load level, not including start-up (cool-down). bBased on 9,000~MW and 7,200~MW load Levels for six months each. 'Cost of energy = 1.7C/kWh. dCapitalized cost, if based on 40-yr Life and 12.94 present worth factor. eDemand cost is based on $1,20O/kW.

70

Applied Superconductivity

TABLE 6.4 Coats of 230-kV AC Superconducting Cables, Three circuit!4

Item

$103

Right of Clearing
EllClOSUte

way and roads

Manholes
Excavation and backfill Cable Terminations Monitoring systems Cable engineering Capitalized cable maintenance Refrigerators, incl. maint. Substations Series compensation Capitalized refrigeration and cabLe Losses Capitalized substation Losses Capitalized compensation Losses Total

8,910 628 415,048 176 150,661 638,741 17,820 6,312 9,450 23,273 263,772 193,606 30,780 26,889 162,648 407
1,949,181

0.5 0 21.5 0 7.7 32.8 0.9 0.3 0.5 1.2 13.5 9.9 1.6 1.4 8.3 0 100.0

al987

dollars.

6.9 ASSUMPTIONS REGARDING PROPERTIES OF CABLE MATERIALS The new superconducting materials were assumed to be as good at 77 K as the present materials are at 7 K. These assumptions were necessary simply because little is actually known about the AC electrical properties of these materials. Moreover, what is known about the DC electrical properties (i.e., the DC critical current at 77 K) suggests that these materials can be considered for use in power transmission cables only if one is allowed to assume that considerable improvement will occur. The AC loss characteristics of Nb.$n were found not to depend on the bulk current alone, but are better described by a theory that assumes that when the curren;; are below a critical surface current density, the material exhibits a low loss. However, when this critical current density is exceeded, the current is shared between the surface and the bulk of the material, and the losses increase rapidly. Thus, low losses in this Type II material are obtained only at currents much lower than the bulk critical current density, and these losses are sensitive to surface roughness and defects. Therefore, to give the operating (low-loss) current density for Nb3Sn in amps per square

AC Transmission

71

TABLE 6.5 Breakdown 230-kV Superconducting Three Circuits

of Costs Cables,

for

Item

Cable Enclosure

Refrigerators Substations Capitalized substation losses Excavation and backfill Series compensation Capitalized refrigeration and cable losses Capitalized cable maintenance Terminations Cable engineering Right of way Monitoring systems

32.8 21.3 13.5 9.9 8.3 7.7 1.6 1.4 1.2 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.3

centimeter is misleading, because if the current were actually flowing in the bulk of the Consequently, the operating current material, it would not have the low loss required. density for Nb$n tapes is usually stated as a surface current density in units of amps per centimeter. The AC losses of the laminated superconducting tapes were found to be much higher in a cable configuration than they were when measured on a single tape, as mentioned above. It has been hypothesized that these higher losses result either from the unusual current flow pattern that occurs in the double-helical layers of superconducting tapes in the cables or from crowding of the current at the tape edges. (Since the tapes were obtained by slitting a sheet, the edges themselves did not provide a conWork on the new superconductors should tinuous path of superconducting Nb$n.) investigate the effects of surface roughness on the AC losses and whether current crowding occurs in tapes in cable configurations. In fact, if it is assumed that new cables will be made using superconducting tapes, various means of reducing currentdependent losses of tapes in cable configurations can be investigated using present superconducting materials. The Nb.$n superconducting tape laminates are made by dipping a Nb-l%Zr foil in Two superconducting layers of Nb$n are tin and then reacting it at 900-1,OOOC. formed. A 2-mil tape of tinned copper and a 1-mil tape of tinned stainless steel are then Two layers of superconducting tapes are soldered to opposite sides of the Nb.$in tape. used to form the double-helix making up each conductor. Therefore, both the inner and outer cable conductors contain four thin layers of Nb$n. The current does not flow

72

Applied Superconductivity

TABLE 6.6 Capitalized Costs of Loasea for 500-kV EPOPT Systems, 16 Circuits

Item

cost

Transmission Total losses (MWja Total annual losses (HWh/yr)b Annual energy cost ($103/yr)' Capitalized ener y cost ($103)d Demand cost ($105jaPe Subtotal Substations Transformer ($10 )

171.14 1,091,600 18,557 240,130 205,368 445,498

losses

(MWja

84.6 521,400 8,864 114,698 101,520 216,218

Total annual losses (MWh/yrjb Annual energy cost ($103/yr) Capitalized ener y cost ($103jd Demand cost Subtotal ($10 (f105jaPe )

Shunt compensation Total losses (MWja Total annual losses (MWh/ytjb Annual energy cost ($103/yr)' Capitalized ener y cost ($103jd Demand cost Subtotal Total losses ($10 (giOjaPe ) cost of energy

103.7 908,400 15,443 199,830 124,440 324,270 985,986

capitalized ($103)

aBased on including

10,000~MW start-up

load level (cool-down). 7,200~MW

losses,

not

bBased on 9,000~MW and for six months each. Cost of energy

load

levels

= l.?cfkWh. on 40-yr life and

dCapitalized cost, if based 12.94 present worth factor. eDemand cost is based

on $1,2OO/kW.

AC Transmission

73

TABLE

6.7

Costa of SOO-kV, Cellulose-Insulated

HPOPT

Cables,

16 Circuits

costa
Item $103 % 1.1 0.1 a.8 1.2 a.8 26.6 1.6
0.8 0.1

Right of way Clearing and toads Pipe Manholes Excavation and backfill Cable Oil Terminations Pressure systems Engineering Capitalized cable maintenance Substations Shunt compensation Capitalized cable Losses Capitalized substation losses Capitalized compensation losses Total al9a7 dollars.

37,989 2,249 310,217 40,819 311,604 940,061 55,049 29,261 4,565 15,246 46,584 256,585 495,497 445,498 216,218 324,270 3,531,712

0.4 1.3 7.3 14.0 12.6 6.1 9.2 100.0

equally density layers.

in all four layers, however, by simply dividing the current

11

so it is not appropriate to calculate by the sum of the cross-sectional areas

a current of the four

Given ail these caveats, Table 6.12 presents the assumed Some of the values contained in the table are calculated using against above, and thus are not strictly justifiable.

materials properties. the methods warned

6.10

l,OOO-MVA TRANSMISSION

SYSTEMS

It is, of course, unreasonable to propose that a utility rely upon an entirely new technology to transmit a huge block of power in its own network. To gain acceptance, even after extensive field tests at noneconomical power levels and/or lengths, it will be necessary to introduce the technology at the lowest power level at which it can be technically and economically competitive. Therefore, the capitalized cost of energy for refrigeration was evaluated for some l,OOO-MVA power transmission systems.

74

Applied Superconductivity

TABLE Circuits

6.6 Breakdown of Costs of 500-kV, HPOPT Cables, 16

Cellulose-Insulated

Item Cable Shunt compensation Capitalized cable losses Capitalized compensation losses Excavation and backfill Pipe Substations Capitalized substation losses Oil Capitalized cable maintenance Manholes Right of way Terminations Cable engineering Pressure systems Clearing and roads

26.6 14.0 12.6 9.2 8.8

a.8 7.3

6.1 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.1 0.8 0.4 0.1 0.1

The term 1,000-MVA transmission system, applied to a two-circuit system, means that each circuit has a continuous, maximum contingency thermal rating of 1,000 MVA. The design operating rating of each circuit is 500 MVA. Each system consisted of two circuits, either of which would be capable of carrying the full 1,000 MVA should the other circuit be out of service. Unlike the 230-kV system evaluated above, a second contingency must be handled with circuits external to the superconducting transmission system. With the system voltage equal to 138 kV, the effects of varying the linear current density and the maximum cable stress were evaluated. The linear current density determines the diameter of the inner layer of superconducting tapes, while the maximum cable stress determines the insulation thickness. Only the effect on the losses is shown in Table 6.13, but these assumptions also influence the capital cost of the cables and enclosure. Capital costs were not generated. It should be pointed out that it is yet to be determined whether even the lowest linear current density used below can be obtained in a superconducting cable made with the new materials and operating at 77 K. These current levels are just the operating current levels; the quench current levels are 8-10 times higher. The enclosure insulation. diameters are based on a jam ratio of 2.4 and 3 in. of thermal

All of these lOO-km-long systems have a transmission efficiency of better than 99.8% at 100% load factor when only the energy losses associated with refrigeration are

AC Transmission

75

TABLE 6.9 Capitalized Costs of Losses for 500-kV Aerial/Underground Transmission System, Five Circuits

Transmission - aerial Total losses 04W)= Total annual losses (MWh/yr)b Annual energy cost ($103/yr)= Capitalized ener y cost ($103)d Demand cost (310 J )aTe Subtotal ($10 ) Transmission - underground Total losses (MW) Total annual losses (MWh/yrjb Annual energy cost ($103/yr)= Capitalized ener y cost ($103)d Demand cost (210 3 jaPe Subtotal ($10 ) Subscations Transformer losses (MWja Total annual losses (MWh/yrjb Annual energy cost ($103/yrF Capitalized ener y cost ($103jd Demand cost ($10 3 jave Subtotal ($10 ) Series compensation Total losses (MWja Total annual losses (MWh/yrjb Annual energy cost (SlO3lyrF Capitalized ener y cost ($103jd Demand cost ($10 5 jafe Subtotal ($10 ) Total capitalized losses ($103) cost of energy

77.16 440,190 7,483 96,833 92,592 189,425

4.95 29,618 504 6,515 5,940 12,455

84.6 521,400 8,864 114,698 101,520 216,218

0.54 3,140 53 691 648 1,339


419,431

aBased

on a

including

10,000~HW load level, start-up (cool-down).

not

bB,sed on 9,000~MW and 7,200~HW load for six months each. Cost of energy = 1.7CfkWh. if based on 40-yr worth factor.
on

levels

d Capitalized and 12.94 Demand cost

cost, present

life

is based

$l,ZOO/kW.

76

Applied Superconductivity

TABLE 6.10 Costs of SOO-kVAerial/Undeqrouud Transmission System, Five Circuits

costa
Item $103 x

Right of way Clearing and access roads Foundations Towers Conductors and devices Engineering Capitalized maintenance Underground section, 6 mi Substations Series compensation Capitalized aerial trans. losses Capitalized undrgnd. trans. losses Capitalized substation losses Capitalized compensation losses Total

139,230 7,923 27,000 74,358 86,400 13,500 58,202 186,480 229,500 29,322 189,425 12,455 216,218 1,339 1,271,252

11.0 0.6 2.1 5.8 6.8 1.1 4.6 14.7 18.1 2.3 14.9 1.0 17.0 0.1 100.0

al987 dollars.

TABLE 6.11 Breakdown of Costs of 500-kV Aerial/Undeground Transmission System, Five Circuits

Item

Substations Capitalized substation losses Capitalized aerial trans. losses Underground section, 6 mi Right of way Conductors and devices Towers Capitalized maintenance Series compensation Foundations Engineering Capitalized undrgnd. trans. losses Clearing and access roads Capitalized compensation losses

18.1 17.0 14.9 14.7 11.0 6.8 5.8 4.6 2.3 2.1 1.1 1.0 0.6 0.1

AC Transmission

77

TABLE 6.12 Assumptions Regarding Properties of Cable Materials

Property Electrical Dielectric Effective insulation Loss tangent, cable dielectric

Value

intrinsic material loss tangent

c2 x 10-5 1.0 x 10-4 2.3 2.3 CL5 <30 275 x LO5 A/cm2 x LO6 A/cm2 ?.Wcm2 pWfcm2 &cm2

Superconducting tapes Max. steady-state current density, inner AC quench current density AC Losses,a single tape Laminate AC Losses,a single tape, after cablin Effective AC Losses,a cable conductor % aAt 500 A/cm.

bActuaL AC losses appear to be a function of the number of edges on the conductor circumference, rather than of the conductor area.

tape

considered. The energy losses due to substations and compensation were not evaluated. For systems of shorter length, the end losses will become more important, and the total system losses will no longer be proportionate to circuit length. There will also be an optimum length before the nitrogen refrigerators reach their most efficient size. From the standpoint of energy use, it appears that the l,OOO-MVA superconducting systems are competitive with conventional power transmission systems. It is necessary, then, to determine how the capital costs scale with power level for the various technologies to see whether there is a net cost savings.

6.11 CONCLUSIONS

6.11.1 Comparison of Electrical Losses and Costs The losses of the different transmission systems are shown in Table 6.14. The superconducting system is unique in that the transmission losses are very much lower than the substation losses. The cost of the 230-kV superconducting system is found to be about 1.53 times the cost of the 500-kV combined aerial/underground system. The naturally cooled 500-kV HPOPT cellulose-insulated system costs about 2.78 times what the 500-kV aerial/underground system costs. It is important to realize that these economic assessments rest upon assumptions about the future cost of energy used to derive a capitalized cost of energy. If the total costs of the systems being compared have large

D
TABLE 6.13 l,OOO-MVA, 138-kV Superconducting Power Transmission Systems, 2 Circuita

Values for Various Maximum 388 Cable Item 10 Stresses 15 (IN/m) 20

Values for Various Maximum rms Cable Stresses 10 15 (MV/m) 20

Maximum steady-state rms current (A/cm) Linear current, rated power (A/cm) Inner layer diameter (cm) Outer layer diameter (cm) Capacitance (pF/m) Cable jacket outer diameter (cm) Enclosure inner pipe i.d. (cm) Enclosure outer pipe o.d. (cm) Losses per circuit (W/km) Voltage-dependent Current-dependent Thermal heat-leak Total System losses, 100 km MU MWh/yr Capitalized energy and demand costs aThe operating ($103) is half

400 200 3.33 5.37 255.7 7.02 16.85 35.18 la4 224 357 764 1.61 12,750 4,741

400 200 3.33 4.50 383.6 6.23 14.95 33.29 275 238 330 a44 1.78 14,130 5,246

400 200 3.33 4.23 511.4 5.80 14.11 32.45 367 247 318 932 1.97 15,710 5,817

700 350 1.90 4.40 146.1 6.05 14.52 32.85 105 346 324 775 1.64 12,180 4,643

700 350 1.90 3.33 219.2 4.90 11.95 30.29 157 380 287 824 1.74 12,890 4,924

700 350 1.90 2.89 292.2 4.54 10.90 29.23 210 401 272 a82 1.86 13,840 5,281

rating

the maximum continuous

contingency

thermal

rating.

AC Transmission

79

TABLE 6.14 Traosmission Losses, 100% Load Factor

System

Electrical

S0Ul-X

Loss (%I

230-kV

superconducting

Transmission Substaeions Compensation Total

and refrigeration

0.10 0.63 0 0.73 1.71 0.85 1.04 3.60

500-kV HPOPT cellulose Transmission Substations Compensation Total 500-kV aerial/underground Transmission - aerial Transmission - underground Subsrations Compensation Total

0.77 0.05 0.85 0.01 1.68

differences in the ratios of their respective capital and capitalized energy components, then the relative advantage of one system over another will be sensitive to the energy Also, as mentioned in the introduction, it is possible to reduce a cost assumptions. capital cost by allowing an energy loss to increase, and equally, capital expenditures can The most cost-effective package again depends upon be translated into lower losses. assumptions regarding the future cost of energy (see App. A for one set of assumptions).

6.11.2

Comparison

of High-Tc Superconducting

Cable System

with Nb$n

Cable System

To find out how much is saved by using new superconducting materials operating at 77 K, it is necessary to assume a refrigerator operating efficiency for the helium refrigerator of the 7-K system. The 77-K system efficiency was taken to be 30% of the Carnot efficiency, 9.6 W/W. Although the cables in the PECO study operated at 7 K, temperatures in the refrigerator heat exchangers were as low as 5.65 K, so assuming an efficiency of 26% of the Carnot value (the value used in the PECO study) for a refrigerator operating between 300 and 5.65 K gives 200 W/W. The enclosure losses must also be increased slightly to account for the additional heat leak due to the lower operating temperature. If the energy used for refrigeration is calculated using these assumptions, the sum of the capitalized cost of the energy for refrigeration and losses ($326.7 million) and

80

Applied

Superconductivity

the demand cost ($241.7 million) is $568.3 million, as compared with $26.9 million for the The increase in the total system cost is about 28%. The cost of the 77-K system. helium adds another 3%. Thus, the system cost (including capitalized energy costs) of the 7-K system is about 30% more than the cost of the 77-K system. This savings is about twice that predicted by using the assumptions of the PECO study (loss tangent = 1 x 10e5), but here it is assumed to be ten times larger. (The loss tangent of the polyprop lene laminate insulating tapes used at Brookhaven was measured to be less than 2.0 x 10 -5, but a relatively imprecise thermal measurement of the voltage-dependent electrical losses of the cables indicated an effective loss tangent of about seven times that value.*) Although the current-dependent losses are assumed to be larger by a similar they may in fact be considerably reduced in both high- and low-T, factor, superconductors once the mechanism that gives rise to these losses is sufficiently understood. Because the AC losses of the superconducting tape laminates now in use are only about one-tenth of the cable losses, and as experiments appear to indicate that the cable loss is proportional to the number of tape edges in the superconducting layer of the cable rather than to the bulk properties of the tapes, there is a good chance that these losses can be reduced. On the other hand, if it turns out that the AC losses of cables made with the new high-T, superconductors are higher than for the present materials, the relative advantage of the new cables could become much less significant. The result of these assumptions increases the capitalized cost of the energy for the refrigeration and cable losses to about 22% of the total for the low-temperature transmission system. Consequently, the more efficient 77-K system has a more dramatic impact on reducing the total cost. The large relative advantage of the 77-K system over the 7-K system comes about, then, because of pessimistic assumptions regarding the losses of the 7-K system. In actuality, the next superconducting cables made with Nb3Sn would not have been like the first cables that were produced. The high dielectric loss in the first cables resulted from having to use a plastic laminate for the insulating tapes; polypropylene tapes of the appropriate thickness were not available in time to meet the construction schedule, so thinner tapes had to be glued together with lossy polyurethane. Thus, the dielectric loss would be reduced by a factor of between two and seven in the next cables. Since it is now known that the current-dependent loss does not result from an intrinsically high AC loss in the superconducting tapes, but instead results from some feature of the cable conductor configuration, the current-dependent loss would probably be reduced by a similarly large factor. Finally, the thermal enclosure would be redesigned to lower the thermal losses. All of these changes could be made without significantly changing the overall cost. These changes would also reduce the losses in a 77-K system. However, the relative advantage of the 77-K system over the 7-K system would become much smaller, because the comparison is based on the total system costs of the two systems, where the

*In calorimetric measurements in a large system, very small temperature or pressure errors can produce large uncertainties in the result. Furthermore, it is difficult to separate out heat that is generated in the cryogenic bushings and transported to thermometers monitoring the cable temperature.

AC Transmission

81

total system cost is the sum of capital, capitalized energy, and capitalized maintenance costs. Thus, part of the advantage of the high-l, systems described in this section results from assuming that no further improvements can be made in the next generation of cable designs that use presently available superconductors.

6.11.3

Future Systems Studies

The results obtained for the capitalized refrigeration cost of energy for the l,OOO-MVA transmission systems indicate that evaluating the full cost of systems of that size is jbstifiable. The analysis above determined neither the capital costs nor the capitalized cost of energy for substations and compensation. The most reliable comparative results are obtained when different technologies application. It is are all evaluated with reference to a single, well-characterized recommended that such a study be undertaken for a system application of moderate length (IO-20 km, perhaps). It is desirable to determine the effect of length on the relative advantage of a superconducting system over other underground technologies. At some point, either the end losses or an inefficient refrigerator size will make the superconducting system less economical than alternative methods of moving the power. It would also be useful to determine at what power level a superconducting system becomes a cheaper solution to the power transmission problem.

6.11.4

Enclosures and Optimization

All cryogenic systems benefit from reducing the cost of the enclosure, and as the enclosure cost is a significant portion of total capitalized costs, improvements in this area can produce substantial overall savings. Recent work12 indicates that enclosures can be produced that are less costly than those used in the cost evaluations above and have comparable thermal losses. A full optimization of a superconducting power transmission system will require careful attention to all components of the system, as well as research and development in areas not directly related to the superconducting material. Much work can progress in parallel with work on the superconductors. Those involved in developing the superconducting materials, on the other hand, need to be conscious of the impact of materials properties on the technical and economic feasibility of a full system. (For example, a rigid superconducting system that required superconducting joints to be made during the installation would probably be very much more expensive than one that used flexible superconducting cables.) Other areas that will require close scrutiny and optimization include the refrigeration cycles and systems and the electrical and mechanical properties of the insulation materials.

82

Applied Superconductivity

6.12 1.

REFERENCES Thomson, W., Lord Kelvin, On the Economy British Assn. Report, p. 526 (1881). of Metal in Conductors of Electricity,

2.

Walldorf, S., and E. Eich, Evaluation of the Cost of Losses for Underground Transmission Cable Systems, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS102~3355 (1983). Philadelphia Electric Co., Evaluation of the Economical and Technological Viability of Various Underground Transmission Systems for Long Feeds to Urban Load Areas, U.S. Dept. of Energy Report HCP/t-2055/l (Dec. 1977). Forsyth, E.B., and R.A. Thomas, Performance Superconducting Power Transmission System, references contained therein]. Summary Cryogenics, of the Z&599 Brookhaven (1986) [and

3.

4.

5.

Daniels, E.J., R.F. Giese, and A.M. Wolsky (Argonne communication (April 30, 1987). [The text of this App. A. of this report.] Weedy, B-M., Costs, Chap. 8 in Underground Wiley and Sons, New York (1980). Technical Research Assessment Group, Institute Special Report

National Laboratory), personal communication is provided as

6.

Transmission

of Electric

Power,

John

7.

Technical Assessment Guide, Electric EPRI PS-866-SR, Palo Alto, Calif. (June Abstract of the United States:

Power 1978). 107th

8.

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Ed., Washington, D.C. (1986). Strobridge, of Standards

1987,

9.

T.R., Cryogenic Refrigemtors Technical Note 655 (June 1974).

An Updated

Survey,

National

Bureau

10.

Progress through Fiscal Year 1976, Power Transmission Project Report PTP #69, Brookhaven National Laboratory Report BNL-22202, p. 37 (Dec. 27, 1987). Bussiere, J.F., et al., Nb3Sn Conductors Mechanical Characteristics, Advances Publishing Corp., New York (1978). for AC Power Transmission: Electrical and in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 24, Plenum

11.

12.

Schauer, F., et al., Prototype of a SemifZexible Multi-Layer Insulated Enclosure for Cryogenic Power Cables and Pipelines, Cryogenic Engineering Conf., St. Charles, 111. (June 1987).

AC Transmission

83

Supplement:

Levelized Annual Cost Method

INTRODUCTION The assumptions outlined in App. A are somewhat different than those used in the PECO study. First, it is assumed that both the book life and the operating life equal 30 yr. These periods are not likely to be the same, and in computing the cost of losses the actual operating life should have been used, because the cable will go on producing losses regardless how quickly the accountants depreciate the capital cost of the transmission system. Nevertheless, the 30-yr life will be used below. Second, it is not clear how to evaluate the electricity cost component of the cost of service. All costs are normalized by the amount of energy delivered per year, but the electricity cost appears to be based on the electrical energy going into the system, not on the losses. Only the losses represent an actual cost of service if, as stated, the service is the transmission of electrical energy. The rest of the energy is merely transmitted by the system. What is actually being calculated is the energy price at the delivery end of the transmission system. The cost of transmitting the power is in fact the difference between the price of the energy leaving the transmission system and its The method used in the example will be used price at the point of going into the system. here, but it should be understood that the cost of service is not the cost of transmitting the power, but is instead the cost of the delivered power. Appendix A states that it is possible to judge the likely economic benefit of superconducting technology by dividing the calculated levelized cost of service by the levelization factor and comparing the result to the current price of electricity after transmission. Table A.3 in App. A shows that the price of electricity put into distribution is $O.OSO/kWh, compared with $O.O41/kWh put into transmission. These prices are assumed to be averages for all types of transmission (both overhead and underground), averaged over all the different lengths of transmission corridors. Because 66 mi is an unusual length for an underground transmission circuit, it is probably more valid to compare the values obtained for the three cases with each other than with the national average value. Finally, the example makes the assumption that the electricity should be charged at the price of electricity put into transmission. conventional cables and for the substation and compensation losses. electrical energy for refrigeration, however, should be the distribution change is made in the evaluations below. cost component This is true for The price of the price. This minor

Appendix A recommends that an 80% capacity factor be used. In the calculations of losses used in the main text, loads of 9,000 MW and 7,200 MW for six months each were assumed. Since this is an 81% load factor, the values obtained in Sec. 6.7 will be used here.

84

Applied

Superconductivity

236-kV SUPERCONDUCTING

AC POWER

TRANSMISSION

SYSTEfd

Energy

Delivered (9,000 MW x 0.5 yr + 7,200 MW x 0.5 yr) x 8,760 h&r = 7.0956 Y 10 lo kWh/yr

= 70,956,OOO MWh/yr

Energy

Lost Source Refrigeration and transmission Substations Series compensation Total MWh 70,190 395,000 955 466,145 $103 (1986 dollars) 3,510 16,195 39 19,744

Value of Energy (7.096

into System x lOlo kWh/yr x $O.O41/kWh) + $1.974 x 109 x lo7

= $2.909

x 109 + $1.974

x 107 = $2.929

Electricity

Cost Component ($2.929 x 10 x 1.45)/(7.096 x lo6 kWh/y-r) = $O.O5859/kWh

Capital

Cost Component ($1.736 x 10 x 0.187)/(7.096 x lOlo kWh/yr) = $O.O0458/kWh

Cable

Maintenance ($1,798,530

Cost

Component* x lOlo kWh/yr) = $O.OOOOSS/kWh

x 1.45)/(7.096

Cost of Service fO.O5985/kWh + $O.O0458/kWh = $O.O6447/kWh

*Other

maintenance

costs

are included

in the capital

cost component.

AC Transmission

85

506-kVHPOPTCELLULCSE-INSULATEDNATURALLYCOOLEDSYSTEM

EnergyDelivered h/yr (9,000 MW x 0.5yr+ 7,200 MW x 0.5yr)x 8,760 = 70,956,OOO MWh/yr= 7.0956 10l'kWh/yr x

EnergyLost Source Transmission Substations Shunt compensation Total MWh 1,091,600 521,400 908,400 2,521,400 $103 (1986 dollars) 44,756 21,377 37,244 103,377

ValueofEnergy into System (7.096 lOlokWh/yr x $O.O4l/kWh)+ x $1.034 lo8 x = $2.909 109. $1.034 108 = $3.013 109 x x x

Electricity Component Cost ($3.013 10' x 1.45)/(7.096 x x 101'kWh/yr) $O.O6156/kWh =

Capital Cost Component

($2.449 IO9 Y 0.187)/(7.096 x x 101'kWh/yr) $O.O0659/kWh =

Cable

Maintenance CostComponent* (t3,600,0001.45)/(7.096 x x 101'kWh/yr) $O.O00074/kWh =

Costof Service %O.O6156/kWh+ tO.O0659/kWh $O.O00074/kWh $O.O6822/kWh + =

*Othermaintenancecosts areincludedin capital the cost

component.

86

Applied Superconductivity

SOO-kV AERIAL/UNDERGROUND

SYSYEM

Energy

Delivered (9,000 MW x 0.5 yr + 7,200


q

MW x 0.5 yr) x 8,760 h/yr x 1O1 kWh/yr

= 70,956,OOO MWh/yr

7.0956

Energy

Lost Source Transmission - aerial Transmission - underground Substations Series compensation Total MWh 440,190 29,618 521,400 3,140 994,348 $103 (1986 dollars) 18,048 1,214 21,377 129 40,768

Value of Energy (7.096

into System x 1O1 kWh/yr x $O.O41/kWh) + $4.077 x 109 x lo7

= $2.909

x 109 + $4.077

x 107 = $2.950

Electricity

Cost Component ($2.956 x 10 x 1.45)/(7.096 x 1O1 kWh/yr) = $O.O6028/kWh

Capital

Cost Component ($7.936 x 10 x 0.187)/(7.096 x 1O1 kWh/yr) = $O.O0209/kWh

Cable

Maintenance ($4,497,840

Cost Component* x l-45)/(7.096 x 1O1 kWh/yr) = $O.O00092/kWh

Cost of Service tO.O6028/kWh + $O.O0209/kWh + $O.O00092/kWh = $O.O6247/kWh

*Other

maintenance

costs

are included

in the capital

cost component.

AC Transmission

87

CONCLUSIONS It is clear that this method produces the same ranking as the method of capitalizing the losses. In order to compare the ratio of the costs of the different systems, it is necessary to obtain a cost of service for transmission alone. To do this, the levelized cost of service is divided by the levelization factor, and the cost of the energy put into the system ($O.O41/kWh) is subtracted. This gives the results indicated in Table 6.15. The results are about the same as those obtained by the method used in the main text. Note that after subtracting the cost of the electrical energy, the results have at most three significant figures. The cost of the 230-kV superconducting system is found to be about 1.66 times the cost of the 500-kV combined aerial/underground system. The naturally cooled 500-kV HPOPT cellulose-insulated cable system costs about 2.91 times what the 500-kV aerial/underground system costs.

TABLE 6.15

Cost-of-Service

Values for Transmission

Systems

($/kWh)

Transmission System

Cost

Levelized of Service

Nonlevelized Cost of Service

Transmission Only

230-kV 500-kV 500-kV

superconducting HPOPT cellulose aerial/underground

0.06447 0.06822 0.06247

0.04446 0.04705 0.04308

0.00346 0.00605 0.00208

7 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage

Summary R.F. Giese


Argonne National Laboratory

HTSCs in Diurnal Load-Leveling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage


J. D. Rogers Los Alamos National Laboratory

88

Superconducting

Magnetic

Energy Storage

89

Summary

A low-cost, efficient device for storing electricity could exploit currently underused, base-load generating capacity to meet up to a 15% growth in load, or permit early retirement of inefficient peaking and intermediate generating capacity. Recent economic analyses indicate that large-scale superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) could be the lowest-cost alternative among a number of competing utility storage systems and gas-turbine generators for a range of fuel-cost and operating assumptions. The Bechtel Group and G.A. Technologies performed these analyses under contract to Los Alamos National Laboratory and based them on detailed conceptual design studies of SMES devices with energy storage capacities of l,OOO-10,000 MWh. A 0.0083-MWh, lo-MW SMES was designed, constructed, and installed for operation in the Tacoma substation in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) utility system. BPA operated the unit on line for about one year, at frequencies from 0.1 to 1 Hz, for more than one million cycles. Although BPA originally intended the unit for dynamic stability control of transmission lines, it used the device principally for dynamic response characterization studies of BPAs northwestern power grid. Of all proposed utility-side storage devices, SMES enjoys the highest round-trip efficiency (90-93%), and its ability to switch from charge to discharge mode in less than a second provides valuable system-stabilization benefits. Section 7 analyzes the potential benefits of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs), indicating a potential cost savings of about IO%, provided the new HTSC has a critical current density of at least 70 x IO4 A/cm2 and structural properties suitable for coil construction. Operating costs are also reduced greatly. However, operating costs associated with the NbTi system are typically only a few percent of total annual SMES costs. Probably more important than cost reductions, use of the new HTSCs could lead to higher system reliability, which is valued by utilities. In addition, operation of the coil at higher temperatures would reduce somewhat the stresses associated with cooling down from ambient temperature, thereby permitting more flexibility in system design. Two potential problems associated with SMES will not be helped by using HTSCs. First, due to the large economies of scale, only SMES units in excess of 500-1,000 MWh Very few individual utilities could efficiently use appear to be economically feasible. systems of this size. Thus, SMES units will most likely be shared among several utilities or a power pool, resulting in the need to transmit power over extended distances and Second, the forces required to contain the incurring the associated costs and losses. magnetic field are enormous, as is the scale of the machine -- the diameter of the coil in present designs for 5,000 MWh is 1,000 m. In order to contain these forces in a cost-effective way, current designs call for locating the coils in trenches near the Due to these geological constraints, there may be surface, preferably in suitable rock. no suitable sites over large regions of the country, and thus (where feasible) concrete walls might have to be constructed for subsurface support.

90

Applied Superconductivity

HTSCs in Diurnal Load-Leveling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage

7.1

INTRODUCTION

Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is one of the obvious potential systems that can benefit from the substitution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) for the presently proposed NbTi operating at 1.8 K in superfluid helium. When built on a large scale (5,000 MWh and 1,000 MW), SMES has economic potential in competition with other forms of energy storage for diurnal load leveling in electric utility applications. For diurnal load leveling, SMES has the unusual capability of storing energy directly as electromagnetic energy, without conversion to another form of energy. All other energy storage systems convert electrical energy to mechanical, chemical, or thermal energy and then (when the storage is accessed) back to electrical energy. Thus, SMES enjoys high efficiency by not being penalized for energy conversion: the round-trip, chargeInductive energy storage (energy storage in a discharge cycle efficiency is 90-9396. magnet) was understood long before the advent of practical superconductors. Recent industrial studies2Y3 have made interesting technological modifications to SMES and have proposed using improved NbTi to reduce the capital cost by 27%. The substitution of an HTSC for NbTi requires two main assumptions about the properties of the new materials: (1) the new superconductor has a current density characteristic that approaches the performance of NbTi and (2) the material has good strength and forming properties to withstand the Lorentz force experienced by a conductor in a magnetic field. Unless an HTSC has these important characteristics, the probability of it economically replacing NbTi in SMES is low.

7.2

DISCUSSION

A number of prospective features make the use of HTSCs in SMES attractive. For utility applications, these may be reduced to reliability, which can be much more important than a cost saving for the capital plant. The refrigeration system for operation at liquid nitrogen temperature, for Operating efficiency for SMES could rise to as much as instance, is greatly simplified. 94-95%. Stability of the superconductor would be enhanced by the higher heat capacity of a liquid nitrogen system. The protective energy dump system to exhaust the cryogen Because of the short time could be less elaborate, but it could not be eliminated. required to exhaust the liquid nitrogen, the requirement that the cryogen must be drained from the bottom of the SMES dewar will most likely remain. To exhaust and waste the nitrogen to atmosphere at the top would require a thicker inner dewar vessel to

Superconducting

Magnetic Energy Storage

91

overcome

the

higher

increase

will occur.

density A detailed

liquid nitrogen gravity head. engineering analysis is required.

Thus,

an offsetting

cost

Stabilizing material associated with the new superconductor might be decreased in quantity because of the matrix materials higher heat capacity at the initial higher temperature, when a transition to the normal conducting state might occur, as compared with the heat capacity in liquid helium. The complexities introduced by an HTSC will require an extensive analysis of SMES to ascertain the engineering design and economic trade-offs. Even some rather profound design modifications may prove to be fundamental to the use of the new superconductors. Perhaps the detailed and intricate superconductor designs used today will become unnecessary because of the increased stability potential. These new ceramic-like materials might be cold-drawn in thin-walled metal tubes to be wire-like, and subsequently bundled together and cooled by conduction or forced convection. The obvious features of SMES that provide cost savings by the use of HTSCs with the foregoing property assumptions are in the areas of refrigeration and cryogenic piping, thermal heat leaks (struts and radiation shields), substation size for auxiliary equipment, coil protection, and helium storage. Reference 3 provides a sound basis from which to examine cost reductions for the items listed in Table 7.1.

7.3 CONCLUSIONS The capital cost from the last Bechtel study for a l,OOO-MW, 5,000-MWh SMES unit was $980 million (1985 dollars). Thus, the HTSC system cost becomes $950 million. Even at best, then, if the savings estimate is off by as much as a factor of two, which is

TABLE 7.1 Potential Savings with 77-K SMES (1,000 MW, 5,000 MWh)

Savings

Item

($106)

Refrigerators struts Thermal shields Coil protection system Cryogenic piping Diesel standby generators Substation Helium storage Instrumentation Total

9.9

2.3 8.6 1.3 5.8 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.5 30.0

92

Applied Superconductivity

unlikely, the cost superconductor.

is $920 million.

This estimate

does not take

into account

replacing

the

Now let us consider the high-tern erature superconductor. density values supplied by Daniels et al. 8 are only a few amps per SMES equivalent fields of 1.6-S T. Because SMES uses current-density of the critical current density, 70 x lo4 A/cm2 at 3 T and 1.8 K for that the HTSC can replace NbTi requires extreme speculation about current density.

At best, the currentsquare centimeter at values of 80-85% NbTi, the assumption its probable ultimate

In the most optimistic view, assuming that IBMs value of 100 x IO4 A/cm2 applies at 77 K and at 1.6-5 T, then for the same SMES plant cost for the superconductor, the HTSC could be allowed to cost close to 22C/g. Appendix A proposes 2.2C/g. If the 100 x lo4 A/cm2 value applies and the cost is 2.2C/g, then the HTSC cost becomes $5.8 million, for an additional saving of $44.5 million. This is not trivial, but it is based on a current density that may far exceed reality. The necessary current density for thz HTSC at a 2.2C/g cost to break compared with NbTi, is 11.5 x 10 A/cm . Even this value far exceeds experimental measurements for bulk material. even, as present

Rather than attempt to undertake an economic analysis as proposed in App. A, an approach has been chosen that gives a comparison on a common basis with other energy storage systems that were studied by Bechtel. This approach gives a relative comparison of units with the same function. What has been used as a tool is the comparative economic analysis by Bechtel National, Inc., reported in Ref. 1. Figures 7.1-7.3 were originally included in Ref. 1. For the 5,000-MWh unit curves, one should draw new curves that will be 3% lower for savings, not including replacement of the superconductor. If a current density of 100 x lo4 A/cm2 is assumed, then the new curves will be 8% lower. Such optimism is based upon current densities not indicated to be attainable in bulk material.

7.4 1.

REFERENCES Luongo, Storage prepared C.A., R.J. Loyd, and S.M. Schoenung, Superconducting Magnetic for Electric Utility Load Leveling: A Study of Cost vs. Stored by Bechtel National, Inc. (March 1987).
Energy

Energy,

2.

Loyd, R.J., T. Nakamura, and J.R. Purcell, Design Improvements Reductions for a 5000 MWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-10320-MS (Feb. 1985). Loyd, R.J., et al., Design Zmprovements and Cost Reductions Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Plant, Part 2, Los Laboratory Report LA-10668-MS (April 1986). Daniels, E.J., communication R.F. Giese, and A.M. Wolsky (Argonne (May 26, 1987). National

and Cost Plant, Los

3.

for a 5000 MWh Alamos National

4.

Laboratory),

personal

Superconducting

Magnetic

Energy Storage

93

Constant dollar fixed charge Fuel cost - gas anrl oil Cost of charging electricity

rate = IOSW = S4SlYMBTU = IOlkWh

SMES lines:

- - -

Construction Constrwtion

in rock in soil

Etattcries SMES 1,000 MWh

SMES f ,000 MWh

----

SMES 5,000

MWh

SYES 10,000 MWh SMES 5,000 MWh SMES 10,000 0.05 1.5 2.0 Capacity 0.1 3.0 Factor I 4.0 0.2 / 5.0 0.3 I 7.0 0.4 I 10.0 MWh

Hours/day of discharge operation (7 days/week, 52 wcckolyear)

FIGURE 7.1 Revenue Requirement Screening Curves for Various Energy Storage Technologies and Combustion Turbines - Based on Estimated Average Costs for Fuel and Charging Electricity over the Next 20 Years (Source: Ref. 1)

94

Applied Superconductivity

Cormtmt dollar fixed charge Fuel co6t - gar and oil Cat of ch6qing clcctrlcity

rate

= 10.5% = S6IMM0TU = 36lkWh

SYES lima:

-Construction - - - Construction

in rock in soil

------SSMES

1,000

MWh

SMES

1,000 MWh

SMES SMES SMES

10,000 5,000 10,000

MWh MWh MWh

Capacity 0.05 L
1.0

Factor
0.2

0.1

I
1.5 2.0

1
3.0

I
4.0

I /

0.3

0.4

,
10.0

5.0

7.0

HounVd6y of discharge operation (7 day6Aveek. 52 meks/y6ar)

FIGURE 7.2 Revenue Requirement Screening Curves for Various Enemy Storage Technologies and Combustion Turbines - Elased on Peoje&ed Costs for Fuel and Charging Electricity in the Year 2000 (Source: Ref. 1)

Superconducting

Magnetic

Energy Storage

95

SMES

anes:-

Construction in rock
Construction in soil

Batteries SMES 1,000 MWh

SMES

1,000 MWh

SYES SMES SMES SMES

5,000 MWh 10,000 MWh 5,000 MWh 10,000 MWh

Constant dollar flxed charge rate = 10.5% = Sl2lMMKrU Fuel cost - gas and oil = 6ClkWh Coat of charging electricity

Capacity 5.06 1.0 / 1.5 I 2.0 0.1 I 3.0

Factor 0.2 1 4.0 I 5.0 0.3 I 7.0 0.4 / 10.0

Hours/day of discharge opentlon (7 days/week, 52 weeks/year)

FIGURE

7.3 Revenue Requirement

Screening Curves for Various Based

Energy Storage Technologies and Combustion Turbines on Increased Costs for Fuel and Charging Electricity (Source: Ref. 1)

8 Motors

Summary
E.J. Daniels Argonne National Laboratory

Potential Application of HTSCs to Motors


B. W. McConnell Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Supplement: The Potential for High-Temperature Superconducting AC and DC Motors


T.A. Li, University of Wisconsin at Madison

96

Motors

97

Summary

The attractiveness of superconductors for motors is similar to their attractiveness for generators. Superconductors offer an increase in motor efficiency, which must be balanced against the capital cost premium for the superconducting motor (including its refrigeration system). However, as is pointed out in Sec. 8 and detailed in a supplement to that section, start-up produces large forces in motor windings, and these forces may preclude the use of brittle superconductors. In the review of six different types of motors provided in the supplement, Lipo concludes that a homopolar inductor motor in which the superconducting field winding is stationary (rather than rotating, as in other designs) may be the most suitable design for superconducting materials. Not only would the rotational forces acting on the windings be eliminated, but the practical feasibility of cooling a stationary winding would be greater than that for a rotating winding. As a first approximation, the cost of a liquid-nitrogen-cooled motor was analyzed relative to a conventional 1,500-hp motor. The capital cost of the high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) machine is based on the cost of superconducting generators, relative to conventional generators, reported by Westinghouse Electric Corp. As stated in the main text, the analysis probably overestimates the capital cost of the HTSC motor because it takes no credit for expected cost reductions in the refrigeration system when operating on liquid nitrogen (LN2) instead of liquid helium (LHe). The motor efficiency for the HTSC is based on the expected reduction in losses, as follows:
l

30% by elimination 5% by reduction 5% by reduction

of rotor in stator in stray

copper

losses, and

copper losses.

losses,

The power requirements diminish the efficiency

of LN2 refrigeration, of the HTSC motor.

which are expected

to be negligible,

do not

As the following analysis shows, the HTSC motor would have an expected savings of about 11% compared with the capitalized costs of a conventional motor, because of the increased efficiency of the HTSC motor and the consequent reduction of losses. No credit was taken in capital cost reduction for the HTSC motor due to LN2 refrigerant relative to LHe, although the referenced capital cost multiplier is based on LHe refrigeration. The potential cost savings would exceed 20% if the use of LN2 refrigerant reduces the system capital cost by 20%.

98

Applied Superconductivity

Potential Application of HTSCs to Motors

8.1

INTRODUCTION

The recent discoveries of materials that are superconducting at temperatures above the boiling point (77 K) of liquid nitrogen (LN2) may allow the development of power apparatus with significantly higher operating efficiencies and, hence, greatly reduced operating costs. These materials also have the advantages of remaining in the superconducting state at significantly higher magnetic fields than previously seen in Type I and II superconductors. At present, these high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) appear to be extremely brittle and have a low current density (nominally 100 A/cm ). However, reports of wires and ribbons fabricated from the materials offer hope that potential fabrication problems can be solved. Also encouraging is IBMs announced increase of the current density by a factor of 100. The use of LN2 as a coolant implies immediate economic advantages over the previously required liquid helium (LHe). LN2 is considerably less expensive because the basic raw material is free and the production process is considerably more efficient. In fact, the process is so inexpensive that the operation of HTSC apparatus at LN2 temperatures may well be considered for other technical reasons even if highertemperature superconductors are found. This section presents a first electric motors -- of the new HTSCs. assumptions: 1. Yd:tension of previous HTSC operating region These materials will working configurations Adequate bulk current evaluation of one technological application -This evaluation is based on the following general

designs using is possible, prove no more than Nb3Sn, carrying

LHe superconductors

to the

2.

difficult

to fabricate

into

3. 4.

capability

can be obtained,

and or can be

The AC properties made favorable.

of the

materials

will be favorable

In addition, the best technological estimates of realistic improvements in operating efficiencies consistent with other engineering constraints are applied where possible. No credit is taken for the higher heat capacities or the greater thermal These latter credits may well offer operating range present at LN2 temperatures. further improvement to the HTSC economic advantage and may provide for technical solutions to some perplexing problems seen in LHe designs. Also, no credit is taken for

Motors

99

the elimination of any iron and the subsequent reduction in losses that may be possible with these materials. Furthermore, the use of magnetically levitated bearings to reduce friction in rotating machines is not considered, since the energy savings are small relative to the uncertainty in the other efficiency estimates. However, the use of such bearings might enhance the operating reliability of large motors and generators -bearing failure is considered a major weakness in current designs. This technology is fit evaluated using a common set of base line economic assumptions (presented in App. A). The total life-cycle costs (TLCCs) are compared for conventional and HTSC applications, and a time to break-even is estimated. Potential problems and research areas for the technology are then summarized.

8.2 APPLICATIONS TO MOTORS During the 1970s and early 19809, a considerable amount of research and development was conducted on superconducting rotating machines, with a strong This research was performed in the emphasis on the large su erconducting generator. United States,- Japan, 85 Europe, and the USSR.7 These projects generally included the design and construction of small prototype units and the design and economic analysis of full-scale units up to 1,200 MVA. In recent years, the reduced demand for increased generating capacity has However, this technology base provides a firm curtailed these research activities. foundation for the development of large generators based on HTSC technology. Indeed the prototypes built during these programs were generally in the range of 5-20 MVA,a-li and this technology should be directly applicable to the construction of AC synchronous motors of 3,000-20,000 hp. Because these prototypes were built to solve technical problems and were not intended to create an optimal economic machine in the above size category, such machines cannot serve as a basis for economic evaluations of either In addition, while motors and generators have a common basis, motors or generators. several significant differences exist. For example, the starting performance of motors is of considerable importance and is complicated in the superconducting case by stability problems in the more common motor types. A more detailed analysis of such problems is given by T.A. Lipo in the supplement to this section. Any superconducting motor or generator would have several important reduction in losses of about SO%, size advantages over a conventional machine: reductions of about 20% in diameter and 60% in length, wei ht reduction of up to 60%, and improved transient response in the generating mode. 12-89 Furthermore, an HTSC machine would potentially benefit from even higher efficiency, reduced size and weight, and reduced capital costs because of the reduced refrigeration load. While generators may benefit from the increased magnetic field strengths that are potentially available in HTSCs, motors may not always benefit from higher fields. In general, preliminary designs indicate that iron or some equivalent magnetic material cannot be as effectively eliminated in motors as in generators; therefore, iron losses are not completely eliminated in this economic evaluation of superconducting motors.

100

Applied Superconductivity

A first-order estimate of the potential cost saving for a superconducting induction motor in the 1,500-hp range, compared with a conventional motor of similar size, can be made by (1) taking the cost of conventional induction motors in this size range ($33.5-49.2/kVA), (2) using the relative cost ratio (see Ref. 2) for the superconductor to conventional generating machines (1.40), (3) estimating the expected efficiencies, and (4) calculating the annual cost of losses of the two motors. The induction motor evaluated is actually an induction-synchronous hybrid; although such machines exhibit certain undesirable control problems, the economic evaluation is easiest for this machine. In addition, the induction motor is the most useful application, and the size chosen is the average for motors above 500 hp. Because capital costs, no reduced thermal induction motors of uncertainties in the ratio of HTSC capital costs to conventional credit is taken for the reduced cost of the LN2 refrigerator and the insulation levels. This should produce a higher estimate for the HTSC capital costs.

Operating costs are estimated from the relative efficiencies of the two motors. The efficiencies for the HTSC case are taken to include the operating costs of the LN2 refrigerator, which are relatively modest compared with the costs of the LHe refrigerator used in the generator design. Hence, the estimated cost of losses is also expected to be conservative. The operating efficiency for a conventional induction motor of about 1,500 hp is taken as 95%. The losses are usually broken into (1) stator copper losses, (2) rotor copper losses, (3) iron or hysteresis losses, (4) stray or unknown losses, and (5) friction and windage losses. The stator copper, rotor copper, and iron plus stray losses are roughly equal and total about 90% of the total motor losses; friction and windage account for the remaining 10%. Estimates indicate that the replacement of a typical 1,500-hp, squirrelcage induction motor by a superconducting machine that retains the same laminated iron stator structure would result in a reduction in losses of 40% (30% from elimination of rotor copper losses; 5% by reduction in stator power requirements, and thus stator copper losses; and 5% by an increase in air gap, and thus a reduction in stray losses). This motor starts as an ordinary induction motor, but it becomes a synchronous motor following transition to the superconducting state. Using this estimate of efficiencies, a TLCC estimate can be made. The results of this evaluation are given in Table 8.1. Figure 8.1 graphs the cumulative relative costs for the conventional and HTSC motor. From this graph, the time to break-even is about five years. In addition, the incremental capital costs are calculated to be $20.98/kVA for the HTSC motor. More importantly, these cost estimates are considered to be conservative, and the savings for the HTSC motor can be expected to be better than indicated. The 1,500-hp motor size represents the average size for motors above 500 hp. Realistically, the most likely candidates for application of HTSC technology are probably in the size range above 3,000 hp. The present economic evaluation should still hold on a dollars-per-kilovolt-amp basis, because the relative loss components are essentially constant and larger motor sizes have higher capacity factors.

Motors

101

TABLE 8.1 Costs of Conventional and HTSC 1,500-hp Motors

Cost Item

Conventional System

HTSC System 54.6 0.97 7.58 38.0 92.6 10.7

cost ($103) Efficiency Annual cost of Lossesa ($103) Present value of total 10sseSb

Capital

($103)

39.0 0.95 12.90 64.7 103.7

Total capitalized costs ($103) Percent savingsC

aAnnual cost based on energy at $O.O5/kWh and 50% duty cycle. bPresent value based on 15% discount rate, lo-yr lifetime, and 4% inflation. 'Compared with conventional case.

100

gol/l60ti 6 70: .; 600 2 50Convedional

HTSC

: I; 400 y E 0 3020-

::
0

10

Time (yt-j6
FIGURE 8.1 Relative Costs of Conventional and HTSC 1,500~hp Motors (costs are normalized to the cumulative costs of the conventional system in year 10)

102

Applied Superconductivity

As discussed by Lipo in the supplement, the rotating machine that operates as a motor presents several operating and design problems that are not relevant to the application of HTSCs to generator design. These problems are primarily concerned with the starting and control of the motor; however, mechanical stresses also present a significantly greater problem for motors.

8.3

CONCLUSIONS

The potential application of the new HTSCs to electric motors has been evaluated. This evaluation was predominantly an economic scoping study developed from previous work on similar devices using LHe-based technology. This technology shows a strong potential for significant cost reductions using HTSCs when evaluated on a lifecycle basis. Break-even occurs between three and six years, and the analysis is considered to be conservative (i.e., favorable to conventional technologies). These evaluations assume that the new HTSC materials can be made to perform at least as well as LHe superconducting materials in their magnetic, current density, and material properties. Specifically, the AC properties of the HTSC materials have not yet been determined but are expected to be similar to Type 11 superconductors. Even if this is the ease, AC power applications may not be so easily achievable. However, the knowledge gained in applying LHe materials to both AC and DC power devices should reduce the amount of time required to develop useful applications. Several key areas of research appear to have been uncovered by this evaluation. The obvious need of higher current densities and bulk current capability has been previously stated by many researchers. A better understanding of the HTSC physics and material properties is also needed. In particular, experimental and theoretical research on HTSC properties under time-varying magnetic fields must be conducted as soon as possible. If the HTSCs reported to function above 150 K are consistently reproducible, some severe thermal difficulties encountered in earlier designs for superconducting motors may be essentially solved by operating these HTSC materials at LN3 temperatures. Beyond the HTSC properties and fabrication difficulties, further research into superconducting motor designs such as homopolar AC inductor machines, synchronous motors, and induction-synchronous hybrids seems appropriate. Such research will define certain needed properties that may be producible by materials researchers. Furthermore, the control problems encountered in motors using HTSC materials need further research. For example, if methods using power electronics can be developed, the more desirable properties of the AC induction motor may be available for HTSC applications.

Motors

103

8.4

REFERENCES Massachusetts Institute of Technology (J.L. Smith Jr., principal investigator), Superconductors in Large Synchronous Machines, Electric Power Research Institute Report EPRI-TD-255 (Research Project 672-l) (Aug. 1976). Westinghouse Electric Corp. (J.H. Parker Jr. and R.A. Towne, investigators), Superconducting Generator Design, Electric Power Institute Report EPRI-EL-577 (Research Project 429-l) (Nov. 1977). principal Research

1.

2.

3.

General Electric Co. (J.J. Jefferies and P.A. Rios, principal investigators), Electric Power Research Institute Report Superconducting Generator Design, EPRI-EL-663 (Research Project 429-Z) (March 1978). Maki, N., T. Sanematsu, and H. Ogata (Hitachi, Ltd., Japan), Design and Component Development of (I SO-MVA Superconducting Generator, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS-99(1):185-193 (Jan./Feb. 1980). Kumagai, M., et al. (Toshiba Corp., Japan), Generator, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Lambrecht, D. Superconducting (Sept. 1981). Development of Superconducting /X-1(4):122-129 (Dec. 1986). of Development MAC-17(5):1551-1559 AC

4.

5.

6.

W. Germany), Status (Kraftwerk Union, AC Generators, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics,

of

7.

Glebov, I.A., and V.N. Shaktarin, Electrical Generators, IEEE Trans.

High Efficiency and Low Consumption Material on Magnetics, MAG-19(3):541-544 (May 1983).

8.

Chang, Y.W., et al., Development of a S-MVA Superconducting Generator - Testing and Evaluation, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS-93(2):496-499 (March/April 1974). Bzura, J.J., F. Abtahi, and L.J. Stratton, Technical Considerations and Ancillary MAG-17(1):880-883 (Jan. 1981). Superconducting Generators: Economics, Technology, IEEE Trans. on Magnetic%

9.

10.

Ashkin, M., et al., Stability Criteria for Superconducting Generators - Electrical System and Cryostability Considerations, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, P&+101(12):4578-4586 (Dec. 1982). Keim, T.A., et al., Design and Manufacture of a 20-MVA Superconducting Generator, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS-104(6):1475-1483 (June 1985). Mole, C.J., D.C. Litz, and R.A. Feranchak, Cryogenic Electrical Machines for Ship Propulsion, ASME Paper Winter Annual Meeting, New York (Nov. 1974). Aspects of Superconducting 74-WA/PID-9, presented at

11.

12.

104

Applied Superconductivity

13.

Appleton, A.D., J-8 Superconducting DC Machines - Concerning Mainly Civil Marine Propulsion but with Mention of Industrial Applications, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-11(2):633-639 (March 1975). Thullen, P., T.A. Keim, and J.V. Minervini, Multipole Superconducting Motors for Ship Propulsion, IEEE Trans. on Magnet&, MAG-11(2):653-656 1975). Electric (March

14.

15.

Appleton, A.D., et al., Superconducting DC Machines: A I-MW Propulsion System Studies for Commercial Ship Propulsion, IEEE Trans. on Magnet&, MAC-13(1):767769 (Jan. 1977). Brechna, H., and H. Kronig, Three-Phase Induction Motor with a Superconductive Cage Winding, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-15(1):715-718 (Jan. 1979). Appleton, A-D., T.C. Bartram, and B.J.C. Grand, Superconducting DC Motors Marine Propulsion, Marine Engineering Review, pp. 8-10 (June 1982). Marshall, R.A., 3000-Horsepower on Magnetics, MAC-19(3):876-879 Superconductive (May 1983). Field Acyclic for

16.

17.

18.

Motor, IEEE Trans.

19.

Appleton, A-D., Design and Manufacture of a Large Superconducting Homopolar Motor (and Status of Superconducting AC Generator), IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-19(3):1047-1050 (May 1983).

Motors

105

Supplement: The Potential for High-Temperature Superconducting AC and DC Motors

INTRODUCTION The prospect of using superconductors (SCs) to power electrical machines has been a tantalizing but elusive goal ever since its discovery by Onnes in 1911. However, recent developments that have raised the critical temperature above that of liquid nitrogen (77 K) have removed the major obstacle to practical application of SCs to rotating machinery, namely the liquid helium refrigerant system. This supplement to Sec. 8 addresses the potential for using high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) in rotating (as opposed to linear) electrical motors and discusses several approaches to their implementation. Although superconductivity at liquid nitrogen temperature is assumed, the implications of room-temperature SCs are not considered in this supplement.

MOTIVATION

FOR DEVRLCPMENT

OF HTSC ELECTRIC

MCTCRS

It is well known that electrical machinery constitutes the greatest portion of the electrical load in this country. In particular, of the total U.S. electrical consumption of 1,683 x 10 kWh, motors consume 1,081 x 10 kWh, or 64% of the total. In the industrial sector alone, motors account for 76% of consumption.2 While the efficiency of electrical machinery has been rising, the efficiency of squirrel-cage induction motors ranges roughly from 78 to 92% for machines rated between 1 and 100 hp, suggesting that substantial energy savings remain to be achieved. The challenges of using the newly discovered HTSCs in motors rather than generators are, however, complicated by the relatively small size of motors when compared to turbogenerators, which number only in the thousands. There are estimated to be over 50 million motors in use in the industrial and commercial (I&C) sector of the United States, of which 1 million have a size greater than 5 hp.3s4 There are also estimated to be over 7,500 classifications of induction motors in the size range between driver in the end-use market, the first 5 and 500 hp.4 Since cost is such an important motor application of superconductivity will almost certainly come from the family of motors rated above 500 hp, which are normally classified as the form-wound family of machines (as opposed to the random-wound family, which predominates below 500 hp). In support of this observation, the present status of the permanent magnet (PM) motor can be recalled. The PM motor is a close cousin of the superconducting motor since it shares the major attributes of an HTSC machine, namely zero input excitation However, the high cost of permanent magnets have kept PM machines out of the power. low-horsepower motor market, and the same market forces will probably limit HTSC

106

Applied Superconductivity

machines until the machine is large enough to attain an economy of scale for the cooling system. Motors rated above 500 hp are dominated by three types: squirrel-cage induction (27,000 machines installed in the I&C sector), synchronous (roughly 10,000 machines),5 and a relatively small number of DC motors (6,000) used for variable-speed applications.6 The average rating of these machines is 1,500 hp, with an average efficiency of about 95%. While the number of AC machines above 500 hp is small, these machines account for a large portion of the energy consumed by all electrical motors. For example, in 1977 the total energy consumption of AC motors in industry and commerce was estimated to be 540 x 10 kWh. Of this total, 61 x 10 kWh, or 3.6% of all electrical energy produced in the United States, was consumed by machines above 500 hp (7.4% by machines rated above 125 hp).7 As discussed in Sec. 8.2, induction machine losses (stator and rotor copper, iron, stray, and friction and windage) can be reduced by 40% with the application of SC technology. Assuming an energy cost of $O.O5/kWh, the reduced losses would result in savings of about $10,000 for a 1,500-hp motor. If, for simplicity, it is assumed that the same improvement can be obtained in all machines above 500 hp with 95% efficiency, including synchronous and DC, the energy that could be saved by using HTSC machines is 1.22 x 10 kWh, or a dollar savings of It is important to note that these calculations do not include $61,000,000 per year. electrical machines in the electric utilities, government laboratories, or municipal water works, where the use of high-horsepower machines is very substantial. Hence, the savings could probably be safely inflated by at least 50%. Other advantages in addition to energy savings are possible. In particular, the absence of laminated iron in the rotor would make the overall machine lighter in weight. And, since losses are substantially reduced, the power density could be increased accordingly, making for a more compact machine. However, while these considerations are important for special applications, such as land transportation or marine power, they would be of lesser importance to the general industrial market.

APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS FOR HTSC MACHINES While electric motor operation is not, in principle, substantially different than electric generation, numerous application considerations make motor construction Of particular concern is motor starting performance. In contrast to a difficult. generator, which is brought to synchronous speed by the prime mover, a motor must generally be started with AC power. A reduced-voltage start is usually used to bring the motor up to speed over an interval of several seconds. Often the motor must accelerate a connected load, which greatly increases the acceleration period. Large forces are experienced by the windings in the machine, and heat builds up rapidly due to the high inrush of current. Since the HTSCs have been categorized as brittle, the forces induced by repeated starts could break the coils. In addition, the high starting currents

Motors

107

could cause substantial material from entering

AC losses in the superconductors, which the superconducting mode when desired.

could

prevent

the

The characteristics of the load also greatly affect the feasibility of using an HTSC machine, again due to the brittle nature of the ceramic material. For example, servo-type applications (steel mill drives, dynamometers, and machine tools) place severe stresses on the windings of machines used for such purposes, and the rotor windings normally must be strongly braced. It is uncertain whether the HTSC rotors required for Also, in these and other applications, the load an AC machine could endure the stresses. torque connected to the motor shaft varies rapidly in almost stepwise fashion. These sudden load changes would cause rapid speed changes, which would, in turn, induce rapid changes of current in the SC field coil. Such sudden changes could bring the coil continuously out of superconductivity, causing extra losses and a severe heat-transfer problem.

HTSC DC MOTORS Probably the most researched SC machine is the DC homopolar machine. The machine employs a rotating disk inside an SC coil (Faraday disk). The disk cuts the flux created by the coils, and the resulting DC voltage induced between the inside and outside Since the machine has, effectively, one turn, edges of the disk is picked up by brushes. The situation can be improved by using a the voltage induced is inherently low. segmented rotor, but the number of brushes increases in proportion to the number of segments.8 While construction of the SC portion of the DC homopolar machine is relatively straightforward, the design of the armature is more difficult (particularly with regard to the brush pickup problem, which requires many brushes supporting a high current density). Sodium-potassium and mercury liquid metals have been used in some prototypes, but without complete success (due to contamination problems). One of the important advantages of an SC homopolar motor is the fact that the machine can be scaled up to very large sizes and high speeds (up to 200 MW at 2,000 rpm) while the conventional DC machine is limited to much smaller values (10 MW at 150 rpm).* Such applications, however, are very specialized (such as ship drives). In general, most conventional DC machines are employed in variable-speed applications, such as in steel mills, where the speed of response is often an important criterion. Since the Faraday disk develops voltage by either rotating the disk at a high speed or, conversely, making the disk have as large a radius as possible, the geometrical shape of this machine is somewhat at odds with the normal requirements (which tend to favor a Nonetheless, the inertia is lower than in a machine with a relatively small diameter). normal commutator-type DC machine (due to the absence of an iron core), and it has low These characteristics are ideal for armature inductance and zero armature reaction. high-performance, mill-type applications. While the opportunities for replacing large, conventional DC machines appear to the future for DC machines in general is not as promising, due to the nagging As a result, variable-speed AC motor drives using of brush maintenance.

be bright, problems

108

Applied Superconductivity

solid-state power converters to change the frequency of the AC supply from a fixed 60-Hz value to a variable frequency have made continuous inroads on the DC motor market for the past 20 yr. This trend is expected to continue until DC motor drives Since the problems of brush constitute a very small, special-purpose market. maintenance are only aggravated with homopolar machines, the long-term opportunities for homopolar machines for anything other than special purposes is not promising.

RTSC SYNCHRONOUS

MOTORS

Because AC machines form the greater part of the market for motors above 500 hp and AC motor drives are largely replacing DC motor drives, the application Probably the most opportunities for HTSC AC machines appear more widespread. apparent application of HTSC is in the synchronous motor, where a rotating SC coil is used to replace the usual excitation from a wound-coil field. As mentioned previously, an important difference between motors and generators is that motors must develop adequate torque to self-start themselves as well as their connected load. Hence, operation directly from an AC supply will require a squirrel cage for starting, since a shorted field winding is incapable of supplying adequate starting The field coil would then be excited upon synchronization in much the same torque. manner as for conventional synchronous machines. Starting could possibly be accomplished by means of a room-temperature copper shell wrapped around tt; superconducting cylinder in much the same manner as in SC synchronous generators. The shell would also serve to shield the magnet from forces due to AC flux variations during starting. Forces would also be exerted on the shell during starting, making the design of this motor structure more demanding. It appears, however, that an iron core rotor would probably still be necessary to create the large forces necessary for adequate starting torque, severely restricting the maximum excitation achievable with the SC field coil and making the overall approach less attractive than for HTSC synchronous generators. Thus, it appears that more conventional stator and rotor structures having conductors embedded in slotted iron cylinders may be the preferred approach for motors, at least when the machine is started off the line. The problems associated with starting the machine could be eliminated if the machine were brought up to speed with a solid-state frequency changer, as shown in Fig. 8.2. In this case, the SC field could be energized with the rotor stationary. With the field then shorted, the field current would remain constant (assuming a constant load), and slip rings or other exciter types could be eliminated completely. Since the rotor always remains in synchronism with the rotating stator field, the starting cage could also be eliminated or substantially reduced, since the shield may still be needed to short circuit the harmonic currents flowing in the stator due to the power converter. Finally, since the starting torque is obtained by synchronous rather than induction motor action, the slotted iron structure could be dispensed with and the excitation of the SC field increased to levels comparable with the SC generator. If a power converter is engaged for the starting process, the same power converter could also be used in a continuously variable speed mode to optimize the

Motors

109

3-Phase AC Supply

FIGURE 8.2 Solid-State Frequency Synchronous Machine fmm Rest

Changer

for Accelerating

an HTSC

process (for example, a compressor). However, if continuously variable speed is not required, then upon reaching synchronous speed the machine could be transferred to the line and the converter bypassed. If the rotor cage were not used, system damping could then become a problem. The problem may, however, be eliminated by providing damping from the stator side. One possible method of providing active damping is by inserting back-to-back thyristors in series with one, two, or all three of the stator lines, as shown in Fig. 8.3. The system could be damped by measuring the fluctuations in stator input power or input kVA due to rotor oscillations and controlling the thyristors to reduce these fluctuations. Because power need not be fed to the field coil continuously, elimination of the slip rings and rotating exciters would be an important advantage of an HTSC synchronous machine. However, since the field remains short-circuited, it cannot be adjusted with load, and hence, the power factor cannot be controlled. When the field becomes superconducting and is short-circuited, flux is trapped in the coil and, by the law of constant flux linkages, cannot change thereafter. In effect, when the load changes, field current is induced in the SC coil so as io exactly cancel any change in stator flux linking The machine behaves continuously, even in the the field coil due to the load change. steady state, according to the constant voltage behind transient reactance model.1 The problem of induced field current affecting the power factor is probably not of concern with an HTSC synchronous machine operating from a converter supply. In this case, the machine could be continuously controlled with the frequency converter such that only the component of stator magneto motive force (MMF) orthogonal to the field axis (q-axis) was allowed to change, while the stator MMF in the field axis (d-axis) remained constant. Since control of the power factor is often an important application issue when the machine operates off the grid, it would be useful to develop a means for adjusting the excitation of a machine without recourse to a separate rotating exciter. In the approach shown in Fig. 8.4, phase-back of the same thyristors used for damping in Fig. 8.3 is used to create a small negative-sequence current component, which rotates backward in the air gap of the machine, resulting in a 120-Hz field component as seen from the rotor. Rather than being short-circuited, the SC field coil is connected to a simple diode

110

Applied Superconductivity

AP 3 -Phase AC
SUPPlY

A
Optional
Stator Optional

HTSC Synchronous
Machine
the Speed Osciitions without a Rotor Shell

FIGURE 8.3 Method for Stabilizing of an ETSC Synchronous Generator for Damping

Superconducting Coil: N, Turns, N2 >> N,


Room Temperature

3-Phase AC Supply

Rotor Motor

HTSC Synchronous

FIGURE 8.4 Method for Inducing Excitation Coil without a Rotating Exciter

in an SC Field

The bridge is excited by a smaller coil operating at room temperature. The bridge. rectified induced voltage, in turn, is used to adjust (increase) the field current. Because the presence of the diode and extra coil introduces losses, the field current would decay slowly by free-wheeling through the diodes if the winding is not pulsed repeatedly. However, the losses incurred can be made very small, because the conductor of the additional coil can be made with a few turns of large cross section while the conductor of the SC coil has a much larger number of turns. It is important to note that this method can be used only to increase the field current, since the process of decreasing the current relies solely on the diode conduction drops. Fortunately, in many cases, relatively slow changes in excitation are all that is

Motors

111

While the problem of rapidly reducing the field current could be completely desired. solved with light-triggered devices, this case is, perhaps, awaiting a more practical Also, the process of inducing a current in the field winding implies good solution. coupling between the armature and the field winding, which in turn implies a Hence, the very high field strengths conventional laminated iron stator and rotor. At present, the obtained by the SC synchronous generator cannot be approached. rotating exciter approach (which has its own loss problems) appears to be the most practical method for exciting a machine in which continual adjustment of excitation is required.

RTSC INDUCTION

MOTORS

While superconducting DC and AC synchronous machines have been fairly well researched, other machines also hold promise for the future. Chief among these is the HTSC induction motor.12s13 Because the rotor resistance of an induction motor must be nonxero to develop torque, this concept appears to be a contradiction in terms. The principle of operation, however, is only to start the machine by induction motor torque. When the motor reaches the vicinity of synchronous speed, the current induced in the rotor drops rapidly. As the current drops, the rotor conductors cool rapidly to the point where they become superconducting. The rotor flux at this instant is trapped, and the machine becomes an HTSC synchronous machine. Hence, the starting torque function and the excitation function are combined in the same winding. In contrast to superconducting synchronous machines, which (due to their high field strength) do not require iron in the rotor or even the stator, the iron path of an SC induction motor will still be needed if starting is off the AC mains. Again, starting from a converter supply could alleviate the problem of high inrush currents and perhaps permit an ironless rotor construction. However, the machine then need never operate as an induction motor, and the desirability of this machine structure for such an application is questionable. When the HTSC induction machine reaches the superconducting state and the rotor resistance drops to zero, stability again becomes a problem. As an example of the difficulty expected to be encountered, Figs. 8.5 and 8.6 show the acceleration of a lOOhp induction motor off the AC mains; in Fig. 8.5, the rotor resistance remains constant, while in Fig. 8.6, the rotor resistance drops to zero at 0.98 per unit speed. Continuous strong oscillations in the speed of the superconducting machine can be observed. Again, these oscillations could possibly be damped with thyristors in series with the AC line, as shown in Fig. 8.3. Chief among the problems associated with this machine is the requirement to achieve the superconducting state at precisely the right moment during run-up. If this state is achieved too early, high pulsating torques will appear due to the machine slipping poles; if achieved too late, very little current will be retained in the SC rotor winding, and the machine may still require excitation power from the stator side as it continues to operate under load. Vagaries such as the degree of loading during the start, the linevoltage amplitude during the start, and even ambient temperature will affect the amount of heat generated in the rotor bars during a given start and thereby indirectly affect the instant of superconductivity. The prospect for success with this machine seems very problematical.

112

Applied Superconductivity

1 0.8 Z d s z P 2 .$ z 0" E e % W -0.6 -0.8 -1 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 -0.2 -0.4 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

1.6

1.2 "0 c P i? 0.8 v, b b oz 0.4

Time

(s)

FIGURE 8.5 Acceleration from Rest of a 100~bpConventional Motor

Electromagnetic

0.4

0.8

1.2

1.6

Time

(s)

FIGURE 6.6 Acceleration from Rest of a lOO-hp HTSC Induction Motor

Motors

113

HTSC INDUCTION/SYNCHRONOUS

HYBRID

Another type of machine that has been proposed is a true induction/ synchronous machine hybrid in which the synchronous rotor is located coaxially within the induction machine, as shown in Fig. 8.7. The induction rotor is connected to the external load, while the synchronous rotor rotates freely. The induction rotor becomes, in effect, a shell within which the synchronous rotor rotates. Each rotor rotates independently, so that the induction machine rotor slips with respect to the synchronous Construction problems associated with machine rotor, which rotates synchronously. supporting the rotating induction motor shell are immediately apparent. Also, it should be noted that since the slip losses are still required if the machine is to drive the load, the rotating field excitation of this type of machine only serves to correct the power factor. While the stator current is reduced somewhat (from about 0.9 to 1.0 pF), the energy saved does not appear to be substantial.

HTSC RELUCTANCE

MOTOR

The HTSC reluctance motor is related to the HTSC synchronous motor in much the same manner as their room-temperature counterparts are related. In this case, the SC coil is not energized from an external source, and torque production is obtained by an The principle can be explained by equivalent saliency effect due to the SC coil. referring to Fig. 8.8. Note that the so-called q-axis is encircled with an SC coil. Assuming that the machine is operating at synchronous speed and no load, the flux produced by the stator is located in the direct axis or maximum permeance axis. When the machine is loaded, the rotor is retarded and moves towards the q-axis. As it does so, current is induced in the SC coil such that the total flux linking the coil remains zero (the value of flux linkage at the instant of achieving superconductivity). Since no stator flux appears to link the rotor q-axis circuit, the machine appears to have a very small permeance or inductance in the q-axis. The current in the SC coil (q-axis) now reacts with the stator flux component remaining in the d-axis to produce torque. Conversely, it

k
h

Stator (Stationary)

Induction Squirrel Cage (Rotates at slip speed with respect to SC field winding)

(Rotates at synchmnous sp FIGURE Rotors 8.7 Concantenated Inductionend SynchronousMachine

114

Applied Superconductivity

Qma,

-q-aX,s

t
d-am

SCRotor Coils Oppose Change


in Total Air Gap Flux

PIGURE 8.8 Operating Principle Reluctance Motor

of a Superconducting

can be said that the d- and q-axis due to the difference in saliency theory).

components of stator current react between the two axes (conventional

to produce reluctance

torque motor

The HTSC reluctance motor is an interesting concept, since external excitation of the rotor windings is unnecessary. Unfortunately, the current induced in the rotor windings is necessarily demagnetizing, thereby ensuring lagging power-factor operation. Good coupling is needed to induce a reasonable amount of SC coil current, so conventional stator and rotor iron structures are mandated. The motor cannot be started without an extra cage or without the help of a variable frequency converter. Finally, the instability problem, already discussed for the HTSC synchronous and induction machines, is also present here. The problem must again be resolved by operating continuously from a frequency converter or inserting inverse/parallel thyristors in series with the AC line (Fig. 8.3). These problems seem to indicate that this machine, while conceptually interesting, is perhaps better suited to lower-power applications (l-25 hp). Further development should probably await the appearance of room-temperature SCs.

HTSC HOMOPOLAR

INDUCTOR

MOTORS

Inductor-type machines are another class of AC machines that have, over the years, been proposed as a possible replacement for conventional synchronous machines, particularly generators.15 The basic principle of an inductor-type machine is to create a pulsating unidirectional field in the rotor. The AC component of this field couples with the AC armature winding field to produce torque. Both radial and axial air gap machines of this construction have been investigated, but apparently not with an SC field coil in mind. Figure 8.9 shows an idealized representation of one possible geometry for an axial air gap machine. The machine is excited by a circular SC field coil inserted between protruding poles staggered on alternate sides of the coil. Pairs of protruding poles face each other across the air gap. The poles are fastened to the rotor and rotate while the

Motors

115

NoRh Poles (Rotatmg) Typical Armature Winding South Poles (Rolalmg)

Superconducting Field Winding (Stationary)

FIGURE

8.9

Axial Al

Gap HTSC Inductor

Motor

SC field coil remains stationary. Also located in the air gap are AC armature windings, which couple with the alternating component of the air gap flux produced by the field. This alternating flux induces currents in the armature windings that react with the field flux to produce torque. The armature windings are also stationary, so that the only member that rotates is the member containing the protruding iron poles. As an alternative, the armature coils could be placed in slots or fastened on the surface of a stationary iron member such that only one set of protruding poles rotate to form the rotor of the machine. In this case, the saliency of the protruding poles is somewhat reduced, but assembly is probably simplified. An obvious important advantage of this scheme over all other HTSC AC machine arrangements is the fact that the field coil remains stationary. Thus, SC coil-cooling problems are simplified enormously. While the machine is not inherently self-starting, starting could be readily accomplished by building a squirrel cage in the protruding poles. Assembly would be simplified and iron losses reduced, since the rotor poles could Since the coils need not be placed in slots, be constructed in tape-wound fashion. assembly of the armature could be simplified as well. It is important to note that the principles of constructing a superconducting reluctance machine could also be used to synthesize the protruding poles by rotating SC coils, which would, in effect, produce saliencies without the presence of any iron For example, the SC coils could be inserted between the protruding poles of member. the rotor to greatly improve the saliency of the structure, and thereby its energyAlso, the protruding iron poles could be dispensed with completely conversion ability. and the SC coil principle used to create an effective rotor saliency similar to that of the Similar principles could also be used to construct a more HTSC reluctance motor. Given the substantial problems facing the design of conventional radial air gap machine. HTSC synchronous, induction, or reluctance machines, the HTSC inductor machine has many useful features that warrant further investigation.

116

Applied Superconductivity

CONCLUSIONS This supplement has summarized the status and future prospects of HTSCs as It has focused on the features of motor operation that applied to motor technology. make the design problems substantially different than those for generators. Problems of developing adequate starting torque, inducing an adjustable field current, and overcoming speed instability have been identified and discussed. It has been suggested that the problems associated with HTSC induction machines will probably preclude their use, while the hybrid, concatenated synchronous/induction machine apparently will not provide sufficient benefits to pursue its development. Although the HTSC reluctance motor may be viable, its inherent low power factor will limit its field of application to smaller machines (where poor power factor is of less concern). The HTSC synchronous motor is more promising. However, the machine may be limited to operating with an auxiliary inverter for starting purposes, unless the problems of designing a machine with adequate starting torque can be worked out. Of all the machines considered, the homopolar DC machine appears to be the most suitable for motor applications and is also Unfortunately, the need for DC motors is at a relatively advanced state of development. small and diminishing. Finally, the potential of the HTSC homopolar inductor AC machine has been presented and discussed. It is suggested that the unique features of this AC machine make it a candidate for a more detailed investigation.

REFERENCES FOR SUPPLEMENT 1. A.D. Little, Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.), Energy Efficiency prepared for U.S. Energy Research and Development Contract CO-04-50217-00, p. 27 (May 1976). A.D. Little, Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.), Energy Efficiency prepared for U.S. Energy Research and Development Contract CO-04-50217-00, p. 26 (May 1976). A.D. Little, Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.), Energy Efficiency prepared for U.S. Energy Research and Development Contract CO-04-50217-00, p. 1 (May 1976). Classification and Evaluation of Electric Motors and Pumps, Report DOE/TIC-11339, pp. 3-15 (Feb. 1980). A.D. Little, Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.), Energy Efficiency prepared for U.S. Energy Research and Development Contract CO-04-50217-00, p. 29 (May 1976). A.D. Little, Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.), Energy Efficiency prepared for U.S. Energy Research and Development Contract CO-04-50217-00, p. 28 (May 1976). and Electric Motors, Administration under

2.

and Electric Motors, Administration under

3.

and Electric Motors, Administration under

4.

U.S. Dept. of Energy

5.

and Electric Motors, Administration under

6.

and Electric Motors, Administration under

Motors

117

7.

A.D. Little, Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.), Energy Efficiency prepared for U.S. Energy Research and Development Contract CO-04-50217-00, p. 36 (May 1976). A-D., Motors, Generators and Flux Pumps, Bulletin Annex 1969-1, pp. 207-230 (1969).

and Electric Administration

Motors, under

a. Appleton,
London,
9.

I.I.R.,

Commission

1,

Stevens, H.O., and M.J. Cannell, Acyclic Superconductive Generator 400 Horsepower Generator Design, David W. Taylor Naval Ship Development Center Report PAS-al/14 (Oct. 1961). Mole, C.M., H.E. Hall, and Proc. Applied Superconductivity D.C. Litz, Superconductor Synchronous Conf., pp. 151-157 (1972). Theory of Alternating

Development, Research and

10.

Generators,

11.

Adkins, B., and R.G. Harley, The General Chapman and Hall, London (1975).

Current

Machines,

12.

Levi, E., and M. Panzer, Electromechanical Hill Publishing Co., New York, p. 431 (1966). Brechna, H., and H. Kronig, Three-Phase Cage Winding, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics,

Power Conversion,

2nd Ed., McGraw-

13.

Induction Motor with a Superconductive MAC-15(1):715-718 (Jan. 1979).

14.

Bonwick, W.J., and A.L.D. Ah Fock, internally Energized Induction Machines, Proc. International Conf. on Evolution and Modern Aspects of Induction Machines, Torino, Italy, pp. 418-423 (July a-11, 1986). Bateman, Systems, J.T., Trans. A Solid Rotor AC Generator for High Temperature Electrical of the AIEE (Applications and Industry), pp. 400-405 (Jan. 1960).

15.

9 Industrial Separations and Material Handling


Summary
E.J. Daniels Argonne National Laboratory

9.1 Industrial Applications for HTSCs


E.J. Daniels Argonne National Laboratory

9.2 Potential Application of HTSCs to Magnetic Separations B.W. McConnell


Oak Ridge National Laboratory

9.3 Potential for Magnetic Separation of Gases from Gases


S.A. Zwick, J. B.L. Harkness, D.M. Rote, and A.M. Wolsky Argonne National Laboratory

Supplement: Estimates for High-Gradient Magnetic Separation of Oxygen from Air S.A. Zwick
Argonne National Laboratory

118

Industrial

Separations

and Material

Handling

119

Summary

Sections 9.1 and 9.2 deal primarily with the application of superconductivity to highgradient magnetic separation (HGMS), a technique that has been applied for many years to the separation of solid particles (e.g., dust, pyritic impurities in ground coal, and tiny steel filings in blast-furnace effluent) from gaseous or liquid streams. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic particles stick to the magnets and can be removed bodily from a stream. A related process, open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS), may be applicable to paramagnetic gas (e.g., O2 and NO) separation (see Sec. 9.3). Other examples of HGMS applications for separating magnetic impurities from process flows include removal of ferrous contaminants in the food processing, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals industries; desulfurization of coal; and boiler feedwater treatment. Most recently, Eriez Magnetics developed a 4-K HGMS device that has been installed for kaolin processing at the J.M. Huber Corp. To date, this is the only known U.S. industrial application of superconductivity. The efficiency of HGMS systems would be increased further by the introduction of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs). These systems permit much more intense fields than iron-based magnetic systems but do not entail the Joule heating losses. In Sec. 9.1, a preliminary economic comparison of conventional and 77-K superconducting HGMS systems indicates the following: 1. HGMS with 4-K

The annual operating costs (including capital) for a 4-K superconducting HGMS are about 8% lower than those for a conventional HGMS. Operating costs for power consumption are reduced by 80%. The annual operating costs (including capital) for a 77-K superconducting HGMS are 15% lower than those for a 4-K HGMS and 20% lower than those for a conventional HGMS. The power operating costs for 77-K HGMS are about 7% of the 4-K HGMS costs and about 98% of the conventional HGMS costs.

2.

In Sec. 9.2, a preliminary estimate by B.W. McConnell of the operating cost savings (excluding capital costs) shows a savings of 97% for a 77-K superconducting HGMS system compared with a conventional HGMS system. In addition, McConnell points out that a main advantage of superconducting HGMS is the ability to separate small-diameter and weakly magnetic particles that cannot be separated by conventional magnets. Inasmuch adaptation as HTSCs inherently offer a savings in operating costs, it is clear of existing methods would be economical, as the discussion that a makes

direct

120

Applied Superconductivity

clear. There might also be unexpected advantages in using unconventional designs. Thus, the cost analysis presented assumes that the liquid nitrogen (LN3) coolant in an HTSC HGMS plant would be discarded (as liquid helium currently is, due to handling problems). But LN9 can be piped, stored, and recycled, which should provide additional savings and In addition, it might be possible to apply convenience, as well as economies of scale. unusual magnet designs to the new systems. Section superconducting considered. 9.3 presents a technical discussion OGMS for gas/gas separations, an area of the feasibility of that has not previously using been

Industrial Separations and Material Handling

121

9.1 Industrial Applications for HTSCs

9.1.1

Introduction

Superconductors, and especially high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs), have a wide range of potential applications in U.S. industry. The applications discussed in this section fall into two broad categories: materials separation and other applications.

9.1.2

Materials

Separation

Over the past 15 yr, U.S. industry has adopted high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) for a variety of industrial processing applications. The first industrial application of HGMS is credited to the J.M. Huber Corp. in 1969 for processing of clays.1 Since then, HGMS systems have been commercially offered and installed in industrial applications ranging from minerals processing to removal of paramagnetic contaminants in the food processing and pharmaceuticals industries. Table 9.1 lists some applications for high-gradient magnetic separators. In general, high-gradient magnetic separators offer the potential for higher product purity and reduced operating and maintenance costs relative to alternative chemical, physical, The field strength of most or gravity separation processes. commercially available HGMS systems for industrial applications is about 2 T. Higher field strengths would be expected to lead to higher separation efficiencies and/or higher flow velocities. Typically, however, the incremental increase in separation effectiveness tends to diminish as field intensity increases, whereas the incremental cost of the system increases as field strength increases. The trade-off is compounded by the fact that separation effectiveness decreases at an increasing rate as flow velocity increases. In any given application, there is a trade-off among field strength, capital cost, separation effectiveness, and flow velocity. Commercially available equipment operates ,:iquid streams (both aqueous and nonaqueous), solid dry materials, solid wet materials, and gaseous streams containing entrained paramagnetic particulate matter.6 For example, a 2-T, dry solids HGMS system offered by Carpco (Fig. 9.1), is applicable for a range of applications that includes separation of natural diamonds from garnets, purification of stainless steel powder, removal of paramagnetic impurities from minerals, etc. The field strength of the Carpco machine can be adjusted to a maximum of 2 T by an autotransformer for the magnet-coil input voltage, depending on the magnetic susceptibility of the particles being processed. This allows the user to control flow rates and separation effectiveness as required in the specific application. Most recently, Eriez Magnetics installed separator in an industrial application. the first superconducting The 2-T system is being high-gradient installed at the

magnetic

122

Applied Superconductivity

TABLE 9.1 Industrial Applications of HighGradient

Magnetic

Separators

Industry

or

Process
Separation Removal of bauxite, limestone, Removal of

Specific

Application

Minerals

processing

of diamonds from garnets weakly magnetic materials calcite, clay, feldspar, manganese, zircon, etc. ferrous contaminants

from glass,

alumina, sands,

Food, chemicals, pharmaceuticals processing Pipelines Environmental protection

and

Removal

of

ferrous

contaminants

from

liquid

flows

Desulfurization of coala Removal of particulate matter Treatment of boiler condensate Recovery Recovery Recovery of of of

from flue gases and process water solid waste chips shredders

Recyclingb

aluminum from municipal titanium and superalloy ferrous metals from car

aAlso

demonstrated

with

OGMS. with OGMS.

bTheoretically

possible

J.M. Huber clay processing plant at Athens, Ga. (the same facility credited with the first commercial application of conventional HGMS). The operating characteristics of this system are presented in Fig. 9.2.

A summary comparison of the principal characteristics of a conventional Z-T the Eriez 2-T superconducting separator, and a separator for clay processing, hypothetical 77-K separator is presented in Table 9.2. According to the Eriez product literature,3 a conventional water-cooled system would have a total power requirement of 300 kW. In comparison, the power requirements necessary to maintain the field strength in the superconducting system are negligible. However, in the 4-K system a helium reliquefier is incorporated to eliminate requirements for liquid helium (LHe) makeup. Thus, the 4-K system is a closed system, for which the parasitic power requirements are 60 kW. The total cost of the 4-K system is about $1.7-1.8 million, of which 12-16% is for the refrigeration system. The cost of the 2-T system for the J.M. Huber clay processing plant is $2 million. However, this design includes reliquefaction capacity for two separators. The Fast of the refrigeration/reliquefaction system is estimated at 25-33% of the total cost. Thus, if the refrigeration/reliquefaction system were sized for a single separator,

Industrial Separations and Material Handling

123

ture requires P megnebc lace which is muchgreeterthen can be producedby uxw&onal permanent magn&. This magnetic force~stheprcdwtoffiekl imeneityacd therateofchangeofthis field OVB~ distance (magnetic gradient). The saparab& of dry materials on acaminuous basis is acmmpllshed the Carpco by Meter Magnetwdh a combnation of magneticforce and correct feed prBSBmBtt0n. Sulteble magnetic force IS achi by placing a roll made of alternatemagneec end nonmagneticzones (Fig. 1,Section AA) betweenspewally shaped poles (Fig. 1) of a pm.wful electrc. magnet. The efectmmagtwt ix&es magne4tc fields about the magneticlaminations of each mll formmg local regions of hgh magneticintensfty and sharp gradients as sh-wn by hypothetical lines of magneticforce (Fig. 1. Section A-A). Correct feed presentataon achievedby corneying the matenal IS to be separated from the surge hopper into the separetion .?one (Fag. 2) by means of a velocity feed system. This poeWe feed system itxorpaates a &xly feeder unique ,n that it ecceferetes and presentsthe matenel omothemwrq roil without bounceand Into the separation zone at the optimum vefoaty for efficlem sefxreoon. In the eeperat~on zone (Fig. 1). weakly magnebzable matenalIS attractedto the roll by magneticforce. The attrected pan~clesan,carnedbythesurfaceofthemllwtofthestreamof metenaland~ntOareglondlowintensltywhen,theyeltherfallotf or am brushed from the roll. Nonmagnebc particles unaffected by the megneoc field wll follcw a natural profectilepath awayfrom the roll and separabon zone. Middling grens report to an memwdmte location tf a middling pmduct IS dewed.

Principleof Opemtion .%pamtm magrmtimM3from a granular mixdwakly materials

Figure1

hatment Options ORWAL

Design Features

High capacity IS made possible by the use of Carpcos patented holkwmll cowtrcbo. The hol!o.v.rolldesign overcomes the engmeenng Iimitatnns [mailmum rc4 length 0.75 m (ZO)] of conwnt~onalsolidcore roll designs. and rolls of onemeterfengmares~.Anaddedbenemist~~~tlon of energy necessary to turn each roll wthln the high magnettc field. Patented velocity feeding(1)makes use of the materlals natural pqectile motion for unhindered passage through the megnetn separation zone. The velocity feeder provides a un~fotmfeedwiUwtbouncingandndscartecingofpaWesover the mll and Yields a s~gmfiiant imprwement onseparatuon efficiency (up to 2U%i compared to conventional feeder designs A weftthn electro-mechanfceI (2) primary feeder

MAGNETIC PRODUCT RECOVERY

NONMAGNETIC PRODUCT RECOVERY

FKX.JRE 9.1

Carpeo

High-Gradient

Magnetic

Separator

(Source:

Ref.

4)

124

Applied

Superconductivity

WIDE

RANGE

OF

APPLICATIONS

Wherever a very high magnetic f,eld and very low power consumption are desired. superconduct,ng magnets will see Increasing use Any liquids containing paramagnet,c elements can be processed. and dry sol,d materials can be exposed to the 50 kilogauss field to investigate changes that may take place in th,s condit,on Current applications Include purification of kaolin clay. separation of finely.ground pyrite (iron sulfide) from coal removal of catalysts from oil. processing of chemical compounds and waste water treatment OPERATION The superconductlng HGMS laboratory model is compact. safe and easy to use Highly trained technical personnel are not required for daily operation The magnet IS basically a circular iron-clad solenoid wh,ch operates at a temperature close to absolute zero (0' Kelvin). cooled first by liquid nitrogen and then by liquid helium A canister packed with a matrix of magnetic stainless steel wool. through wh,Ch the material being processed flows. is placed In thewarm bore in thecenter of the circular coil The warm bore is maintained at room temperature so the material is not affected by the cryogenic cond,tion of the magnet The magnetic field strength can be continuously varied during operat,on by a simple potentiometer The high heat.absorbing capab,lity and low cost of liquid nitrogen make it the choice to reduce coil temperature from ambient to 77' Kelvin Helium gas is then used to blowout the nitrogen before liquid helium is pumped into the chamber surrounding the coil The helium further reduces the temperature to below 10' K. at which polntthemagnet is In a superconducting state A small quantity of liquid nitrogen IS supplied to a chamber at the bottom of the magnet to insulate the liquid helium

Canisters of varying diameter depending upon the capacity desired. are secured in the warm bore in the center of the superconducting laboratorr model HGMS The supports shown for canister insertion and removal are provided as part of the separator In a recent series of tests on kaol,n clay slurry liquid nitrogen usage In the laboratory Unit was 0 18 I,ters per hour and liquid hel,um was consumed at the rate of 10 liter per hour For commerclaloperation a closed loop liquefying system is used to reduce helium consumption to virtually zero

FIGURE 9.2 Eriez Magnetics Superconducting (Source: Ref. 3)

High-Gradient

Magnetic

Separator

Industrial Separations and Material Handling

125

TABLE 9.2

Summary

Comparison

of High-Gradient

Magnetic

Separation

Systemsa

Item

Conventional system

4-K Superconductor

77-K Superconductor

Power requirements (kW) Field Cooling Total Weight (tons) Footprint (ft2) Capital cost ($106) Annual operating cost ($103jb Annual capital cost ($1031c Total annual cost ($103)

270 30 300 490 500 1.6-1.7 81.0 425.6-452.2 506.6-533.2

0.007 60 60 230 170 1.7-1.8 15.8 452.2-478.8


468.0-494.6

-0.007 53-4 3-4 <230 <I70 1.5-1.6 1.1 399.0-425.6 400.1-426.7

aMagnetic bELectticity = 1.20. Fixed

field

strength

is 2 T for capacity

all

three factor

systems. = 50X, and levelization factor

price

= 5c/kWh,

charge

rate

= 26.6%.

the separator unit cost would be about $1.7-1.8 million, with the refrigeration/reliquefier accounting for 12-16% of the separator costs. The costs were adjusted to a single separator and reliquefier to facilitate comparison with a conventional HGMS system and a hypothetical HTSC HGMS system. The advantages 1. of an HTSC HGMS system would be as follows:

Parasitic power requirements for the LHe reliquefier would be reduced, because helium would not be needed or used. Indeed, given the cost differential of helium and nitrogen, the system would likely be redesigned such that any nitrogen boil-off that might occur would not be reliquefied, and parasitic power requirements would virtually be eliminated. Even if it were costeffective to reliquefy nitrogen, the parasitic power requirements would only be about 5% of those for reliquefying helium. The boil-off of liquid nitrogen (LN2) would be expected to be lower than that of LHe, since the system would operate at a higher temperature. Given that nitrogen is relatively inexpensive, an

2.

126

Applied Superconductivity

open-loop system would likely be cost-effective and would eliminate the capital cost of the reliquefier system -- a reduction of about $200,000. Because the primary advantage of a superconducting HGMS is the reduction in power requirements relative to a conventional system, the cost-effectiveness of the system depends on the price of electricity and the operating capacity factor of the system. Given the economic assumptions prescribed for this analysis, the 4-K system is cost-effective relative to the conventional HGMS system at a capacity factor of 50% (Table 9.2) and would be cost-effective at a capacity factor as low as about 20% (Fig. 9.3). The additional reduction in power requirements and the reduction in capital cost for a 77-K system relative to a 4-K system would make the former cost-effective relative to a conventional system regardless of the capacity factor. Superconducting magnetic separation systems have been investigated for a range of applications in industry.2V8-10 In general, the advantages of superconducting magnetic separation systems are as follows:
1.

Reduced power requirements. Reduced weight and volume, due to elimination of the soft iron core and the compactness of windings relative to those of conventional systems. Higher field strengths, which allow for higher processing velocities for a given separation effectiveness or higher separation effectiveness for a given processing velocity.

2.

3.

Offsetting these above advantages are the initial capital cost premium for the superconducting system and the perception of unreliability associated with operating a cryogenic system. However, superconducting systems have begun to be accepted by industry, and if the growth of conventional HGMS systems since 1969 is duplicated by 4-K superconducting HGMS, U.S. industry will represent a significant market for HTSCs as they become commercially available.

9.1.3 Materials Handling and Fabrication Other applications for superconducting magnets in U.S. industry would include materials handling and materials fabrication. For example, circular lifting magnets are used for handling steelworks scrap, loading steel into a melting furnace, etc. Magnetic products are also handled by means of battery-powered magnets mounted on the forks of forklift trucks. It would appear that the primary advantage of superconducting magnets in these applications would be potential reductions in magnet weight, which would allow the overhead crane or fork supporting the magnet and load to carry a greater load, thereby increasing productivity. The reduction in power requirements could be particularly beneficial to forklift-mounted magnets.

Industrial Separations and Material Handling

127

600

w-l 0 Z fJJ 500 tj 0 ? .Z t a 0

400

5
3 -

I
IVV ,

Note: Levelized Electricity Price = $O.O6/kWh Fixed Charge Rate on Capital = 26.6%

210

Copac4iy hxt600r (%)


Operation

6'0

Id0

*Percent of 8,760-h/yr at Design Capacity

HGMS

FIGURE 9.3 Annual Operating Costs of Alternative 2-T Systems for Kaolin Processing at 500 gal/min

In materials fabrication, magnets are used to press-fit parts in the automotive industry.* Superconducting magnets could reduce the energy requirements for such operations and could perhaps be applied to a wider range of materials-joining operations that are presently accomplished mechanically (e.g., bolting) and/or thermally (e.g., shrink fitting), if magnets of higher field strength were available.

9.1.4 1.

References

for Section 9.1

Oberteuffer, J.A., and B.R. Arvidson, General Design Features of Industrial High Gradient Magnetic Filters and Separators, in Industrial Applications of Magnetic Separation, Y.A. Liu, ed., IEEE Catalog #78 CH1447-2 (1978). Cryomagnetics, Tenn. (undated). Inc., A Guide to Superconducting Magnets and Systems, Oak Ridge,

2.

128

Applied Superconductivity

Eriez Magnetics, Erie, Pa. (1963). carpco, Bulletin

Inc.,

New High Gradient

Magnetic

Sepamtor,

Brochure

OTB-726,

High-Intensity Inc., Meter Magnet 6550, Jacksonville, Fla. (undated). and C.H. Chilton, Chemical Book Co., New York (1973).

Induced-Roll

Magnetic

Separator,

Perry, R.H., McGraw-Hill

Engineers

Handbook,

5th Ed., Chap.

21,

Roy, N.K., M.J. Murtha, and G. Burnet, Recovery of Iron Oxide from Power Plant Fly Ash by Magnetic Separation, in Industrial Applications of Magnetic Separation, Y.A. Liu, ed., IEEE Catalog #78CH1447-2 (1976).
7.

Merwin, 1987).

R. (Eriez

Magnetics,

Inc.,

Erie,

Penn.),

personal

communication

(July

a. Doctor,

R-D., C.B. Panchal, and C.E. Swietlik, A Model of Open-Gradient Magnetic Separation for Coal Cleaning Using a Superconducting Quadrupole Field, Recent Advances in Separation Techniques - III, N.N. Li, et al., eds., American Institute of Chemical Engineers Symp. Series, 82(250):154-166 (1966). Watson, J.H.P., and D. Hocking, Magnetic Sepamtor, IEEE Trans. The Beneficiation of Clay Using a Superconducting Magnet&, MAG-II:1956 (1975).

9.

10.

Price, C.R., and W.F. Abercrombie Jr., Practical Aspects of High Gradient Magnetic Separation, in Industrial Applications of Magnetic Separation, Y.A. Liu, ed., IEEE Catalog #76 CH1447-2 (1976).

Industrial Separations and Material Handling

129

9.2 Potential Application of HTSCs to Magnetic Separations

9.2.1 Introduction The recent discoveries of materials that are superconducting at temperatures above the boiling point (77 K) of LN2 may allow the development of apparatus with significantly These higher operating efficiencies and, hence, greatly reduced operating costs. materials also have the advantage of remaining in the superconducting state at significantly higher magnetic fields than previously seen in Type I and II superconductors. At present, these high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) appear to be extremely brittle and have a low current density (nominally 100 A/cm). However, reports of wires and ribbons being fabricated from the materials offer hope that Also encouraging is IBMs announced potential fabrication problems can be solved. increase of the current density in thin films by a factor of 100. The use of LN2 as a coolant implies immediate economic advantages over the previously required LHe. LN2 is considerably less expensive, because the basic raw material is free and the production process is considerably more efficient. In fact, the process is so inexpensive that the operation of HTSC apparatus at LN2 temperatures may well be considered for other technical reasons even if higher-temperature superconductors are found. This section presented an evaluation of one technological application of the new Magnetic separation, while presently applied to very HTSCs -- magnetic separation. specialized situations using both conventional conductors and LHe superconductors, has The potential ability of HTSCs to remain in the not seen wide application. superconducting state at high magnetic fields makes this application particularly attractive. This evaluation is based on the following general assumptions: 1. Extension of previous designs using LHe superconductors HTSC operating region is possible, These materials will prove no more difficult working configurations than existing applications Adequate bulk current carrying capability to the

2.

to fabricate into using Nb.$n, and

3.

can be obtained.

In addition, the best technological estimates of realistic improvements in operating efficiencies consistent with other engineering constraints are applied where

130

Applied Superconductivity

possible. No credit is taken for the higher heat capacities or the greater thermai operating range present at LN2 temperatures. These latter credits may well offer further improvement to the economic advantage of HTSC systems and may provide for technical solutions to some perplexing problems seen in LHe designs. Also, no credit is taken for the elimination of any iron and the subsequent reduction in losses that may be possible with these materials. This technology presented in App. A. summarized. was evaluated Potential problems using the baseline and research areas economic assumptions for the technology are

9.2.2

Discussion

Magnetic separation in which magnetic dipole moments are induced in paramagnetic particles by a highgradient magnetic field has proven useful in many industrial and utility applications. Both field intensity and high gradient are required for Various methods of applying successful particle separation by this method. superconducting coils to this process have been reported in the literature. A superconducting by the saturation
l

restricted

magnet generates a higher magnetic of iron. This can be used to advantage is to separate that cannot be small-diameter separated by

field because it is not in several ways: and weakly conventional

The main advantage magnetic particles magnets. The flow configuration. The matrix rates

can

be

increased

through

fixed

matrix

volume

can be reduced

for a given

flow rate.

Reference 1 presents a preliminary economic analysis for pilot plant or smallscale production units based on open-cycle cooling (i.e., the cryogenic fluid is added to the system as required and is not recaptured). This is obviously much more economical with nitrogen than with helium. For a 2.4-L conventional separator operating at 2 T, the continuous power requirement is about 160 kW. At $O.OG/kWh, the operating cost of this system is $4/h at a 50% duty cycle. A similar superconducting system cooled by liquid nitrogen would require 0.2-2.0 L/h depending upon the complexity (and cost) of the cryogenic container. If the least-expensive container (and thus, the highest rate of nitrogen usage) is assumed, the cost is calculated to be $0.12/h, a 97% savings in operating cost. Table 9.3 summarizes these calculations. A comparison of the initial capital costs of a conventional and an LHe superconducting system for matrix volumes up to about 5 L indicates that the superconducting system is slightly less expensive. This conclusion is highly dependent on the cost of the superconducting material, for which no data are presented in Ref. 1. Note that operation with LHe, at a cost 50 times that of LN2, would result in higher operating costs than those for the conventional unit, on the basis of the assumptions made in Ref. 1. On the

Industrial

Separations

and Material Handling

131

TABLE 9.3 Operating

Costs of Open-Cycle

Magnetic

Separatorsa

Cost

Item

Conventional System

Superconducring LN2 System

Electricity (kW) Cost of electricity ($/kWh) Liquid nitrogen (L/h) Cosr of liquid nitrogen (S/L) Total cost of operating ar 50% capacity (S/h) Savings (%I
of separator: = 2 T.

160 0.05 0

0 2.0 0.06 0.06 98.5

4.00

aRating
density

matrix

volume

= 2.4

L and magnetic

flux

other hand, an LN2 system (as indicated above) would have a considerable operating cost advantage. A total life-cycle cost analysis is not given, since the operating costs so strongly dominate the results in this ease.

9.2.3

Summery

end Conclusions

Magnetic separations technology represents a potential application for the new HTSCs. This evaluation was predominantly an economic scoping study developed from previous work on a conventional separator. This technology shows a strong potential for significant cost reductions using HTSCs, when evaluated on the basis of operating cost. Several key areas of research The obvious need for higher current previously stated by many researchers. material properties is also needed. appear to have been uncovered by this evaluation. densities and bulk current capability has been A better understanding of the HTSC physics and

Magnetic separations technology (HGMS or OGMS) is perhaps the easiest technology in which to apply HTSC in place of LHe superconductors. Indeed, it appears to be quite cost-effective under less than optimal design conditions and requires a relatively modest superconducting magnet operating under steady DC conditions. This technology could see applications in mining separations, waste treatment, coal beneficiation (by removing sulfur before combustion to decrease SO2 emissions), and perhaps removal of NO, from boiler flue gases using OGMS technology.

132

Applied Superconductivity

9.2.4 References for Section 9.2 1.


Stekly,

Z.J.J., A Superconducting High Intensity Magnetic Separator, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-11(5):1594-1596 (Sept. 1975).

2.

Marston, P.G., The Application of Superconductivity to Magnetic Separation, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-11(2):602-603 (March 1975).
Gerber,

3.

R., Some Aspects of the Present Status of HGMS, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-18(3):812-816 (May 1982). Gradient Magnetic Separation, Mining

4.

Watson, J.H.P., Superconducting High Magazine, 149(2):121-123 (Aug. 1983).

5.

Jungst, K.P., et al., Magnetic System for a Superconducting Magnetic Separator, Cryogenics, 24(11):648-652 (Nov. 1984).

Industrial

Separations

and Material Handling

133

9.3 Potential for Magnetic Separation of Gases from Gases

9.3.1

Introduction

High-gradient magnetic separation has been commercially applied to separation of magnetic particles from solid and liquid streams. Because of the higher field gradients that could be achieved with superconducting magnets, the technical feasibility of applying open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) technology to separation of gaseous species from gaseous streams (in particular, 02 from air and NO from flue gas) is considered in this section. High-gradient magnetic separation is a term that has been applied for many years to the separation of solid particles (dust, pyritic impurities in ground coal, tiny steel filings in the blast furnace effluent,ltnyd magnetic impurities in kaolin) from other materials in a gaseous or liquid stream. Open-gradient magnetic separation is a continuous process that achieves a spatial separation in the open, unobstructed magnet bore. In OGMS systems, paramagnetic species are drawn toward the bore wall while diamagnetic species are repulsed from the field toward the center of the bore. The desired separation is achieved by physically splitting the process stream at the exit of the magnet bore. Strong reasons exist for recovering 02 and NO from gas mixtures. Concentrated 02 has a multitude of industrial and research uses, ranging from forced drafts in steel production to medical applications, while NO is an unwanted constituent of exhaust gases that can interact with organic compounds in the air to create smog. (However, NO is a desired constituent in nitric acid production.)

9.3.2

OGMS Systems

for Separation

of Gases

Magnetic susceptibilities for several common gases are presented in Table 9.4.* The data indicate that the gas species 02 and NO are strongly paramagnetic; this is in contrast to most other ases, which are weakly diamagnetic, and to a few that are 9-11 Hence, 02 and NO might be separated economically from gas weakly paramagnetic. mixtures, such as air or flue gases, by passing the mixture through a magnetic field having a strong gradient. The paramagnetic component is drawn in the direction of the field gradient (or toward the magnet) and diffuses through the remainder of the gas, which is weakly repelled from the magnet. In typical HGMS (radius of about 25 urnI superconducting windings applications, a matrix or mesh of fine stainless steel wire is placed in an intense, uniform magnetic field enerated by that may carry a current density of 10 A/cm f . The field

134

Applied Superconductivity

TABLE 9.4 Magnetic Susceptibilities Common Gases at Room Temperature

of (293 IC)

Gas

Gas

Gas

At-

-20 -41 -13 -12 -10 -21

Hz H20b He Ne N2 NH3

-4 -13 -2 -7 -12

NzO NO NO2 N24 go2 02

-19 1,461 150 -22

G12 GzH2 GH4 co GO2

-18
3,449

-18

A unit

of magneti susceptibility, x, is Positive equivalent to 10-8 erg/mol*G2. entries denote paramagnetism and negative entries diamagnetism.

bv apor phase. Source: Ref.

a.

magnetizes the wires, which in turn severely Finite-sized magnetic particles of comparable The mesh is then demagnetized, by removal separation cycle.

distort radius from

the field locally (about lo3 T/cm). stick to the wires in passing.7913-22 the field, and washed for the next

The techniques applicable to small-particle separation are not easily adapted gas separation, so paramagnetic gases must be split off in other ways. Commercial separation of gases from a flow is ordinarily accomplished by chemical, centrifugal, cryogenic processes or by the use of selectively permeable membranes. Separation ions from other components of a flow by ma netic drag (JxB forces) in 83 magnetohydrodynamic channel has also been proposed.

to or of a

All of these methods involve cumbersome machinery and extensive operating If OGMS methods could be applied, a much simpler and more economical systems. approach would be possible, because the components used to generate a magnetic field are always physically, chemically, and electrically distinct from system elements involved in the gas stream. Thus, it is not necessary to break down a plant periodically to clean or regenerate magnetic components, as in an HGMS system. OGMS technology can be used to continuously concentrate paramagnetic gases. The gases flow into one end of the magnetic separator and out the other end through a nested set of concentric pipes to split the paramagnetically enhanced gas mixture in the

Industrial Separations and Material Handling

135

outer pipe from the depleted mixture in the center pipe. The fractional separation achieved in a single stage could be enhanced by repeating the OGMS process downstream of the splitter, until a desired degree of purity is reached. Experiments would be needed to determine whether various combinations or recombinations of the split streams might be worthwhile.

9.3.3

HTSC OGMS Systems

of OGMS gas systems could be increased further by the introIn HTSC OGMS systems, intense fields could be generated without the complicated equipment and piping used in LHe superconducting plants. They would allow much higher field gradients than iron-based magnetic components, and they would not entail Joule heating losses. duction TH$$6q&-26 The magnets used in the HTSC OGMS gas system are apt to be some modification of magnets currently available for open-flow separation, from which we may infer An open-gradient coal-beneficiation system recently studied at possible benefits. Argonnea used a Nb3Sn, 4-K superconducting quadrupole magnet that carried a current of 900 A and provided a field gradient of 61 T/m (3.6 T maximum B) along the sides of a central bore of 12.5 cm. The estimated force on pyritic coal particles was 2.7 times conventional values, and the system was operated at a cost (due principally to the cooling system) estimated at 75% lower than the operating cost of iron-based magnets. A principal drawback to HTSC OGMS plants is the current lack of information about HTSCs, which inhibits practical planning for OGMS systems. However, if reasonable assumptions are made, the characteristics of some generic plants can be estimated. By proceeding on this basis, it should be possible to assess the practicality and promise of HTSC OGMS methods and provide the necessary groundwork for actual plants when adequate data become available.

9.3.4 1.

References

for Section

9.3 Present Status of HGMS, IEEE Trans. on

Gerber, R., Some Aspects of the Magnetics, MAC-18:812 (May 1982). Goodling,
Separation

2.

C.H., and D.C. to Fine Particle

Drehmel,
Control,

Application of High J. Air Pollution Control

Gradient Magnetic Assn., 29~534 (May

1979). 3. Kolm, H.H., MAG-12~450 Oberteuffer, IEEE Trans. Oder, Trans. Research Needs (Sept. 1976). in Magnetic Separation, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics,

4.

J.A., Engineering Development of High Gradient on Magnetics, MAC-12~444 (Sept. 1976). Theory and

Magnetic

Separators,

5.

R.R., High Cmdient Magnetic Separation on Magnetics, MAC-12428 (Sept. 1976).

Applications,

IEEE

136

Applied Superconductivity

6.

Stekly, Z.J.J., on Magnet&,

A Superconducting MAC-lf:1594 (Sept.

High Intensity 1975).

Magnetic

Separator,

IEEE Trans.

7.

Stekly, Z.J.J., and J.V. Minervini, Shape Effect of the Matrix on the Capture Cross Section of Particles in High Gradient Magnetic Sepamtion, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-1 2474 (Sept. 1976). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 51st Ed., Chemical Rubber Co. (1970-1971).

a. 9.

SkZectionBes Diamagnbtisme et ParamagnOtisme; Garter, Foi+x, G., Constantes C.-J., and L.-J. Smits, Relaxation Pammagnktique, in Tables de Constantes et Donnies NumCriques, Vol. 7, Union Int. Chimie Pub., Paris (1957). Van VIeck, J.H., The Theory Press, London (1932). Vonsovskii, S.V., Magnetism, of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities, Oxford Univ.

10.

11. 12.

Vol. 1, R. Hardin, to the Theory

trans.,

Wiley,

New York (1971). trans., Pergamon

Wagner, D., Introduction Press, New York (1972).

of Magnetism,

F. Cap,

13.

Boucher, R-F., and A.C. Lua, Loadability of High Gradient Matrix, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-l&1662 (Nov. 1982).

Magnetic

Gas Filter

14.

Cowen, C., F.J. Friedlander, and R. Jaluria, High Gradient Magnetic Field Particle Capture on a Single Wire, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-II:1600 (Sept. 1975). Cummings, D.L., The Motion of Small Paramagnetic Particles in a High Gradient Magnetic Separator, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-12471 (Sept. 1976). Gerber, R., and M.H. Watmough, Magnetic Magnetics, MAC-I&1671 (Nov. 1982). Hollingworth, M., and J.A. Finch, Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-l&1674 Iannicelli, Magnetics, Separator Equations, IEEE Trans. on

15.

16.

17.

Downstream Capture (Nov. 1982). in Magnetic

in Longitudinal

HGMS, IEEE

18.

J., New DeveIopments MAC-12436 (Sept. 1976).

Separation,

IEEE

Trans.

on

19.

Kolm, H.H., et al., High Intensity Magnetic Filtration, in American Institute of Physics Proc. on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, No. 5, H.C. Wolfe, ed., New York (1971). Lawson, W.F., and R.P. Treat, Particle Trajectory Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-18 (Nov. 1982). Lua, AX., and R.F. Boucher, An Investigation Magnetic Gas Filtration, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, Observations in Dry HGMS, IEEE

20.

21.

of Efficiency MAC-I&1659

of High Gmdient (Nov. 1982).

Industrial Separations and Material Handling

137

22.

Watson, J.H.P., Theory of Capture of Particles in Magnetic High-Intensity IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-ll:1597 (Sept. 1975).

Filters,

23.

Del Casal, E.P, and J.J. McAvoy Jr., Magnetofluidynamic Gas, J. AIChE, 21:615 (May 1975). Jungst, K.P., et al., Magnet System Cryogenics, 24:648 (Nov. 1984). for a Superconducting

Separation

of a Binary

24.

Magnetic

Separator,

25.

Marston, P.G., The Application of Superconductivity Trans. on Magnetics, MAC-11:602 (March 1975). Watson, J.H.P., Superconducting (Aug. 1983).

to Magnetic Separation,

IEEE

26.

High Gradient Magnetic Sepomtor,

Mining, 2~121

27.

Doctor, R.D., et al., Investigation of Open-Gradient Magnetic Separation for Rlinois Coal, presented at 2nd International Conf. on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals, Carbondale, Ill. (Sept. 27-Oct. 1, 1987).

138

Applied Superconductivity

Supplement: Estimates for High-Gradient Magnetic Separation of Oxygen from Air

Simplified estimates are presented here for the effect of high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) of oxygen from air. The same approach can be used for separation of NO from flue gases if the other gas species are assumed to have negligible magnetic susceptibilities, which is reasonable if no oxygen is present in the flue gas. (Oxygen and NO are the only gases having any appreciable magnetic activity.) Therefore, notes on the application of the oxygen system to NO are included in the discussion.

FLOW EQUATIONS The equations of continuity and motion for oxygen (subscript o) diffusing through nitrogen (subscript n) in air, under the influence of an applied magnetic may be taken as Po p, = = n,kT, n,kT,
(= 0)

steadily field B,

v.n,vo v*nnvn
=

= =

0, 0,
VP, +

m,n,v,*Vv,

ncV(~c*B)

~,,~ncnOQn,,~nO(~n - v,),

m,n,vn*Vvn (=

0)

- vPn + ~oy,cnoQno~no(~o y.,)e


moment of N3 has been ignored. The temperature T is

in which the small diamagnetic assumed to be constant.

In the equations of motion, the last term re resents the Boltzmann collision integral (giving drag forces acting on the two gases 14 ), in which m,, = mnmo/(mn + m,) is the reduced mass for N3-09 interactions, Q,, is the cross section for molecular momentum transfer in these interactions, en0 = (tkT/m,,) 12 is the mean speed of impact at temperature T, and k is the Boltzmann constant (1.381 x lo-l6 erg/K). Ordinarily, O2 is paramagnetic, which means that oxygen molecules on average develop a magnetic moment p. = x,B along B, where x0 is their magnetic susceptibility. As indicated in Eq. 9.1, this paramagnetism tends to draw oxygen into regions of strong field. For diffusion processes at moderate velocities, the left side of the force equations (which gives the rate of change of momentum per unit volume) may be neglected in comparison with other terms. In general, the drag forces must be retained in the equations. However, we show below that these terms are proportional to the

Industrial Separations and Material Handling

139

an equilibrium diffusion currents, and so they will also drop out at equilibrium: configuration can be obtained by channeling the flow properly. Separation estimates are made on this basis.

MAGNETIC PROPERTIES At moderate magnetic field intensities, oxygen is paramagnetic from below 50 K to well over room temperature (taken as 293 K in Table 9.4), its magnetic moment per molecule u. increasing with B. At very low temperatures or strong fields, u. saturates and approaches a constant (essentially ferromagnetic) value. The mechanism operating here is that oxygen molecules ordinarily At temperature equilibrium, in a weak field, permanent magnetic moment. collisions randomize the directions of the magnetic moments but leave a predominantly along E3,in the lowest energy state. The molecules precess about direction. Strong fields, however, will tend to line up nearly all the molecules The net moment u. then no longer increases with B. have a spin-flip fraction the field along B.

Quantum mechanical calculations by Van Vleck and othersj- indicate that the mean magnetic energy per molecule u-B of paramagnetic gases in a magnetic field B may be expressed as a sum over effective molecular states J of the form <y*B>
where:

kT 1 oJ(T) J

fJ(gJuB9/kT),

oJ(T) = occupancy

factor for state J, + 1)~ - coth(z)],

fJ(z) = ~((25 + l)coth(2J

gJ = splitting factor for state J, and MB = eW2mec = 9.26 x 10b21 erg/G. Here, uB is the Bohr magneton. The index J is an angular-momentum quantum number appropriate to the effective state, which depends on the way the actual levels couple when a magnetic field is present. For reference, we note the limiting behavior coth(z) - l/z + z/3 for small z,

- 1 + ze-2s which yields f,(z) - 4.J(J + 1)2*/3 2z(J - ee2a)

as z -c -,

(9.3)
as as z + 0, z + m.

!40

Applied Superconductivity

These limits cross at about 22 = 3/(J + l), which is in the asymptotic Hence the value of fJ(z)/fJ(-) at the crossover point in 1 _ (I/J)~-~/(J + 1) = 80% for J = 1 to 3.

range for small J. Eq. 9.3 is about

VALUES FOR O2 AND NO Molecular oxygen is a triplet 32 configuration in the ground state, with energy levels very narrowly separated in comparison with usual values of kT and occupancy factors oJ = 1. The three energy levels combine to give two effective states: One corresponds to the net orbital quantum number A, here 0 (named a 2 state) with g, = 1; the other corresponds to the net spin quantum number S, which is 1 for oxygen (giving multiplicity 25 + 1 = 3, making the state a Yriplet) with gS = 2. The magnetic moments for these two angular momentum states in effect precess independently about the field direction and add to provide the total moment. For oxygen, therefore, Eqs. 9.2 and 9.3 give c,0**13 = kT [f*(lrBB/ZkT) - 8uBB2/3kT - 2UBB + f9(2ygB/2kT)j fat for B + 0 6 + = kT fl(uBB/kT) case) (9.4)

(patamagnetic (saturation)

From the estimate following Eq. 9.3, about developed at the value of B where the estimates would be 3kT/4uB, or about 340 T at 300 K.

80% of the saturation moment 2ug is in Eq. 9.4 cross. The field at this point

Nitric oxide is a doublet 2~ configuration with orbital quantum number A = 1 (a x state) and spin S = l/2, in which the energy levels are widely separated. In the presence of a magnetic field, the doublet levels react independently. The lower level, with J = A - S = l/2 and gJ = (J - S)/[J(J + 1)112 = 0, is nonmagnetic, i.e., fJ(0) = 0. The upper level, with J = A + S = 3/2, is strongly pa amagnetic. In weak fields, S links to and precesses about A, giving gJ = (J + S)/[J(J + l)] 172 . Hence the effective moment becomes

<uNOB

- kT [o,12(T) - o~,~(T)

f1/2(0)

+ o~/~(T)

f3,2(g3/2uBB/2kT)1 (9.5a) for B + 0. precess about B. The

(A + 2S)2pB2B2/3kT

In strong fields, the link between A and S is broken, and both formula for the moment in Eq. 9.4 applies in this case, yielding QNO*B - kT o~,~(T) - o~/~(T) [fn(lrBB/2kT) + f8(2uBB/2kT)I

(9Sb) (A + 2S)uBB for B -c -.

Industrial Separations and Material Handling

141

The limits

for NO from - 4

Eqs. 9.5a and 9.5b are

(uElO!B)

03j2(T) u&32/3kT 2 9/2(T) Y#

for 6 * 0
fat B * -

(paramagnetic case) (9.6)


(saturafio),

where 0312(T)

= (1 - em* + xe-x)Ixx

+ xe-%),

x = AEtkT = 173 KJT,

as calculated by Van Vleck for the doublet energy separation AE of nitric oxide.3 The occupancy factor 0~12 for the upper state is zero at T = 0 and 1 at T = -, reaching 0.84 at T = 293 K.

DIFFUSION

RELATIONS

To make estimates of physical quantities, it is convenient to convert from the in n (total particles per variables no, nn, vo, and vn of Eq. 9.1 to mean flow relations cubic centimeter) and v (average particle or molar velocity) and relative diffusion equations in J (the diffusion current) and x (oxygen mole fraction). The latter variables are defined by *=n and J=J,=n,(v According to Eq. 9.7, Jo + J = (nova and nJ = nn,(v
0 v) = ,( 0 + *)vo ,(,v, + V) = nonn(vo V). 0

0 + 9

nv = 0 0 + nnv

p = p,

+ p = nkT, (9.7)

-VI,

J = (v

- v),

x = no/n.

+ V)

- (no

+ ,)V

= 0,

or

J = -Jo, (9.8)

The last term here may be recognized as the velocity difference of motion for O2 and N2. When the equations for the two gases Using Eqs. 9.1, 9.7, and 9.8, one finds v*nv = v*,v, J =-D Vn, J-J = V*novo + v*n,v, where = 0, Vn = x V(uo*B)/kT, (Ficks dx/dt law)

factor in the equations are added, these terms

D = kT/nmocnoQo = -

and equation).

(9.9)

- V*xnv = -nv*Vx

(diffusion

142

Applied Superconductivity

LIMITING MAGNETIC

EFFECTS

By using Eq. 9.9, together with suitable boundary conditions and a prescription for B, it is possible to give details of oxygen diffusion with various channel arrangements. An example of this type of analysis is discussed in the next section. For order-of-magnitude separation estimates, however, a much simpler approximation is adequate. From Eq. 9.8, one can identify J as the relative diffusion current of 02 through Assume that flow channels for the air near the magnet are such that diffusion N2. currents are precluded by the geometry. (This requires basically that the flow remain oriented normal to the field direction near the magnet.) Then the drag terms in Eq. 9.1 will be zero, and the equation for oxygen will reduce to = vno n,V(u,*B)/kT, giving no = ;;o,u,*B/kT of weak (9.10) and

by integration, where ii0 is the value of no at zero field. For the cases strong fields (paramagnetic and saturated moments), Eq. 9.4 gives Ln no/ii, = (1.3 = (4.6 x LO+)(B/l x lO-3)(B/1 T)2/(T/300 T)/(T/300 K)2 K)
(panmagnetic)

(9.11) (saturated) a carrying an electric

current

Now, the magnetic field at radius r about of density J (in amps per square centimeter) B = 2na2J/re = 63 T (J/LO6 A.cm2)(a/l

a wire of radius is given by cm)2/(r/l cm).

(9.12)

(The conversion factors here are 10 A/cm = 1 G+cm, and 1 T = lo4 G). If HTSC wire current densities greater than lo6 A/cm2 were possible, Eq. 9.12 suggests that it should be possible to reach fields of 20-30 T at one side of a channel having a cross section of a few millimeters near a wire with a radius of 1 mm. (Actual values would depend on the ultimate structural and electrical characteristics of the superconducting material.) According to Eq. 9.11, this would yield on the order of a few percent enrichment of the oxygen. The nitrogen density would be relatively unaffected. By splitting off this oxygen-enhanced flow and repeating the process, a reasonably enriched stream of O2 should be achievable. Thus, about 50 fractionations at 3% increase of O2 per step would yield s mixture of half oxygen and half nitrogen. An important advantage of using superconducting wires is that the geometry of For example, a possible configuration for the the HGMS system becomes more flexible. separator would be to run superconducting wires along the inside of the splitter channel tube. Slots in the tube would provide regions of high field and field gradient, through which the oxygen would diffuse into the splitter.

Industrial Separations and Material Handling

143

ESIIMATION OF DIFFUSION RATES Whether an equilibrium oxygen distribution is reached, as assumed above, To estimate the diffusion rate, depends on the flow velocity and channel arrangements. we consider a sample problem in which the air flow is along a channel of width a, and the field B is normal to the direction of flow but varies across the channel. Air enters the channel at one end. The nonuniform field acts on the oxygen, causing it to diffuse toward the wall, where B is greater. The point of the calculation is to estimate the mean distance along the channel needed for this to occur. Diffusion effects are considered to be weak, so that the mean flow velocity v = ku, taken along the z-direction, is constant and the variation of air density, which may be in the channel is defined as s = In n/n, is small compared to 1. The field strength approximated by B2 = 82b(y)

so that

B = j B bl*. of z, might represent to, the channel. the field in the channel

(9.13) due to a

This relation, which is independent wire outside of, but running parallel The flow relations Vn = n;E VxB2/kT, and .J = D Vn(1 - x) = V@, giving from or

Eq. 9.9 yield s = In n/ii = s + 6zb, 5 = XB2/kT,

11,= nD [(l

- 2,s

- xl,

(9.14)

v2* = v*J

-ii~

axlaz.

At the channel walls, the normal component of J must vanish, and hence the boundary conditions are that the potential function II, must have a maximum or minimum in y at y = o and y = a. The simplest way to satisfy the boundary conditions is to expand b, s, and C in functions, such as cos mny/a (m = O,l,Z,...), that become constant as y + 0 or a. Thus, we may take b = 1 b, and x = l ~~(7,) The equation cos mnyla. that - z)Ebm. (9.16) co9 mnyla, s = : + Bj; 1 b, cos mny/a, (9.15)

for c in Eq. 9.14 then requires

% - (iiu/nD)xA

- (mn/a) 2 x,,, = -(mn/aj2j;(l

144

Applied Superconductivity

Solutions

to Eq. 9.16 have

the form (9.17)

%I = j;(l where

- :)6b m + Cme-rmz f

=rn = [(iiu/211D)~

+ (rni~/a)~]~~

iiui2nD.

In Eq. 9.17, the root r, was chosen so that x, would remain finite for large z. The constants Cm are arbitrary, but if we consider x to be a constant at the channel inlet (z = 0), then x, must vanish there for m not equal to 0. Therefore, C, = -j; (1 - &3bm,

and x has the solution x = j; + j;(l where - :)6 I[1 - e-m] b, cos mny/a, (9.18)

the sum is over values

of m > 0 (since r. = 0).

According to Eq. 9.17, the roots rm increase with m, eventually reaching the limit rm - mn/a. Hence the exponentials in a in Eq. 9.18 die away most rapidly for m > 1, and the relaxation of x to the diffusion solution (proportional to b plus a constant) depends essentially on the first term, m = 1. But the nature of the solution depends on the value of the constant o = iiuaj2nnD - ua/BxD. For G <( 1, rl - n/a and the rate of relaxation is independent of u. This corresponds to a very thin channel or slow air flow. If G >> 1, then r1 = (n/a)/[a so that the solution 3: = l/rI + (l&l) would relax - ua2/n2D 1121 _ l?D/ua2 (9.19)

in a mean distance, (ua/LnD >> l), (9.20)

corresponding to a thick channel and/or rapid flow. As the analysis indicates, this conclusion is more or less independent of the form of B. However, the downstream concentration of oxygen (or air density) approaches a profile that mirrors that of B2.

REFERENCES
1.

FOR SUPPLEMENT S., and T.G. Cowling, Mathematical Univ. Press, London (1951). and E.N. Lightfoot,

Chapman, Cambridge

Theory of Nonuniform Gases, 2nd Ed.,

2.

Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, York (1966).

Transport

Phenomena,

Wiley,

New

Industrial Separations and Material Handling

145

3.

Van Vleck, J.H., 7he Theory of Electric

and Magnetic

Susceptibilities, Oxford Univ.

Press, London (1932). 4. 5. Vonsovskii, S.V., Magnetism, Vol. 1, R. Hardin, trans., Wiley, New York (1971). F. Cap, trans., Pergamon

Wagner, D., Introduction to the Theory of Magnetism, Press, New York (1972).

10 Magnetic Levitation for Transportation

Summary
Larry R. Johnson Argonne National Laboratory

Application of HTSCs to Magnetically Levitated Trains


Larry R. Johnson Argonne National Laboratory

146

Magnetic Levitation for Transportation

147

Summary

Section 10 makes the following observations about the demand for high-speed train service in the United States and the potential market for magnetically levitated trains: 1. Speed has always commanded a premium in transportation service, resulting in intercity travel that is dominated by automobiles for short distances and air travel for long distances. However, both highway and air traffic congestion are factors that have caused a reexamination of the proposed solutions (more cars, highways, air flights, and new airport construction) to satisfy the increasing demand for intercity business and personal travel. Transportation petroleum consumption now exceeds domestic oil production, and the situation will continue to worsen as U.S. petroleum reserves continue to decline while transportation demand grows. Electrically powered, high-speed trains address both the petroleum supply and congestion issues. The two principal technology options for high-speed ground the very-high-speed, steel-wheel-on-rail transportation are systems (such as the Japanese bullet trains and the French TGV) and the magnetically levitated (maglev) systems for which advanced prototypes have been developed in Japan and West Germany. Steel-wheeled systems are limited to a maximum speed of about 170 mph because of the loss of traction beyond those Maglev systems have demonstrated speeds of 300 mph. speeds. While the investment costs of steel-wheel systems would be lower than those of a maglev system, their maintenance is expected to be higher due to the close track tolerances that must be maintained. The Japanese maglev system uses low-T, superconductors in an electrodynamic (repulsive) system, while the Germans have an electromagnetic (attractive) system that does not require the use The perceived advantage of the attractive of superconductors. system (using conventional technology rather than superconductors that have to be cooled to 4 K) may have been erased with the potential for superconductors that can be maintained at 77 K using liquid nitrogen. The repulsive system has the further advantage (over an attractive system) of a large air gap (6 in. versus 0.5 in.), which relaxes the design requirements and is dynamically stable, eliminating the need for gap sensors and accelerometers to provide vehicle stability.

2.

3.

4.

148

Applied Superconductivity

5.

High-T, superconductors should reduce the cost of the primary suspension system considerably; more important, they will provide improved system reliability and reduced complexity. Numerous market studies have recently found a market niche (generally at intermediate distances between cities, e.g., 100-600 mi) for very-high-speed trains in the United States. A dozen states are examining intercity corridors in which either maglev systems or TGV-type systems appear to be the best technology solution for increasing travel demand, when economic, energy, and environmental factors are all evaluated from a totalsystem perspective. The only high-speed ground transportation systems available for use in the United States are foreign technologies. Both the Germans and the Japanese are sufficiently serious about exporting their systems (including maglev) that they are conducting feasibility studies at their own expense, including a $l.Z-million German-funded study in Texas for the Dallas-to-Boston corridor. High-speed ground transportation projects appear likely to begin in Pennsylvania, Florida, Texas, Nevada, Michigan, and Illinois; as other intercity corridors become congested, more states are likely to follow. Applying high-l, superconductivity to maglev trains offers the opportunity to resolve a critical national transportation need while contributing to the economic competitiveness of the nation.

6.

7.

Magnetic Levitation for Transportation

149

Application of HTSCs to Magnetically Levitated Trains

10.1

BACKGROUND

Speed, throughout history, has commanded a premium in the provision of transportation and consequently has greatly influenced the choice of mode for both passenger and freight movement. In the United States, intercity passenger travel is dominated by automobile and air travel, which require relatively high energy intensity to combine personal convenience with speed. Similarly, air and truck travel dominate the transport of valuable freight needing timely delivery. The air and automobile/truck modes have required massive public and private expenditures. Demand for high-speed passenger and freight service will continue to grow As a result, further increases in as both population and economic activity increase. investment for intercity transportation will be required. The question now is whether a form of high-speed rail transportation is a legitimate option among the alternatives advanced to satisfy future intercity travel demands in the United States, and, in particular, if magnetically levitated trains can be enhanced by using high-criticaltemperature (high-T,) ceramic materials such that a magnetic-levitation (maglev) system would prove to be the preferred choice among high-speed rail alternatives. Current interest in high-speed rail alternatives is stimulated principally by two factors. First, increasing air-traffic congestion is a problem that will not be easily resolved because of the frequent controversies surrounding continued airport expansion and new construction. Second, in spite of the current availability of oil in the world market, energy problems are likely to be significant during the next decade. Transportation petroleum consumption in the United States now exceeds domestic oil production, and this situation will continue to worsen as oil reserves are further depleted Electrically powered, high-speed ground and transportation demand continues to grow. transportation addresses both of these issues.

10.2

ADVANCED

GROUND

TRANSPORTATION

OPTIONS

10.2.1

Conventional

Trains

The most advanced revenue-service trains in the world today use conventional steel wheels on steel rails. The French Tres Grande Vitesse (TGV) achieves speeds of up to 170 mph, while averaging 130 mph between Paris and Lyon. The electrically powered Japanese bullet trains (Shinkansen) have a design speed of 160 mph, although

150

Applied Superconductivity

operationally they have had a maximum speed of 130 mph. These bullet trains average better than 100 mph over the 600-mi route between Tokyo, Osaka, and Hakata. British Railways operates diesel-powered high-speed trains (HSTs) on several long-haul routes with top speeds of 125 mph and average speeds between cities that frequently exceed 90 mph. Because HSTs are defined as those that can operate at speeds greater than 125 mph, the United States is conspicuously absent from any list of HST operations. However, several examples of current fast train service in the United States can be Amtraks Northeast Corridor between Boston and Washington, D.C., operates cited. passenger trains with maximum speeds of 120 mph between New York City and speeds of about 80 mph. Amtrak also operates a Washington, D.C., and average successful gas-turbine-powered Turbotrain service in New York State, with maximum speeds of 110 mph and average speeds of about 70 mph between Albany and New York City. In spite of the relative success of the HSTs in France and Japan, serious problems limit the use of conventional technology (steel wheels and rails) in achieving faster First, at speeds of about 120 mph and speeds and, in turn, attracting more passengers. Federal Railroad greater, there is significant wear on both wheels and rails. Administration (FRA) standards for conventional freight trains and commuter trains allow relatively large discrepancies in level between one rail and another -- 1.25 in. for 80-mph operations. However, the FRA standard drops to 0.5 in. for 120-mph operations. In comparison, the French TGV standard is 0.16 in. for the 170-mph portions of the system. Satisfying the standards for high-speed service is not impossible, but it is very expensive. Second, the speed limit of conventional trains driven by wheel traction is limited by the frictional forces that develop between the wheels and rails. The use of linear propulsion motors, in which the wheels would be used only for suspension, would make However, the high maintenance costs maximum speeds of 180 mph technically feasible. associated with the required track alignment, smoothness, and curvature specifications might render this approach economically unattractive. Third, the serious problems associated with noise and vibration of steel-wheeled trains have been major factors influencing the Japanese to examine other alternatives for intercity transportation.

10.2.2

Levitated-Vehicle

Technology

Several research groups throughout the world are investigating the use of levitated vehicles in conjunction with linear motors. During the 196Os, France, Britain, and the United States conducted large-scale tests of air cushion vehicles (ACVs) designed for intercity speeds of 160 mph. However, development of tracked ACVs is virtually at a standstill because of the growth of interest in magnetic levitation. Two principal methods of achieving sufficient magnetic vehicle are actively being developed. Electromagnetic conventional iron-core electromagnets to provide an attractive gap (about 0.5 in.) between the vehicle and the track. The force to levitate a large suspension (EMS) uses force, with a small air EMS technology is being

Magnetic Levitation for Transportation

151

developed by the Federal Republic of Germany. The Transrapid 06 is a maglev prototype vehicle designed for a maximum speed of 250 mph, with test speeds of 220 mph having been recorded. A 13-mi test facility built at Emsland (a planned second loop will extend the system to 20 mi) is designed to become part of an eventual revenue-service corridor. The Japanese are pursuing an electrodynamic-suspension (EDS) system that employs superconducting magnets to achieve a large (4- to 6-in.) gap, using a repulsive force between the track and the train. Test facilities, including a 4-mi test track, have been built at Miyazaki, Kyushu, in southern Japan. Long-term plans are to build a 25-mi test track. A small prototype (ML500) vehicle has set a world speed record of 320 mph (517 km/h), while larger versions (MLUOOI and MLU002) are being designed to run at 260-300 mph. The NbTi superconductors are cooled to 5.2 K at 2 atm by liquid helium in cryostats. During the many tests that have been conducted, no quenching of the magnets has occurred during the operation of the vehicles.

Advantages

of Magnetically

Levitated

Vehicles have caused both Japan and West ground transportation. Several of

Discernable advantages of magnetic levitation Germany to invest in this new technology for advanced the prominent benefits are as follows:
l

Magnetic levitation overcomes the principal limitation of Speed. wheeled systems, the loss of traction at high speeds. This is a major problem for HSTs between the speeds of 150 and 170 mph. With maglev systems, speeds of 300 mph become feasible. Operations. Noncontacting operation means that inclement weather (rain, snow, or ice) will pose significantly fewer problems to safe and timely operation of the maglev system than such weather poses to wheeled systems. Because of the noncontacting suspension, the maintenance costs associated with maglev transportation will be considerably less than those for conventional rail systems. There is virtually no mechanical wear on either the track or the suspension Although operational data are needed to system of the train. quantitatively verify this, a number of independent studies have come to this same conclusion. No contradictory evidence has been found on this point. Dependability. greatly increase The lack of moving parts for a maglev train should the dependability and reliability of the system.

Maintenance.

Maglev systems, being electrical, do not depend on Energy. dwindling U.S. petroleum supplies; the electrical energy can be provided by hydroelectric generation, coal, or nuclear power. On a passenger-mile basis, the energy intensity of a maglev train would

152

Applied Superconductivity

be on the order automobile travel.


l

of

one-fourth

that

of

intercity

aircraft

or

Because of the combination of higher achievable Economics. speeds, which increases the ridership potential, and the greatly reduced maintenance costs of a noncontacting system, a maglev train may have the greatest potential among the intercity train options to operate on a revenue-sustained basis.
Environmental Concerns. Noise and vibration, which reportedly a major concern with the Japanese bullet trains, should considerably less from a noncontacting, maglev system.

are be

Advantages

of High-T,

Superconductors

for Magnetic-Levitation

Technology

Because an attractive (EMS) system uses the developed technology of conventional electromagnets, this system may appear to be closer to commercialization than the repulsive (EDS) system, which uses superconducting electromagnets. However, a definitive conclusion is not easily determined, except that the initial capital costs of the primary suspension system would probably be lower with an EMS system when compared to an EDS design. However, the EDS levitation system is dynamically stable, requiring The EMS system is inherently unstable, no feedback controls to maintain clearances. necessitating gap sensors and accelerometers to regulate the power to the electromagnets to maintain stability. High-T, superconducting the EDS design. 1. superconducting magnets would magnets. The new superconductors offer several advantages may provide additional over low-Tc advantage to

The current achievements in high-T, materials may significantly reduce the costs, not only compared to present-day superconductors, but even compared to attractive force systems. First, the high-T, feature would permit the use of low-cost liquid nitrogen refrigerant, rather than liquid helium, resulting in a savings on the order of 20 to 1. Second, the total refrigeration system could be simplified, with an attendant reduction in the amount of insulation required around the magnets, thus increasing the flexibility (and further reducing the costs) of the design. High-T, superconducting magnets make higher magnetic fields possible, resulting in increased track clearances for the EDS design, which in turn permit the relaxing of design requirements for the guideway. Because of the larger clearances, the system is more tolerant of discrepancies in rail level and problems associated with inclement weather. Only superconductors provide the levitation forces that create large track clearances at reasonable costs.

2.

Magnetic Levitation

for Transportation

153

3.

Lighter-weight superconductors will reduce the weight of the primary suspension system (and, in turn, vehicle weight) of an EDS system compared to an EMS design using iron-core electromagnets. The weight reduction should further reduce the size and weight of the propulsion system. For any given superconductor with a lower T,, the applications that could initially use these materials would be the ones with the least-restrictive current density requirements. In the early 197Os, an evaluation by Philco-Ford Corp., SRI, and MIT established an operating current density of 0.4 x lo4 A/cm2, which is less than that for most other superconductor applications (see Table 2.1). However, current Japanese des$n goals call for an operating current density of 20 x lo4 A/cm . It appears that the threshold current density design criteria for a commercial vehicle would be about IO4 A/cm2. As the current density of low-T, superconductors increases, the size and weight of the magnets can be reduced.

4.

Applicability

of Magnetic-Levitation

Technology

to U.S. Travel

Needs

Recent studies of U.S. intercity travel demands have indicated that magnetically levitated trains are being seriously considered in a number of corridors. A market niche appears entirely feasible for intercity trips with distances of about 100-600 mi. Trips of less than 100 mi will still be dominated by automobile travel, although there may be a maglev market for some business travel. Trips much longer than 600 mi will still tend to be served principally by airplane. Active (funded) interest in high-speed intercity train service, including the potential for maglev systems, is described below. This overview of projects is current as of 1986. 1. Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania High Speed Rail Commission voted unanimously to narrow the technology options for a Philadelphia-Harrisburg-Pittsburgh passenger rail corridor to two: a 160-mph HST and a 250-mph maglev system. The new service, it is estimated, could have 4-12 million riders annually and provide up to 292,000 person-years of jobs during its construction.
Nevada.

2.

feasibility technologies) Angeles. 3.

The city of Las Vegas is conducting studies of the of HST service (specifically including maglev for the corridor connecting Las Vegas and Los

Michigan. Hearings have been held on high-speed rail passenger service in the Detroit-Chicago corridor. Two technical reports addressing technological options, including maglev systems, have been prepared -- one by the Michigan Department of Transportation and the other by the Advanced Rail Consortium.

154

Applied Superconductivity

4.

Ohio. A liO-mph HST system linking Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati is being pursued by the state. The new system is planned for a dedicated right of way, rather than using existing trackage. The eight-year construction effort would add 60,00075,000 jobs. Both the Chicago-Milwaukee and Chicago-St. Louis Illinois. corridors have been examined as part of a study of high-speed rail These two corridors continue to be options in the Midwest. viewed as extensions of the Detroit-Chicago HST line in the ongoing Michigan studies. Florida. A recent study concluded that an HST in the MiamiOrlando-Tampa corridor could be operated without state or federal subsidies if creative financing was used to take advantage Both TGV-type and of development rights around stations. maglev systems are being examined. Texas. The Houston-Dallas corridor is being examined in a $1.2-million study funded by the Federal Republic of Germany and a consortium of ten German companies. The 250-mi corridor is thought by the German representatives to be the best in the United States. This corridor would be the first leg of a Texas triangle that would eventually link San Antonio to the other two cities. Missouri. The state is studying the feasibility of upgrading passenger rail service in the Kansas City-St. Louis corridor to 8%%~55n&&\* So-mph trains. New York. HST service between New York and Montreal (via Vermont) using TGV technology has been studied. Operation and maintenance costs are expected to be covered by passenger revenue and ridership is projected to increase six-fold. Three thousand construction jobs would be created, and an additional 1,500 continuing new jobs would be added for the HST operation. A feasibility study of a loo-mph electrified rail New Mexico. service between Santa Fe and Albuquerque has been conducted. A ticket price of $5-6 appears to be sufficient to pay operating costs for the 66-mi trip. True high-speed operation on a longer (300-mi) corridor between Los Alamos, Santa Fe, Albuquerque, and Las Cruces is also under examination. The state has begun a preliminary study of HST Washington. service between Portland (Oregon), Seattle, and Vancouver, B.C. If the conceptual study is favorable, a larger study of demand, markets, and needs will be conducted.

5.

6.

7.

a.

9.

10.

11.

Magnetic Levitation for Transportation

155

12.

Georgia. The state is planning a feasibility study for rail passenger service between Atlanta and the seacoast city of Savannah, a 270-mi corridor that includes Macon. French representatives have visited Georgia transportation officials to promote TGV technology.

13.

Northeast Corridor. Japanese National Railways has presented a proposal to the Coalition of Northeast Governors to study the feasibility of maglev technology for the corridor encompassing Boston, New York, and Washington, D.C. The study would highlight the similarities and differences between the northeast corridor and the Shinkansen Tokaido corridor.

Opportunity

for U.S. Technology

Development

More than a dozen states are funding feasibility or engineering studies of highThe choice of technology options is usually speed rail transportation between cities. between advanced rail systems -- such as the French TGV, the Japanese bullet trains, and indeed, the United States is viewed as an even the German ICES -- and maglev systems. export market by some of these countries, with each of them studying the potential for their technology, including maglev systems, in U.S. markets. Research in this country was essentially halted in 1975, but it has been aggressively pursued in Japan and Germany, where full-size maglev vehicles have operated at speeds in excess of 300 mph. England, Canada, and even Rumania now have maglev research programs. High-T, superconductivity is not an enabling technology, but it is an enhancing While Japan has the lead, for now, in EDS technology one, especially for maglev trains. for maglev applications, the United States can use its lead in basic research on high-T, superconductors to leapfrog the current EDS technology with a more-reliable, lessAlthough the United States is behind in terms of maglev test expensive system. facilities, a conventional maglev prototype system could be constructed in this country by drawing on the large body of work conducted in the United States during the 1970s and updating it with the more recent advances in other countries. The development of a Mod 1 maglev system using conventional superconducting magnets could take place the development of commercial simultaneously with quantities of high-T, superconductors that would meet the specifications of an advanced maglev system. The Mod 1 design would allow replacement of the liquid-helium-cooled EDS system with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled advanced EDS technology. Most of the states that are examining HST technology are proposing systems that would be implemented in the mid-1990s and provide service well into the next century. Thus, the timing appears right for focusing the advances in high-T, superconductors on one of the nations critical transportation needs.

156

Applied Superconductivity

10.3

BIBLIOGRAPHY Ground Transport (Queens Univ., Kingston, Ontario), SuperSystem, Las Vegas/Southern California Corridor, Phase 2: - Development Status of Major Maglev Subsystems and for Las Vegas Dept. of Super-Speed Train Development, No. PRO-421) (March 1986). Rail Association Yearbook, High Speed Rail Assn.,

Canadian Institute of Guided Speed Ground Transportation Maglev Technology, Task 5 Critical Components, prepared CIGGT Report 86-10 (Project

Casey, R.J., ed., High Speed Washington, D.C. (1986).

Philco-Ford Corp., Aeronutronic Div., Conceptual Design and Analysis of the Tracked Magnetically Levitated Vehicle Technology Program (TMLV) - Repulsion Scheme, Executive Summary, U.S. Dept. of Transportation Report DOT-FR-40024 (Task 4) (Feb. 1975). Proc. International 1986). Propelling Passengers Rhodes, R.G., Press (1981). Thompson, Upsurge Conf. on Maglev and Linear Drives, Vancouver, B.C., Canada (May

Faster than a Speeding Magnetic

Bullet, IEEE Spectrum Levitation

(Aug.

1984). Oxford Univ.

and B.E. Mulhall,

for Rail Transport,

L.S., High-Speed

Rail, Technology

Review

(April

1986).

in High Speed Rail, Progressive

Railroading

(Aug. 1985). Assessment, Congress of the

U.S. Passenger Rail Technologies, United States (Dec. 1983).

Office

of Technology

Appendices

Appendix

A: Economic Assumptions

E.J. Daniels, R. F. Giese. and A.M. Wolsky Argonne National Laboratory

Appendix

B: Superconductor

Performance

E.J. Daniels Argonne National Laboratory

157

158

Applied Superconductivity

Appendix A: Economic Assumptions

SUMMARY To facilitate the first-cut economic analysis of high-temperature ANL prepared a base set of economic/financial assumptions to serve appendix presents those assumptions. superconductors, as guidelines. This

Our purpose was to provide a set of economic assumptions that would be plausible, consistent, and simple to use in assessing the effect on project economics of recent technical advances. The assumptions are also compatible with the assumptions made by the electric utilities, and they are reasonable from industrys perspective. The economic analysis is conducted in current dollars, assuming no escalation of real cost, and is guided by the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

BASELINE ASSUMPTIONS FOR PRELIMINARY OF APPLICATIONS FOR SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

ECONOMIC

EVALUATION

Introduction Determination of the profitability of superconducting technologies would require a side-by-side comparison of those technologies relative to competing technologies Such an analysis would provide an explicit within representative utility systems. treatment of the effect of superconducting technologies on system load profiles and the resultant capacity/expansion benefits of a technology that promises higher efficiencies. Although a more detailed analysis may ultimately be required, the following assumptions are intended to provide a plausible, consistent, and simple first-cut estimation of the expected profitability of a typical project. Example evaluations are provided following the tables of assumptions (Tables A.l-A.31 described below. Tables A.1 and A.2 present the levelized fixed charge rate on utility capital and industrial capital (i.e., capital on the customers side of the meter), respectively. The bases for these fixed charge rates are also shown. The book life of utility capital is assumed to be 30 yr, while the book life of industrial capital is 10 yr. If one believes, for example, that a utility-owned device must be replaced before 30 yr have passed (i.e., the book life is less than 30 yr), then one should determine the equivalent capital cost (in 1986 dollars), including replacement at the end of the equipment book life, to provide a project book life of 30 yr. Thus, if a storage facility had a book life of 15 yr, it would be

Appendices

159

TABLE

A.1

Economic and Financial Assumptions: Utility

Ownershipa

Item

Value

Levelized fixed charge rate on capital (X) Inflation (X1 Weighted average cost of capital, discount rate (X) Effective tax rate, federal and state (Z) Investment tax credit (X) Book life (yr) Tax life (yr) Depreciation (% of declining balance) Capacity factorsb Generation (I) Transmission (X) Storage Levelization factor for fuel, electricity, and O&M

18.7 4 11.55 38 0 30 20 150

65

aoc
As designed 1.45

aAssumptions are consistent with the Tax Reform Act of 1986. bEquivalent operating hours at 100% capacity. 'Based on dedicated lines.

replaced at the end of year 15 to provide a project life of 30 yr. cost of the 30-yr project would be calculated as follows:

The equivalent capital

ECC

Icc

ICC(1 +
(1 + rP

e)

where: ECC = equivalent capital cost for 30-yr project life, ICC = initial capital cost of equipment for 15-yr life,

160

Applied Superconductivity

TABLE

A.2

Economic and Financial Assumptions:

Industrial

Ownership

Item

Value

Levelized

fixed

charge

rate

on capital

(X)

26.6 4 15

Inflation (X) Weighted average cost of capital, discount rate (%) Effective tax rate, federal and state Investment tax credit t%) Book life (yr) Tax life (yr) Depreciation Capacity factors

(I)

i8
0 10

10 Double declining balance

Storage All other Levelization and O&M

(I) factor for fuel, electricity,

As designed 50 1.20

e = inflation rate (4%), r = discount rate, and n = year of replacement. The second term is the present value of replacing the equipment in year 15. On the other hand, if one believes that the device has a longer actual life than the book life, one would not make this adjustment. These lives are typical of business planning. Table A.3 presents the price of electricity in several circumstances (e.g., onpeak and off-peak). These prices were derived from the available data on U.S. average prices in 1986, and they are given in 1986 dollars. The cost-of-service calculations illustrated in examples the levelized cost of service in 1986 dollars. 2 and 3 show how to

calculate

Appendices

161

TABLE

A.3

Prices and Values of ($/kWh)a

Electricity

Item

Value

Utility gentration of losses Utility Price Value Price

value

0.041

transmission into transmission of losses into distribution

0.041 0.041 0.050

Utility storage Off-peak price Value of losses Peak price out

into of

storage storage

0.017 0.041 0.080

Industry applications Average purchase Peak price Value of losses

price

0.050 0.100 0.050

al986

dollars.

bTo simplify the analysis, the value of losses at any point in the utility system is taken as $O.O4l/kWh, which is the long-run average value of losses. In reality, the short-run marginal value of losses would approach the cost of fuel saved by changes in losses. The cost-of-fuel component of electricity price is taken as $O.O17/kWh. The long-run marginal cost of losses would approach the incremental cost of new base-load capacity (about $0.060O.O70/kWh).

162

Applied Superconductivity

Example Calculations

Example 1: Calculation

of Incremental

Capital Cost for Generation

The incremental capital cost (in dollars per kilowatt) is the equivalent capitalized cost of the operating cost savings of one technology relative to another. For example, if a nominal 300-MW superconducting generator had an efficiency of 99.596, it would incur losses of about 1.5 MW. If a standard generator had an efficiency of 98.5%, it would incur losses of 4.5 MW. The incremental capital cost (maximum capital cost premium) for the superconductor would be evaluated ss follows for utility applications: Loss of standard - loss of superconductor
3 MW x 8,760 h/yr x 0.65 (capacity = 1.7082 x lo7 kWh/yr

= 3 MW from Table A.l)

factor

1.7082 x 10 kWh/yr x $O.Oll/kWh (from Table A.3) x 1.45 (levelization factor from Table A.l) = $1.016 x 106/yr $1.016 x lo6 + 0.187 (equivalent capital) (levelized fixed charge rate) = $5.43 x lo6

$5.43 x lo6 + 300 MW = $lS.lO/kW Thus, if the standard generator had a capital cost of $SO/kW, the superconducting generator cost could be no more than $SE.lO/kW to be competitive.

Example 2: Calculation

of Transmission

Cost of Service

Consider a transmission line. One wishes to estimate the cost of service (dollars per kilowatt-hour) that service being the transmission of electrical energy. Suppose the design capability of the transmission line is 100 MWe, the total installed cost (i.e., capital cost) of the transmission line is $30 million, and the electrical energy loss (including the electrical energy consumed for refrigeration) is 4% of the annual energy input to the line. The cost of service would be calculated as follows:
l

Electricity into system = 100 MW x 8,760 h/yr x 0.80 (capacity = 7.3 x lo8 kWh/yr

factor from Table A.l) t 0.96

Electricity out of system = 100 MW x 8,760 h/yr x 0.80 = 7.008 x lo8 kWh/yr Capital cost component = $30 x lo6 x 0.187 (fixed charge rate from Table A.l) + 7.008 x lo8 kWh/yr = $O.OOS/kWh

Appendices

163

Electricity cost component = 7.3 x lo8 kWh/yr (into system) x $O.O41/kWh (from Table A.3) x 1.45 (levelization factor from Table A.l) i 7.008 x 10 kWh/yr (out of system) = $O.O82/kWh Cost of service = capital cost component + electricity cost component SO.O08/kWh + SO.O62/kWh = $O.OlO/kWh

If the system had operating and maintenance costs, such costs would also be included in the cost of service. For example, if the above transmission system had an annual O&M cost of Sl million, the O&M cost-of-service component would be: $l,OOO,OOO/yr x 1.45 (levelization = $O.O02/kWh Thus, the total cost of service factor from Table A.l) I 7.008 x lo8 kWh/yr

would be SO.O72/kWh.

In Sec. 6, R.A. Thomas and E.B. Forsyth emphasize that the above method refers to the delivered cost of electricity from a particular generating station (one charging $O.O41/kWh at the bus bar) over a line of fixed but unstated distance. One could also subtract the bus bar price of electricity from the delivered price (SO.O72/kWh in the example) and divide the result by the length of the transmission line to get a transmission cost-of-service per mile, as was done in Sec. 6.

Example 3: Calculation

of Storage Cost of Service

Consider a device for storing electrical energy. One wishes to estimate the cost of service, the service being the discharge of electrical energy when it is needed. The following must be estimated: the total installed cost (i.e., capital cost), denoted by K; the annual consumption of electricity by auxiliaries (including refrigeration), denoted by C; and the schedule for charging (off-peak) and discharging (on-peak) the device. The cost of service (CoS) would be calculated as follows: COS = I(K x FCR) + [(B x Pi) + (C x Pa)]LF) where CoS = cost of service (S/kWh), K = capital FCR cost of facility rate, electricity into storage (kWh), (J), +A

= fixed charge

B = annual Pi = off-peak

off-peak

price of electricity

into storage (S/kWh),

164

Applied Superconductivity

C = annual electricity refrigeration (kWh), Pa = value of electrical factor,

consumption

for

auxiliaries,

such

as

losses and

($/kWh),

LF = levelization A = annual

quantity

of electricity

delivered

out of storage

(kWh).

The terms A, B, and C depend on the design and are to be determined by the analyst. Consult the tables appropriate to the side of the meter on which the storage is placed for values for FCR, Pi, Pa, and LF.

Appendices

165

II

Appendix B: Superconductor

Performance

SUMMARY To provide a benchmark for the evaluation of high-temperature superconductors, ANL staff completed a series of measurements; this appendix presents the results. Because these results were obtained from one sample, they are physically consistent. The cost of was estimated at 2.2e/g ($lO/lb), and its density was taken to be ;;g;92cu307-x These series of measurements provided a starting point for the analyses subsequently conducted, which evaluated the expected performance of the new materials in specific applications. This appendix also presents the charge given to authors by this reports ANL organizers.

CHARGE TO AUTHORS: HIGHER-TEMPERATURE

BENCHMARK PERFORMANCE SUPERCONDUCTORS

PARAMETERS

FOR

Experimental Results To provide a benchmark for evaluating the technical and economic performance of higher-temperature superconductors, the following properties have been experimentally determined by ANL from a single sample of YBA2Cu307_x. Although the attached data represent what we believe to be currently achievable in terms of performance for higher-temperature superconductors, these performance parameters may not be adequate for economic feasibility in specific applications. Therefore, your analysis should identify and characterize remaining impediments to the adoption of the new technology, given the experimental data provided. The experimental
l

data are presented in two figures:

Fig. B.1. This figure plots current density (in amps per square centimeter) versus magnetic field (in teslas) for seven temperatures (in degrees kelvin). Fig. 8.2. The data are the same as in Fig. B.l, except that current density is plotted against temperature for five magnetic fields.

166

Applied Superconductivity

C-J,

(77 K, H = 0) = 233

A/cm2

.3

0
0

Key
q

J, (73.0

K) K) K) K) K) K) K)

0 .
l 0

0
. l

0
n

0 .

000 .

* J, (68.7

J, (64.7

l 0 0 l 0 l

o J, (63.3 0 J, (52.7 A J, (33.7


l l

J, (77.0

M&ne+ic
FIGURE B.l Current Density

Field, H F)
of Temperature (!Source: Ref. 1)

vs. Field as a Function

Analytical

Considerations In your analysis, 1. we ask that you consider the following general questions:

What are the advantages and limitations of operating at higher temperatures with a refrigerant such as subcooled liquid nitrogen, assuming technical performance of the superconductor equivalent to that of low-temperature (4-K) superconductors? What are the limitations imposed higher-temperature superconductors? by the experimental data for

2.

3.

What are the performance requirements density) such that the higher-temperature economically competitive? assume a cost

(e.g., minimum current superconductor would be

density

In your analysis, of 6.3 g/cm.

for the superconducting

material

of Z.%C/g and a

Appendices

167

4 A

Kev
0

J, (0.0

T)

R 4

4
0

J, (1.0 T) T) T)

44 ;

0 40
.

o J, (0.5
0

0 4_

A J, (5.0
0

.O
I

Oa 44

cl o

J, (10.0 T)

0 0

10

20

30

40

50

a::4

60

70

80

0 J, (12.0 T)
90

Temperature,

T (K)

FIGURE B.2 Current Density vs. Temperature as a Function of Magnetic Field (Source: Ref. 1)

Reference 1. Capone, D.W., et al. (Argonne Div.), personal communication National Laboratory, (June 1987). Material Science and Technology

Addendum

Military Research and Development

The information in Addendum I is from Department of Defense Superconductivity Research and Development (DSRD) Options: A Srudy of Possible Directions for Exploitation of Superconductivity in Military Applications, issued by the Department of Defense, July 1987. This plan was prepared by the ad hoc DSRD Working Group consisting of the following: Fernand Bedard, NSA; Tad Berlincourt, OSD; Gerry Borsuk, NRL; Charles Craig, OSD; Kenneth Davis, ON!?; John Dimmock, AFOSR; Arthur Diness. ONR; Edgar Edelsack, ONR; Donald Gubser, NRL; Dallas Hayes, RADC; John Hove, IDA; Bobby Junker, ONR; Michael Littlejohn, ARO; John MacCallum, OSD; Martin Nisenoff, NRL; Clyde Northrup, SDIO; Robert Pohanka, NRL; Richard Reynolds, DARPA; Kay Rhyne, DARPA; Michael Stroscio, ARO; Harold Weinstock, AFOSR; Nancy Welker, NSA; Ben Wilcox, DARPA; Stuart Wolf, NRL; Nicholas Yannon, RADC; and Richard Yesensky, SDIO.

169

170

Applied Superconductivity

I.

INTRODUCTION

The technology superconductivity

associated (LTS)

with

traditional is relatively to

low temperature mature. encircle in More than

materials each large

1000 LTS supermagnets, patient, resonance magnets, capability particle machines advanced. record levitate are are

enough

a human magnetic

now in routine imaging long,

use world-wide systems. provide largest Another the

lifesaving

medical each for

1000

superconducting beam bending Fermilab Tevatron

21 feet

particle the

the worlds

machine, of

accelerator. of unprecedented

Development efficiency train,

LTS rotating and power

electrical is highly speed it to

density the worlds which

An experimental

which

holds

(more

than 300 MPH), utilizes its tracks. use

LTS magnets (the most

allow

above

LTS sensors

sensitive and

known)

in widespread applications. is

in scientific, Less mature, of

technical, but highly

medical, impressive (the

defense

nonetheless, fastest). are for

the

technology

LTS electronics of these

worlds areas

The scientific the most part which define well

underpinnings understood, limits of

technology myriad are

and the their use

engineering known.

parameters

the

well

Addendum

I:

Military Research and Development

171

In contrast, superconducting in a very required largely off here, are is

for

the newly

discovered the

high

temperature underpinnings parameters exploitation on ultimate are payare

(HTS) materials state, of

scientific engineering realms of

rudimentary for definition

and the possible

unknown. risky

Accordingly,

prognostications plan,

at best,

and any program uncertainty. demonstration of which

such

as outlined this planned recognized reveal

subject includes

to great ambitious

Although goals,

program that full

it

is

characterization parameters Accordingly, at any given time to

the new HTS materials impose unforeseen

could

engineering limitations. governed

performance must be time rather

DOD HTS program

activities at that

by what makes sense a preconceived in this document exploring plan.

than by strict possible regarded rather projects

adherence outlined

Indeed, better

the be

might

as a map of

territory

worth

in more depth, scientific parameters are with

than as a predetermined is acquired,

itinerary.

As greater engineering

understanding determined, greater

and as sound

applications

and demonstrations

can be undertaken plans.

confidence

and according

to more rigid

Subject menu for Research that

to

the

above

limitations, of

this Defense

document

sets

forth

a five-year

Department

Superconductivity Its goal is at to assure

and Development

(DSRD) program. potential of HTS is

the revolutionary opportunity applications

realized

the both (JJ)

earliest small-scale electronics,

for

military (sensors,

applications

including

Josephson-junction hybrid

and superconductor-semiconductor

electronics)

172

Applied Superconductivity

and large storage, Included extensive and military (b) (c)

scale

applications guns, mention

(magnets,

rotating

machinery, weapons). and the

energy

electromagnetic below are (a)

and directed of the

energy

accomplishments of DOD in both and of scope of

program

management of

experience

science

applications of the

superconductivity for research, would the

ceramics,

an exposition several sections

rationale

DSRD, and

describing which

development,

demonstration in each beyond overall parts planned options of case existing

projects the

be included level of

in DSRD (including effort above and an (not

proposed relevant

additional program

activity

and funding),

and (d)

summary of this

DSRD budget provide

requirements. (a) an inventory

Two Supplements of ongoing and

report)

DOD superconductivity for- managing

activities

and (b)

some possible

and funding

DSRD activity.

It to

is

important the

to emphasize

at

the

outset

that

DSRD will of

seek

integrate

scientific

and technical

capabilities

academic, and is

industrial, to close

and government cooperative

laboratories coordination

in this with other

endeavor

pledged

superconductivity fact, the program

R&D activities, outlined here

both

federal

and private. as only a first

In

must be viewed shaped of

iteration, it will join

one which gracefully

must be further with programs

and adjusted federal

so that agencies

other

into

an integrated

federal

program.

DSRD will research

encompass

a spectrum

of

activity

extending

from

through

exploratory

development

to demonstration.

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

173

Contracts

will

be awarded activities,

for

efforts

ranging

from

single

investigator interdisciplinary collaborations scientists materials applications, comprise

through

multi-investigator

activities, among university,

to multi-organizational government, and industrial not only of the HTS the

and engineers. themselves, dictate but

The complexities, of the associated that

processing,

and of

altogether small

single-investigator of the total level of

awards effort.

a relatively

fraction

It reservoir

is

intended of

that

DSRD provide

a shared which their

DOD tech-base may be called upon

HTS knowledge managers this

and expertise of

by DOD program projects. literally, embryonic worldwide unrealistic be dictated program areas plan

in support proposed

separate should still not

development be taken in an too

However, for, stage. activity to claim

program

as already Moreover, are

emphasized, the intensity

HTS is

and the it for

diversity be

of

unprecedented, an optimum ahead of

and so script time.

would

that

DOD activity this of of

could

with

certainty

Accordingly, outline promise

should

be viewed

only if

as a broad the full

problem HTS is to

which

must be investigated Those aspects

be realized. necessarily at which

ultimately

addressed

by DSRD will measure by the relate for this pace

be determined understanding

in some considerable world-wide

emerges

in areas of at

which

most directly the Services introduction. intended only

to DOD applications. and for These NSA appear lists are

Examples on the necessarily of pages

applications the end of

incomplete spectrum

and are of

to be representative

the wide

174 AppliedSuperconductivity

potential there above

applications

areas. of

It

is

immediately

apparent all of

that the

are many domains DOD organizations It is if also

mutual profit

interest from

and that a well the

will evident

integrated listed have military important Similarly, very active

approach. applications, impact

that

many of

successfully

developed, sectors

will

in the

civil will

and commercial profit

as well. from the

DOD applications superconductivity NASA. Close

significantly being pursued those

programs

by DOE, NSF, DoC, and is already facilitated Far East. in effect, by DOD

coordination of foreign activities

with

efforts is being

and awareness overseas liaison

developments in Europe

and in the

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

175

POTENTIAL ARMY APPLICATIONS OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

SMALL-SCALE APPLICATIONS 1. Optics and Infrared for focal plane arrays-detection/signal detectors/AD 6

Sensors

image processing/&I devices

conversion/memory

Superconducting/semiconducting Novel light modulators electrooptic (spatial,

optical

mirrors

temporal)

Specialized

devices-merged hybrids/contacts hybrids for

superconductor/semiconductor Displays-semiconductor/superconductor command and control Homodyne/heterodyne Optical beam steering for lasers/wavelength Wave applications detection

systems

Q-switching 2. Microwave

shifters

and Millimeter

Sub-millimeter Millimeter Millimeter

wave sources wave integrated wave/microwave circuits components-amplifiers/ converters

mixers/detectors/processors/AD Low-loss transmission lines for

Superconducting wave sources Antenna arrays

waveguides

Q-switched

millimeter

and structures

176

Applied Superconductivity

3.

Novel

Superconductor/Semiconductor Devices

Superlattice

and

Quantum-Coupled 4. Magnetic

Components/Detectors

Mine neutralization Mine detection Magnetic components for RPV applications

RF-protected Magnetic 5. Fusing Devices

(EMP) devices for magnetic circuits

confinement

SQUIDs Josephson

(Magnetic junction

field (JJ)

detectors-fuses) electronic devices

Temperature/pressure 6. Specialized and Devices 7.

switching Agent Detection Materia 1s

Chemical/Biological (tentative) Guidance

Inertial/Geomagnetic

Systems

LARGE-SCALE APPLICATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Free Electron Lasers

Gyrotrons Field Aircraft Switches Power Supplies, (Helicopter) and energy Motors, Electrical Storage Generators, Batteries

Power Generation for DEW/High Power

Devices

Lasers/Nuclear 6. Electromagnetic

Simulations Guns/Launchers

Addendum

I : Military Research and Development

177

POTENTIAL

NAVY

APPLICATIONS

OF HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

SMALL-SCALE APPLICATIONS 1. Infrared Focal plane sensors

Multiplexers A/D converters Signal 2. Microwave Mixers Amplifiers Phase shifters lines processing and Millimeter Wave

Transmission 3.

SQUID Magnetometers Mine detection detection

Submarine Surveillance

ELF communications 4. Computing Massive Data Processing low-power signal processing

High-performance, LARGE-SCALE APPLICATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. Ship Propulsion for and Microwave Lasers and

Power and

Systems Millimeter Wave Generators

Magnets Free Energy

Electron Storage

Pulsed

Power

178

Applied Superconductivity

POTENTIAL AIR FORCE APPLICATIONS SUPERCONDUCTIVITY SMALL-SCALE APPLICATIONS 1. IR - Sensors Multiplexers Digitizers Signal 2. mm Waves processors

OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE

Receivers Antennas Wideband processors

A/D converters 3. Digital Computation High 4. Magnetic performance Sensing computing

LARGE-SCALE APPLICATIONS 1. Magnets for:

TWTs FELs Motors Generators Energy storage

Addendum

I:

Military Research and Development

179

POTENTIAL NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCYAPPLICATIONS OF HIGHTEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY ANALOG 1. Microwave/Millimeter Wideband Low-noise Multi-GHz Wave lines mixers processors arrays and amplifiers

mm wave transmission mm wave detectors, chirp transform small

High performance Multi-GHz 2. HF-VHF Very large analog

antenna

A/D conversion

signal range

multiplexing mixers

HF/VHF high Ultra-linear 3. Analysis Sampling

dynamic

A/D conversion

Equipment oscilloscope analyzer recorder for multi-gigabit recording

60GHz BW network Transient event

A/D converter 4. Sub H-F Wideband, All DIGITAL 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Back-plane Back-plane zero digital high

dynamic

range

ELF receivers

magnetic

sensors

resistance

power bus ** transmission cross-bar lines switch

dispersionless

Superconducting/semiconducting Multi-sensor Supercomputing multiplexers

180

Applied Superconductivity

II.

DOD SUPERCONDUCTIVITY ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND EXPERIENCE

Nearly to fund house

forty

years

ago,

DOD was the

first

among U.S. scale, both

Agencies in inBy and and

low temperature

research

on a broad contract

laboratories helium

and through liquefiers research for

research of

programs. universities, a vigorous

providing by providing productive experienced received third

a multitude funding,

related program U.S.

DOD pursued Today

in superconductivity.

most well have or either are second or

superconductivity

researchers research support, who did.

DOD superconductivity students of

generation

professors

Early bolometers

DOD superconductivity for the detection of

efforts infrared switches,

addressed radiation,

superconducting primitive

superconducting suspended F. Londons theory Shortly of

digital

computer

and magnetically basic science arena,

superconductor classic works

gyroscopes.

In the

on superfluidity were published

and on the under the

macroscopic aegis of DOD.

superconductivity

thereafter

DOD-funded isotopic

researchers dependence provided

made fundamental of the superconducting experimental of research on the

contributions transition basis for

on the temperature, development

and this of the

a firm theory

microscopic 1950s

superconductivity. microscopic theory

In the of

late

DOD-funded led which to the

superconductivity theory, Prize for

the

celebrated were years the DOD

Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer awarded funded the 1972 Nobel

authors over the to

in physics.

Also,

researchers

who made significant

contributions

Addendum

I: Military

Research and Development

181

steady

advance

of

the highest could

temperatures

at which

superconductivity

be observed.

In the contributions

early to

1960s the of

DOD-funded of

researchers Josephson

made essential junction (JJ) and to

science

the

the understanding superconductivity. device of studies

high-magnetic-field, The JJ studies

high-current-density superconducting sensors of such of signals

and other

made possible sensitivity. explored

magnetic

and electromagnetic potential detection

unprecedented has been

The military by DOD for of (ELF) There civil magnetic

sensors

submarines

and for

the detection

weak electromagnetic through have radio

from extremely (RF)

low frequencies region. to the

frequencies related

to the microwave

been

significant

technol.ogy-transfers

sector

in magnetocardiography, geological prospecting, and

in magnetoencephalography, in detectors for radio

in magnetic astronomy.

In the area made significant superconducting transmission processors.

of

superconducting in both circuits,

electronics digital

DOD programs

have

progress electronic lines

and analog the highest-quality signal progress

achieving

and the highest-speed DOD-IBM program of a very

electronic very

In a joint

significant but

was made toward computer. Inc., based this

development

compact

very-high-speed firm, Hypres,

Subsequent

DOD contracts

with

a small

demonstrated

ultra-high-speed more-stable fastest

superconducting materials. sampling

electronics A spin-off of now

on high-performance activity is

the worlds

oscilloscope,

182

AppliedSuperconductivity

available high-speed find use

commercially semiconducting in military

as a diagnostic circuits,

tool most of

for

development will

of

which

ultimately

systems.

DOD has also large-scale

been

at

the

forefront technology. particle

in a number of

aspects

of

superconductivity cavity resonator under

The pioneering accelerator at Stanford on a of heavy the

superconducting University small

was developed ship the

a Navy contract. the

Moreover, feasibility for

test-bed

Navy has demonstrated and motors gears

superconducting and cumbersome high-RPM power needed very to drive

generators reduction from the

as replacements

as a means for gas turbine to

transferring the

a shipboard ships

low-RPM power program a

propellor.

In an Air

Force

lightweight,

ultra-high-power-density and tested

superconducting to provision of

generator electrical large-scale required provided advanced

was developed power for

as an approach energy very high

airborne application millimeter

directed the

weapons. magnetic tubes are

In another fields were essential guidance, for and

military for gyrotron

wave generating Such tubes

by superconducting microwave

magnets.

and millimeter Parallel have led

wave surveillance, commercial to use of large-scale

communications superconductivity magnets systems

systems. efforts

superconducting medical for imaging public can DOD

in the now-ubiquitous and in prototype applications. origins

magnetic

resonance

electric All of

generators these civil

suitable applications to early

power grid trace their

in one way or another R&D.

insightful

investments

in superconductivity

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

183

Cited efforts

above

are

just

a few examples

of

the

very

vigorous

DOD

to provide, which

by means of cannot

superconductors,

military means. widespread primarily heretofore. pursued to The

capabilities fact use that

be achieved has not systems which this

by conventional to date is achieved

superconductivity military

in operational of

attributable required

the degree In an effort

refrigeration to mitigate of efficient

has been

obstacle, refrigeration development

DOD has

actively

the development elegant example,

systems. of a miniature expansion

In one very

DOD funded which

refrigerator, cold this region

for are all

the heat

exchanger,

orifice,

and

contained refrigerator

in a thumbnail-size has not the earlier use yet

chip. achieved of

Al though the very

micro-miniature

low temperatures superconducting semiconductor cooling of

required devices infrared it

for is

generation for cooling

finding

sensors speed this

in missile

guidance chips.

systems

and for the era find

the highest

semiconductor remarkable little

Now that

HTS has arrived, use with

refrigerator

will

widespread Indeed, carried

superconducting tests with

sensors

and electronics. have already been

successful out.

HTS materials

On a broader the myriad assiduously to fruition. superconductivity promise of the

scale,

the

era

of

HTS offers applications,

the

potential pursued will so

that

superconducting by DOD over the

military past

forty-odd of

years

finally

come in

With a vast DOD is novel

reservoir well poised

knowledge

and experience the new-found

to exploit

HTS materials.

184

Applied Superconductivity

III.

DOD CERAMIC PROCESSING ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND EXPERIENCE

The new high thus exhibit

temperature the

superconductors

are

ceramics, and

and

many of ceramics

same properties special need

as structural processing

electronic for both

- brittleness, and the

requirements and exploit utilization. on and

bulk

and films,

to understand to optimize position to

the defect, Fortunately its extensive

crystal, the

and micro

structures

DOD is

in an excellent expertise

capitalize science

past

and present

in ceramics

engineering.

In the Program,

late

1960s turned todays

DARPA Initiated out to be the technology

the major

Ceramic stimulus

Turbine for the

which of

development ceramics of

high

domestic its

structural in support of ceramics

industry.

DARPA has continued processing, aimed

involvement

research

on synthesis, composites three

and fabrication of

and ceramic Each of expertise ceramics, efforts the

at a variety strong

DOD applications. and technical of

services chemistry,

has

efforts

in the

processing

and characterization contractual

as exhibited in the

by comprehensive

and in-house

Navy (ONR, NRL), Air

Force

(AFOSR, AFML/AFWAL), and

Army (ARO, AMTL).

This experience basis for

extensive

materials

science

expertise a very

coupled sound

with

DODS

in superconductivity DOD to engage

provides

technical temperature

in a major

R&D effort

in high

superconductivity.

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

185

IV.

RATIONALE FOR PROGRAM SCOPE OF DSRD

The primary materials applications recognized required directly,

emphasis

of

DSRD is

on exploitation will

of

the new HTS execute it is

and so every with

effort

be made to However, period

directly that for

the new materials. a prolonged

in some instances of those

may be capabilities.

development instances, demonstrable will consist materials

the necessary in which

processing there is

In some such urgency for

considerable path to in proven

capability, of executing

the

shortest the

demonstration lower-temperature executing it

development

initially It is

and then pertinent prior

subsequently also to that the some DOD

in HTS materials. R&D activities addressing and in HTS. conventional

superconductivity of HTS are currently

initiated issues It is both

discovery

in conventional that some of those

superconductivity efforts using

essential

superconductivity means for later sensors testing

be continued concepts and

as the

most rapid architectures course the

and efficient which will

be executed

in HTS materials. electronic the most lowest easily

Of

lowest-noise will always

and lowest-noise at

components temperatures, fabricated

have

to be operated efforts

and so continued stable materials will

on the

continue

to be appropriate

for

such applications.

Included of

within

the

scope

of

DSRD are for still

basic higher both

characterizations temperature planar

known HTS materials,

searches

superconductors,

approaches

to processing

for

186

Applied Superconductivity

structures

(films),

and for bodies,

bulk

materials

(wires,

cables, of of

rods,

bars,

monolithic

and tapes), advancement

determinations and exploitation electronics, electronics), applications guns, a clear

physical small-scale

and chemical applications

behavior, (sensors,

superconducting hybrid to large-scale

superconducting-semiconducting technology motors, energy which generators, weapons). relates

and the (magnets, and directed rationale for

shielding, In each

electromagnetic there is

instance

DOD presence.

For all essential fully

applications for

both

small-scale that

and large-scale, candidate materials

it be

is

optimum utilization with state, regard

characterized defect of both

to composition,

crystallographic
Also

structure, knowledge electrical, data are

and microstructure.

required

is

normal-state thermal, only

and superconducting-state and mechanical for for higher properties. engineering building in the Such

magnetic, essential but not are

as the basis as well of still

development, search for

essential capable

theory

materials

performance.

Such a search component unlikely applications instructive of that DSRD. the have insight,

for

new HTS materials In a field so fast for

is

also

an essential as HTS, it is most

moving

optimum materials yet been the identified.

the myriad Two analogies

potential provide electronics and large-

progrossion

in semiconductor small-scale In semiconductor

and the progressions scale superconductivity

in earlier-generation applications.

Addendum

I: Military

Research and Development

187

electronics was soon

the

earliest

material

of

choice silicon

was germanium, remains

which in

supplanted of

by silicon. there

While are

supreme

the majority especially compound structures

applications

many special

applications, where only

ultra-high-speed semiconductors can provide with the

military special

applications superlattice performance. progression to niobium

and quantum well In small-scale was from nitride. soft In was from to

required the

superconductivity materials large-scale niobium like

(electronics) lead to nobium

and then (magnets) alloys

superconductivity to molybdenum-rhenium alloys,

the

progression stannide

to niobium to todays the

niobium-zirconium material,

and finally alloys. of

workhorse above the fact are regions if of that

niobium-titanium

Add to

the compositions highly complex,

and structures and it becomes

the new HTS materials that extensive

evident space

compositional to be assured

and structural that we have

must now be explored the In the

we are for of use the in a

identified

optimum materials meantime, find several wide

the many and varied HTS materials variety of already near-term

applications. discovered applications.

will

doubtless

While other

DOD will

surely

benefit

significantly

from of

efforts materials

of

organizations

(DOE, NSF, DoC, NASA) in areas theory, it and search is essential arenas. for

characterization, temperature substantive DSRD activity characterization,

high-transitionthat DSRD itself the that are include of

materials, activity is

in these

Much of driven activities

remainder DSRD essential

so highly theory,

applications and search

as a

188

Applied Superconductivity

means

to

provide

focus

in directions Weight

of

greatest are

perceived paramount

impact in many

on DOD applications. DOD applications stressing well

considerations of NASA),

<as in those related hardness,

and DOD has other and thermal dictate that shock, DoDas

requirements

to mechanical all of which

as to radiation characterization

specific

investigations

be pursued.

In a similar processing will

manner,

DSRD activities attuned is used science processing of science However, will

in the

area

of

materials foci.

be specially here materials ceramic

to DOD applications in the full sense of

The term processing meaning within role the of

its

and engineering in the

discipline.

The crucial inve,stigation

successful cannot base is be does not

and exploitation A generic this field.

HTS materials and engineering the lead outlook

overemphasized. yet that This which exist for

encouraging overall. activities especially (and other) activities for

R&D in ceramic has been the

processing case for

to progress processing

defense-related the past

have been

pursued

over

two decades, gas turbine

applications engines, will

such armor,

as radomes,

IRdomes, Thus,

and transducers. studies of precursor etc. crystal

DSRD processing

encompass

materials, Underlying chemistry,

densification, science compositional materials methods phase

deposition, investigations equilibria, compatability,

crystal will

growth, address

optimum routes and protective for producing state,

to materials measures. material state of

synthesis, Most the

importantly, desired

and mechanisms structure,

composition, in the

defect

surface

and properties

Addendum

I:

Military

Research and Development

189

geometty

required of the

and in conjunction required the full will characteristics benefits be closely but, of

with

non-superconducting are to be emphasized. the DSRD those be of of

materials

So as to realize processing other

synergism, coordinated as noted unique

activities and of

with

agencies

industry, determined

above,

will

focussed DOD.

in directions

by the

requirements

The high advancement provide materials. because

accomplishment of superconducting base for

and extensive sensor

experience

of

DOD in the

and electronics with

technology the new HTS However,

a firm

further to further

DOD exploitation that exploitation.

DSRD seeks commercial (e.g.,

electronics-technology-based IBM, AT&T Bell in HTS, it simply then Laboratories) might, for at first

industrial have undertaken

organizations aggressive be argued complete

R&D programs that


such

consideration, to

DOD should R&D and only RED results.

wait step

those

organizations the

in and utilize is not

commercial

organizations however, interest, requirements For example, or, for

This are

approach

appropriate, of overlapping

although

there

significant sensor

areas

DOD has many specialized which commercial only firms

and electronics to satisfy. radar

have no incentive civil radar

one need to

compare

to military

alternatively, processors

consider

acoustic

anti-submarine counterparts) It

warfare to appreciate is pertinent

signal

(which

have no civil

the unique

demands made by military

requirements.

190

Applied Superconductivity

that of

DOD has

for

many years and other

funded

effort

at

the

National

Bureau

Standards

(DoC)

laboratories electronics.

to address

specialized

DOD needs

in superconducting

DSRD also applications, energy-density storage for

includes which

substantial from motors pulsed

activity

related for for

to

large

scale highenergy

arise

DOD requirements and generators; power lasers,

compact magnetic for

electric for

systems;

electrical free electron guns; nearly

systems;

magnets; beam

compact for

accelerators, electromagnetic shown that its

and particle magnets.

systems; Experience application

and for every such

gyrotron

has

magnet-type and fabricated configuration. with Thus the

requires

own custom material

designed

superconducting there science field fully is

winding

and winding

need within and technology

DSRD for of

significant

involvement

high-current-density, cables, that boast and the this of bars is the

high-magneticand the like. It is

superconducting recognized,

wires,

however, margin,

an area greatest

in which experience,

DOE can, the albeit very close

by a considerable largest often past for

investment,

greatest

accomplishment, Accordingly, be maintained,

different between

systems

applications.

collaboration effort will

DSRD and DOE will

and every

be made to profit

from DOE experience.

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

191

V.

DSRD PROGRAM WORKSTATEMENTS

A.

Characterization

of

and Search

for

High Temnerature

Superconducting

Materials

While possible ultimate is

there

is

sound of this

justification HTS it is

for much too

excitement early

regarding the

applications impact of

to perceive

remarkable will

new technology. early utilization

The challenge of while later first at the

to chart

a course

which

allow

generation

HTS materials vigorously may offer A very is

in near-term pursuing still the

applications, search for

same time very materials which

generation

higher

performance in materials Such a program are design such and

characteristics. characterization will provide

aggressive of

program these Also essential

key to both data

efforts.

the hard parameters

needed. are

to be determined for successful same time,

engineering of high will

which

performance enable and thus concepts,

devices

and systems.

At the

data

comparisons will

to be made with to which the

existing of

theories new toward

models, theories,

contribute and models

development chart

help

the path

still-high-performance

later-generation

materials.

In what follows manifold of

we catalog

(by no means completely) measurements to the which are

the or,

characterization least, of pertinent

essential

at the very utilization

successful the search

engineering for still-higher-

HTS materials

and to

192

Applied Superconductivity

performance large

materials. first

The complexity generation

of

this

manifold, deserve pertinent in

and the

number of taken which

materials

which of

attention, activity complexity. earlier,

together, prodigious

represent

a matrix

is

in magnitude

and humbling matrix of

its the

The corresponding or traditional, at a slower

characterization class of

for

low temperature pace over

superconductors of a

was explored century, emerged

a period

three-quarters which painstakingly

and the

corresponding a road

knowledge map for

base

has provided

charting

the

investigations

of

the new HTS materials.

Clearly, will of

because

of

the

intense

worldwide systematic planned

activity

in HTS, it courses Hence, is a broad only the

be difficult exploration

indeed no matter

to execute how carefully will

and optimum in advance. (a)

the most effective highly spectrum on selected applications follow directly variety mentioned such flexible, of

program (b) samples

doubtless

be one which modest focuses

at a relatively space, and (c)

level

characterization aspects of which to are

in depth to

perceived sponsoring sharp for

as most

pertinent

concern

the

organization. on aspects electronics,

DSRD will which most

a course,

directing

focus sensors,

impact of

DOD requirements

and the

high-magnetic-field, elsewhere in this

high-current-density proposal.

applications

Listed

below

are

the

types

of

measurements will

and experimental to achieve

and theoretical

investigations

which

be undertaken

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

193

progress

in materials search for

optimization,

in engineering

applications,

and in the

still-higher-temperature

materials:

1.

Transition of

temperature. crystallographic pressure.

T,,

as a function structure, Tc data clues define the of

of

chemical

composition, composition, temperature materials.

isotopic operating

and of ranges

and provide

for

search

for

higher

T,

2.

Enernv nan.

2A , as a function Also fluctuations

of

temperature,

magnetic of of (or

field,

and orientation. These are essential

as a function for a host

temperature. sensor and

design

parameters based

electronics tunneling anisotropic, materials also with

applications phenomena. complexities processing, If,

on quasi-particle the energy into Large

Giaever) highly

as expected, will

gap is design, anisotropy not

be introduced

and manufacturing. for isotropic novel device

might possible

provide

opportunities

concepts

more conventional gaps of will of

superconductors. suggest voltage that

The larger HTS sensors than are and

energy

the HTS materials operate earlier at higher lower

electronics characteristic

levels

temperature

superconductors.

3.

Magnetic

field

nenetration field,

denth.h,

as a function These

of data begin

temperature, determine

magnetic

and orientation. thickness thin-film

at what specimen

phenomena

194

Applied Superconductivity

to appear.

This

must be known for sensors, electronic

successful circuits,

design

of

superconducting magnets.

and film-based

4.

Josenhson of field,

junction junction

(JJ)

tunneling

and weak-link current,

nhenomena voltage,

as

functions magnetic

structure,

temperature, orientation,

crystallographic radiation. Also All of

and incident noise as a for

electromagnetic function design of of

device/structure this is essential (memory, electromagnetic local

temperature.

information logic, signal

JJ superconducting SQUID magnetic voltage standards,

electronics sensors,

processors), sensors,

radiation oscillators.

and voltage-tuned

5.

Interaction resistance at zero

of

HTS materials of the

with

electromagnetic state

fields. is there only are

The

zero

property

superconducting

correct small,

frequency. electrical which

At finite losses

frequencies (especially performance

but detectable, voltages) devices or power to the

at large of from 60 Hz

oscillating

influence

the

superconducting (for machinery

operating applications)

at finite up to energy gap, the

frequencies frequencies gap of material

corresponding (At frequencies

superconducting than the

the material. exhibits

greater properties.)

normal-state functions etc.), of

These configuration

measurements (thin film,

must be made as wire, annealing, conductor, etc.

material

processing

parameters,

microstructure,

Addendum I: Military Research and Development

195

6.

Interactions These devices

of

HTS materials

and will

devices explore

with the highly

oDtica1 feasibility developed of for yet devices a

radiation. photonic

investigations analagous

to those structures.

already This

semiconductor-dielectric step which further to explore of

will

be carried

concepts

for

electronic-photonic

make use

semiconductor-dielectric-superconductor

structures.

7.

Thermodynamic

DroDerties, as functions

viz., of

specific

heat

and

magnetization, field. state extent

both

temperature measures of is

and magnetic superconducting of the

Such investigations condensation to which energy,

provide which,

in turn, might

a measure to

inhomogeneities high-electric-current energy to its is

be introduced densities

stabilize magnetic of merit

dissipationless fields. for

at high index

Condensation relative

thus

an important for

a material

suitability

supermagnet

applications.

a.

Critical

magnetic

fields

(viz.: field;

lower

critical critical lattice limit of

field, field, phase; surface and of

H,.., H,z, and

or

magnetic-flux-penetration-onset or upper-field sheath critical limit field, all These operating applications. of

upper vortex

the Abrikosov Hc3,

or upper-field of the

superconductivity) orientation. temperature variety of

as functions define for

temperature available

fields

magnetic-field materials typically

and in a

regimes

superconducting supermagnets

For example,

196 AppliedSuperconductivity

operate while

at fields

of

the

order

of

one-half

to

two-thirds

of

Hc2,

superconducting phase such

cavity that

resonators

must operate vortices are

in the absent.

Meissner

supercurrent

9.

Approaches

to controlled suitable for

introduction pinning

of

material vortices as a

inhomogeneities means for magnetic

supercurrent

stabilizing fields. This

high-electric-current is the key to Features the

densities attainment as precipitates, of

at high superior ordered

supermagnet defects,

performance. will

such

and voids

be considered.

10.

Determination

of

the

maenetic-field/currentsurface operating this for promising for supermagnet in a

density/temperature materials. supermagnet

critical the inside

In practice must lie

point

a material

surface.

11.

Mitigation which conditions, into

of occur

magnetic under loss

flux various factors

flow.

creep,

and

iUlllDS.

These

effects, state taken

transient

and quasi-steadyand must be special to

are

in supermagnets This area

account because and flux

in magnet the level

design. of is thermal of the

requires

attention, flux creep

activation order than of at

contributing times helium are liquid to

jumping nitrogen

twenty liquid

greater

at liquid

temperature if

temperature. large current

Accordingly, densities

the new HTS materials magnetic fields at

support nitrogen

at high

Addendum I: Military Research and Development

197

temperatures large serve enough

their

superconducting insertion sites. of

condensation very deep

energies potential

must be wells to

to allow

as vortex

trapping

12. the fields

Mechanical interactions give rise

and thermomechanical of to winding large purposes, (by currents mechanical data are

aspects. with

In electromagnets magnetic for shear,

generated

stresses. required

Hence,

engineering

design

on tensile,

and compressive techniques), cycled stresses, brittle operating become

moduli

quasi-static stresses. leading of

and by acoustic Because to periodic supermagnets applications for high well and are of

and on failure in field, factors materials. stress

periodically fatigue ceramic

are

importance,

particularly with exceptionally may very

For materials corrosion

temperatures important. Both

effects

in magnet

applications, materials form with

and in sensor may be used other

electronic either

applications, with or

superconducting in composite

in contact

materials. in must be

Hence to achieve engineering obtained insulating. compatability to fatigue for

adequate

thermomechanical thermal

conpatability expansion data

designs, all

appropriate

components, because

superconducting, perfect thermal

normal, expansion

and

However,

can never effects which of

be achieved, stem from course

consideration thermal cycling.

must be given These (magnet) and

considerations small-scale

apply (sensors

to both

large-scale applications.

and electronics)

198 AppliedSuperconductivity

13. input (in

Thermal to both addition

and magnetocaloric small-scale to those are

effects.

All

sources

of

thermal systems

and large-scale already required discussed on thermal such data

superconducting above)

must be determined. and thermal thermal removal. effects possibility refrigerator, As in

In addition, diffusivity. design

data

conductivity will permit heat

Taken altogether which of

engineering aspect

provides activity,

for

adequate

an ancillary

this deserve

magnetocaloric on the

the new HTS materials that they could provide

consideration for

a basis serves

a magnetization

in which Prepared

the HTS material in highly cool

as the working

substance.

homogeneous upon being

form high-magnetic-field magnetized.

superconductors

14.

Electromigration the combination can lead

effects. of high

In conventional current density of

microelectronic and elevated materials. in small-scale The and

circuits

temperature possible large-scale

to destructive for such

migration effects

onset

conditions

both will

superconducting

applications

be investigated.

15.

Atomic

level at the

structure. atomic level

Full is

characterization essential toward the for

of

HTS of superior

materials existing

optimization of

materials

and for The full

progress of

development very

new materials. bulk and surface scattering

powers are

following x-ray

effective

approaches crystal

required:

crystallography, transmission nuclear

neutron electron

structure electron

determinations, microscopy,

microscopy,

scanning

Addendum

I: Military Researchand Development

199

magnetic

resonance,

electron diffraction,

spin

resonance, and scanning

Auger

spectroscopy,

low energy spectroscopy.

electron

tunneling

16.

Chemistry.

In-depth

crystal

chemistry

plays of

the the

central complex are

role

in materials

synthesis

and in the diagrams factors

understanding useful of

compositional-phase be found. correlation issues stability, materials other Chemical of

in which are also

new materials in the key to

to

importance and are

structure with

with chemical

properties interactions, of

design coatings, other

concerned

protective both with

and compatability and with liquid,

HTS materials and gas is

vapor,

ambients.

Oxygen and to

atomic the

diffusion

information

critically for

needed fixing

determine stoichiometry

time/temperature during annealing,

requirements as well

as to predict Research is preferred,

the

long

term chemical crystals studies diagram

compositional

stability. polycrystals

on single but some

or single-phase on multiphase and chemical are phase vital.

polycrystals reaction This

may be warranted. determinations include It is oxide

Phase and as well to as rare

kinetics should studies. kinetics with

compilations earth metal

equilibria reaction

important the will ceramic

establish

chemical

between which they

superconductors during processing

and materials

be in contact

and subsequent

use.

17.

Effects

of

ionizing have

radiation. to operate

In a number of in ionizing

applications

HTS materials

will

radiation

200 AppliedSuperconductivity

environments. explore, radiation electronic way to high and permanent radiation

It

is

thus

essential account

in engineering of the whole

designs range of

to

understand, effects, circuits flux

and take from with

transient

upsets

in superconducting damage, producing of all the

no resulting effects is also

permanent capable the of

radiation

massive employing

damage.

There

possibility desired

processing

as a means for

enhancing

properties

in some instances.

18.

Experimental

comparison theory. GLAG type

with

Gintburn-Landau-Abrikosov-Gorkov to date suggests that the design be new

(GLAG) macroscoDic HTS materials and development undertaken with with are

Evidence II

superconductors.

However,

activities confidence have H,l, of been H,2,

on HTS devices until carried and H,g; state; full out.

and systems of

cannot

comparisons This will of

experiment

GLAG theory of

involve the of supercurrent the Ginzburgstate

measurements vortex lattice

observation determinations temperature

the mixed from

Landau kappa value parameters resistivity,&); properties. anticipated, dependent& coherence critical for (electronic

transition specific

and normal

heat

and normal-state of thin of of film the

electrical

and determinations Some necessary a., (which provision will

superconducting theory can be temperature depth, manifold of the need

modifications for effects alter

a strongly

markedly

penetration the whole and most because

length, fields of

and kappa, and film electronic

and hence

properties), anisotropy

probably of the

inclusion

layer-like

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

201

or

linear have

character profound

of

HTS materials. on the

This

latter utility

characteristic of the new

could

impact

ultimate

materials.

19.

Experimental of

comoarison

with of the

microscopic

theories.

Tests

of (BCS)

the degree microscopic importance. observed that

compatability with

Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer are of critical in the suggests may not from may help of

theory

the new HTS materials absence of of an isotope

The apparent transition

shift

temperature pairing

some HTS materials in these cases

the electron mediated. scattering this issue. which absorption

interaction spectra,

be

phonon neutron resolve

Phonon energy and from Other

as determined tunneling, critical

quasi-particle particularly

to the for

hallmarks its

BCS theory acoustic times. materials formalism, search for

invite

experimental nuclear of the

tests magnetic intrinsic

are

predictions relaxation the the

and for

resonance nature of of

Such investigations will contribute of

new HTS BCS the

importantly new theoretical

to extensions concepts,

to creation

and to

still-higher-temperature

materials.

20.

Electronic-energy-band

structure

and other theoretical

normal-state calculations required as

considerations. and corresponding means both structures directions experimental

Electronic-energy-band experimental

determinations of the

are

to provide which for give

understanding rise

remarkable

electronic

to HTS and to

suggest

promising value on the structure,

further

HTS search.

Of particular the

side,

as means to determine

electronic

202 AppliedSuperconductivity

are of

measurements cyclotron

of

photoelectron and of

spectroscopy magneto-oscillatory The latter so that but the into it

and,

if

possible, such

resonance

phenomena two types Landau level that at of

as the de Haas-van experiments will require than

Alphen

effect.

low temperatures thermal energy, fields of

spacings such might such that

be larger

appears of

low temperatures be required cyclotron be revealed. materials effect, are

magnetic

order

100 Tesla state can

to drive resonance Also

the materials and the of interest of

the normal Alphen effect

de Haas-van for

in fact

characterizing

the HTS the Hall

measurements thermoelectric normal-state to the very

the magnetoresistance, effects. properties,

and the

Not to be overlooked which of may relate HTS materials, because of of the of are

among pertinent significantly the normal-state presence magnetic interactions of rare

special properties,

behavior which,

magnetic earth If

ions, not

may include recognized

a variety

types

ordering. between

and not

understood, states and if

such

magnetically-ordered to failed they designs. may offer

superconductivity such effects are

could fully

lead

Conversely, useful

understood

new design

alternatives.

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

203

Provosed

Budnet

CHARACTERIZATION

OF AND SEARCH FOR HTS MATERIALS

&!!
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 10 Category FY88 10 0 0 16 m 13 3 0 15 m 9 6 0 16 FY91 8 8 0 14 FY92 6 Total 46 25 0 71

204

Applied Superconductivity

B.

Processing

1.

Introduction. from

The present the revolutionary major advances attempts on the

stage

of

HTS technology from Zurich in

is 1986 and This compounds, (or has

derivative

report in Houston to exploit

the subsequent technology i.e., rare been

and elsewhere. the l-2-3

generally based

materials earth) assumed will oxide

copper

oxide-barium of this

oxide-yttrium program it

system. these

For purposes oxide materials,

that

often

as polycrystalline possible these use materials (It in nearwhich is

ceramics,

be the

ones

focussed

upon for it is

term and mid-term we must learn recognized Thus, other it is

applications.

Thus, process in a very that

how to synthesize, HTS is still

and fabricate. early stage of not

that

development. involve

by no means clear classes or even as well.) inductile such

future

R&D will ceramics, to are

materials

as nonoxidic

intermetallics, process brittle, constraints fabrication discussion these

polymers.

We may have

learn

how to

The new HTS materials behavior often

typic,ally special for their

and this

places available

upon the modes of into is useful

processing

components to represent recognition for meeting

and devices. the of these flexible processing needs.

The present beginnings R&D needs for and of

intended

what must be an ongoing appropriate solutions

The strongest engineering domain

paradigm is

addressed of

in the

materials

science

and

definition

structure-property

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

205

relationships consideration. material, atomic

for

each

particular says

materials that the

system structure

under of a or

This

paradigm size

at any relevant in nature, of that

scale, to

whether its

surface, defines

bulk the

and appropriate material. features

end-use

properties that such

A less-well arise from material. of

recognized the effects

paradigm of

is

structural used refers used with to

processing

operations processing which is

a particular the combination

In general, and art a

understanding

to develop

and reliably a desired

prepare

(manufacture) (structure,

materials composition the size

product

displaying state).

character processing

and defect of and also alter size. this

Ceramic

must recognize at every relevant

sensitivity scale,

character the

to processing effects of

control

operations bodies

meant to of

remove material, large or small

surfaces,

or produce

or specimens

These technology reliability dependent during joined,

processing of ceramic

operations materials,

profoundly with

influence cost is

manufacturing and strongly

derivative technology

concerns. on techniques,

Manufacturing processes, of

very

and operations are densified,

developed shaped, envisioned, (useful for

R&D on how materials and finished.

interest on the of

Depending with

application thin films of

one must be concerned electronic configurations applications). crystal materials,

deposition devices) magnet

and electrooptic (useful Also of for

or making and other methods

more monolithic

power handling for preparing single

concern in bulk

are

both

and in film

forms.

The processing

206

Applied Superconductivity

methods separately

are

somewhat below.

different

for

these

cases

and are

considered

2.

Thin

Film Materials.

Devices

and Circuits

a.

Introduction.

The requirements devices and circuits Of high films of

for are

processing similar are to

thin those

film used in to

superconducting the semiconductor deposit materials ability thin of

industry. thick)

priority

the

ability

(and

metallic

and insulating properties, of alternating radiation sensors in and the metal or to

defined

character multilayered

and controlled structures

to process

and insulator amplify either

to be used the

to detect

electromagnetic from these

or process analog for

signals format.

obtained
A

or digital electronic are

successful must yield

circuit chips

fabrication whose

technology characteristics durable, periods experience extent,

circuits

controllable

and reproducible

and which

are

stable, of storage gained

corrosion

resistant,

and can withstand Based and, to

extended on a lesser

at or near in the

room temperature. industry

semiconductor

from earlier,

lower-operating-temperature and logical superconducting approach electronic in general

superconducting for developing integrated However effort of a

technologies, viable circuit its

a systematic

high-temperature technology

can be conceived will

principle. long-term

successful

development magnitude.

demand a very

considerable

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

207

Electronic multilayered alternating several

integrated structures depositions processing into

circuit consisting of

technology of

Often

requires

as many as a dozen and insulating layer is layers deposited, and it with HTS the of of is

conducting

dozen

steps.

As each geometry

then processed the next electronic deposition compatible these films, layer.

a desired to

and then

overcoated base not the the for only

Thus,

establish

a technology

integrated of the

circuits,

one must consider film, but also for

superconducting layers

deposition processing required preparation the the

insulating both

and techniques

superconducting challenge,

and insulating, however, is

into the

geometries. of multilayered deposition properties

The greatest structures

in a controlled of a given deposited layer

manner so that does not degrade

and processing of the previously

layers.

In addition, areas that do not

superconducting necessarily

films require

will the

have

applications of to

in

preparation film thereby

junctions. coat

For example,

a superconducting structure its Q. the as to shielded

can be used reducing its

a high-frequency losses

resonant

resistive also act

and enhancing both

Superconducting effects shield regions. of

films

can

as shields

to reduce as well inside

ambient

fields regions may be for In these of

on sensitive from fields used to form

electronics originating

surrounding Films

the high-current, energy

high-critical-field storage, and power to the

conductors transmission. designs of

magnets, fact, systems

machinery,

there that

may be some new approaches take into account the

special

inherent

character

208

Applied Superconductivity

these

materials.

The requirements different electronics, single areas from

for the

these

devices

are for

in some

ways significantly superconductive other than

requirements they have

in that crystal and long

to be prepared and must be Traditional

on

the usual over large

substrates lengths. have the

deposited thin-film past

vacuum in the

deposition

techniques, structures

however, using

been

used

to produce

similar

more conventional

lower-transition-temperature

materials.

b.

Thin-Film

Denosition. superconducting as thin

Because materials films is

the

recently are

discovered

highsystems, a the

temperature their variety processing

four-component Accordingly,

deposition of

a challenge.

techniques of HTS films

should

be explored the

and evaluated

for

including

following:

Sputtering Thermal

(DC, RF, magnetron, evaporation evaporation

etc.)

Electron-beam Laser

evaporation vapor phase phase deposition

Chemical Liquid Vapor Laser,

epitaxy epitaxy and other growth (RTA) techniques to optimize techniques for assisting/

ultraviolet, film anneal

enhancing Rapid thermal

film

properties film precursor

Organometallic

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

209

These substrates crystal possible

techniques

should

be tried film of

using

single

crystal in the appropriate from substrate treatment materials In

to grow the structure. chemical during

desired

epitaxially film properties

Degradation diffusion deposition and the use barriers

arising the

and interaction or during of different may have

between post

and the film

annealing substrate

must be monitored, or, possibly,

diffusion

to be considered. ceramic materials,

addition,

certain sol-gel initial year for

techniques

associated techniques

with

such as the during the

and powder phases it of

should

be explored completion few offer of

this

program. become

At the

the first techniques

or two, depositing

should these

apparent

which

high-temperature

materials

the greatest

potential.

C.

Materials are

Characterization deposited, they

of

Films.

As thin

films

of

these

materials physically, Specifically, thin-film

must be extensively

characterized,

chemically, the materials

electrically

and magnetically. or properties include: of the

following which

characteristics should

be determined

Composition Defect Crystal state structure

Microstructure Single-phase Chemical Surface versus multi-phase nature storage behavior

stability character

and room temperature and morphology

210

Applied Superconductivity

Mechanical Adhesion to

properties substrates

including

thermal

shock

response

Electrical include

and magnetic

properties

which

should

be measured

Critical Critical Critical

temperature current magnetic

(T,) (J,) (H,-, of J, H,2, H,3) fields behavior lengths

density fields

Temperature Microwave

dependences and millimeter

and critical

wave electrical and coherence

Superconducting Superconducting Normal state

penetration energy conductivity

gap and phonon

spectrum

These

chemical,

physical,

electrical, with the the

and magnetic fabrication Attempts of

properties

must be studied used for

and correlated of

processing should film be made to preparation

the preparation the relevant

films.

optimize techniques.

properties

as functions

d.

Device to

and Structure film deposition films

Processing. techniques, into thin-film

Once clear efforts stripes, to produce

focus

has been

given

should loops,

be accelerated and from HTS

to process Josephson materials

these devices. include:

The techniques

structures

Addendum

I:

Military Research and Development

211

Wet chemical Reactive ion

etching etching or sputter other nuclear lift-off etching particle) bombardment

Ion milling Proton Use of (or

(modified)

lithography

These

techniques

must be characterized resultant as well regions materials

with

respect

to

their

controllability reliability possible with other

and the

reproducibility, size definition,

and uniformity, damage to untreated (insulating)

as feature of film, for

and compatibility integrated circuit

layers

required

fabrication.

In addition layers (for

it

will

be necessary nitrides, one another. include:

to

explore etc.) for

various isolating

insulating

example, layers layers

oxides, from

metallization insulating

The properties

of

these

should

Pinhole Prepared

free

to

insure

positive that is

isolation compatible with those used for

by technique

preparing Thermal

superconducting comparable

films to superconducting films

expansion

Good adhesion Good integrity HTS film

to HTS films of films over the edge of the underlying

212 AppliedSuperconductivity

Sufficiently to facilitate structures

different selective

etching

rates

than of

that

for

HTS films

processing

multi-layered

The selection depend of very

of

candidate on the which will

insulating chemical

layer

materials

will

sighficantly T, this films,

and physical during

properties the early

the high of

be determined

portions

program.

Due to difficulty required achieved etching metal metal will of

the nature in forming

of

these

HTS materials, electrical contact as ion prior

there contacts

may be some with the

dependable Small

small

resistance. techniques of or,

resistance milling

can be or sputtera normal some that surface the

by various the surface layer the will

such

the HTS film possibly,

to depositing or

contact

by diffusing contact. on the

implanting

to provide be selected

low resistance depend strongly

The technique nature of the

the as-prepared stages of the

films,

which

must be determined

during

early

program.

Two types weak link primary requires is

of

Josephson

structures

should in a thin

be explored. film device sample. is that

The The it

a narrow of

constriction this type film of

advantage only

Josephson deposition.

a single of of

thin

The primary exhibits only some of very the

disadvantages the properties stringent

the weak link an ideal are

are

that

it

Josephson placed

junction

and that of

requirements

on the dimensions

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

213

constriction.

Typically,

the width or less than

and length

of

the It

constriction is with the

must be of relatively desired

the easy

order to

one micrometer. weak link

fabricate However, is required,

individual if a circuit need

devices

dimensions. devices electrical places processing. very

containing to achieve example, on the which to

a number of reproducibility the critical and of the

weak link of device

the

characteristics, demanding The tunnel is

for

current, device

requirements iunction,

lithography all than two which metal,

can exhibit fabricate of

the Josephson weak link

phenomena,

more difficult junction

structure. regions

The tunnel separated

consists thin

superconducting can be either which of is of

by a very

barrier,

an insulator, the order of

a semiconductor, 1 to 10 nanometers

or a normal thick.

The tunneling is

a current

across

a superconductor-insulator on the coherence in the length electrode of

interface the

crucially A very

dependent short for

superconductor. implies the below

coherence high

length

materials inside length the

the need electrode the

quality of

superconductor the of order of

from deep a coherence

to a distance In the

surface.

case

the high the

T, materials, order of of 1.5 the

coherence

length which Thus, high

has been is it

estimated to the that

to be of lattice there

nanometers, material. to grow

comparable would appear

constant is with a crucial bulk

challenge

quality

electrode spacing in order is

material below the

properties

up to about crucial junctions problem with

one lattice to be solved high

surface.

The second tunnel high

to make high the

quality for

T, electrodes

requirement

substrate heat treatments

temperatures

or high

temperature

post-deposition

214

Applied Superconductivity

to

obtain

the high

transition

temperatures. temperatures for for

It the the of is

is

straightforward electrode

to use while

elevated elevated

processing processing

bottom top the or very

temperatures the top

counterelectrode barrier region

may degrade onto with clarify which the the

properties electrode of the

thin Only tunnel length

deposited.

experimentation junction will

fabrication

all-high-Tc the

how serious

an obstacle might

coherence the

and the elevated fabrication of high of

processing high quality

temperatures tunnel

be for both

junctions

with

electrodes

T, materials.

Once Josephson been fabricated,

tunnel the

junctions

and weak link

devices

have

following

characteristics

should

be studied:

The transition completed

temperature device energy

of

the

electrodes

and of

the

The superconducting temperature The sub-gap procedures The critical dependence Specific capacitance field current

gap of

the

device

and its

dependence leakage current and its dependence on processing

of

the

device

and its

temperature

of

the

junction of the critical stability current of the

The magnetic The chemical, Josephson

dependence

physical, device

and thermal

Addendum

I:

Military Research and Development

215

Document

the of the

variation

of

critical procedure

current

density

as a

function Determine techniques sectional critical

processing limits for of

currently devices

available with

device

processing

preparing and thus

minimum crossvalues of

areas current

exhibiting

minimal

and capacitance

In addition a variety signal of

to Josephson

devices,

electronic inductors,

circuits capacitors,

require filters,

signal etc.,

interconnects, which planes are

couplers,

fabricated

by separating thin film wires of or the

superconducting stripes insulating characteristics development tasks : of with

ground a thick

from narrow layer. layers

insulating superconducting the electronic

The thicknesses determine the

and the of these

electrical the

components. should include

Specifically, the following

components

Develop

superconductor-thick

insulator-superconductor

structures Explore various loss the insulator associated materials with to minimize the insulator stability of the

electrical Determine these Establish provide

chemical,

physical

and thermal

structures that the lowest step electrical edge loss insulator can

continuous

coverage

216

Applied Superconductivity

After technique, technology undertaken:

selection

of

the

most

promising

thin

film

deposition circuit will be

a multi-layered
will be developed.

superconducting Specifically,

integrated the

following

Select

the most promising of HTS thin

deposition films

technique

for

the

fabrication devices Establish

and HTS Josephson

and document of ability capable

the

reproducibility

and devices wires and greater

controllability Demonstrate interconnects than Fabricate devices, evaluate 104A/cmg the

fabricating to of

HTS Josephson very current fine

fabricate carrying lOgA/cmz

densities

approaching

multi-layered interconnects, their

structures

containing circuit

Josephson components;

and passive chemical,

electrical,

and phyical

characteristics If necessary, the electrical, film modify the processing technology to optimize of

chemical

and physical circuit

characteristics technology

the HTS thin

integrated

In parallel technologies, basis systems comparing against

with trade-off

the

development studies will

of

the

above

processing on a continuing circuits, This and

be conducted electronic

superconducting conventional

sensors, semiconductor

technologies.

Addendum

I: Military

Research and Development

217

activity

will

guide

demonstration highest possible

projects payoffs

in directions in military

determined capability.

to offer

3.

Bulk SuDerconductors. the goal is

In most bulk to achieve

superconductor structures in the which will

applications support of high high

material

electric fields

critical

current

densities operating

presence

magnetic the

at reasonable

temperatures. scale, energy, This force, resulting current of

This

requires

introduction, lower

on an optimum spatial condensation pinning the sites.

inhomogeneities which will act the steady

of

superconducting vortex against in the

as supercurrent vortex state lattice conditions)

stabilizes (under without of

Lorentz of

flow

electric

dissipation.

Heavy emphasis which will

will result scale

be placed in for

on development of the

processing

approaches composition ranges

inhomogeneities attainment field, and of

appropraite desired

and spatial of current,

operating

magnetic HTS ceramics

temperature. sufficiently advanced

Moreover robust

the brittle

must be made Several

to withstand processing

the use will

environment. facilitate deposition onto might

ceramics of

concepts

manufacturing superconductors stiff robust graphite

bulk (or

superconductors. methods fibers of

Vapor processing) wires

of strong, provide

the

other

or metallic

or fine for magnet,

superconducting

windings of

motor, ceramic

and generator tapes may be

applications. achieved interface

Toughening

superconducting of

by compositing, and fiber

where debonding will resist

the

fiber/matrix failure. A

bridging

catastrophic

218

Applied Superconductivity

variety sol-gel, another,

of

other

standard compaction) on the

and newer could desired

processing be employed

techniques

(e.g.,

dynamic depending

in one way or shape

component

microstructure

and ultimate

application.

Any such the requisite

processing supercurrent

must result vortex

in superconductors pinning inhomogeneities, resistance)

which

have

chemical sufficient long-term

composition, to provide use of are

and stability the electrical

(corrosion

characteristics Examples of

required such

for

devices given

and machines. in the table

requirements

below. Characteristic Fields 20 T 10 T 6T

Application High field magnets launchers

Critical Current Density 104 A/cm2 105 A/cm2 105 A/cm2

Electromagnetic

Motors, generators, energy storage, mm-wave tube magnets Magnetic resonance imaging

105 A/cm2 105 A/cm2

1 T 0.1 the processing ceramics; T of

Power transmission Basic these detailed knowledge is required oxygen effect

to optimize diffusivity of

superconductors: phase diagrams;

in the

composition

and inhomogeneities behavior. This processing

on electrical information approaches required is

characteristics will for facilitate a particular to that

and corrosion selection application. under V B 2c. of the

ultimate

Characterization

similar

Addendum

I: Military

Research and Development

219

In some ways, greater continuing techniques. such effort proposed challenge strong While would in the

the than 6.1

processing for thin

of

bulk

HTS materials Thus, there

is

films.

must be new processing necessary, such most

and 6.2

programs effort is

to

explore

some 6.3A be part of

explicitly programs

applications

as those

following

sections.

For bulk applications,

configurations it must also which are of

of

HTS materials

in large selected which

scale programs are of

be kept generic scale-up

in mind that in nature but

must be pursued direct Nearly solids use

to concerns stage of route

and configuration especially of the

achievement. via the of

every

ceramic affects

processing, the will

processing

evolution have

character to uniformity,

a material.

Special

attention

to be paid agglomerate

preconsolidation-particulate consolidation, densification texturing. elimination mechanisms, of

preparation, density

gradients, phase

final and

impurities,

equilibria,

For the

solids

processing consolidation, material parts such

route,

the

relationship

between and their

preconsolidation, dependence Fabrication be achieved which begin

and densification character as tapes, of will wires, have

on starting of bulk

to be pursued. etc. may

cables,

through with

utilization metallic

recently of

developed appropriate

approaches

shaped

alloys

220

Applied Superconductivity

composition, desired

which

are

subsequently This

reacted work is

to

yield

ceramics stages

of of

composition

and shape.

in early

development.

For the crystallization, spraying note that

fluids

processing chemical great

route,

glass-forming

and glass particle importance direct While are suitable of processes for these to

vapor interest is of

deposition, for HTS.

and molten It free is of

may be of fluids of are

processing

generallly particle fabrication as well. surface of these

from

influence methods for

the behavior of importance of dense

feed

materials. they This

in film masses

fabrication then allow

family

might

for

coatings,

finishing, methods

and joining are of

HTS materials. for preparation

Investigations of very

importance

fine-grained

materials, (but

porosity-free form), of shaped

materials chemical crystal

prepared vapor

by spraying for

methods bulk form,

in bulk

deposition (growing

and advancement

techniques

them directly).

4.

Single

Crystals. methods,

Single withdrawal zone

crystal methods,

growth flame

methods, and other

including (laser) the use.

cruicible fusion sol-gel

techniques, process,

melting,

hydrothermal etc.,

crystallization, all might be of

electrolyte for the

processes, their entire

They should crystals. methods suitability might

be explored Similarly,

potential battery of

to yield thin film for of

bulk

single

deposition their interest

described for

in 2, single

above crystal

must be evaluated film growth. Also

be sol-gel

precursors

for

films.

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

221

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222

Applied Superconductivity

C.

Small

Scale

Annlications

and Demonstrations

Superconductors development These unique of high

exhibit

unique

properties

which

allow systems.

performance are the

sensors following:

and electronics

properties

Zero

DC electrical (into

resistance the

and very for

low high-frequency present low temperature

resistance materials),

1OOGHz range

Exclusion

of

magnetic

flux

from limit).

the bulk

of

the

material

(up

to a materials

dependent

Quantum effects very zero flux non-linear resistance quantiration effects. tunneling tunneling

AC Josephson

From this applications

list list

of of

phenomena, generic

one can readily areas - from

create where the range

an

electronics

superconductivity useful to unique

can make a difference and critical. approximately

of

Furthermore, 40K creates exist

superconductivity a host which with are of feasible compact,

at temperatures electronics

above

applications. and light 4K cooling.

Refrigerators weight

are

power efficient, experience with

in comparison there

the normal cryogenic

In addition,

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

223

fluids that of

whose

latent

heat

of

vaporization either

is a small

50 times volume longer

greater for the

than same

helium. power

This

permits

electronic lifetime-for In addition opportunity

dissipation

or a 50 times with system its

operating counterpart. is the in the

a system to these

compared cooling

helium

cooled there

advantages

to operate

semiconductors

and superconductors

same cryogenic

environment.

Future severely

semiconductor

integrated delays

circuits

will

be limited High-criticalenhance that components Likewise, as gate

by propagation

in interconnects.

temperature significantly incorporate with

superconductors the speed of (50 (lo-12

may provide future to

the means to circuits electric times.

integrated

ultrasmall

1000 Angstrom) second) switching

picosecond-scale

the use of materials transistors potential

high-critical-temperature portends great speed ultrafast of HTS which

superconductors increases

in high-electron-mobility Among the many zero resistance, are the

and related application

transistors. depend field upon

and in some instances following:

upon magnetic

exclusion,

DC power distribution Very Very low attenuation low attenuation microwave

in semiconductor transmission and dispersion and millimeter lines

systems

digital

interconnects

Passive

wave components

High performance

analog

filters

224

Applied Superconductivity

EM1 shields EMP shields

Among the the unique

many potential

applications are the

of

HTS which

depend

upon

quantum effects

following:

Magnetic

sensors mixers, detectors

mm wave amplifiers, IR/UV sensors Digital Digital Ultra logic

switches

memories linear A/D converters

Such components in the following

and circuits

can make signficant

contributions

operational

areas:

Devices

Circuits

Onerational

Applications

Magnetic

sensors

ASW, ELF buried land mine location vehicle surveillance

mm wave components

space space

communications radar

LPI systems ESM/ECCM antenna laser arrays chirp radar

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

225

IR sensors

IR seekers focal plane array imaging

A/D converters

communications surveillance ECCWESM

Logic/memory

SAR non-acoustic shared cryptology arrays systems

antenna

There

are

a number of

generic

materials-based to applying

questions

which

must be addressed superconductivity suited hundreds format to present of

and answered to electronic electronic

enroute systems. uses of is

The generic of films,

form best ranging The of from

that

nanometers

to tens

microns

in thickness. the method even of

can be full

sheets

or patterned chemical in the

lines;

formation mechanical. electronic undertaken

can be evaporation, To realize devices

deposition, technology

advances

ultrafast must be and

and circuits, areas

research

and development the fabrication

in several of

including:

characterization interfaces;

high-quality of

superconductor-semiconductor propagation phenomena, and the ultrasmall of

the measurement

superconducting large networks

interconnects/structures of ultrasmall superconducting

fabrication

interconnects.

226

Applied Superconductivity

For determination applications be determined interest. of electrical translates allow being

of

the

usable the of

temperature critical

domain

for

the must

considered,

current for the the films high

density films of

as a function

temperature behavior of

For many uses, frequency is

the

as a function performance that most the there with Then

critical, speed. of

because It is

often films is

to mean high

imperative connection:

some realistic for

form

electrical

a requirement the will

interface

metallurgy

which

is

compatible element.

both there

superconductor always be the

and a non-superconducting critical issues These in the of

stability, and processing the electronics

reliability, questions systems

manufacturability. must be addressed in which they are

materials of

context

to be used.

With regard for Josephson energy

to devices, junction

one expects made with drive

an improvement HTS materials: voltages for

in speed their

devices

higher

gap results logic

in higher

superconducting their discover established technologies. ability suitable be used impressively

devices

and memory cells, dissipation. of a quality

while

keeping must well

low power

One clearly already

how to make junctions

in the more traditional Of particular

Nb and NbN superconductive in this connection insulators such junctions for devices. may use at is the

importance

to fabricate for tunneling high

high-quality, structures. performance

reproducible Arrays IR sensor of

in very

applications

temperatures

even higher

than present

semiconductor

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

227

The use of in magnetic device)

the new HTS


SQUID

materials

for

junctions quantum

and electronics interference military efficiency for the

sensing

(superconducting number of

systems

opens

up a large

cost-effective The cooling power required

surveillance now available electronics packages military

and detection and the combine which vehicles to very form

possibilities. low electrical remarkably

effective

and affordable sorts of in

can be carried (space, arrays air,

by individuals land, sea),

or by all

and can be dispersed the benefits of array

intercommunicating processing.

so as to realize

In what follows, scale applications

approaches are outlined. of

to

a number of Although

specific

smallpreclude has

uncertainties

definitive nonetheless earliest

prioritization been appear

these

applications, that

an attempt those listed

made to order to offer

them such for

prospects

earliest

realization.

1. for

Magnetometers measuring

and Gradiometers. fields weaker

The most than 10-g

useful Gauss

technology relies at upon

magnetic SQUIDs.

superconducting lo-11

Systems

have

been test very of

fielded

10-D to

Gauss and have beer. used The unique response today feature

in both is the

and operational large dynamic range The of

situations. with

a frequency

from DC to which the has

tens

kilohertz. acceptance cryogenic are

principal this

drawback

limited

wider of the

technology system. cooled.

has been

inconvenience all such

cooling helium

Essentially If

present

systems

liquid

the new HTS materials

can produce

SQUID sensors

228 AppliedSuperconductivity

of

substantially a number of

the very

same sensitivity important

that

present

ones

offer, to be

then

applications

may prove

practical.

Gradiometers be fielded electrical reliability detection systems. used for with power

and magnetometers small l-year

for

submarine dewars

detection low the

could

hold-time thus

or very

refrigerators logistics.

greatly

enhancing could

and support time

Such systems of airborne if of

reduce detection

the

and uncertainty sensitivity

submarine ground large

Such high the detection tanks) of such

sensors,

based,

could (e.g.,

be

and surveillance as for could

vehicles

trucks, Arrays

as well devices

mine detection readily the well

and localization. interconnected, of array

be deployed,

and queried processing.

so as to realize

known advantages

The overall gradiometers small signal are

advantages unmatched of

of

HTS SQUID magnetometers (either long sensor

and distance size, time. to or

sensitivity

strength

target), and long

reasonable (if

exceptionally

low power,

necessary)

mission

It will

be the use

goal

of

this

activity field

to develop

and evaluate capable

HTS SQUIDS for of flux

in magnetic lo-lOG/E.

sensing

instruments

sensitivity

Sensors junctions

- The choice as magnetic

of

weak sensing

links

versus is

Josephson highly materials

field

elements

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

229

dependent, using these

e.g.,

are

tunnel

junctions Experimental is

manufacturable investigations in this

and reliable will be or

new materials? if

made to determine if both are viable,

one type

superior will

application

and one or both

be characterized.

Circuits implemented depending

- Both DC and RF SQUIDS have using on the conventional requirements of

been

successfully with the choice

superconductors of the applications. are

Once the DC and RF SQUIDS

characteristics will be simulated,

the new HTS sensors and their performance

known,

will

be experimentally

verified.

Noise

Measurements

- After

the they

feasibility will

of

DC and/or

RF

SQUIDS has been with respect

established, at all

be thoroughly of interest

characterized and while

to noise

frequencies 27K.

operating

at temperatures

above

Digital integrated circuitry system.

SQUIDS - The basic with superconducting at the will

SQUID sensing

element

will

be

or semiconducting to

digital form an all digital

operating

same temperature be designed,

Such a system

simulated,

fabricated,

and tested.

230

Applied Superconductivity

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Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

231

2.

Hybrid

Semiconductor-Superconductor at present, he is offer the

Svstems. circuit

Superconductive the power not yet gain

devices flexibility logic

do not,

designer

to which and good There are

accustomed.

For example, behavior are

gates

three-terminal systems superior where

available. very proper active tasks well use

semiconductors

can perform by the and

but wherein of

performance both hybrid

can be achieved components

superconductivity, The resulting at present, neither

in passive system

devices. which,

can even

perform alone.

technology

can accomplish

A most attractive temperature multi-chip reliability

and relatively is

easy

use

of

high wiring used high beginning in

superconductivity semiconductor a& high

in the backplane In order systems to

systems.

achieve are

performance, cooled

designers As the

to use cryogenically increases, lines the speed

semiconductors.

speed transmission the the of number the new

demands on the

interconnecting Increasing increases properties

become

significant line width

and a problem. means that change. of length

transmission of wiring

one also If the

levels

- a costly those path

HTS materials superconductors, rise time)

approach long

present

low temperature high narrow speed, lines, current (c<lns possibly densities (at on

(400cm), on very the

pulses

can be carried because

two planes. of

In addition,

critical than

the new materials

appear

to be greater power This

5 X lOSA/cm2 with greatly

present) resistance

one can readily lines of

consider

distribution permit

zero reduced

1Opm width.

could

232

Applied Superconductivity

switching large

noise

and two dimensional currents

power

distribution multichip

of system.

very

(-1OOOW) supply

to a large

Focal greatly are

plane improved

array if

systems the

using

semiconductor multiplexing devices. an easy

detectors and digitizing The high

can be

preliminary

accomplished

with

superconductive can provide

speed the

and

low power consumption sensor

interface

to both

and warmer temperature for of these ten

electronics. functions with present

The cooling can be reduced solutions. by at

requirements least a factor

electronics compared

Millimeter the amplification, signals, noise

wave receivers,

wherein

cooled

HEMT devices carry

produce the

and superconductive in greatly The use of enhaced

interconnects bandwidth

can result performance. for

and improved mixer may also be

a superconductive

considered particularly amplifiers

an added

improvement.

In some configurations, semiconductor a superconductive one can then

at sub-millimeter are, as yet, not

wave lengths, effective. mixer Then,

paramp or a superconductive filter the IF and amplify Such hybrids

may be required;

with

a low-noise the best

cryogenically-cooled of two technologies.

HEMTdevice.

exploit

The directions future systems

being

taken the use

by supercomputing of tens to

architects of

for

envision

thousands memories. (2 are loons) that

separate

processors massively access

connected parallel conflict

to commonly systems

accessed fast

Such memory relatively

demand very

with

resolution.

The merits

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

233

less

expensive, of

slower the

processors performance

may be used of a single

in order or the small

to

achieve

hundreds

times rate

number of zero one may be to The important calculations, and

1Ons clock resistance able of

processors.

By exploiting and Josephson latency)

uniaue

superconductivity a very fast ( mlns

devices, network

to build

switch

interface applications widespread:

between of

these such

room-temperature parallel

technologies. are very

large

systems

SONAR, RADAR, weapons,

and hydrodynamic

to name a few.

As a subset number of very fast sensor analog

application applications multiplexing

of

a switching such is

network, arrays

there for

are which

as antenna for

required

many inputs. and realistically

Semiconductor supported with

systems

can be greatly at the

enhanced interface.

HTS switches

The overall superconductor solutions.

advantages systems are

of

the HTS approach combined

to

semiconductorand unique

higher

performance

It will improvements

be the goal of hybrid signal will

of

this

effort

to assess

the

performance systems.

semiconductor-superconductor and power be modeled transmission to determine lines the

Superconducting and board interconnects been determined, test levels

at effect

the of

chip

on system e.g.,

performance. line width, will

When desired dielectric

parameters and

have

constant and tested.

impedance,

structures

be fabricated

234

Applied Superconductivity

Analysis

will

be made of with hybrid

the

systems

where e.g.,

optimum performance semiconductor will switches

can

be obtained with

technology,

superconducting where

interconnects. such situations

Such systems exist.

be modeled

to determine

If materials

the

results

of

this of

study the

are

positive,

a detailed

investigation will

superconductor/semiconductor that compatability exits. will A be

interfaces test vehicle,

be made to assure which will

demonstrate

hybrid

performance,

designed,

simulated,

fabricated,

and tested.

Addendum

I:

Military Research and Development

235

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236

Applied Superconductivity

3.

mm Wave Receivers. into the

In the millimeter the

progression

from

the

centimeter of the

wave region electromagnetic to decrease. performance a serious performance adequately. sensing aperture not

and submillimeter fundamental it is also

regions noise noise

spectrum, Unfortunately, of conventional for the

background true gets that worse, the

tends

electronics systems

thus

imposing high function mm wave

problem systems

designer.

For example, in order links, to

presently such

demand cooling

Systems

as communications radars,

passive

arrays, radars

phased stress without

array

antennas,

and synthetic are

available major device

technology

and in some cases

realistic

improvement.

If present

the

electrical

performance

and device at then

performance lower a host

which

metal

superconductors at higher

demonstrate temperatures,

temperatures of very very which low will the

can be achieved significant attenuation improve size noise of the

improvements

can be made. line a receiver.

Among them are configurations,

antenna/transmission noise figure array of

In some instances, reduced. or Very-low-

a phased

can be considerably semiconducting improvement.

amplifiers, for

whether sensitivity are chirp

superconducting, very ~10 often, GHz, fast If only

can these

be cooled

Since, i.e.,

mm wave systems superconductive conversion

meant to be wideband, transform to sort processing out the

and or very of interest.

A/D a

can be used mixer level

data

superconductive would the noise

were employed be enhanced, be reduced

in the but by at the

receiver, required three

not local orders

oscillator

power would

least

of

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

237

magnitude. also possibly

This

would

greatly

reduce number of

the

spurious

emission for

and the

allow

a larger

receiver

channels

same size/power.

In some applications dissipation allow load of the

where system

power could

is

at a premium,

the small to

be sufficiently minimizing the size

a cryogen the

to be used small heat

thereby load also

and weight.

Of course, refrigeration

makes very-low-power

an attractive

alternative.

The overall quantum-limited

advantages noise, wide digital

for

HTS mm wave receivers low electrical

are

very-low and

bandwidth, capability.

power,

very-high-performance

The goal enhancement evaluation made ; this transmission performance semiconducting will use data

will of of

be to demonstrate

feasibility which uses

and performance HTS elements. receiver An will be

a mm wave receiver the elements of

a high items

performance

will

include

such

as antenna

elements, filters. and evaluation by These The

lines,

amplifiers, possible will

mixers, using

digitizers, superconducting

improvements components

be investigated. analysis

This

be done both initially will of

by theoretical presently

and experimentally technology. of area. the new HTS

available

materials

then be used to this

to guide

application

materials

important

developmental

238

Applied Superconductivity

Proposed

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Addendum

I:

Military Research and Development

239

4.

Infrared

Sensors.

present

infrared

sensors at

already long

require

cooling

in order

to achieve tunnel

good

performance may offer

wave-lengths. spectral present sensors, the rate appears

Superconductive bandwidth

junctions sensitivity Moreover, or not,

a much larger with the of

and additional devices. are cooled into for

compared for large

semiconductor whether analog they

arrays of

the

functions with are of

transforming sampling It

currents

digital

format

adequate

and linearity possible in order bandwidth do this

later the very

processing high speed

very

demanding.

to use

superconductive a number of

electronics much lower can

to multiplex analog

and digitally Since

convert

signals.

superconductive power,

electronics the resulting than for

at exceptionally and electronics system. extremely

low electrical power if

refrigerator conventional cooled, the

may be much less the sensors load for

a be

Of course, small added is load of

must already the

heat little

superconducting mission solid times, cryogen

electronics the heat with

consequence. by a liquid

For modest or a

can be absorbed a refrigerator.

no need

for

Once the multiplex to the the

sensor

data

are

in digital

format,

it

is

feasible the

to data

information

serially

thereby output

transferring high

standard

room temperature

with

efficiency.

The anticipated associated digital electronics capability,

overall are high

advantages very

of

HTS infrared high

sensors

and

low power,

performance size and weight.

sensitivity,

and small

240

Applied Superconductivity

The goal HTS to enhance devices will

in this high

development performance

is

to determine sensing

the

capability HTS existing

of

infrared

systems. with

be evaluated devices. will

as sensors Moreover,

in comparison

semiconductor components both will

superconductive and tested

processing with functions

be investigated

in conjunction These

semiconducting include:

and superconducting

sensors.

multiplexers, techniques for

A/D converters interfacing will

and shift the

registers. cryogenic

In addition, system

between

and the warmer environment,

be investigated.

In order requirements, and tested

to understand selected initially

and characterize test

the

materials may be fabricated materials.

critical with

components lower

available

temperature

Addendum

I: Military

Research and Development

241

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242

Applied Superconductivity

5.

Digital

Svstems films

(Lonicl.

A number of

properties

of for digital

superconductive applications. extensively

and devices

make them attractive has been the lower

The Josephson as a digital materials, gate delays of per for

junction using

investigated temperature them have while dissipating

switch

superconducting demonstrated only imply several high

and circuits several gate.

using

picoseconds Such high

microwatts potential systems. performance. the speed

speed

and low power

very

compact,

very-high-performance should permit

computational similar higher, capability high but

The new HTS materials The power dissipation times

may be slightly and the drive

may be several as well.

faster

may be increased

It

is

well

known that

using

matched produces low-loss,

transmission the highest

lines performance.

throughout Present

a computing

system with

superconductors, lines If of

low-dispersion satisfy that to a

transmission requirement. similar level

between the

devices

and chips,

new HTS materials that provide on the

can be developed will ideal

performance, lines also drop

advantage an almost power

be retained. power bus; lines. The to

Superconductive there energy provide is

no resistive

distribution

gap,

as a fundamental regulation devices are

material

property,

can be used

power

locallv, envisioned

on chip. to

Finally,

in an era and

when 107-109 when the drive microelectronic effects, the

configure

a system,

currents circuits

in conventional may lead

semiconductor electromigration attractive.

to destructive looks

superconducting

approach

especially

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

243

The zero virtually reliability.

resistance eliminate

and cryogenic electromigration

environment and should

combined greatly

should enhance

Given electronics of

the

above

characteristics

the

implications the

for computing

digital power

are

remarkable.

One can project

a Cray I contained

in a cube, in this i.e.,

3cm on a side, volume would

and dissipating be a small Using HTS would or could less high-

250 milliwatts. speed cache

Included memory only, with five

no mass memory. such liter

materials operate be cooled than

cooled more than with

neon days

or nitrogen, on a single miniature power. which is

a system of

cryogen,

an efficient of unregulated

refrigerator

consuming is the

10 watts of

Even more awesome ten times that of This

possibility in a cube, include

performance on a side, cache

a CFUY I CPU would would watts than

6.5cm

dissipating The overall

5 watts. power

a large

memory.

requirement hundred model

be dominated of unregulated

by the power.

refrigerator, (The

consuming

several

CRAY II,

a more advanced plus the

the CRAY I, mainframe

uses

about

65KW of

refrigeration

150KW of

power.)

In scenarios there is no other

where weight, technology problems

volume, that

and power

are

at a premium,

can produce as synthetic

such

performance. radar,

For DOD compute-bound acoustic unique array solutions.

such

aperture

processing,

superconductive

technology

offers

244

Applied Superconductivity

The goal fully

of

this

project

is

to demonstrate logic family

feasibility with the

of following

functional

superconducting

parameters:

Device Fully

switching loaded logic

time

4 10 psec (FI = FO = 3)$50psec

delay

Power dissipation/gate5100F/gate Operating temperature>27K

Complete sufficient latching will

superconducting to support

logic

families

will

be designed, engine. Both

a general logic

purpose will

computing

and non-latching lower

be investigated. sunerconductinn

The desinn materials

use present

temperature

initially, will

and be extendable to determine

to HTS materials. operating one(s), to verify

Logic

families After of gates

be simulated of

parameters. short strings

selection will

the most promising and tested adders,

be fabricated e.g.,

performance. and shift

Selected will be

functions, designed,

multipliers,

registers,

simulated,

fabricated,

and tested.

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

245

ProDosed

Budnet

DIGITAL

SYSTEMS

(LOGIC)

&!I!
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 2 Category FY88 1 1 1 4 FY89 1 2 1 5 m 1 2 m 0 0 _1. 1 0 0 FY92 0 0 4 12 Total 3 5

246

Applied Superconductivity

6.

Digital

Systems

(Memoriesl. which

The attractive apply to logic

features systems speed

of be

superconductive applied

devices

can also logic is

to superconductive closely in order

memories. in space not

The high with

units

must be interfaced comparably Thus again, feature current is is fast

memory which the system

to degrade speed because are

performance. The low-power mode, where

low power

and high

required. standby there

even more striking, stored

in the loop,

in a superconducting non-volatile

is

no power

dissipation. temperature lossless, to maintain usually used slower possibly is

The memory is kept below T,.

as long

as the of nearly the CPU system rate can be units quite the and

The availability lines

dispersionless a fast system

transmission clock. Since

allows

a high of the

computation memories logic level, of

demands a large fast

memory,

a hierarchy ones nearest at

with

superconducting bulk

semiconductor also

memories

the next

at cryogenic devices would

temperatures. also enhance

Cooling their

semiconductor

reliability.

It

is

the

goal

of

this

project the

to demonstrate parameters:

feasibility

of

superconducting

RAM with

following

Access Sizez4K

time bits

-z 1nS

Power dissipationgl0 Operating temperature

w/cell 227K

Addendum

I:

Military Research and Development

247

Memory cells take lower advantage of

for the

fast

CACHE memory use

will

be designed of available

to

superconducting

properties materials, with

temperature All will

superconducting candidate be chosen. cells

extendability and the

to

HTS materials. best arrays decoder performer will for

will

be simulated,

Small

or partially to verify the

populated simulation. fabricated are A

be fabricated

and tested

CACHE memory will When parameters limits,

be designed, for both vehicle the

simulated, cell will

and tested. within

and decoder be designed, vehicle

acceptable

a test

simulated, contain

fabricated 1K bits.

and tested.

The CACHE test

will

248

Applied Superconductivity

ProDosed

Budnet

DIGITAL

SYSTEMS (MEMORY]

a!!!
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 3 Category FY88 1 2 FY89 1 3 -L 5 r 4 FY90 1 2 1 1 FY91 0 0 0 0 FY92 0 0 1 13 Total 3 7

Addendum

I:

Military Research and Development

249

7.

Three-Terminal junction state

Devices.

The basic from

superconductive its zero

device,

the state into a

Josephson to

may be switched either

resistance a current line are

the voltage

by directly to

injecting

junction, causes presently been the

or applying junction very to

a current switch. for

a separate these circuit the is

control solutions designs devices

which

Both of different because

effective used. gain, the which the

and have do not

ingeniously have

However, resulting limits device

presently fabrication means of a unique the

impact yield. does not

to demand careful the present with of

control controlling input/output current.

In addition, provide unique the on-off both would

engineer control and

relationship

i.e.

junction

For many applications, device the use is of behavior

analog

digital,

3hree-terminalf enhance, it

greatly active a device

simplify, devices. which

and therefore For these operates &

superconductive to search for

reasons, at switching

important

speeds power

of 2 lOpsec, gain.

dissipates

a power

lOO)Aw, and produces

The goal based speed

of

this

effort

is

to develop

a practical device

logic with

family high and

on a true

three-terminal dissipation. proposed will

superconducting Numerous novel as a basis be further for

and low power have been These incentive will

structures terminal with

mechanisms devices. added

three

approaches of higher

investigated

the

temperature fabricated, performance.

operation.

Selected to determine effort will

structures if

be simulated, the desired

and tested In addition

any deliver

250

Applied Superconductivity

be directed realization

toward of

conception

of

completely

new approaches devices.

to

the

useful

three-terminal

superconducting

Addendum

I:

Military Research and Development

251

ProDosed

Budnet

THREE TERMINAL DEVICES

SE!
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 2 Category FY88 1 1 0 2 m 1 1 0 3 m 1 2 0 3 FY91 1 2 1 2 FY92 0 1 Total 4 7 _1. 12

252

Applied

SuperconductivitY

a.
like

Systems all

Demonstration

Vehicle. into It is

Superconductive a complex not of parts to

technology, which assess its going such

others, a useful

must be fit function. its

performs value beyond

possible for

or to demonstrate the device

feasibility stage.

use without

or component inputs

The systems cooling, vehicle it. for

problems,

as interfacing can only

with

and outputs, a test

and performance, of credible size

be addressed

by designing it

and complexity, expects that

by building some small scale

and by testing parts or devices,

One fully example early

magnetometers in the program. configurations, questions.

or power buses, Since they these do not

may be available may require explore very

and applied simple the remaining

adequately

Accordingly, the device demonstration operating through designed,

it

is

the

goal

of

this

effort a system hybrid

to provide, level technology in-hand vehicle will from the

using

structures of

described

above,

a superconducting 27K. With all efforts,

and/or

above

necessary a system A thorough

components level test

the preceding built

will

be

and tested. advantages or hybrid systems.

evaluation

be made of

the performance superconducting superconducting

that system

can be obtained versus projected

non-

Addendum

I:

Military

Research and Development

253

Provosed

Budnet

SYSTEMS DEMONSTRATION VEHICLE

a!!
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 0 Category FY88 0 0 0 0 FY89 0 0 1 2 FY90 0 0 Ir 12 m 0 0 ~ 0 0 zs 25 Total 0 0 39 39

254

Applied Superconductivity

9.

Refrigeration.

Presently

most

of

the work on HTS materials temperature at l/2 choice of to -9OK. Z/3 be of

has centered

on YBa2Cu3Ox with one would that a boiling the

a transition like

For most applications Tc, which suggests

to operate fluid 27.2K. would is longer of

cryogenic point of

would

liquid

neon with

For other be adequate. that for more of In both liquid same

applications, cases helium heat the

liquid latent heat

nitrogen of

at 77.3K

vaporization to 50 times

50 times hold

which load

translates cycle cycle

time

the

in open closed

systems

and to much simpler,

efficient

refrigerators. and input cooling power

In many DOD applications are severely restricted, difference

where volume, this relaxation

weight, on the

requirement

can make the in the applications applications at

between described passive still

feasibility in the radiative

and non-feasibility preceding coolers sections.

In space

can be made to operate superconductors are for

80K.

As

higher

temperature coolers

developed

thermoelectric

may be adequate

some applications.

It

is

the

goal

of

this

effort

to develop of the

refrigeration the fact that the new

techniques HTS materials liquid

so that

advantage

can be taken well above

can be operated temperatures. and cryostats in the 27 to

previously of

required existing available

helium

A careful will

evaluation

refrigerators capabilities will

be made to determine Where needed, in order size

77K range.

refrigerators to maximize

be designed,

built

and characterized and to minimize

efficiency

and reliability

and weight.

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

255

Cooling active

capacities

will

range

from1 5Omw for to

systems for class

with

a few all-

devices

such

as malgnetometers system. of watts

5 watts

a large, of will also where A

superconductive refrigerator developed

processing with hundreds

A separate cooling

capacity

be the

and characterized ellements

for

use with

hybrid

systems heat

semiconductor study changes of

contribute cryostats

a significant will

load.

existing are needed

helium

be made to determine use at higher coollers to will 2

what

to optimize

them for

temperatures. designed, which

For space will

applications, heat of their loads

radiative from

be

handle

10 mwatts will be

watts.

Experimental demonstrated. available the

verification MS higher possible

performance

temperature applicatiom of

superconductors thermoelectric

become cooling will

be evaluated.

256

Applied Superconductivity

Proposed

Budnet

REFRIGERATION

a!
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.U Total 0 3 Category FY88 1 2 A 5 m 0 2 r 2 m 0 1 0 0 m 0 0 0 0 FY92 0 0 A 10 Total 1 5

Addendum

I:

Military Research and Development

257

proDosed

Budnet

SMALL-SCALE

APPLICATIONS

SUMMARY

a!!
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total Category FY88 11 18 A 29 FY89 6 17 11 40 FY90 6 13 18 37 FY91 1 2 22 2.5 FY92 0 1 26 27 Total 24 51 83 158

258

Applied Superconductivity

D.

Large-Scale

ADDlications

and Demonstrations

Large-scale DOD involve sorts three

applications primary

of

superconductivity i) of

of

concern of ii)

to all

technologies:

supermagnets systems, and iii) While

by themselves

and as components resonators for

larger

electromagnetic for magnetic

cavity and/or are

RF systems, isolation.

shields

electromagnetic mature (e.g., for

these

technologies superconducting cavities mastered

rather materials

the

lower for

temperature and Nb for yet been of the

Nb-Ti

wires not

and shields) for the

these

technologies

have

newer HTS mateials. seem severe and diligence ceramic at

Some (but this time,

not

all)

development ingenuity, transition for large

problems insight, from scale

and considerable to effect the useful faced the in

will

be required to

the brittle applications. development

pellets

structures have been for

Similar of fabrication

problems

the past brittle progress earlier,

in the A15 type is

procedures

superconductors, with

Nb3Sn and VxGa,

and rapid As mentioned in large-scale ship

expected

the new HTS materials. made significant programs, power progress e.g.,

DOD has already

superconductivity propulsion, cavity portion building

development pulsed

electric

airborne

generators,

and superconducting This thrust, to exploit The driving the force

resonator of

particle

accelerators presents

to name a few. a coordinated and interest, time frame.

the DSRD proposal past

on this

DOD experience

new HTS materials behind this thrust

in an accelerated is the greatly use.

reduced

refrigeration

requirements

implicit

in their

Addendum

I:

Military Research and Development

259

The interest material that (the thin it

superconducting

materials

of

greatest

technological a superconducting is imperative field only Hc2 in a

are

type

II

superconductors. intense magnetic high

For such fields, upper it

to generate possess above

an intrinsically which

critical

field surface

superconductivity

can survive energy

layer),

and a large

condensation critical

(corresponding
Hc)

to a large related to

thermodynamic

magnetic current

field,

which

is

the maximum amount of state.

the material applications

can carry and for viz., under

in the

superconducting applications, field,

For cavity a third field is the

some shielding lower critical

is field

important, at which, into

the

H,l, magnetic

which flux

equilibrium of a type

conditions, II

first

penetrates penetration are cavity

the bulk conditions dissipative,

superconductor. type II

Under flux superconductors for high-Q

in an AC field, and hence However, high of flux are

unsuitable is

resonator

applications. sufficiently the onset Hcl.

there

some evidence

that

at conditions) well above

frequencies penetration value of

(extreme does the not

non-equilibruim take place until

The potential applications question.

new HTS materials on the

in cavity of this

resonator scientific

rests

heavily

resolution

The new HTS materials values relatively These facts (a value high of over

ap,pear 100 Tesla (a value the

to possess has been of

extremely reported)

high and

Hc2

H, values that

2 Tesla limits

has been to the

reported).

suggest

intrinsic

amount of

260

Applied Superconductivity

current are H,l quite

that

can be carried However, hence, term. H,l

by the new superconducting the new HTS materials high-power and Hc are they applications also have of

materials only modest

large. (sO.lT);

values

RF cavities parameters

may be more far in shielding shielded field.

important limit

applications,

but

do not

the maximum

As already extrinsic

emphasized of

the

critical

current

density, It is

J,,

is

an by

property

a bulk

superconductor. of the material

controlled second through

microstructural phase, grain

characteristics boundaries, material etc.)

(voids,

which

can be manipulated studies are

appropriate infancy Values applied for of J,

processing.

These

in their rapidly. in zero

the new HTS materials over 105 A/cm2 field for

and must be pursued been but reported and

at 77K have YlBa2Cu307,

magnetic

a large

discouraging applications Accordingly, range of

anisotrophy J, it

was also large that

reported. in high J,-(H)

For most magnetic

large-scale H. a wide

must remain is essential Early

fields, over

be evaluated fall of

fields. of

reports research

show a rapid to improve the types this

Jc with is needed.

increase It will defects Also, J,-(H) save of

H; hence,

property

be important which

to ascertain J,(H)

of

microstructural are detrimental.

enhance that

and which

defects plays

the role

crystalline

anisotropoy

in limiting to

must be determined. refrigeration as thermal leads to costs

Operation and complexity of flux

at higher will

temperatures result

in reduction at these higher This

J,(H),

activation increased

pinned creep

vortices and flux

temperatures

jumping.

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

261

will

of

course

limit

the

maximum attainable

fields

of

supermagnets

operated

at higher

temperatures.

The rapid superconductivity materials

development depends

of

large

scale

applications careful

of integration of design novel of

critically.upon

development/processing The synergism to be developed and processing of of

considerations this approach with

and systems will the permit evolution new

considerations. design concepts

in concert of the

the understanding materials. will of depend,

revolutionary

The feasibilities in large part,

particular

demonstration in early of

projects phases the

on progress

achieved

the materials In-house with

development

and processing programs

components will

program. coupled industrial phase is

DOD scientific at the outset for

be strongly that an

industry is

so as to

ensure when the

base

available

production

development

completed.

Investigations restricted to the

of

supermagnet

structures solenoid

will

not

be most

standard

wire-wound will used

configurations to novel structures magnets

commonly used. such as the plate National This field

Consideration structure

be given

in the high-field Naval Research

at the

Magnet Laboratory novel with

and at the

Laboratory. for magnetic

and other generation

structures the brittle

may be more amenable HTS materials.

In some applications materials base. In those

cavities instances

and shields it will

have

a common to

be necessary

262

Applied Superconductivity

produce numbers

dense of

materials

with

polished Again including

surfaces a variety bulk of

having

minimal

surface will

defects.

fabrication processing film

techniques techniques, deposition

be explored sprayed

ceramic

plasma

coating

techniques,

and thin

techniques.

From among the many important superconductivity, indictions of several where benefits are

DOD large

scale below

applications together with of an 3-5

of

summarized

can be derived are 1-3

by incorporation

the new HTS materials. actual or long of demonstration term, is

Judgements near This impact term, is

made as to whether years; mid-term, or ranking

years;

>5 years. or mission

not

a rating not

in terms

priority

and should

be so construed.

1.

Shields from scale

(near specific

term).

Shields

to confine are

or eliminate and often Shields

magnetic used used stray in

fields large

regions of

in space

needed

applications electric

superconductivity. motors or generators Shields

are

on superconducting fields from

to minimize

the nearby with sensitive

environment.

surrounding detectors noise. (e.g.,

circuitry

associated SQUIDs) also of

electro-magnetic environmental field

are

used

to suppress for magnetic

Shields

are in

importance energy

confinement systems.

and isolation

kinetic

and directed

energy

weapon

Shields slip-casting, techniques

can be made today plasma for making spraying, such

with etc.,

existing are all

technology. demonstrated of shield

Ceramic

structures.

Testing

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

263

characteristics

and

design

concepts

can and should shielding and thermal power

begin ratios and

immediately. field H,h( stability

For low-field against both

applications, magnetic For high field,

disturbances the

H, T) require

testing. shielding

applications,

maximum required than H,l together but will with

Hsh(max), smaller

can be much larger than Hc2. H,h(max), will determine

be signficantly

HTS material shield

performance

parameters,

the required

geometry.

Once values design existing

for

H,h(

T, H) and H,h(max) near

are

determined, areas

system are in

can commence. superconducting under

Obvious

term demonstration which already employ

systems,

shielding. and

SQUID systems generators

development

at NCSC and electric obvious

motors

under

development

at DTNSRDC are have with

candidates. systems in which with

Both on-going existing attendant

development could

projects

prototype

shields gains

be replaced

the new HTS shields

in performance

and/or

economy.

Cost

of

this

program design following

would

be approximately incorporation. heavy this

$4M for

materials

R&D and $gM for profile reflecting in the

and systems table

The funding up-front funding,

includes of

the near

term character

activity.

264

Applied Superconductivity

Proposed

Budnet

SHIELDS

a!!
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 3 Category FY88 2 1 FY89 1 2 _1. 4 1 3 FY90 0 1 1 2 m 0 0 0 0 m 0 0 r 12 Total 3 4

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

265

2.

SuDermaenets

for

Microwave of

and Millimeter high-resolution

Wave Sources microwave In the

(near and

term). millimeter gyrotron

Development

high-power, is of major

wave systems an electron

DOD importance. with a high is

beam interacts

magnetic

field. of

The resulting the magnetic atmospheric requires required

electromagnetic field

radiation

tunable

by variation with an Gigahertz of the by

and can be chosen window. of 1.3

to coincide

propagation a magnetic geometries field

Operation (4.0) are

at 35 (100) Fields

Tesla. typically

and magnitudes Presently

supplied are

superconducting fabricated materials higher

magnets.

used

supermagnets at 4.2K.

from niobium-titanium offer the possibility (perhaps

and operate of operation

The new HTS

at significantly consequent

temperatures

as high

as 77K) with

convenience

and economy

in refrigeration.

Materials will concentrate

development

efforts

in support and structures

of

this

application specifically and magnets design

on conductors

matched

to microwave will are allow of

and millimeter pesistent-current-mode size are and of relatively

wave tubes

already

in existence The required and system payoff

operation. field strength,

modest

modest

considerations anticipated.

mature,

and so early

can be

Cost

of

the

effort

would

be $94 for

materials

R&D and $94 for following table.

magnet development,

distributed

as shown in the

266

Applied Superconductivity

Provosed

Budnet

SUPERMAGNETS FOR MICROWAVE AND MILLIMETER

WAVE SOURCES

a!.?
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 1 Category FY88 1 0 m 1 1 -Q 2 r 3 m 1 1 1 3 m 0 1 1 1 FY92 0 0 3 10 Total 3 3

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

267

3.

Supermagnets

for the

Electric 1970s electric used to

Shin

Pronulsion

Systems engaged

(mid in

E far

term)_.

Since of

early

DOD(N) has been machines transfer

development large

rotating gears the

as alternatives power

to

the a

reduction to

the high-RPM to turn

from

gas turbine propellor. generators

low-RPM power program were

required

a ships and Jupiter II,

Under this

superconducting installed

motors

were developed, tested electric

in a ship, Bay. weight

and were successfully of superconducting noise,

on the propulsion in ship

Cheasapeake include

Advantages reduction, fuel a

reduced efficiency. savings

flexibility A 40,000

design,

and increased motor would of cooled offer

HP superconducting of 4 in weight

of

a factor

and a factor HP air the

3 in diameter motor. Still for and

when compared greater which savings

to a conventional may be possible becomes

40,000 with

new HTS materials, more reliable,

refrigeration

more efficient,

more convenient.

The initial field magnets

thrust suitable magnets

of for

this

program

will of

be to develop the lower

HTS

replacement

temperature ship with will the be

superconducting drive rotating

in existing As greater

developmental expertise is

electric gained

machinery. entirely these

new HTS materials, possible. passive described Some of

new high-performance designs might of incorporate type

designs active

and/or as

superconducting in the section

shielding on shields

the above.

to be developed

268

Applied Superconductivity

As

very-large-scale to the

HTS magnets development of

become

feasible

attention thruster current propels

will

be directed designs through ship

magnetohydrodynamic developed of by passing field,

wherein

the Lorentz in the for

force,

sea water need

presence

a magnetic

the

without

a propeller.

The cost materials

of

this

program

would for

be approximately magnet development,

$lOM for distributed

development

and $llM table.

as shown in the

following

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

269

Proposed

Budnet

SUPERMAGNETS FOR ELECTRIC

SHIP

PROPULSION

SYSTEMS

S.&f
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 4 Category FY88 2 2 r 4 FY89 1 2 1 5 m 1 2 J 5 m 0 2 1 3 FY92 0 1 s 21 Total 4 9

270

Applied Superconductivity

4.

Sunerconductinn of

Mannetic

Enernv

Storane

(SMES) (mid proposed

terml. in the

The concept early EPRI, 1970s

large-scale

SMES was seriously considerable studies. The concept

and has received for design

support

from DOE and have simply significant that levels and This use for

primarily

SMES systems of SMES is at

DOD implications energy over then fed into

as well.

a superconducting period of time

inductor

low power indefinitely or rapidly. potential

an extended

can be stored either slowly is of

can be withdrawn to electrical systems,

as needed,

approach

power management space-based with

ground-based applications. related.to progress

systems,

and military center but

vehicle on factors

Some concerns the input

SMES systems of power, area.

and extraction been

significant

has already

made in this

DOD applications those could large toroidal appear envisioned utilize domestic for quite

of

SMES will electric structural These have

include utility

smaller

systems

than and for and fields but

public novel

applications not possible

designs include

systems. which neutral.

would

concentric magnetic

structures externally

internally

high

Development conductors effort

of

military

SMES systems for each

will

doubtless

require and so this

specifically heavy

tailored emphasis

application, of interest

places

on identification Of early directed

potential are possible

applications pulsed

at an early

stage. for

power applications

energy

weapons.

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

271

Funding development indicated

for

an SMES program system

would

be $6M for

materials as

and $7M for in the following

development,

distributed

table.

272

Applied Superconductivity

Proposed

Budget

SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE?

&d
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 1 Category FY88 1 0 0 1 m 1 0 0 2 FY90 1 1 1 4 FY91 1 1 -z 5 m 1 2 Total 5 4 Li 13

Addendum

I:

Military

Research and Development

273

5.

Electromagnetic

Launchers

(mid

tern). the is

In 1978 a DOD effort state focused of electromagnetic by

was initiated propulsion

to assess technology. quite

and advance This effort

and overseen of an of the

DARPA and has been electromagnetic projectile of are

successful. is that

The concept terminal velocities

launcher not limited

by an exploding pulse. (possible (possible

gas but by the of this

velocity pulse

a traveling

electromagnetic generator device

Generation superconducting SMES),

involves generator), closing phased

a prime

homopolar opening rails and (or

a storage

several

switches pulsed

(possible

superconducting and a projectile.

switches),

supermagnets), of

Potential are obvious.

applications

the new superconducting

materials

Electromagnetic launching ranging systems potential offered

launchers (space), application

can be used

in weapon

systems, have wide the help

and impact but need

fusion. further

Thus they development.

advantages this

by the new HTS materials

may significantly

development.

In addition electromagnetic strong

to

a materials

development this with exists

program effort

for include a

launch

applications, film component already marginally materials,

would

superconducting

potential in the

switch DOD, and with have a

application. performance conventional major impact.

Such a program parameters look

acceptable

superconducting

and so HTS could

274

Applied Superconductivity

Funding development the following

for

this

program for

would

be $gM for

materials as shown in

and $llM table.

design

assessment

distributed

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

275

ProDosed

Budnet

ELECTROMAGNETIC LAUNCHERS

a?!
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 1 Category FY88 1 0 FY89 1 1 JJ 2 1 5 m 2 2 -z 6 FY91 2 2 J 5 FY92 1 1 A 19 Total 7 6

276

Applied Superconductivity

6.

Directed

Energy

Weapons for

(DEW) (mid space of

term).

Achievement will be greatly

of

directed assisted cavity Although accelerator metal niobium

energy

weapons

deployment

by the development accelerators the electrical frequencies, as well

lighter-weight, magnetic

lower-loss shields. are than not

resonant

as suitable

losses they

in HTS materials are of much lower

zero of

at

that

normal using Many of cost, at higher

cavities.

Development successful

superconducting accelerating are known.

cavities electrons. The reduced of operating very

has proven

for

the material greater

and design

problems

reliability,

and reduced of

complexity the

temperatures

make development

HTS materials

desirable.

Materials conductor applications achieved produce fabricate with these

problems

to be faced

here

are

different

from For cavity density to be

and field it is

generating essential free

structure that

problems.

theoretical Processing to

material

defect

surfaces. will

techniques used to

structures

be similar

those

electromagnetic

shields,

but much more severe. techniques; would hence, require

Cavities medium $6M for

can be fabricated term payoff materials is

by ceramic expected.

processing

This

development design

development

and $gM for table.

development,

distributed

as shown in the

following

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

277

Proposed

Budnet

DIRECTED

ENERGY WEAPONS

&!I
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 1 Category FY88 1 0 FY89 1 1 -!J 2 r 4 FY90 1 2 m 0 2 -2. 4 1 3 FY92 0 1 1 14 Total 3 6

278

Applied Superconductivity

7.

Magnetic

Bearings for

(mid

terml. or is over

Bearings

are

important Replacement cost item. of

components worn-out

any rotating

translating a major

system. military

or damaged bearings slide quality or roll

When

two materials even with consideration top

one another Also, of quiet

damage is noise

inevitable is a

lubrication.

bearing

in the development

submarines.

Noncontact these problems.

magnetic A radial shaft and the

bearings field which shaft will

can be developed generate produce

to alleviate in a force will be

eddy currents a repelling shaft of the in free

conducting, between the

rotating shaft

will

housing. any physical be extremely speeds

Thus the contact valuable

magnetically materials. applications bearings,

confined

without will

Such bearings requiring such

high

shaft

or vibration

as in cryocoolers.

Magnetic restricted supermagnets Because

bearings spaces.

require Refrigeration

fields

of

modest

magnitude

in

approaches for such been

and specialty spaces. this is a medium

must be developed

restricted achieved,

some progress application.

has already

term payoff

Cost system table.

of

the

program

would

be $5M for

materials

R&D and $6M for following

design

and tests,

distributed

as shown in the

Addendum

I:

Military Research and Development

279

Provosed

Budnet

MAGNETIC BEARINGS

&I
Budget

Category

FY88 1 0 0 1

FY89 1 1 0 2

FY90 0 1 r 2

m
0 1 1 3

FY92 0 1 1 3

Total 2 4 2 11

6.1 6.2 6.3A Total

280

Applied Superconductivity

a.

Mine Sweeping is

Sunermannets a concept which

(mid

term)_.

Exploding

mines envisioned magnet, platform system This factor is as

magnetically a use for

has been A large

frequently field

high-field against Cost of

magnets. shock, operating reduced

intense from

reinforced needed. would alone

and suspended such a large at

a moving

superconducting 77K vs 4.2K.

be greatly moves the

by operation from far

application

to medium term.

Cost design table.

of

the

program and tests,

would

be $SM for

materials

R&D and $7M for the following

studies

distributed

as shown in

Addendum

I:

Military Research and Development

281

Provosed

Budget

MINE SWEEPING SUPERMAGNETS

&!I
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 1 Category FY88 1 0 1 4 FY89 1 2 1 5 FY90 1 2 FY92 0 0 -L 2 FY92
0 0

Total 3 4 r

0 0

12

282

Applied Superconductivity

9.

Pulsed effort

Power Systems

(far of

term).

The Air

Force

has devoted for

major

to development power

superconducting This both as well in such are mode, program the

magnets

airborne significant conductors conductors, parameters typical magnet

pulsed

generators. in developing

has achieved

advances for use

superconducting insulation on the The those

in the magnets becomes critical

as the

which for

applications. from

pulsed

magnet

systems

different the effort

of is

DC systems. not lossless, losses

In a pulsed

superconducting must be devoted to compensate very-smallto

and considerable and providing stabilized

minimizing for them.

these This

refrigeration wires Operation with

means fully

diameter

superconducting

filaments. of

at higher can greatly is small so

temperatures improve the

by incorporation cryogenic at higher stability,

the new HTS materials because the heat

capacity of

much greater diameter challenging term payoff

temperatures.

The requirement wire make this importance,

filaments

in a stabilized specific

problem but of longer

and one of potential.

military

This conductors application. is of

program of

will

concentrate design include to this of of

on developing to be useful research project. the

composite for pulsed _ which of the

appropriate It will also

on insulation, Design features

particular include

concern

program

an assessment

cryogenic

refrigeration and structural

requirements considerations

and incorporation in a systems

refrigeration

approach.

Addendum

I: Military Research and1Development

283

This

progralm would and $?M for table.

rlequire (design

about

$lOM for

materials distributed as shown

develolpment in the

development,

following

284

Applied Superconductivity

Proposed

Budnet

PULSED POWER SYSTEMS

&
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 2 Category FY88 2 0 0 2 FY89 2 0 0 4 m 1 3 t 5 FY91 1 2 2 4 FY92 0 1 J 17 Total 6 6

Addendum I: Military Research and Development

285

10.

ELF Communication via with

(far

term). wave has

Extremely been

low

frequency as a means detector would be of

communication communication would be

magnetic submerged

proposed The signal low signal

submarines. while magnet. the Very a low

a SQUID magnetometer superconducting magnet This type would of

generator frequency link used in

a rotatable of the rotating

modulation to the go

provide

data-bit be

submarine. scenario.

communication

would

a go-no

Because preferably refrigeration change rotating cryogenic project $lZM for table. is in the and

a large-moment operating cost of in

superconducting a persistent with mode

magnet -the

is

needed

--

reduced a significant with a this R&D and following

operation

HTS represents problems while worked be $7M for as shown

economics. modulating

Engineering a large must structure,

associated maintaining out. Thus,

environment long term. and

be carefully would

Funding tests,

materials in the

design

distributed

286

Applied Superconductivity

Proposed

Budnet

ELF COMMUNICATION

Sk!
Budget Category FY88 FY89 m FY91 FY92

Total 0 1 6 7 A 4 19

6.1 6.2 6.3 Total 0

1 0 0 1

2 1 0 3

2 3 -z 5

1 2 J 6

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

287

ProDosed

Budeet

LARGE-SCALE

APPLICATIONS

SUMMARY

&
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total 0 16 Category FY88 13 3 FY89 12 11 3 26 FY90 10 18 lo 38 FY91 5 13 22 40 FY92 2 Total 42 53 53 148

a
18 28

288 AppliedSuperconductivity

11.

Other

Annlications. of

There

are

several of

other

large-scale to DOD, which in detail would draw

applications should here. heavily discussed assessments continued greatest possible wigglers), fields), also Most

superconductivity,

importance are not

be considered, involve large

but which magnetic

discussed

fields, aspects of

and hence applications

on materials above.

development At all stages of of

already

of large

DSRD program scale

progress, will which be show of

and evaluations to guide choices for

applications vehicles Other laser (magnets

demonstration impact. electron sources

prospects interest

meaningful free

applications (magnets for for

include:

synchrotron

radiation

the bending

magnetohydrodynamic testing,

energy

sources

(magnets), separation (magnetic

nondestructive field gradients).

and ore

or materials

VI.

DSRD BUDGETRECOMMENDATIONS

The scientific program evident plan

and technical a very budget

work units aggressive

yctlined

in the This is

DSRD

represent estimated which

approach. for

in the

requirements been

individual It is also to two of this that

program blocks, evident yield pages budget the

have

already budget

presented. are

when those the of total this

individual

estimates forth

combined last

budget report.

estimates Although

as set the

on the

individual uncertainty

elements it the is

are

subject represents

to considerable a reasonable be required

believed

total

estimate to bring

of

amount of of maturity

funding

which

will

HTS to a state

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

289

suitable

for

incorporation

in a variety projects.

of

military-systems-

specific

advanced

development

For a number of adjustment. plan Some of

reasons

this

budget

figure

will

require DSRD program investigations Also, and so

the R&D results available

sought

in the of

may become agencies,

generally

as a result

by other some of

by industry, projects

or even by other are of relatively

countries. high risk,

the proposed

some are unlikely additional reveal too scrutiny little

to be carried of some of

to completion. the identified to justify hand,

Moreover, projects their being could

ultimate

payoff other

aggressively projects levels entirely funding. presented adjustment

pursued.

On the obstacles planned. will

some very-high-payoff higher funding matures, merit

may encounter than originally new opportunities


All

which Also, surely

dictate

as HTS technology emerge and will

factors should

considered, be regarded is

the DSRD budget as a first advanced.

estimate subject to

here

iteration,

as HTS technology

290

Applied Superconductivity

AGGRESSIVE

TECHNOLOGY-LIMITED

BUDGET FOR DSRD PROGRAM

$4
Budget 6.1 6.2 6.3A Total Category FY88 40 28 _I! 68 FY89 40 46 22 108 FY90 31 54 32 117 FY91 19 38 56 113 FY92 12 30 58 100 Total 142 196 168 506

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

291

AGGRESSIVE TECHNOLOGY-LIMITED BUDGET FOR DSRD PROGRAM

FY88 Characterization/Search Processing Small-Scale Large-Scale Total 10 13 29 16 68

FY89 16 26 40 26 108

4.B m
15 27 37 38 117

FY91 16 32 25 40 113

m
14 31 27 t8 100

Total 71 129 158 148 506

292

Applied Superconductivity

ACTUAL (F~871 & PLANNED (~~88. 89) S~~ER~~NDUCTIVITY RED

6.1 RESEARCH ($Ml FY87


ARMY

FY88 1.9

FY89 2.4 6.1 11.8

NAVY AIR FORCE NSA DARPA SD10 BTI

5.1 3.7

5.9 10.1

1.5

5.0

5.0

10.3

22.9

25.3

6.2 EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT ($M)


ARMY

NAVY AIR FORCE NSA DARPA SD10 BTI

1.0 0.3 0.3

1.2 0.3 0.5 15.0

1.3 0.4 0.2 15.0

1.6

16.5

16.5

Addendum

I: Military Research and Development

293

6.3A ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT ($M)


FY88 FY89

ARMY NAVY AIR FORCE NSA DARPA SD10 BTI _ 5.2 u_7.4 10.5 5.0 15.7 18.5 10.0 28.6

_
0.2 0.2 0.1

TOTAL 6.1+6.2+6.3A 19 A 3 5s a 1 70 A 4

Addendum

II

Military System Applications

The information in Addendum II is from Military System Applications of Superconductors, issued by the U.S. Department of Defenses Defense Science Board, October 1988.

295

296

Applied Superconductivity

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In 1911 a Dutch scientist discovered a class of materials which, at temperatures near absolute zero, could conduct electricity with no resistance and therefore zero loss of power. In spite of the revolutionary potential of this superconducting material, the difficulty in producing engineered materials and in maintaining low operating temperatures precluded practical applications for many decades. The recent dramatic discoveries of high temperature superconducting materials (up to 125 degrees Kelvin) have prompted an intense international surge in superconductivity research and development. This surge of research and development activity, particularly that of the Japanese, combined with the promise of revolutionary performance improvements in many applications prompted President Reagan to establish a national program in high temperature superconductors. The Defense Science Board was tasked to study the military system applications of superconductors. The attached report presents the findings of this study. The Task Force found a number of superconductivity applications that could result in significant new military capabilities, including electronics and high power applications. In particular, superconducting materials could enable significant military improvements in:

.
.

etrcFaeid-with identification capability range and discrimination

greatly increased sensitivity for improved detection and enabling increased detection in clutter

$tarinP Infrared Focal Plane Array sensors incorporating superconducting electronics permitting significant range and sensitivity increases over current scanning IR sensors . . . and Ultra-Fast Dw for radar and optical sensors wer M~tprs an Genera for ship and aircraft propulsion leading to: decreased displacement; drive system flexibility; increased range; or longer endurance on station

. . .

m for high power microwave, millimeter-wave or optical generators (e.g., free electron laser); capability for powering quiet propulsion systems capable of launching hypervelocity projectiles for antiarmor weapons and close-in ship defense weapons Mamtetohvdrodvnamic (MHD) Prooulsion enabling ultra quiet drives for submarines, torpedoes, and surface ships

Addendum

II :

Military System Applications

297

As these examples illustrate, superconducting materials have potential for significant military applications. It is important to note that many of the applications have high value for commercial and scientific applications as well. However, an extensive program of basic and applied research and materials development will be necessary to make these applications possible. The present R&D level in the U.S. is below critical mass to achieve the desired applications in a timely way. By comparison, the Japanese effort in superconductors is substantially greater than that of the aggregate U.S. commercial and government effort. If these trends continue, the U.S. may fall so far behind in this field that defense and important commercial applications will be achieved only by using foreign source materials and designs as they become available to the U.S. It is the judgment of the DSB that such dependency on foreign sources is an unacceptable position for the U.S.

We have recommended a significantly expanded superconductor R&D program for the Department of Defense which increases the 1989 effort by 50 percent and triples the current effort by 1992. The Task Force members believe such an aggressive program is required to assure U.S. leadership in the many high leverage superconductivity applications. This recommended R&D effort is balanced between exploitation of old (LTS) materials and development of new (I-ITS) materials. It includes avigorous program of building engineering models that will demonstrate the substantial performance advantages achievable with superconducting materials. The demonstration programs recommended include engineering models of a space surveillance system, mine detector, hypersonic tank gun, undersea MHD propulsion system, and a millimeter-wave radar. Most of these efforts involve old (LTS) materials. To achieve the very real cost, weight, and logistic benefits of the new (I-ITS) materials in these applications, substantially more progress must be made in the U.S. R&D program, particularly in the development of new material processing techniques. We have also recommended the development of improved militarized cryogenic devices, because even the new HTS materials will require cooling. In the near future we do not anticipate room temperature operation of superconducting materials. In summary, superconductor materials represent a major opportunity to significantly improve performance in important defense missions as well as in commercial applications. To achieve these benefits, we will need to make substantial, focused increases in R&D over a sustained period. While U.S. superconductivity research is competitive with that of other countries, we cannot count on our commercial developments providing this capability for defense. In fact, U.S. industry is already well behind Japanese industry in the development of superconductivity applications.

298

Applied Superconductivity

SECTION1

INTRODUCTION

The recent dramatic discoveries of high temperature superconducting materials (up to 125 degrees Kelvin as shown in Figure l-l) have prompted an intensive international surge in superconductivityresearch and development. As a result, the Defense Science Board was tasked (terms of reference, Appendix A) to study the military system applications of superconductors. The tasking specifically requested: . . . . A review of the current understandings of superconductor physics, as well as the status of materials properties and their processing. Anevaluationof possible military systemapplicationswith tial for significant new capabilities and cost savings. emphasis on their poten-

Identification of commercial or scientific applications of interest to DOD. Identification of supporting technology necessary for realization of military applicatiOIlS.

Task Force membership, Appendix B, heard a variety of presentations, which are listed in Appendix C. The Task Force concluded that there are some very significant military superconductivity applications which could result in enhanced military capabilities. Some of these are ready for engineering models using low temperature superconductors. However, an extensive program of research and materials development will be necessary to make these applications possible in I-ITS. Given the current level of foreign investment in this area, there is a substantial possibility that the United States will fall behind in superconducting materials processing capability.

Addendum

II: Military System Applications

299

Figure l-l TIME LINE FOR DISCOVERY OF SUPERCONDUCTORS

1301
L

I TlBaCaCuO BiCaSrCuO

4?
II A
x 1

120 -

2110 > F 100 a 5 5 ; 90 - 80-

YBaCuO

_-

LN 2

:=70 05 ;sfjomg 505 f % = 2 c 403020-

LaBaCu04

Nb3Sn \ \ Nb3Ge 7

~_zJ.s$;qq-;;;
1930 1950 1970 1990

1910

YEAR

DISCOVERED

300

Applied Superconductivity

SECTION 2

FINDINGS

The Task Force focused on the following aspects of superconductor technology: . . . . Superconductivity theory, technology, and materials (both low temperature and high temperature technologies) Selected supporting technologies (cryogenics and high strength materials) Military applications The level of U.S. and foreign research expenditures in high temperature superconductivity

STATUS OF SUPERCONDUCTING THEORY, TECHNOLOGY, AND MATERIALS A superconducting state is characterized by zero dc electrical resistance and zero internal magnetic field. Materials technology and theory are discussed for two classes of superconductor applications: electronics and high power systems. Electronic applications typically incorporate thin superconducting films and integrated circuit structures. High power applications use a composite, multi-filamentary wire. The technical usefulness of superconductors is limited to temperatures not exceeding 0.5 to 0.7 of the superconducting transition critical temperature (Tc), as shown in Figure 2-l. The figure depicts the critical surfaces which bound the current densities, magnetic fields, and temperatures which can be achieved by superconducting materials. The niobium-containing materials were identified and studied by 1950. The current high temperature materials are exemplified by the surface indicated in dashed lines (YBaCuO). Projection of a point in the temperature-magnetic field plane on such a surface defines the highest possible (critical) current density, Jc. It should be noted that, due to their early state of development, there is great uncertainty in levels of current density which can be achieved for the new high temperature materials. LOW TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS (LTS) LTS materials of interest have Tcs grouped either around 10 degrees K (niobium metal, and niobium alloys) or between 15 and 23 degrees K (mostly niobium compounds). These metallic materials conduct electricity in all directions, thus simplifying the fabrication of conductors. They are used predominantly in polycrystalline form and are capable of sustaining very high current densities.J The phenomenon of low temperature superconductivity is well understood using the theory developed by Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer (BCS). The publication of the BCS full
1 J = lo6 to 10 A/cm* low magnetic fields and 104 to 16 in high Gelds at liquid helium (LHe) temperature, in T = 4.2 degrees K).

Addendum

II: Military System Applications

301

Figure 2-l OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT

(Amps/cm)

302

Applied Superconductivity

microscopic theory of superconductivity in 1957 was a significant contribution to modern physics. This theory led to the prediction of the Josephson effect, a non linear tunneling process exploited in many electronic devices. This theory also helped guide the developmentof materials suitable for useful magnets. For electronic applications at liquid helium temperatures, all-refractory niobium devices and circuits are in a mature state. In contrast to Japan, the U.S. has a limited industrial base for fabricating superconducting LSI circuits for digital application and currently has no design capability for digital circuitry. For electronic applications above 4.2 degrees K and within the lowest threshold of portable closed-cycle refrigeration (T = 8 to 10 degrees K), the material of choice is niobium nitride. The technology to produce NbN devices and LSI circuits is not mature but demonstrated to be feastble. Further investment in the industrial fabrication base is required to attain required tolerances and yields. Ductile niobium titanlun~ alloys allow composite conductors to be fabricated for magnet and machinery applications involving dc magnetic fields up to 6-8 tesla. This technology is mature. The ac applications are limited by unavoidable conductor losses. Niobium tin wires can sustain dc magnetic fields up to 12-16 tesla but are brittle. Although a U.S. industrial base for this technology exists, applications are limited by poor mechanical properties and the cost of supporting structures. Non-ductile superconductors which sustain fields up to 20-30 tesla are known but the feasibility of manufacturing practical wires has not been fully demonstrated. All materials manufacturing capabilities in the U.S. reside in small companies. Few applications are being pursued at the very high field levels due to the excessive mechanical support required to withstand the enormous forces associated with such magnetic fields. HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS (HTS) The I-ITS materials currently under development are cuprates (oxide compounds of copper, an alkaline earth metal and other elements) discovered in 1986 with critical temperatures in excess of 30 degrees K Due to the very high level of worldwide research effort, the number of these materials and their confirmed Tcs are growing. The highest critical temperature recorded to date is 125 degrees K, in a thallium-based cuprate. The most researched material is YlBaz0307 (YBCO) and its derivatives where Y is replaced by another rare-earth element. Their common Tc is 90-95 degrees K These I-ITS are capable of conducting electricity, however, they exhibit strong directional electrical conduction properties. These materials have the ability to sustain extremely high magnetic fields without loss of superconduction.z Although single crystals of YBCO are capable of sustaining very high current densities, presently available wires and Shns of the new I-ITS materials sustain only low current densities in zero applied magnetic field at 77 degrees K.2 These current densities fall off rapidly in increasing magnetic fieldsP
(Estimated at 50 to 300 tesla near T = 0 degrees K and, io YBCO, up to 20 tesla at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (LNz), T = 77 degrees K) 3 (Je = 3 x Id A/cm2 at fl( in zero field)

4 (Jc = 10 to 10 A/cm2 at 77K in zero fdds and 0.5 x lo6 A/cm2 in tields up to several tcsla.)

Addendum

II:

Military System Applications

303

In contrast to the LTS case, theoretical understanding of I3TS is still poor. The phenomenon was not predicted, and may represent a new physical effect. Greater understanding would further enable the development of useful materials and devices. Further basic discoveries, both experimental and theoretic& can be expected in the next few years. These should have a beneficial (if unforeseeable) impact on development projects. I-ITS materials may prove useful for electronics in the form of both single crystal and polycrystalline films. Several thin film fabrication techniques have been demonstrated; others are being researched. For electronic applications, HTS films currently exhibit properties which require further study, such as high mkrowave losses. The loss mechanism is partially understood, so suitable loss reduction appears feasible. Current films are also characterized by high electronic noise. Noise mechanisms are being investigated and eventual reduction is expected. Significant effort is required to pursue the capability for design, fabrication, and optimization of todays HTS materials. The HTS materials manufacturing base must be aggressively developed in order to provide the basis for the wide range of potential military and commercial applications. Appendix D outlines the range of materials and mamrfachtriug issues which must be addressed for HTS materials. The U.S. is at a significant disadvantage, particularly with respect to Japan, in that our manufactuting capabilities in advanced ceramics is limited. Most essential is research to determine the nature of current-limiting weak links and to attain high critical currents in polycrystalline materials. Further development of thin film processing capabilities for hybrid (semiconductor plus superconductor) structures is needed. While the materials technology for brittle conductors poses very challenging technicaI and economic problems, solutions to these problems appear feasible. The initial high temperature superconductivity developments in basic research materials, and manufacturing sciences needed for military applications are also relevant for commercial applications. In both cases, a strong industrial base for mamrfacturing materials and components is needed for near-term, cost effective deployment of both commercial and military devices.

304

Applied Superconductivity

STATUS OF SUPPORTING TECHNOLOGIES CRYOGENIC COOLING One technology that has limited the previous use of superconductors has been the availability of reliable, long-life, cryogenic coolers. An extensive review of current cryogenic technology is contained in Appendix E. The older materials required cooling to 10 degrees Kelvin or lower. The new materials with critical temperatures between 90 and 125 degrees Kelvin are likely to require cooling to 40 to 80 degrees Kelvin. Since cryogenic cooler efficiency and complexity are strongly dependent on how closely absolute zero is approached, the new high-temperature materials should greatly ease the cooling problem. At the present time, coolers (to 4 degrees K) for commercial ground-based applications are available. The availability of low temperature, ruggedized, long-life coolers for military and space environments is much more limited. At higher temperatures (40 to 80 degrees Kelvin), a number of low-power (up to 1 watt cooling capacity) military designs exist which are suitable for electronics applications. The principal deficiency is the lack of proven long life, high-capacity, militarized coolers for high-power applications. HIGH STRENGTH MATERIALS Achieving the high current densities and magnetic field levels of many high power superconductor applications will require significant advances in high strength materials. As shown in Figure 2-2, the stress exhibited by magnetic fields above 15 to 20 teslas exceeds even the capabilities of graphite fibers. In fact, mechanical stress levels, not current density, are the principal limiters to high power HTS applications. Any movement to higher field levels will exceed available structural materials capabilities. To make possible such applications, further development of composite superconductinfligh strength materials is needed. It appears, however, that certain mechanical constraining structures may also be used. (see Appendix F).

Addendum

II: Military System Applications

305

Figure 2-2 MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE LIMITS

NiCd BATTERY

0.0001

I
1

1 1
I
1

I I
I
I I

10

30

100

300

MAGNETtC

FIELD -

TESLAS

Id4
STRESS -psi

lb
FOR

106

lb7

lb6
= o.,

SOLENO;;D;;2KNESS

306

Applied Superconductivity

MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF SUPERCONDUCTOR!3 INTRODUCTION Superconductor technology, both for the older low temperature materials and the new high temperature materials, has very wide applicability in both military and civilian products. As shown below, superconductor technology can be applied to a number of important electronic and high power applications.
Magnetic Field Sensors IR Sensors MicrowavehmWave Sensors DCto UHFSeason Analog to DigitalConvertors Analog SignalProcessors DigitalData Proeessws

Superconductor technology will support a number of important military systems including ballistic missile submarines, ballistic missile defense, anti-armor warfare, advanced air-to-surface missile, and anti-submarine warfare. ELECTRONICS Overview Military and space systems place the greatest demands on the performance of electronic devices, components, and systems. In this performance-driven field, superconductive electronics can have a major impact on sensor, signal processing, and data processing systems. The impact of superconductors in electronics is based on several unique attributes which make possible: . . . . Ultra-low loss/dispersion transmission lines and filters; High speed, low noise, and low power Josephson junction active devices; Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS) used for magnetic and electromagnetic sensing; Monolithic integrated circuits for both analog (microwave and millimeterwave) and digital components.

Uniauelv. ultra hieh sueed. low noise and low Dower can be realized simultaneously in
suaerconductors,

IR Sensors Superconductivitys major impact on IR sensors is the reduced power required to cool the signal processing and data extraction components supporting large focal plane arrays. This allows realization of large staring arrays with greater sensitivity and range than the lower performance scanning sensors which they would replace. Superconductors also have the potential

Addendum

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Military System Applications

307

to

improve detectivity turability.

at longer wavelengths,

spatial resolution,

and large array manufac-

Future space based IR focal plane array (IRFPA) sensors will incorporate a large detector array, electronic multiplexing circuits, and a data harness from the cryostat to ambient temperature electronics. Because of the large number of detectors required, signal processing for these sensors is a major technological bottleneck CMOS A/D converters could consume several kilowatts of power. Equivalent LTS A/D converters, cooled to the 10 degrees K temperature of the IR detectors, could reduce this power requirement by 90 percent. LTS A/D convertors dramatically reduce cooling power requirements and significantly reduce system weight and size (Figure 2-3). The availability of I-ITS A/D converter technology will require development of active devices in the new materials systems. Such devices will be important for IR detectors operating at higher temperatures whether semiconducting or superconducting (e.g., HgCdTe at 77 degrees K). The key is to deploy low power A/D converters which can operate at the detector temperature. Projected on-chip power dissipation for these superconductive A/D converters is linear with temperature, but reduction in cooling power more than compensates for this due to signal processing power requirements. Some very large infrared imaging arrays may only be feasible with superconductive A/D converters. Microwave and MMW Sensors Low noise, low power monolithic receivers incorporating superconductors will have improved range and resolution. These improvements are especially important for space surveillance and communications. While the improved noise figure alone does not justify superconductors for earth or ocean imaging, it is impractical to deploy focal plane arrays of conventional detectors at MMW. With superconductor technologies, multi-band MMW imaging arrays may be feasible. These arrays could provide an all-weather capability, as well as cloud and smoke penetration not available in visible and IR systems; improved spatial and Doppler resolution, and the capability to detect low signature targets. Multi-element MMW focal plane arrays improve signal collection efficiency proportional to the number of array elements. In a low background space communication link, the improved receiver noise (Figure 2-4) can increase range, reduce power requirements to a level where solid state transmitters become attractive, and/or reduce antenna size and weight. These attributes should enhance system lifetime, autonomy, and security. High temperature superconductor technology could improve the viability of very wideband communications systems. A major impact of I-ITS will be lightweight passive microwave/MMW components for phased array spacecraft antennas and improved MMIC components such as oscillators.

308

Applied Superconductivity

Figure 2-3 SUPERCONDUCTING FOCAL PLANE PROCESSING REDUCES POWER, WEIGHT, AND COMPLEXITY

Number of A/D Converters VHSIC II/CMOS Nb materials 5000 5000

Power (W) 2500 100

Oata Lines 20,000 cu

2.000 fiber optics

Higher speed and lower power dissipation allows faster update times and larger number of array elements using superconducting processing Operation of superconducting processor is consistent with cooled detectors

Use of fiber harness reduces heat load. weight, and size Applications for wide area IR or visible surveillance

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309

Figure 24 NOISE FIGURE (F) AND NOISE TEMPERATURE FOR VARIOUS DEVICES AND NATURAL LIMITS - 1964

F(dBI T, (OKI lo'.50 3000O 9.00-2000Q


6.50 - lO.W 4.30 5000

2.30 -

2000

1.30 - l00o 0.70 0.30 0.15 0.075o" 2o" 100 !i" 2O lo 100 200 MHz 500 1 GHz 2 5 10
GH2

20

56 100 200 500 1 THz GHz

310

Applied Superconductivity

DC to UHF Sensors

The extremely low noise inherent in a superconducting SQUID amplifier permits the use of a very small antenna at UHF frequencies and below while retaining both high sensitivity and wide bandwidth. Applications would include ELF/VII communication systems and advanced HF receivers as well as compact high gain UHF antennas.
Magnetic Sensors

Low temperature superconducting SQUID magnetometers and gradiometers are already highly developed and commercially available. These low temperature SQUID devices are under evaluation by the Navy for ASW applications and mine detection. Figure 2-5 compares the performance of superconducting SQUIDS with conventional magnetic sensors. At higher temperatures, thermally-generated noise power will be inherently larger than at lower temperatures, eliminating some detector noise-limited applications. The complexity of the logistical support would be significantly reduced which would make currently unattractive remote sensing applications much more practical.
Signal Processing A/D Converters

Superconducting A/D converters offer significant advantages in speed and power efficiencies over semiconductor devices. Figure 2-6 shows that the predicted performance of superconductive A/D converters exceeds projections of conventional converters in both speed and, linear resolution. The development of HTS A/D converters will substantially increase their utility due to reduced cooling, lower overall power dissipation, and improved performance. The significantly lower power will make it possible to deploy multi-channel A/D converters for analysis of multi-GHz spectral systems.
Delay Line Signal Processor

Analog signal processors based on tapped delay lines provide wideband signal processing for w-ideband radar and communications systems. Superconductor devices have the capability to perform waveform chirp, convolution, correlation, spectral analysis, and matched filtering with bandwidths as high as 20 GHz Use of new HTS materials will allow integration with semiconductor devices to expand functional performance. The reduced cooling requirement will open deployment opportunities in many wideband radar and intercept systems.

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311

Figure 2-5 COMPARISON OF SUPERCONDUCTIVE MAGNETIC SENSORS WITH CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC SENSORS

CONVENTIONAL
MAGNETIC SENSOR

LTS MAGNETIC SENSOR

HTS MAGNETIC SENSOR

SENSITMTY

IO TO 1O-s Gauss

1O-9TO 10-t Gauss

SLIGHTLY LESS THAN LTS

-u--l-=
MEASUREMENT CAPARILITY Field Strength Only at 10 Gauss; Not Capable of Measuring Source Strength and Full Field Gradient; Capable of Measuring Source Strength and Location

Full Field Gradient; Capable of Measuring Source Strength and Location

312

Applied

Superconductivity

Figure 2-6 SUPERCONDUCTING VS. SEMICONDUCIING A/D CONVERTERS

TECHNOLOGY

BITS (N-)

SAMPLING RATE (MSPS) 10 640

PwR (mw) 0.020 0.020

JJ (Counting Type)

l2*
6

CMOS (VHSIC Phase 2 Goal)

12

10

SILICON BIPOLAR

6-8

so0

8000

TRENDS:

SEMICONDUCIOR CONVERTERS - PWR - ZN JJCONVERTERS-PWR-N

FURTHER

IMPROVEMENT

OF 4 BITS (or 16 in speed) EXPECI-ED

Addendum

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313

Digital Signal And Data Processing LTS digital signal processors provide more than a factor of ten increase in processing speed over conventional GaAs logic for the same complexity and at lower power dissipation (Figure 2-7). Computers can also realize significant performance benefits through application of LTS The shortest response time measured to date is approximately two picoseconds technolo g or 2x10- seconds. This, combined with signal swings of a few millivolts, produces high performance logic circuits that consume very little power. Fujitsu has reported a four bit microprocessor based on Josephson technology that is ten times faster and consumes 0.002 times the power of a gallium arsenide version of the same microprocessor. (See Appendix G). A critical problem in high performance computing is heat removal. For a given heat removal technology the space required per circuit at the systems level increases as the power per circuit increases. Therefore, the transit time or the time to transmit logic signals within the system becomes increasingly important in determining overall system performance. The very low power requirement of a low temperature Josephson technology system is partially offset by the power required to maintain the low temperature. However, the very low power required by even a large system permits the sytem to be built in a very small volume. The greater device speed combined with the shorter transit time will provide greater computational capability in LTS for equivalent total power dissipation (including cooling). At the present time, approximately ten circuit families based on the Josephson technology, have been reported. All of these circuit families are of the Kirchhoff or threshold logic type. This type of circuit performs logic by summing currents and, as a result, is sensitive to parameter variations. Josephson technology has evolved in this direction because the Josephson device is a two terminal device without power gain. There is no fundamental reason to believe that a superconduc!ing equivalent of the transistor is not feasible. If such a device can be developed that has power gain with very high performance, it would revolutionize the use of superconducting technology in computing systems. HTS materials show great potential because they may be much more compatible with semiconductor materials than the older superconductors, thus enabling hybrid approaches (superconductors with semiconductors). It should be emphasized, however, that achieving the potential of three terminal devices will require the invention of a fundamentally new device.

314

Applied

Superconductivitv

Figure 2-7 DIGITAL SUPERCONDUCTING/SEMICONDUCTING GATE/CIRCUIT COMPARISONS

1000 -

z
; Y 5
Fi F

100 -

2 i n JJ SUPERCONDUCTOR

POWER

&W/Gate)

Addendum

II: Military System Applications

315

HIGH POWER APPLICATIONS High power applications will primarily exploit the intense critical magnetic fields that can be generated by high current density superconductor materials. There are many promising application areas for such materials. Superconductor magnetic fields can store large amounts of energy for extended periods of time, They can provide compact, high magnetic field sources for rotating electrical machinery and offer the promise of unconventional electric drive systems for military platforms. Employed in weapons, they can accelerate projectiles to exceptionally high velocities and, as control magnets for electron-beam tubes they can provide high-power sources of millimeter and visible wavelength energy. All of these possibilities include important military applications. Magnets -- Applications The earliest superconductor technology applications were high-field magnets used in particle accelerators and energy storage inductors. In operation, energy is fed into the inductor slowly, stored for an arbitrarily long period, and then released on demand. A modest-sized superconducting storage inductor (3x10 joules) has already been used by the Bonneville Power Administration. A larger scale storage system ( 1012joules), could meet the high-peak power demands of a ground-based free electron laser or a space-based directed energy weapon. Magnetic energy storage devices with high critical fields could reduce the size and weight of these storage devices as shown in Figure 2-8. Near term applications of high-field magnets could include superconducting beam control magnets employed in gyrotrons and free-electron lasers for the generationofhigh-power levels at microwave, millimeter and optical wavelengths. Electrical Machinery The quickest payoff in high-power applications will come from the exploitation of superconductor materials in rotating electrical machinery. Substantial weight savings can be realized by eliminating magnetic circuit materials and customary field windings. Already, an experimental 3-megawatt superconducting D.C. motor has been built for ship propulsion and tested at sea. This motorwas 33 percent smaller than the equivalent conventionally air-cooled A.C. motor. Substantially greater motor size reductions are possible with conventional LTS materials. A superconducting homopolar DC. motor of 40,000 h.p., employing superconducting shielding, could be built at about one fourth the size and weight of a contemporary A.C. motor. The decreased size and weight and increased electrical efficiency reduce fuel requirements and lead to an overall reduction in propulsion system demand on the ships resources. A superconducting generator, which may be located remotely from the ship drive motor, will provide an efficient, flexible ship propulsion system. The effect on a destroyer-class ships performance would be to reduce ship displacement by 14 percent and increase its range by 30 per Critical magnetic fields have been measured up to 20 tesla (T) at 4 degrees K for conventional LTS and 30 T at
77 degrees K for HTS.

316

Applied Superconductivity

Figure 2-8 MAGNETIk ENERGY STORAGE

ENERGY/VOLUME

B2 z-

B O-=L.W
1 5 20 30

W&Wh/m3
0.15 3.8 60 135

SPECIFIC ENERGY www 4x104 .004 .045 .lOO .030

NiCd BATTERIES

Addendum

II: Military System Applications

317

cent.

If the propulsion system were mounted in an external pod, the ships displacement be decreased by 25 percent and its cruising range increased by 40 percent.

could

As illustrated in Figure 2-9, high temperature, high field materials would allow further decreases in weight and size. At this point, the propulsion system would be a negligible fraction of overall ship displacement, and multiple redundant drive systems could be installed. While the first high-power propulsion applications are likely to be in ships, Figure 2-9 suggests that high-field superconductors could also provide light-weight generators and motors for armored vehicles and, more speculatively, for aircraft propulsion. It must be emphasized that if these systems are to come about, the necessary cryogenic support systems must be developed to withstand the rigors of an operational environment. Other superconductor propulsion sysems are clearly foreseeable. In Japan Magneto Hydrodynamic (MHD) drives have been built and tested at scale-model level by Kawasaki Heavy Industries. By 1990, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, in partnershipwith Toshiba and Kobe Steel, plans to have a 120-ton displacement ship with MHD drive in operational test. In addition to surface ships, MHD drives can also find use as quiet propulsion systems for submarines and torpedoes. Speculating about further term applications, an MHD collector-diffuser and an MI-ID magnetic nozzle may make feasible a scramjet propulsion system for space bodies traveling in an ionized medium. In this concept (Figure 2-lo), a combustor operates between two MHD sections, one of which adjusts the flow velocity and temperature to be suitable for combustion, and the other of which provides thrust augmentation. Excess inlet gas energy is removed by the forward section and re-injected as electrical energy into the stream by the aft section. This will require particularly compact and lightweight magnetic field sources. Launchers The electromagnetic (EM) mass accelerator concept is some 25 years old and has been explored intermittently. Recently, SD10 has supported EM rail-gun technology for use as a projectile accelerator. The EM accelerator is of interest because it is capable of propelling a large mass to a very high velocity. Unlike chemical propulsion systems, the achievable terminal velocity is not limited by the speed of exploding gas, but rather by the speed of a traveling electromagnetic pulse. Hence, a projectile could be accelerated to act as an effective kinetic energy weapon. EM accelerator applications include: launching close-in ship-defense projectiles against cruise missiles, launching torpedoes from submarines, or as a hypersonic antiarmor weapon which, because its velocity could exceed the sound velocity in protective armor, would be an assured penetrator. Superconductor materials, whether LTS or I-ITS, will increase the feasibility of EM launchers as military weapon systems for many of the reasons previously stated in other applications -- lower weight, smaller volume, and higher efficiency. Superconductor materials would be used in the prime power generator, in the energy storage system and in the high speed switch which could employ superconducting thin films.

318

Applied Superconductivity

Figure 2-9 MOTOR/GENERATOR APPLICATIONS

SHIP PROPULSION

- 40,000 HP/180 RPM

CONVENTIONAL AIR-COOLED

SUPERCONDUCI-OR DC-5TESL.A

SUPERCONDUCTOR DC - 15 TESLA (New Materials)

320,000 LB 20 Fl- DIAMETER

88,000 LB 6.6 FC DIAMETER

18,000 LB 45 FC DIAMETER

REALIZABLE

WITH CURRENT

TECHNOLOGY

PROJECTED

AIRCRAFT PROPULSION 40,000 HP/1800 RPM DC-lOTEsL.4

TANK PROPULSION 400 HP/1800 RPM DC-IOTESLA

1500 LB 8 F-l- DIAMETER

40LB 1J FC DIAMETER

SPECULATIVE

Addendum

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Military

System Applications

319

Figure 2-10 MAGNETICALLY ASSISTED HYPERSONIC RAMJET

MAGNETIC
DIFFUSER

COMBUSTOR

MAGNETIC NOZZLE

FORWARD

MHD

Ah

MHD

MAGNETIC NOZZLE

THRUSTER EXHAUST

320

Applied Superconductivity

High-current density superconductor materials could make feasible a new concept, the superconducting augmented rail gun (an inverse rail gun), in which most of the launch energy is stored in a superconducting field magnet. This eliminates the requirement for a pulsed, highenergy system to achieve the desired acceleration levels. The problem of high current, high speed sliding contacts, which is common to all rail guns, would still remain. An EM coaxial launcher, which requires no physical contact between the projectile and launcher, has been proposed to get around the sliding contact problem. In a version known as the superconducting quench gun, it could operate very effectively with compact, high-field intensity superconducting elements. In this concept, all the launch energy is stored in a multisection solenoid barrel (Figure 2-l 1). The magnetic field of each section is very tightly coupled to its immediate neighbor and to the superconducting projectile coil. The projectile coil is accelerated by the solenoid magnetic field and, as it passes the mid-point of each section of the solenoid barrel, the superconducting current flow in that section is quenched. The quench gun directly converts magnetic energy into kinetic energy at high efficiency. Figure 2-11 MAGNETIC LAUNCHERS

PROJECTILE MASS = M

MAGNETIC

ENERGY

IN

PROJECTOR

2 PO

7rr2

PROJECTILE

VELOCITY

V =

SOLENOID

STRESS

S =

-= 4

PO/R - r)

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Military System Applications

321

U.S. AND FOREIGN RESEARCH EXPENDITURES IN HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTMTY With the discovery of high temperature superconductivity, substantial R&D efforts have been undertaken in the U.S., Europe, Japan, and very likely in the USSR. It is very difficult to make estimates of national R&D efforts. 1988 estimates of U.S. and foreign high temperature superconductivity research, as drawn from CIA and NSF inputs to the Task Force, are as follows:
#OF U.S.
Government Industry Japan UK FEUICC West Germany
l

95 M US 25 20 15

500 250 l&Xl* 3Gu 2Qo 150

See Appendix H for more detailed information. The above estimates for Japan do not include sala& of the researchers. Au other funding numbers do include such costs.

U.S. Government funding details are contained in Appendix H. It is estimated that in 1988 approximately 500 professionals are supported by U.S. Government funding. Most of the U.S. industrially-funded research is concentrated in a few large research laboratories (e.g., IBM, AT&T, etc.). In addition, several start-up companies have been formed. The rest of U.S. industry is investing relatively little and maintaining a wait-and-see attitude. The intensity and emphasis of the Japanese effort is notable. Both basic research and rapid industrialization are emphasized. Single crystal materials with significant current carrying capacity at 2 tesla fields have already been achieved. In contrast to the U.S., Japan is already applying significant effort toward the industrialization of both LTS and I-ITS. According to a recent OTA report,
Japanese companies have been more a&e in pursuing the commercial potential of HTS. They have more people at work many of them applications-oriented engineers and business planoers charged with &inking about ways to get HTS into the marketpIace...As the Scientitic race becomes the commercial race, Japanese fm could quickly take the lead Indeed, they may already be doing so!

The European efforts are mainly concentrated in universities and emphasize basic research. At the present time, it seems clear that high-temperature superconductivity research is geographically widespread and that the U.S. is not the principal focus of research.
6c .

OTA Report Brief, June 1988

322

Applied Superconductivity

SECTION 3

CONCLUSIONS

Based on these Emdings, the Task Force came to the following conclusions: 1. The new high-temperature superconductors are of great significance because of their high operating temperatures and magnetic fields. 2. The discovery of high temperature superconductors has rekindled interest in low temperature applications which have not been exploited. 3. There are Superconductor applications of potentially significant military impact, as shown in Figure 3-l. 4. To make these military applications possible, intensive research and development in the following areas will be required: . Expanded efforts in superconductor theory and basic research should provide the fundamental understanding of the new materials to guide applied research. Such basic research (theory and experiments) could also lead to the scientific breakthroughs which will make the speculative applications feasible. Thin HTS film fabrication, with emphasis on lower processing temperatures, perfecting surfaces/interfaces, reducing RF surface losses, minimizing electronic noise, and increasing environmental stability, including radiation hardness. HTS composite films/conductors/wires with emphasis on increasing current densities in high magnetic fields to useful levels, minimizing persistent current creep and AC losses, and attaining requisite mechanical strengths and flexibility. Militarized cryogenic coolers with long lifetimes and increased reliability, especially portable, miniaturized coolers. High strength structural materials for magnet support systems.

. .

5. DOD sponsored developments in basic research, materials, and manufacturing processing will provide direct benefit to commercial manufacturing organizations. 6. Some applications of great military significance could be embodied in engineering models in the near future. The following programs, which combine a high degree of significance with a reasonable expectation of technical success, could be started in parallel with the efforts to develop improved high temperature superconducting materials:

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323

Figure 3-1

ELECTRONICS AND HIGH-POWER APPLICATIONS OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY


MILITARY SiCNIFICAN~ STARING IR FOCAL PLANE ARRAYS Significant Range and Sensitivity Increases Over Current Scanning IR Sensors ,MAGNETIC FIELD SENSOR Increased Sensitivity for Detection and Identification PASSIVE MICROWAVE/MILLIMETERWAVE COMPONENTS Increased Radar Range FEASIBILITY* LTS HTS Low Risk Medium Risk

LTS HTSLTSHTS -

Low Risk Medium Risk LowRisk Medium Risk (Phased-Array Antenna) Low Risk (Analog) Medium Risk (Digital) Medium Risk (Analog) Speculative (Digital) Low Risk (Ship) High Risk (Armored Vehicle) Speculative (Aircraft)

WIDEBAND ANALOG AND ULTRA-FAST DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

LTS HTS -

MOTORS AND GENERATORS Ship, Aircraft, and Advanced Vehicle Propulsion with: Decreased Displacement; Increased Range/Longer Endurance; and Drive System Flexibility; lMAGNETS/ENERGY STORAGE High-Power Generation for Microwave, Millimeter-wave or Optical Generator (e.g., FEL) ELECTROMAGNETIC LAUNCHERS Hypervelocity Projectiles for Anti-Armor Weapons and Close-in Ship Defense Weapons MHD PROPULSION Ultra Quiet Drives for Submarines, Torpedoes, and Surface Ships .MHD DIFFUSER/MAGNETIC NOZZLE High Altitude Hypesonic Propulsion; Orbital Power Generation

LTS -

LIS HTS -

L.ow Risk High Risk

LTS HTS -

Medium Risk High Risk

LTS HTS -

Medium Risk High Risk

FEASIBILITY

KEY:

Low Risk Medium Risk High Risk Speculative

Routine Difficult Difficult Requires

Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering

Problems Problems. Solv;tblr Problems, May Not Be Solwhle Discovery

324

Applied Superconductivity

Space Surveillance System. Build an IR focal plane array demonstrating high resolution and low power consumption by combining detectors using existing extrinsic silicon materials with signal processors employing LTS materials. In parallel, a 6.2 program could develop sensor elements with HTS materials. Mine Detector. Build and demonstrate a magnetic field sensor with LTS materials suitable for use as a mine detector. In parallel, a 6.2 program could develop sensor elements with FITS materials. Hypersonic Tank Gun Build and demonstrate an electromagnetic projectile launcher using LTS materials. This launcher should achieve hypersonic velocities capable of penetrating reactive armor and modem composite armor. Undersea MI-ID Propulsion. Build and demonstrate a small scale MHD propulsion systems with LTS materials. This engineering model would be designed to power a torpedo. Later models would be scaled up for submarine applications. Millimeter-wave Radar. Build and demonstrate a millimeter-wave radar. This radar would embody HTS materials in its filters, transmission lines, phase shifters and possibly the reflector.

7. Foreign investment in superconductivity research and development is increasing rapidly and significantly exceeds that of the U.S. Japan is currently spending considerably more than the total U.S. effort in superconductivity research and has targeted superconductivity as an important commercial area.

Addendum

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325

SECTION 4

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on this evaluation, the following recommendations are made: . DDR&E should implement a focused plan for superconductivity basic research, (theory and experiments) materials development, and application demonstrations. This plan should include cooperation with industrial organizations in order to build a strong industrial base in the area of superconductivity. This plan should also incorporate substantial funding which increases over the next several years. A model funding profile is shown in Figure 4-l. The Services, SD10 and DARPAshould implement an aggressive plan for early exploitation of high-temperature superconductivity in electronic applications, including sensors and data processing, as well as weapon and propulsion systems. Initial emphasis should be placed on electronic applications. A suggested funding profile is included under the high;temperature 6.3 lines of Figure 4-1. To facilitate the earliest military applications of superconductivity, the Services, SD10 and DARPA should build a number of engineering test models exploiting existing low temperature materials. Estimates for funding of these efforts are shown in Figure 4-l under the last two 6.3 lines.

326

Applied Superconductivity

Figure 4-1 SUGGESTED DOD SUPERCONDUCTMTY (Dollars IIIMillIons) gg 6.1 6.2 Basic Research including Theory Applied Research on Processing of New Materials, Manufacturing Sciences, Cryogenics, and High Strength Composites Engineering Demonstrations of Electronics Applications of New Materials (e.g., Magnetic Sensor, IR Sensor, and Microwave Antenna) Engineering Demonstrations of High Power Applications of New Materials Early Exploitation of High Power Engineering Test Models Using LTS (e.g., Quench Gun, MHD Torpedo for Quiet Propulsion) Early Exploitation of Electronics Engineering Test Models Using LTS (e.g., digital signal processing, squids, millimeter-wave sensors) TOTAL 17 22 FUNDING*

89 20 50

90 20 60

91 25 70

92 25 70

93 30 75

63

13

10

20

30

40

50

63

10

20

63

22

30

50

70

80

70

63

10

10

20

20

15

79

120

160

215

245

260

* This funding is;;;e;zbove

that being invesied agencies and organizations outside of the Department by

Addendum

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327

APPENDIX TERMS OF REFERENCE


THE UNDER SECRETARY
DC

OF DEFENSE
2OSOl

WASHINGTON,

4 IJEC 1907
MEMORABDDM FOR CBAIBMAB, DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD

SUBJECT: Terms of Reference-Defense Science Board (DSB) Task


Force on Military System AQQlioatiOnS at SuQ0rCOnduCtOrS IOU are requested to form a Task Force to enumerate and evaluate military system applications that may be enabled by the recent progress in high temperature superconductors. These new materials are widely recognized as enabling a technical revolution, and there has been a good deal of speculation about component or device applications.
A review OS the recent technoloav advances will be required. but is not the main focus of this t&king. The core of this Task Force's work will be to develop a list of Qotential system applications parameterized in such a way that, as the technology advances, we will be able to see which concepts then become viable, and what value they may have to DOD systems. This is a someuhat more open-ended task than many and you are to have considerable latitude in carrying out your investigations. Houever, I anticipate that the Task Force will:

- Assess the current understanding OS the physics involved in high To superconductivity and the status of materials processing technology neoessary to produce devices. Where possible, project likely advances in critical temperature, critical fields, stability o? materials , and ease of manufacture in various configurations (thin films, uires, etc.). - Enumerate possible system applications and their military impact. Attempts should be made to quantiiy system periormance improvements, and where possible, cost savings. - Order the potential system applications in terms OS necessary superconduator oharacteristics and in terms of military capability. - Identiiy those system applications that will be unique to the military and those which , as they are developed for commercial interests, will assist the military. Suggest ways in which ue might develop the uniquely military components and systems, as well as ways in which ue might cooperate with industrial development.

328

Applied Superconductivity

Identify what supporting technologies (those not directly related to superconducting materials) will need development in order to realize each system application. should Make reooomendations on how DOD, and in particular pursue development in these areas. DARPA,

Secretariat representative. It fs not anticipated that your inquiry nfll need to o into any particular matters within meaning of Section 20 % of Title 18, D. S. Code.fi

The Dfreotor of DARPA and &he Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Advanced Technologywill co-sponsor this Task Force. Mr. Walt Morrow, Jr., has agreed to serve as Chairman. Dr. Kay Rhyne of DARPA will be the Executive Secretary. LCDR George A. Mikolai, DSN, will be the DSB
the

Robert C. Duncan Assistant Secretary of Defense (Research & Technology)

Addendum

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329

MEMBERSHIP

CHAIRMAN
Mr. Walter E. Morrow, Jr. MIT J..incoln Laboratory

VICE VAN Dr. Wti J. Perry H&Q Technology Partners MEMBERS Dr. Philip B Allen State University of New York at Stony Brook Dr. Richard N. Herring Ball Aerospace Dr. Donald C. MacLellan MlT Lincoln Laboratory Dr. Aleksander 1. Braginaki Westinghouse R&D Center Mr. Joseph Logue Consldtant Dr. W&am H. Press Harvard University Dr. Arnold H. Silver TRW Space and Technology Group

CUTNE

SECRETARY

TARY ASSISTANT LCDR George A. Miiolai, USN DSB/OUSD(A) GOVERNMENT ADVISORS Dr. Donald Gubser Naval Research Laboratory

Dr. Kay A. Rhyme DARPAIMSD

Dr. Ted G. Berlincourt

Office of Deputy Under Secretary of Defense Research and Advanced Technology Dr. Bernard Paiewomsky Office of Secretary of Air Force

Dr. Clarence Thornton Director, U.S. Army Electronic Technology Laboratory Dr. Harold Weinstock Air Force Oftice of Scientific Research

Mr. Ronald Vaughn Office of Chief of Naval Operations

330

Applied Superconductivity

BRIEFINGS PRESENTEDTO THE DSB TASK FORCE ON MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF SUPERCONDUCIORS


LISTING OF SPEAKERS FOR THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD TASK FORCE ON MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF SUPERCONDUCIORS Name/Organization
January 1Q20,1988 Dr. Alcksander Bra&ski Westinghouse R&D Center Dr. Richard Withers MIT Liicoln Laboratory Dr. David Clarke IBM Dr. Ted Be&court ODUSD/R&AT Dr. Sadeg Faris Hypres, Inc. Dr. David C. Larbalestier University of W~coesin February Dr. Clyde Northrup SDIO Dr. B. van dcr Hoeven IBM, TJ Watson Research Center Dr. HJ. Paik University of MaryIand Dr. Kay A. Rhyne DARPA Dr. PbiIIip AUen State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook Dr. Gary KekeIis Naval Coastal Systems Center Dr. Peter Kemmey DARPA 24-25, 1988 High Temperature Superconductors Defense Systems for Strategic Properties of TecbnologicaIIy UsefuI Supcrconducto6 Sii Process@ Applications of Conventional Superconductors. Prowssing and Properties of High TC Superconductors. Large ScaIe Supercooductivity Applications Department of Defense in the

TODIC

Dawn of the Third Electronics Revolution Based on Superconductivily Proassiq Fabrication and Properties of Helium Temperature Superconductors

Josephson Technology Development Lime


SuperconductingInertial Instruments for Gavity

Survey and Navigation l%e New Bii(SrCa)3CwOa+&

Developments of Theories and their Role in Exploiting Superconductivity Status of Superconducting Gradiometw

Opportunities in Electromagnetic Launcher and pulse Power Systems Using High Temperature Superconductors Superconductive Sensor aadd Signal Processing Technology

Dr. Arnold Silver TRW Space and Tcchoology Group

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331

Name/Organization
Dr. Femaud Bedard National Security Agency March 17-19.1999 Dr. Michael SupercynsLi David Taylor Research Center Dr. Harold Weinstock AFOSWNE Dr. Charles Hogge Air Force Weapons Laboratory Dr. Gerald Iafrate AmY Dr. Gerald P. Dbmeen HoncyweU, Inc. Dr. Richard Withers MIT Liicoln Laboratory William Duggleby, Donald Lundy CIA
April 1915, 1999

Topic
Electronic Applications of Superconductitit)

Superconductivity

Machinery

and Energy Storage

Air Force Research and Development Plan for Superconductivity Air Force Superconductor Applications

High

Temperature Superconductivity... Issues, Novel Concepts, and Army Applications Corporatq Overview on Superconductivity

Lincoln LaboratorY High Temperature ductivity Applications Assessment

Supercon-

Research and Applications of Non-U.S. High Temperature Superconductivity Work

Dr. Glenn Penaisten Alpha Partners Inc. Dr. Alex Malozemoff IBM

?%e Commercialization of Superconductor TechIlOloey

Issues

and Commercialization of High Temperature Superconductivity

332

Applied Superconductivity

DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS 1. Introduction

INTO

Section 2 of the DSB Report summarizes the status of superconducting materials. The purpose of this Appendix is to define in a concise manner the more important I-ITS materials and manufacturing issues in the two classes of applications: military electronics and high power systems. The R&D directions with the greatest need of DOD support are also identified. A few general issues and ensuing R&D directions are common to both classes of applications and these are discussed first. Exploration of these general problems will be best addressed by the search for new materials. This activity is most appropriate for academic, long range, lowlevel research programs, both theoretical and experimental. The National Science Foundation and the DOD Offices of Research are suitable conduits of support for a majority of such programs. 2. General Issues 2.1 Operating temperature: in almost all applications the operating temperature is 0.5 to 0.7 To The desired operation at liquid nitrogen (77K), and eventually room temperature, mandates a search for higher Tc materials with a goal of attaining about 15OK. The successive I-ITS discoveries which raised Tc from about 80K to 12SK in the past two years suggest that further Tc increases might be expected. Both thallium and bismuth compounds that are more stable in air than YBCO have been found with critical temperatures greater than 1OOK. Development of an applicable theory of FITS superconductivity mechanism could provide clues for novel, higher Tc materials. 2.2 Range of superconducting interactions: in all oxide HTS materials this range is extremely short and often comparable to the distance between adjacent atoms. Consequently, small defects and imperfections disrupt superconductivity. For example, the transfer of high electric current density between grains (crystallites) of such ceramic materials is most severely limited by imperfect grain boundaries. Defective film surfaces and interfaces make prospects for the operation of I-lTS Josephson tunnel junctions uncertain. 2.3 Directionalproperties: all I-ITS cuprate crystals have highly directional (anisotropic) magnetic field and electric current carrying capability. There is a potential for developing devices which exploit the anisotropic nature of the materials. The search for HTS materials having field and current capabilities independent of direction (isotropic) is still desirable. The most recent discovery of such a material, a Ba-K-Bi-oxide, with a Tc approaching 30K indicates that work along these lines might be a fruitful part of such an R&D program.

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2.4

HTS theory akve@nent. As noted in section 2 of this report, theoretical understanding of I-ITS is poor. Although R&D can proceed without a full theoretical basis, this lack of understanding inhibits the development of new materials and processes. Theoretical research efforts should be supported as a part of DODSHTS program. of ProawingMethodr. Since the new superconducting materials with critical temperatures greater than 90K have four or more components, their deposition as thin films has been challenging. A large variety of techniques must be evaluated for appropriate properties.
2.5 R+tement

All cuprate I-ITS materials discovered and investigated to date exhibit qualitatively a similar behavior, so that the priority objectives/directions for applied R&D are relatively common to all such materials. Present issues and deficiencies define the practical goals for the investigation and optimization of properties and processes which are listed below for the two classes of applications. The foremost requirement in these investigations is to acquire basic understanding of the material deficiencies. 3. HTS Materials for Electronics Superconductors, both LTS and FITS, are used in electronics mostly in the form of thin tilmand layered film structureswhich also incorporate nonsuperconducting films of insulators, semiconductors and normal conductors. Material requirements are to a large degree common to low and high power electronics. The identified obstacles to I-ITS utilization are the high radio frequency (RF) losses, high electronic noise and the film surface/interface superconductivity degradation. The weak links between grains can be either utilized (in granular films) or eliminated by epitaxial, single crystal film deposition. 3.1 Objectives for Electronic Materials Investigation: 3.1.1 Maximize critical current density and flux pinning in epitaxial HTS superconductor 6lms for active devices to attain and exceed 10 A/cm2 at 77K. Maximize flux pinning in granular HTS films in order to obtain lo6 A/cm2 at 77K. 3.1.2 Reduce low-field RF loses in HTS epitaxial films and film substrates to at least two orders of magnitude lower level than in copper at the same frequency and temperature. Increase the RF surface magnetic penetration field to approach the superheating critical field. 3.1.3 Reduce the low frequency (l/f) noise energy in HIS epitaxial and granular films to a target level of less than 10m30 Joule/Hz at 77K and 1 Hz. 3.1.4 Attain superconductivity at HTS film surfaces and interfaces comparable to that inside the film and demonstrate tunneling into these surfaces.

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3.15 Determine mechanism of inter-grain coupling and opto-electronic librium effects in granular HTS films.

nonequi-

3.1.6 Explore effects in HTS films which might lead to new functional devices, especially three-terminal transistor-like devices. 3.1.7 Search for optimized substrate materials and buffer layers for HTS films (epitaxiaL!nonepitaxial, having low t-f loss, chemically and thermally compatible to minimixe interdiffusion and strains). 3.2 Objectives for Electronic Materials Fabrication Process Development 3.2.1 Develop HTS film deposition methods insuring: (a) an ultra-precise composition control, (e.g., 02 content) (b) stabilization of highest-Tc structural phase, (c) epitaxial, single crystal film growth with specified crystal orientations, (d) granular film growth with controlled inter-grain coupling, (e) reproducibility, versatility and high throughput at a lowest capital investment level. 3.22 Attain lowest possible deposition and processing temperatures for HTS films and multilayers with a target temperature not to exceed 500 C. 3.23 Attain integration of HTS superconducting films with semiconductors, sulators and metals to fabricate hybrid electronic circuitry. in-

3.2.4 Develop micron and sub-micron scale patterning of HTS films and multilayers. 3.25 Develop techniques for fabrication of electrical contacts in integrated cuits.
4.

cir-

High Power Applications

In high power, low frequency and direct current (DC) applications, the most important embodiment for the LTS and HTS superconductor is a composite conductor in the form of a multifilamentary wire, tape and cable. Composites must include normal metal matrix or cladding for cryostabilixation and mechanical support. The biggest obstacles to fabricating such HTS conductors are the presence of weak links between grains of bulk, polycrystalline materials which limit the current density to very low values, the anisotropy of critical field and current density, the brittleness of the HTS ceramics and the incompatibility (reactivity) with economically viable stabilizers: copper and aluminum.

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4.1 Objectives for Conductor

Material

Properties Investigation

4.1.1 Increase critical current density in bulk polycrystalline aggregates (to a target level of at least 16 A/cm* at 77K in magnetic fields of 10 to 12 tesla and at least lo6 A/cm* below 1 tesla) and minim& glassy behavior by atmining clean, defect-free grain boundaries. 4.12 Determine detailed phase diagrams, oxygen diffusivity data and other physico-chemical properties of Pffg compounds. 4.1.3 Determine mechanical properties (elastic constants, Youngs modulus. hardness etc.) and thermal properties of HTT3 single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates over a wide temperature range. 4.1.4 Determine and optimize electromagnetic and thermal properties, especially alternating current (AC) losses and stability, of HTS composite conductors having the minimum required current density at specified field intensity. 4.2 Objectives for Conductor Fabrication Process Development. 4.2.1 Develop methods for fabricating crystallographically oriented (textured) HTS wires and tapes with clean, defect-free grain boundaries. 4.22 Develop methods for fabricating/pulling single crystal HTS fibers, fiber or tape coatings and fiber or tape substrates in suitable diameter or thickness ranges. 4.2.3 Develop methods for fabricating HTS composite wires and tapes with economically viable normal metal stabiliaation. 4.2.4 Develop methods for fabricating HTS composite wires and tapes with mechanical composite reinforcement sufficient for handling and high-field operation of brittle ceramic fibers and coatings. 42.5 Develop HTS magnet conductors in geometries other than wire or tape (e.g. a Bitter-type configuration). 4.2.6 Develop methods for joining HTS composite wires.
4.2.7 Explore alternative methods of I-ITS conductor fabrications to optimize reproducibility, quality control and ease of manufacturing at lowest unit cost and capital investment. Efforts 4.2.3 to 4.2.7 will deserve high priority after a sufficiently high current density in wires, long fibers or tapes is demonstrated.

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CRYOGENIC TECHNOLOGY

SECTION 1 SUPERCONDUCTORS AND THEIR CRYOGENIC REQUIREMENTS

The three important characteristics of the superconducting state are the critical ternperature (Tc) (the temperature below which the superconducting state occurs), the critical magnetic field (Hc), and the critical current density (Je). It is well known that temperatures above Tc quench superconductivity. Perhaps it is less well known that the superconducting state is also quenched by an external magnetic field, H > Hc, or an electrical current, J > Jc or a combination of the three parameters. The highest temperature possible for the transition to the superconducting state, Tc, occurs when both H and J are zero. For useful values of H and J, the operating temperature of the superconductor must be less than T e. A useful guideline is that the absolute operating temperature, T, should be about one-half the transition temperature. This temperature level provides useful values of H and J, as well as a margin below Tc to accommmodate any localized transient heating of the superconductor that might occur. (The actual relationships among T, H, and J are complex, but the above rule is nonetheless a handy guide.) Accordingly, the ordinary (Type II) superconductors with Tc in the 20K range could typically be usefully operated at 1OK. Since no stable, liquid refrigerant exists at lOK, the operating temperature is usually lowered to 4K, the temperature of liquid helium. By the same rule, the new class of superconducting compounds, with Te at about 9OK, would be useful superconductors if cooled to 4%. Cooling to the temperature of liquid hydrogen, 2OK, may not be unreasonable because hydrogen is much less expensive than the 40K liquid refrigerant, Neon. Similarly, the yet undiscovered room temperature (300K) superconductors, in order to accommodate a useful magnetic field and electrical current, would be cooled to 15OK.For practical reasons, the temperature of liquid nitrogen, 77K, would probably be chosen. Therefore, superconductors, old, new, and yet undiscovered, tures (4K, 2OK, and 77K, respectively) to have useful properties. require cryogenic tempera-

The balance of this appendix discusses our present ability to create such a cryogenic environment. The discussion is divided into ground-based systems and space-based systems. These two categories are then divided into large-scale and small-scale systems. It will be seen that cryogenics is a mature technology and poses no particular obstacle for operating any superconductor, old or new, at any desired temperature. Table 1 provides a list of some current, extensive reviews of cryogenic cooling technology.

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Table 1 REVIEWS OF CRYOGENIC STATUS 1. Smith, Joseph L., Robinson, George Y.. and Iwasa Yukikazu, Survey of the State of the Art of Miniature Cryocoolers for Superconducting Devices, prepared under the offtce of Naval Research, Contract NOOO1483K0327. (Not published in the open literature) 2. Daunt, J.G. and Goree, W.S., Miniature Cryogenic Regrigerators, under contract NONR-263(70), July 1969. 3. Crawford, AH., Specifications 1970.
4.

Report to ONR February,

of Cryogenic Refrigerators,

Cryogenics,

Applications of Closed-Cycle Cryocoolers to Small Superconducting Devices, NBS Special Publication 508, Eds. Zimmerman, J.E. and Flynn T.M., April 1978.

5. Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors and Electronic Systems, NBS Special Publication 607, Eds, Zimmerman J.E., Sullivan, D.B,, and McCarthy, S.E., May 1981. 6. Walker G., Crvocoolers, Vols. I and II, Plenum Press, 1983.

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SECTION 2 CRYOCOOLERS A cryocooler is a refrigerating system capable of achieving temperatures in the cryogenic range, generally considered to be less than 12OK. Cryocoolers are often rated by the available refrigeration capacity measured in watts. To be meaningful, however, it is necessary to specify not only the refrigeration capacity but also the temperature at which the refrigeration is available. A cryocooler having a capacity of 1W at 4K (Liquid helium temperature) is very different than a cryocooler having a capacity of 1W at 77K (Liquid nitrogen temperature). Thus, the level of refrigeration (4K - helium, 20K - hydrogen. 77K - nitrogen) is specified, as well as the capacity at that level (usually in watts). Another important parameter is the power input or work required to achieve refrigeration, usually measured in watts of input power per watt of useful refrigeration (Winput/wcoolbg). This figure is closely related to the efficiency of the refrigerator. The efficiency of presently available cryocoolers range from a minimum of less than one percent to a maximum of near 50 percent. Efficiency depends more on the scale of the machine than on the temperature level or thermodynamic cycle employed and, therefore, the size of the ctyocooler is important to this discussion. The small machines used for electronic applications have the lowest efficiencies. This is because nearly all the refrigeration generated is consumed in cooling the low-temperature parts of the machine itself. The surplus or useful refrigeration available from these units is very small--only fractions of a watt. Applications requiring a larger useful refrigeration load use larger, more efficient systems. The highest efficiencies are found in large machines used for liquefiers and range from 20 to 50 percent of the Carnot value. (The Camot value is the thermodynamic limit of the best that can be done.) Space-based cryocoolers differ from ground-based systems in several important respects. Aerospace cryocoolers must be able to withstand the high acceleration and vibration spectrum of a rocket launch, and have the ability to operate in any orientation and in a zero or low gravity. The reliability and long-life of aerospace cryocoolers assume an importance not found in ground applications. Thus, a useful distinction is to classify cryocoolers according to ground-based or space use. Ground-based systems are divided into large and small applications. Space-based systems are usually small--lOW or less.

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SECTION 3 GROUND-BASED SYSTEMS

LARGE SYSTEMS Industrial uses of cryogenics are spectacular and commonplace, and most frequently at the 77K (nitrogen) or 90K (oxygen) levels. Uses include food freezing (McDonalds uses %SOM/yr of liquid nitrogen), sewage treatment (many cities use oxygen produced on site from liquid air to speed up treatment), breathing oxygen for hospitals obtained from liquid oxygen storage, and the production of chemicals (anti-freeze) and steel from liquid oxygen. Cryogenics is a routine industrial tool currently found in the Yellow Pages of the telephone directory. Such industrial cryogenic systems as these are routine product lines of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Linde Division of Union Carbide, the AiResearch Co., and others. Hydrogen for industrial and aerospace use is routinely stored as a liquid at 2OK, strictly as a convenience. Texas Instruments Stafford, Texas plant uses the countrys largest commercial liquid hydrogen storage tank to supply hydrogen gas for semiconductor processing. NASA and the USAF each have l,OOO,OOO gallon liquid hydrogen storage tanks, supplied by a network of hydrogen liquefiers. Liquid hydrogen (20K) technology is off-the-shelf from such firms as Air Products and Linde. The status of large-scale liquid helium facilities is perhaps even more surprising. Most large high-energy accelerators use helium-cooled superconducting magnets simply because: (1) it is cheaper to do so, compared to the electric power required for normal conductor magnet; and (2) to achieve higher levels of magnet performance. Table 1 shows a partial list of these facilities. At present, these facilities have a combined capacity of 82.5 kW at 4K. When complete, the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) will bring this total to 114 kW of refrigeration capacity at 4K. Large-scale helium refrigerators are produced by Koch Process Systems, CTI Cryogenics, CVI, Air Products, Linde. and others. It is a fact that the large-scale production of helium temperatures is a routine, commercially available technology. SMALL SYSTEMS The first major requirement for small ground-based cryocoolers was brought about by the need to refrigerate ground-based parametric amplifiers to 4K for use in the satellite communicationnetwork. Several units meeting this requirement were developed and built by A.D. Little, based on the Gifford-McMahon (G-M) cycle,with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) circuit.These units produced a few watts at 3.8 - 4K. Further development in amplifier performance led to an amplifier which would perform satisfactorily at 20K. As a result, the major market for the Gifford-McMahon, closed-cycle, 20K cooler evolved. Cryogenic Technology, Inc. has produced close to 1,000 of these units, which are in continuous operation in the satellite communications network. This basic Gifford-McMahon cooler is also produced by Cryomech, Inc.

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Table 1 SOME LARGE-SCALE CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS

NAME

LOCATlON Batavia, IL 1983

CRYOGENIC CAPACITY 24 kW at 4 Kelvin 5000 Uhr Liquid He 83000 L Liquid He Storage 254,000 L Liquid N2 Storage 10.5 kW at 4K 500 kW at 77K

NAME

ermilab 1 Tevatron

e
(JET)

irror Fusion Test acility (MFTF)

Livermore, CA

MFTF-A 1982 MFTF-B 1985

MFTF-B: 1.05 x lo6 kg magnets at 4.358 900 m2 of cryopanels at 1.35K 10 days to :ool system to 48

/ oint European Torus

Oxon, UK

YES

500 W at 3.8K 20 kW at 77K 300 W at 1.75K 700 W at 4.OK 10.7 kW at 80K 1.4 kW at 4K 50000 kg at 1.6K 120000 kg at 4.5 k 20000 kg at 80K 380000 kg at 3.8H 20 days to cool system to UK

Experimen1 or&upra I European Fusion okomak ir ntemational Fusion Su il erconducting Magnet est Facility (IFSMTF) rookhaven National b (BNL) lectron-Proton Cotcider HERA Deutscher
I

France

1988

Oak Ridge, TN

1983

Upton, NY

1985

24.8 kW at 3.8K

Hamburg, FRG

20.3 kW at 4K 20 kW at 40-80K 5x10 kg mass coded to 4K

uper Collider (SSC)

w391)

NO

31.5 kW at 4.1SK 48.2 kW at 20K 390 kW at 84K

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and by Air Products, Inc. These two companies, as well as Cryogenic Technology, Inc. (CII Cryogenics), have built a number of G-M units for specific applications with the addition of a J-T loop to provide a final stage of refrigeration at 4K. Units of this type have also been furnished by Cryosystems, Inc. and by Cryogenic Consultants, Ltd. in England. Installations include cooling of computer systems and cooling of superconducting magnets for magnetic separation processing and NMR experiments. The next major use to evolve was that of cooling infrared (IR) detectors. The initial requirements for IR detectors were 0.25 - 2W at 80 K. A number of manufacturers become involved in producing refrigerators for this level of refrigeration. Thousands of open cycle J-T units have been produced as well as several thousand integral Stirling and split Stirling refrigerators. These units are used for cooling military IR detectors and are produced both in the United States and abroad. For instance, each Bradley Fighting Vehicle uses eight separate cryocoolers for IR systems. This requirement for large numbers of coolers for infrared detectors in the military system led to development of a common module cryocooler meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. These units are manufactured by a number of companies abroad in order to serve their own government defense systems. These companies, in addition to CII Cryogenics and Air Products, Inc., include Hughes Aircraft, Texas Instruments, H.R. Textron, and Magnavox in the U.S.; Telefunken Co. in Germany; LAir Liquide and AB.G. Semca in France; Hymatic in England; Philips in Holland; Ricer Ltd. in Israel; and Galileo Corporation in Italy. The third major commercial use is that of Cryopumping. Cryopumping produces a high vacuum by condensing residual gases on cryogenically cooled panels. A number of G-M and Stirling cycle refrigerators were installed on cryopumping systems in the early 1970s. However, the market did not fully develop until coolers were required for semiconductor production. The general range of cooling required for cryopumping systems is 50 - 65W at 80K and 5W at 12 - 1X. Closed cycle refrigerators for cryopumps in this range are produced by CH Cryogenics, Air Products, and CVI, Inc. In addition, the major vacuum equipment companies produce their own refrigerator systems. These include Balzers High Vacuum Varian, Inc., and Sargetn Welch, Inc., in the U.S.; LAir Liquide in France; Leybold-Heraeus in Germany; and Osaka Oxygen Industries, Suzuki Shokan Ltd., Ulvac Cryogenics, Inc., and Toshiba Corp. in Japan. Although there are no companies producing many refrigerators meeting the requirements of IW at 4K with a reasonable efficiency and size suitable for cooling small superconductive devices, the major manufacturers listed above have the capability to develop such systems. Ground-based cryocoolers, large scale or small scale, for use at tually off-the-shelf. (See Table 2.)
4K,

20K or 77K, are vir-

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Table 2 COMMERCIALLY AVAIWLE, SMALL-SCALE CRYOCOOLERS

Temperahue Raogc: cooIlagcapcity

42% 1-4w

lO-2OK l-5W

2X&&lK

SOK 02%zw CloscdCycJe

8OK 1.2w J-T

4wBr6ow Cryopumpiq

Air Pmducts and CiIcmih RWch Balms Hi Vacuum

X X X X

clyomech, Inc. Crwryogenics cyrosystems Inc. X X

X X X

X X

CVI, Incorporated Hughes Aimaftt Co. MMRTu%ologics MagnaMx Sargent Welch Texas Instruments H.R. Textroa

X X
X

X
X

X
X

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SECTION 4 SPACE SYSTEM CRYOGENICS

Cryogenic cooling and storage have been used in space instruments for over twenty years. The cooling needed is typically for temperatures below the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77K), and for heat loads of ten watts or less. The primary need for cooling is for IR detectors for astronomy, and for surveillance; X-ray and gamma-ray detectors have also been cooled. The storage of cryogenic fluids for the atmosphere ofmanned spacecraft and for power production in fuel cells is a major use dating back to the late 1950s. Many additional cryogenic applications continue to appear. Three basic refrigeration methods are used to meet these cooling requirements: (1) passive thermal radiation to space, (2) storage of cryogenic fluids or solids, and (3) active refrigerators. Passive radiation to space is a simple and reliable method of producing small amounts of cooling. This method has limited applications because the amount of cooling obtainable is very small at cryogenic temperatures--typically fractions of a watt. The practical limit is that the radiator becomes very large and heavy for larger loads. Storage of fluids or solids has been the mainstay for cryogenic cooling in space. This method employs highly insulated storage tanks. The cooling temperatures obtained range all the way down to less than 2K in the case of superfluid helium storage. Many cryogenic materials have been used to produce cooling by using the heat of vaporization to absorb heat loads. The practical limitation of cryogenic storage is that the size and weight become large for long-duration missions and for high heat loads. Active, closed-cycle refrigeration systems (cryocoolers) do not suffer from the severe size and weight limitations of the other methods. Electrical power is used to produce continuous cooling. The limitation of space cryocoolers is availability. Such coolers have been under development for about 30 years. Although some types have been developed and successfully flown, other types still require significant development. The space cryocoolers under development usually fall into three categories: regenerative or Stirling coolers, reverse Brayton coolers, and J-T coolers. Table 3 gives a summary status. Development of a long-life space cryocooler has been an elusive goal because of fundamental problems relating to contamination and wear. Stirling coolers were used in space to cool gamma ray detectors to about 80K in the P78 satellite. These coolers were built by the Philips Corporation and employed a linear drive mechanism to achieve several years of operation. Degradation in performance occurred during the mission in the form of steadily rising cooler temperature.

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Table 3 SUMMARY OF SPACE COOLERS

Small scale l-2W, 6575K


.

A few

watts

at 75K is feasible

Several such systems are in test: 65Kl2W Concept Test

Joule-Thomson (JTB) Joule-Thomson

65W2W

Concept Test

(JTJ)
Linear Stirling Tactical Stirling Small scale (l-2W), 10K . . 10K is about the lower temperature limit achievable by regenerative cycles. Some systems in test: In Test In Test Qualified cycles 65Kl2W 65WlW In Test Off-the-Shelf

10K and lower feasible for recuperative Brayton 1OWlW IOWlW 15WlW

Rotary Reciprocating Turbo-Brayton Vuilleumier

Small scale (l-2W), 4K . Not feasible for regenerative cycles.

Large scale (10s of W). 4K . Not attempted

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Avery promising development of a Stirling type refrigerator is taking place in Great Britain at Oxford University and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratories in conjunction with British Aerospace Corporation. Operational times of about 20,000 hours have been achieved, and this machine has been slated for use in several space systems. The limitations of Stirling coolers are that temperatures below about 20K are difftcult to achieve with acceptable power input requirements. Brayton coolers are being developed for temperatures below 1OKand higher cooling loads. The AiResearch Corporation is developing such a cooler using multistage turbomachinery. The Arthur D. Little Company is developing a Brayton cooler that uses positive displacement (piston and cylinder) principles. Both the Stirling and Brayton coolers have moving parts in the cold regions of the machines that generate vibrations. These vibrations are often unacceptable in sensitive space instruments. Additional benetitsaccrue to the J-T approach in comparison to the Stirling and Brayton machines as a result of the fact that J-T coolers produce liquid cryogens. High, short-term peak heating loads, and variable heating loads, can be absorbed at the constant temperature of the boiling liquid refrigerant. This is not possible with other systems that produce only a cold gas, and is sometimes very important to space instrument cooling.

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HIGH STRENGTH MATERIALS

High temperature superconductors are brittle materials with low tensile strength but good compressive strength. Superconducting magnets utilizing such materials thus require designs that minimize the stresses that develop as a result of the j x B body forces. It may be possible to form a superconducting composite using a high strength material to withstand the stresses associated with large magnetic fields. However, the highest strength material known graphite fiber, lacks the strength required for the high fields anticipated. A stress-free condition can be achieved if the forces are counteracted by a stiff constraining medium. An example is presented for a cylindrical solenoid geometry consisting of laminated superconductor, constrained by a stiff composite shell (Figure F-l). The materials selected for the laminate should have a high elastic modulus and high yield strength so that the stress generated in the superconductor is small. The laminate should also include a protective layer of metal adjacent to the superconductor to minimize the effects of quenching. By applying a shrink-fitting high strength alloy jacket to the laminate, the high compressive strength of the superconductor can be exploited. Figure F-l STRUCTURAL SUPPORT FOR HIGH FIELD APPLICATIONS

LAMINATED ALLOY JACKET

SUPERCONDUCTOR/CERAMIC/METAL

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A JOSEPHSON

4 BIT\ MICROPROCESSOR*

SEIGO KOTANI, NORIO FUJIMAKI, TAKESHI IMAMURA, AND SHINY H&XJO FUJITSU LIMITED 10-l. MORINOSATO-WAKAMIYA, ATSUGI, 243-01, JAPAN

TEL: 0462-48-3111 I EXT. 2411 FAX: 0462-48-3896

A 4-bit microprocessor - the first microprocessor to use Josephson devices -- will be described. The circuit was fabricated using 2.5 -pm all-niobium Josephson technology, utilizing Nb/AlOJNb Josephson junctions. 5011 Josephson junctions are contained on a 5.0 x 5.0 mm die. The microprocessor was operated with clocks of up to 770 MHz under worst-case conditions, dissipating 5 mW. Josephson gates offer superb high speed operation and low power dissipation. More than ten types of logic gates have been reported. We proposed a gate, which we called the modified variable threshold logic ( MVTL) gate, for Josephson LSI circuits. The MVTL OR gate was 46 x 31pm2 and the unit cell was 112 x 79pm2; each unit cell was composed of three gates, two MVTL QR gates and one single-junction m gate, so this unit cell performs an (A + B) (C + D) logical operation. 25pm diameter Josephson junctions were used in these gates. We demonstrated its high-speed,) and applied it for a Hi-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU)? We then designed the microprocessor. This was the first instance of applying Josephson devices to a microprocessor, sowe wanted to verily the feasibility of the chip in comparison with a typical microprocessor constructed with semiconductor devices. We selected chip functions that were similar to those of the Am 2901 microprocessor made by Advanced Micro Devices Inc.) This microprocessor has come to be regarded as the standard four-bit microprocessor slice. The fastest operation of this microprocessor has been achieved using GaAs devices; a 72 MHz clock with a 2.2 W power dissipation.) Figure 1 is a block diagram of our microprocessor. It has a dual memory set which is used as a 16-word by 4-bit two-port RAM with a RAM shifter, an eight-function ALU, a Q register with a Q shifter, and several controller. This circuit is driven by three-phase power; 01. &. and 83.6) Their waveforms are sinusoidal with dc offsets and their phases fare separated by 120 degrees. The three-phase power has the advantage of preventing the racing phenomenon in the logic circuit. and a Josephson timed inverter (II) can be fabricated easily if the power is used as the timing signal. Dual-rail logic was adopted in the ALU and controllers of the

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microprocessor, and complement signals are made from the input signals by TIs powered by 01. Decoding operations are run in gates powered by 61. reading memory data by $z, and modifying- and writing data by b. _ Figure 1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MICROPROCESSOR

A Address

4
A Decode o--L Function 4

6 A Memory Cell

+ 8 Memory Cell _ B Decode uQ Regisler -MUX* Shill

Aegislcr I/O -0 -0

In this microprocessor, the critical path is the route of the carry signal transmitted from LSB to MSB in the ALU and then the sum signal transferred from the ALU to the RAM. After detail design, the number of gates which have to switch sequentially along the path proved to be 41, with an interconnectin line length of 15 mm. MVTL gates operate with a sub-ten ps gate delay in actual circuits, 5, and the propagation delay in interconnecting lines is about 8 ps/mm. By rough estimation, the critical delay time seems to be 0.5 ns and the duty ratio of the sinusoidal power is l/2, so the maximum clock frequency was estimated to be 1 GHZ.

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The process is summarized inTable 1. This fabrication process is almost the same as that reported previously. *) The circuit consists of Nb/AloJNb Josephson junctions, Nb wiring, MO resistors, and SioZ insulators. Both the minimum junction diameter and line width are 2.5 urn. The interconnecting lines ars 4 urn wide. The critical current density of the fabricated Josephson junction was 2300 A/cm , this being slightly higher than the optimum design value (2100 A/cm*). The measured operating margin was L34% for the h4VTL OR gate and A32% for the unit cell.
Table 1 PROCESS SUMMARY

JOSEPHSON JUNCMON JUNCTION MINIMUM DL4hWIER MINIMUM WIDTH INSUIATOR RESISTOR WIRING

NblAIOlm 25 ID 2s urn sid MO Nb

Figure 2 is a photograph of the fabricated chip with unit locations. The specifications of the chip are given in Table 2. The basic gate is MVTL, as mentioned above, and the total number of gates is l&01. Six power pads are provided, three for sinusoidal power and the others for dc offsets. The number of signal pads is 32; 8 for address, 14 for data, and 10 for control. 52 ground pads are used to suppress the deviation of the chip-ground level from the packageground level.
Table 2 CHIP SUMMARY

DIE SUE MEMORY # AL.UFUNCIIONS RASIC GATJ5 # GATES # JUNCITONS POWER &PHASE SINUSOIDAL) # SIGNAL. PADS # PWRIGND PAiS CLOCK FREQUENCY

MxMmm X-word by .+-bit hvo-port RAM 8 Mvn


1841

5011 hW 32 s8 77OMIiz

350

Applied Superconductivity

PHOTOGRAPH OF MICROPROCRSSOR

All experiments were performed with the chip immersed in liq+uidHe. All functions and source combinations were confirmed with an operating margin of -16% at a clock frequency up to 100 MHz which was limited by the maximum clock of the word pattern enerator. The operation along the critical path of the chip was tested using the high-speed p2s e generator, and Figure 3 shows the results obtained at the maximum clock frequency (770 MHz). The same waveform was obtained for the MSB signals of output and memory I/O, thus confirming correct operation. The reason for the amplitude difference in these waveforms is that the timing of the sum signal arriving at the memory is later than that of the signal at the output controller. The power has a sinusoidal waveform, so the bias power of the memory I/O gate at its switching timing The power was consumed at the OR gate supply resistors, and the value was obtained from the bias level. The gate power dissipation was 3.6 pW/gate. and the total power of the chip was 5 mW.

Addendum

I I:

Military System Applications

351

Figure 3 CLOCK WAVEFORMS

AT 770 MHz

$1

$2
@3

Power

>

Carry in output LSB

Output M-SE Memory 110 MSB

We verified that the Josephson microprocessor operated with a one-order three-orders less power than a semiconductor microprocessor.

faster clock and

The

present r-ch

effort is part of the National

Research and Development Program on Scientific Com-

puting System, conducted under a program set by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technolcgy, Ministry of IntcmationaI Trade and Industry.

352

Applied Superconductivity

References: 1) Fujimaki, N., Kotani, S., Hasuo, S. and Yamaoka, T., 9 ps Gate Delay Josephson OR Gate with Modified Variable Threshold Logic, Japan J. Appl. Phys.. ~01.24, p.Ll; Jan, 1985. 2) Kotani, S., Imamura, T. and Hasuo. S.. A 2.5~~ Josephson Technical Digest; Dec., 1987. OR Gate, IEEE IEDM

3) Kotani,S., Fujimaki. N., Imamura,T.. and Hasuo, S., A 1 ns Josephson ISSCC DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS, p.60-61; Feb., 1987.

16b ALU, IEEE

4) Mick, J., Am 2900 Bipolar Microprocessor Family, IEEE Proceedings Annual Workshop on Microprogramming, ~56-63; 1975.

of the Eighth

5) Hendrickson,N.. Larkins. B.. Bartolotti, R., Deming, R., and Deyhimy, I., A GaAs BitSlice Microprocessor Chip Set, IEEE Proceedings of the GaAs IC Symposium, p.197200; Oct. 1987. 6) Fujimaki, N., Kotani, S.. Imamura, T., and Hasuo, S, Josephson &bit Shift Register, IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits, vol.SC-22, p-886-891; Oct. 1987.

Addendum II: Military System Applications 353

BACK-UP DATA ON JAPANESE FUNDING SUPERCONDUCTMTY R&D

FOR

noTokyomo ofthe

1. t lrtlooal Scko Fomlatior

Report Memorandum M

1152

April 18, 1988

JAPANESE

GOVERNMENT AND CORPORATE FUNDING FOR SUPERCONDUCTIVITY RhD

In JFY 1988 the Japanese Government will spend over Summary: 9,049 million yen ($72.4 million) and Ja anese corporations will spend at least 11,511 million yen (% 92 million) on superconductivity RLD. Much of the government budget and seventy percent of the corporate funds will be for high temperature superconductivity. Largely separate from these funds, Japanese corporations have contributed considerable amounts of money to join the new International Superconductivity Technclogy Center (ISTEC), a private foundation engaged in RLD on high temperature superconductivity, initiated with guidance from MITI. The total of such funds so far committed, though not necessarily completely handed over, is 5,420 million yen ($43.4 million). (Caution should be excercised in interpreting ISTEC funds as 1) in contrast to the government and corporate funds reported herein, the ISTEC funds largely consist of one-time initial donation, much of which will probably be used for capital expenses, and 2) in that ISTEC is in principle open to international participation. See section on ISTEC below for further details.)

354

Applied Superconductivity

GOVERNlENT Hr. Makio Hattori, Director for Ratecial Research and Agency (STA) of Development, RLD Bureau, Science and Technology Japan has provided the following information on Japanese Governments FYI88 budget for superconductivity RLD as approved by the National Diet on April 7, 1988, with corresponding figures for FY87 given for comparison. Corporate RLD figures are from a recently concluded survey by the NSY Tokyo Office. (Figures for both government and private sector are in million yen and include both low temperature and high temperature superconductivity. Current exchange rate is 125 yen to the dollar.): (In Million Yen) FY1987 FY1988 Science and Technology Agency (STA) 0 (11 Multicore Project: 2.044 (2) RLD on Superconducting coils (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst.): 678 1,109 (3) ERATO Project on Uaqnetoflux Logic Research (Research 377 Development Corp.: 395 97 75 (41 Others --_______________--__-__-__--_--__-~_-__-___________ Subtotal of STA: 1,583 3,192 ($25.5 mil.1 Ministry (11 of Education, Science and Culture
(MONBUSHO)

Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research: (*Undecided) (563) [*Note: Proposals for grants are still under review, and to be decided in May ]

RLD Equipment Procured by Funds under Special Accounts for 527 National Schools: 1,775 ---_---__-_____-_-__-~~~~~~-~~-~------~-~~~-~-~----527 Subtotal of Monbusho: 1,775 ($14.2 mil.) Plus "Grants": (563) (?I

(2)

Addendum II: Military System Applications 355

Ministry of International (1) (2) (3)

Trade

and Industry

(HITI) 1,123

RID Projects on Basic Technologies for Future Industries: 71 National RLD Program (the Large Scale Project): 350 RLD on Energy Conservation Technologies (the Moonlight Project: Primarily for Development of Lou Temperature or Traditional Superconducting Power Generator Systems):
100 Surveys/Studies on Matters RE Superconductivity: Specific International Joint Research Project: Others: Subtotal of HITI: (HOT) 295 (MPT) 0 0 35

440

1,652 182 14 17

(4) (51 (6)

_---________________-____~~~~~~~~~_-~___-_--________
556

3,420 ($27.4 mil.)

Hinistry of Transport

RLD on Magnetic Levitation Railway Systems: Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications

597

R&D on Superconducting Telecommunications Systems: 358 57 ---_-_------------__--~~~~~----~~~-~~~~~~~~~~~~-~~~----~ GRAND TOTAL: 2,960 9,049 ($72.4 mil.) (Plus Honbusho Grants: (?I (563) (Honbusho's scientific research grants will be decided in nay.)

With respect to flITI's budget, HIT1 officials contacted by the NSF Tokyo Office expect that most of the funds allocated for the'" Basic Technologies for Future Industries" program will be allocated through the New Energy and Industrial Technology RLD Organization ("NEW NEDO") for contract research by industries, including about 400 - 500 million yen expected to be provided to the International Superconducting Technology Center (ISTEC) for contract research although exact yen amounts are yet to be decided.

356

Applied Superconductivity

CORPORATEEXPENDITURES A recent survey by the NSF Tokyo Office of Japanese corporate superconductivity R&D indicates that 41 leading corporations spent 8,671 million yen ($59.96 million @ 144.61 yen per dollar) in JFY 1987 and that they expect to expend 11,511 million yen ($92 million @125 yen to the dollar) in JFY 1988. Seventy percent of the corporate funds are for high temperature superconductivity. ISTEC The International Superconductivity Technology Center, a newly established private foundation initiated under the guidance of MITI, to conduct R&D in high temperature superconductivity, so far has attracted 45 Japanese companies as full members, meaning that they may partake in the activities of both the etc.) and the Labroatory. The Center (symposia, workshops, initial one time donation for joining both is.2 million yen for the Center and 100 million yen for the Laboratory. The annual fees for the Center and Laboratory are 2 million yen and 12 In addition, fifty Japanese million yen respectively. corporations have joined just the Center, for which the initial donation and annual fees are 2 million yen and 2 million yen respectively . Thus, in total Japanese corporations have committed 5,420 million yen (943 million @125 yen/dollar) including 4,690 million yen in donations and 730 million yen in first year dues. the initial donation may be .spread However, over two years at 60% and 40% respectively. A portion of the initial donation will be used for capital expenses such as buildings and equipment. Other portions will be used for the research, though just how much in each category is uncertain. Corporate funds for ISTEC are largely separate from corporate In addition, ISTEC is in expenditures as reported above. principle open to membership by foreign companies. So far one foreign affiliated company, IBM Japan, has joined the Center (as opposed to the Laboratory). No foreign company has as yet joined as a full member, though some are reportedly considering doing so. Comment: The figures for the government and private sectors represent substantial increases over JFY 1987 levels. For the government sector they are even higher than forecast in September last year by the main Japanese agencies. Host of the government increases can be assumed to be for high temperature superconductivity, with the exceptions of the Moonlight Project and the Magnetic Levitation Railway Systems. 1An undefined

Addendum

II: Military System Applications

357

amount of new money for the Uoonliqht Project will be used high TC superconductivity, although the b;lk will be for conventional superconductivity.) For the corporate sector, of the expenditures are for high temperature superconductivity. (The results of the NSF corporate superconductivity survey will be made available in nay.1

for 709

NOTE:

Scientific interviews authorities.

This report was compiled by nasanobu Miyahara, Affairs Advisor, NSF Tokyo Office, through
with several Japanese government

and academic

358

Applied Superconductivity

FOCUS ON
Oceangoing Ship Planned

REPORTS

ON JAPANESE

DEVELOPMENTS

IN SUPERC0NDlJCtlVll-V

JAPAN _anumt
Volume 1, Number 2
May.

1998

bad will be capable of gcnuating g.ow llewcml of poww @apatuJ s@ is g knots). Mitsubishi Havy Musuies will be rcrponsiblc Ior one cl rhc supuconducting magnus. wilh Tcshiba supplying the aher. Kobe Steel will pmrtde helium rclrigemlion equipmcnt.

Nibbri Sangp Shimbun. 19gg.page IA

Mwcb

II,

Non-Crystalline Ceramics Made

pn&ccd 6;mclting and dten rapidly coaling BSCCO (Bismuth. Suomium. Cakium. Copper. Oxygen) matils.

Addendum

II :

Military System Applications

359

Fiscal 1988 Superconductivity Budgets of Japanese Govwnment Agencies


(*indicatesnew itam) Proiect Title *S~tmp M.1WI.h

I. MinIstry of InlemaUonal Trade and Industry


Million Dollars z.c!4 3.24 Remarks

Remarks

360

Applied Superconductivity

JAPANS SUPERCONDUCTIVITY R 8 D AND COMMERCIALIZATION PLAN (FY 19881 r___------------------,


COUNCfL FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Policy Recommendation No. 14 contains Japans Strategy for Superconductivih/ Development -__----______-_--_-_-----J MULltGORE PROJECTS

fiiiiii%i~%~i%%ii~6%j~it;
r,----------,--,---J
Final report on Industrial Superconducting Technology Development --December 1987
I

JL
M

I--@ T
I

INTL CENTER FOR INDUSTRIAL SUPERCONDUCTING TECHNOLOGY SUPERCONDUCTING ENGR. LAB (ISTEC) Ninety Corporate Members
,

R A D CONSORTfUM FOR SUPERCONDUCTING GENERATOR AND EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS (SUPER-GM) Eight year project; 13 Electnc Utilities and Electric Eauioment Manufacturino Comoanies are Consortium Members

0
E

--GB-*I:T

SPECIAL HTS RESEARCH PROJECTS -Group Research centered at Tokyo University Research centered at Tohoku University

M 0 T

EXTENSION OF MAGLEV PROJECT

Addendum

II: Military System Applications

361

HIGH TEMPERATURE

SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

FUNDING

($M)

Department of Defense ArmY Air Force Navy SD10 DARPA NSA BTI Department of Energy Basic Energy Fusion Energy High Energy and NuclearPhysics Defense Depts Office of Conservation & Renewable Energy Office of Fossil Energy National Science Foundation Department of Commerce NASA Department Department

&6 -_ 1.3 2.3 5.0 -_ __ __ m 27.70 --1.63 0.6

lb.5
0.3 3.7 6.8 2.0 1.5 0.2 2.0

22. 1.6 3.4 22.0 __ __

XL9
1.9 4.6 10.3 12.9 20.7 0.5

zu 39.23 __ 6.67 0.3

__

4.85

0.2

0.2

0.28

0.3

29 (NBS)

lu

39

u.5 2.8

!u of Transporation of Interior

Q.5 __

0.l

!u !ufi

National Institute of Health

362

Applied Superconductivity

GLOSSARY OF TERMS
AC - Alternating current AJD Converter - Analog-twligital convexter. This device is used to transform analog signals into digital signals. such as electric current, or spatial derivatives thereof are dependent

Anisotropy - A state in which a qua&y, upon dkection. ASW - Antisubmarine Warfare d

- Command, control and wmmunicatioes intelligence

Coherence L..eegth - The characteristic size of a Cooper pair. CMOS - Complementary metal oxide semiconductor Cooper pair -The paired electrons that are believed respoesible for the phenomenon of low temperature superconductivity and may play a role in high tempcraturc superconductivity. DARPA - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency dB - Decibels DC - Dired current DDR & E - Director, Defense Research and Engineering DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory ECCM - Electronic counter-countermeasures ELF - Extra Low Frequency. A slightly lower frequency than VLF; less than 10 KHz EM - Electromagnetic EM Launcher - An electromagnetic device used to accelerate projectiles to high speeds. A railgun is one example. EO - Electra-optic FEL - Free Electron Laser FET - Reid Effect Transistor GaAs - Gallium arsenide. The fastest conventional electronic devices are GaAs devices.

Addendum

II: Military System Applications

363

Gauss - A measure of magnetic tield strength. The Earths geomagnetic field averages about one-third of a Gauss. GHz - Gigahertz or billions of cycles per second. I& - Magnetic critical field, or the magnetic field above which superwnduditity is quenched.

HEMT - High electron mobility transistor. HF - High Frequency hp - Horsepower HTS - Hi Temperature Superwndudor

IC - Integrated Circuit IPPA/IRPPA - Infrared Focal Plane Array. 3-3c0THz IR - Infrared radiation
JC- Critical current density, or the amount of current a superconductor is able to carry. JJ - Josephson Junction (see below) Joscphsoa Junction - A superconducting electronic device. K - Degrec~ KelvtL Zero degrees Kelvin is equivalent to -273 degrees Celsius or 459 degrees Fahrenheit. LSI - Large Scale Integration LTS - Low Temperatie Superconductor

EPAs are used for IR sensors. The frequencies for infrared are

MHD - Magnetohydrodynamic. MHD Drive has been proposed as an advanced superconductive propulsion technique.

MHP - Magnetohydrodynamic

power

MHz - Megahertz or millions of cycles per second. Micron - One micrometer or one one-millionth of one meter. MMIC - Miieter-wave integrated circuit

MMW - Millimeter-wave. This corresponds to frequencies of 40 - 100 GHz. MOPS - Millions of operations per second.

364

Applied Superconductivity

NPB- Neutral Particle Beam. POM - Program Objectives Memorandum. R&AT - Research and AdvaDccd Technology RF - Radio Frequency. This is a broad frequency band, from 100 MHz to 100 G&
of electromagnetic wave, includiq microwave and milEmeter-wave. encompassingseveral types

RPM - Revolutions per minute SAW - Surface Awustic Wave SD10 - Strategic Defense Initiative Offk SECDEF - Secretary of Defeose SMES - Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage SQUID - Superconducting Quantum Interference Device. This device is used extensively in magnetic sensors, such as mine detection devices. SSTS - Space SmveiIIaoce and Tracking System Tc - The transition temperature or temperature at which a given material becomes superconducting. TN - Noise temperature TesIa - Ten thousand Gauss are equivalent to one Teska. Large permanent magnets typically have field strengths of 1 - 5 TesIa. THz - Terahertz or trillions of cycles per second.

UHF - Ultra Hi

Frequency, 03 - 1 GHz

USD(A) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition VLSI - Very Large scale Integration VHSIC - Very Hi Speed Integrated Circuit Corresponds to frequencies of 10-u) KHz.

VLF - Very low frequency.

Addendum

II :

Military System Applications

365

BiCaSrCuO - Biiutb

Calcium Strontium Cuprate, a bigb temperature compound.

Diftkult to produce

because of the toxicity of strontium.

f_aBaCuOd - Lanthanum Barium Cuprate, one of the fust high temperature Nb - Niobium, a low temperature supexwnductor. NbC - Niobium coppex, a low temperature compound. NbN - Niobium nitride., a low temperature compound. mGe - Niobium germanium, a low temperature compound.

superconductors.

Nbgi - Niobium silicoa, a low temperature compound. MD - Niobium tin, a low temperature compound.

TlCaBaCuO - Thallium Calcium Barium Cuprate, one of the most recently discovered bigb temperature compounds. It has a Tc ofl25 K. YBaCuO - Thesuperconducting material currently receiving a bigb degree of research attention. compound is YBa2Cu307-x, also known as YBCO. The full

l-2-3 - This sequence of numbers refers to the chemkaJ composition of tk above mentioned cuprate superconductors, YBaCuO.