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1. Introduction

1.1 Microwave Filter Design

A filter is a frequency selective two-port network with low levels of attenuation or
insertion loss in its passband and specified high levels of attenuation in its stopband. It is
used to control the frequency response at a certain point in a microwave system. Typical
frequency responses include low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and band-reject
characteristics. Applications can be found in virtually any type of microwave
communication, radar, or test and measurement system.
Microwave filter theory and practice began in the years preceding World War II,
by pioneers such as Mason, Sykes, Darlington, Fano, Lawson and Richards. The image
parameter method of filter design was developed in the late 1930s and was useful for low
frequency filters in radio and telephony. In the early 1950s, a group at Stanford Research
Institute, consisting of G. Mathaei, L. Young, E. Jones, S. Cohn, and others, became very
active in filter and coupler development. Today, most microwave filter design is done
with computer-aided design (CAD) packages, such as Ansoft Designer, based on the
insertion loss method.
An example specification for a microwave low pass filter response is shown in
Fig. 1.1. In this example, the passband insertion loss must be less than 1 dB from d.c. to 4
GHz. The stopband attenuation must be greater than 50dB from 8 GHz to 18 GHz. In
addition there is a specification on the input return loss return loss of greater than 20 dB
in the passband. This means that any signal incident on the filter in the frequency range
of its passband must be 99% transmitted or absorbed; only 1% of incident power can be
reflected. A high level of return loss, typically 20 dB or greater, implies a flat low ripple
insertion loss characteristics, which is very desirable from the point of view of signal
distortion.
2

Fig 1.1 Filter prototype


How do we design a device to produce this lowpass response, or any other filter
response? There is a vast amount of published literature on the design of microwave
filters; some of it is highly mathematical. Fortunately there are some relatively straight
forward procedures which enable us to design certain useful classes of microwave filters.
These procedures follow some basic steps.
Filters designed using the image parameter method consist of a cascade of
simpler two-port filter sections to provide the desired cutoff frequencies and attenuation
characteristics, but do not allow the specification of a frequency response over the
complete operating range. Thus, although the procedure is relatively simple, the design of
filters by the image parameter method often must be iterated many times to achieve the
desired results.
A more modern procedure, called the insertion loss method, uses network
synthesis techniques to design filter with a completely specified frequency response. The
design is simplified by beginning with low-pass filter prototypes that are normalized in
terms of impedance and frequency. Transformations are then applied to convert the
prototype designs to the desired frequency range and impedance level.
Both the image parameter and the insertion loss method of filter design provide
lumped element circuits. For microwave applications such designs usually must be
modified to use distributed elements consisting of transmission line sections. The
Richard's transformation and the Kuroda identities provide this step.
3
1.2 Ansoft Designer SV

In this project, Ansoft Designer was used for the purpose of designing and
simulating different types of filters using different transmission lines. Ansoft Designer is
a very powerful microwave simulator. The availability of many components with built in
models saved us the effort of dealing with complicated mathematical equations.
Ansoft Designer's working environment is very friendly. The circuits are built
using block diagrams. Designer provides the ability to easily analyze the whole circuit by
providing the transmission line tool, ABCD parameters matrix, S parameters matrix, and
the Z and Y matrices.


This project uses the Ansoft Designer to implement three different kinds of filters;
stepped impedance, coupled line and capacitively coupled filters. The designs contain
ideal and practical transmission lines such as stripline, microstrip line and coplanar
waveguides. The theory behind each kind of filters and transmission lines is introduced
first, and then the results of some practical filters are presented and discussed.




















4
2. Theoretical Background

2.1 Transmission Lines

In the design, three kinds of transmission lines were used: striplines, microstip
lines and coplanar waveguide (CPW). Below is a brief description of each kind.

2.1.1 Stripline
The basic strip transmission line consists of a thin conducting strip of width W
centered between two wide conducting ground planes of separation b, and the entire
region between the ground planes is filled with a dielectric of relative permittivity r.
Stripline is usually constructed by etching the center conductor on a grounded
substrate of thickness b/2, and then covering it with another grounded substrate of the
same thickness (see Fig 2.1)


Fig. 2.1
(a) Stripline.
(b) Electric and magnetic field distribution in the stripline.

Because they consist of two conductors and a homogeneous dielectric, striplines
support TEM waves which is the desired mode of operation. This is because of the
5
simpler electrostatic analysis that may be used when considering TEM mode of
operation.
It also supports higher TM and TE modes, which may be avoided by using
shorting screws between ground planes and by restricting the ground plane spacing to
less than/4.

Stripline Analysis:

The phase velocity, propagation constant and characteristic impedance of a TEM
mode is given by:-
r
p

0 0
1
=

where L and C are the inductance and capacitance per unit length of the line. Therefore,
Zo can be found by knowing C.
Using an approximate electrostatic solution, it can be shown that the capacitance
per unit length is given by: [1]

where a is the width of the substrate.



k
v
r r
p
= = =
C v C
LC
C
L
Z
p
1
= = =
m F
a b n n
a b n a W n a
W
C
odd
n
r
/
) 2 / cosh( ) (
) 2 / sinh( ) 2 / sin( 2
1
2

=
=

6
2.1.2 Microstrip line
The microstrip line consists of conductor of width W printed on a thin, grounded
dielectric substrate of thickness d and relative permittivity r. In a microstrip transmission
line the dielectric does not completely surround the conducting strip and consequently the
fundamental mode of propagation is not a pure TEM mode. As it can be seen from the
Fig. 2.2, most of the field lines are contained in the dielectric region, and some fraction in
the air region above the substrate. The phase velocity equals c in the air region, and
r
c

inside the dielectric. Thus, a phase match at the dielectric-air interface would be
impossible to attain for a TEM-type wave.
In fact, the field decays exponentially away from the dielectric surface, with most
of the field contained in or near the dielectric (a fact concerning surface waves). At high
frequencies, typically more than few gigahertz, and with an electrically very thin
dielectric substrate (d<<), the field generally become more tightly bound to the
dielectric, making the fields essentially the same as those of static case and so the fields
are quasi-TEM.
Good approximations for the phase velocity and propagation constant can be
obtained from static and quasi-static solutions [1].

Fig. 2.2
(a) Microstrip line.
(b) Electric and magnetic field distribution in the microstrip line.
7

The phase velocity and propagation constant are given by:


where e is the effective dielectric constant of the microstrip line. Fig. 2.3 shows the
geometry of quasi-TEM microstrip line, where r has been replaced with a homogeneous
medium of effective relative permittivity, e.

Fig. 2.3 Equivalent geometry of quasi-TEM microstrip line.



This effective dielectric constant is given by: [1]


where,




e
p
c
v

=
e k =
W d
r r
e
/ 12 1
1
2
1
2
1
+

+
+
=

r e
< < 1
8

Using an approximate electrostatic solution, it can be shown that the capacitance
per unit length is given by: [1]


Given the dimensions of the microstrip line, the characteristic impedance can be
calculated as: [1]



2.1.3 Coplanar Waveguide (CPW)
A coplanar waveguide (CPW) fabricated on a substrate was first demonstrated
by C. P. Wen in 1969. Since that time, tremendous progress has been made in CPW
based microwave integrated circuits (MICs). A conventional CPW on a dielectric
substrate consists of a center strip conductor with semi-infinite ground planes on either
side (see Fig. 2.4). This structure supports a quasi-TEM mode of propagation, like the
microstrip line.

+ + +
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
)] 444 . 1 / ln( 667 . 0 393 . 1 / [
120
4
8
ln
60
d W d W
d
W
W
d
Z
e
e

for W/d<1
for W/d>1

=
+
=
odd
n
r a d n a d n W n
a d n a W n a
C
1
2
)] / cosh( ) / [sinh( ) (
) / sinh( ) 2 / sin( 4
1

9
The advantages of CPW over Microstrip Lines are:
The fabrication is simpler.
It facilitates easy shunt as well as series surface mounting of active and passive
devices.
It eliminates the need for wraparound and via holes.
Reduces radiation loss.
Size reduction is possible without limit with a trade off of higher losses. (since Zo
is determined by the ratio of W/(W+2G ).
Reduced cross talk effects between adjacent lines.
CPW circuits are denser than microstrip ones.

Fig. 2.4 Conventional CPW
For CPW, the dimensions of the center strip, the gap, the thickness and
permittivity of the dielectric substrate determine the effective dielectric constant e,
characteristic impedance Zo and the attenuation constant of the line. Using conformal
mapping, it can be shown that Zo and eff for a CPW on an infinitely thick dielectric
substrate are given as follows: [2]



2
1
r
eff

+
=
) (
) (
2 / ) 1 (
30
o
o
r
o
k K
k K
Z

+
=


10
where,


and K(x) is the complete elliptic integral. More complicated expressions are available for
the CPW with substrate of finite thickness [2].

2.2 Image Parameters Method

The image parameter method is useful in studying filters and solid state traveling
wave amplifier design. Consider the following two port network shown in Fig. 2.5. Zi1
and Zi2 are called image impedances. Both ports are matched when terminated in their
image impedances.



Fig. 2.5 Two port network terminated in its image impedances.

It can be proved mathematically, using ABCD matrix and calculating Zin1 and
Zin2, that : [1]
G W
W
k
o
2 +
=
2
1
o o
k k =
AC
BD
Z
CD
AB
Z
i
i
=
=
2
1
11
In addition, the propagation factor of the network is given as: [1]

The above results will be used in the analysis of coupled line filters.

2.3 Insertion Loss Method

The insertion loss method allows a high degree of control over the stopband
amplitude and phase characteristics, with a systematic way to synthesize a desired
response. The necessary design trade-offs can be evaluated to best meet the application
requirements. The insertion loss method allows filter performance to be improved in a
straight forward manner, at the expense of a higher order filter, which is equal to the
number of reactive elements.
In the insertion loss method a filter response is defined by its insertion loss, or
power loss ratio, PLR
2
) ( 1
1
load to delivered
source from available Power

= = =
load
inc
LR
P
P
Power
P

Observe that this quantity is the reciprocal of |S12| if both load and source are
matched. The insertion loss (IL) in dB is
IL = 10log PLR
Since |()| is an even function of , then it can be expressed as a polynomial
in . Thus, we can write
) ( ) (
) (
) (
2 2
2
2

N M
M
+
=
where M and N are real polynomials in . Substituting this in the PLR relation gives the
following:
) (
) (
1
2
2

N
M
P
LR
+ =
j + =
AD = cosh
12
Thus, for a filter to be physically realizable, its power loss ratio must be of the last
form.

Practical Filter responses:-
a) Maximally Flat:
This characteristic is also called the binomial or Butterworth response, and it is
optimum in the sense that it provides the flattest possible passband response for a
given filter.
b) Equal Ripple:
If a Chebyshev polynomial is used to specify the insertion loss of an N-order low
pass filter, then a sharper cutoff will result, also the passband response will have
ripples.
2.4 Coupled Line Theory

Coupled line theory states that an electromagnetic interaction happens between
two transmission lines when they are close to each other. This will cause power coupling
between the lines. At this point, we say that the lines are coupled. Coupled lines may be
represented using Fig. 2.6 below.



Fig. 2.6 A three-wire coupled transmission line and its equivalent capacitance network


13
In this figure, C12 represents the capacitance of the two strip conductors in the
absence of the ground conductor, while C11 and C22 represent the capacitance between
one strip conductor and ground, in the absence of the other conductor.
Since we are dealing with quasi-TEM mode, the electrical characteristics can be
completely specified by knowing the capacitances between the lines and the velocity of
propagation on the line. If the strip lines are identical, then C11=C22.
By applying even and odd mode analysis, we observe the equivalent circuits
shown in Fig. 2.7 below.

Fig. 2.7 (a) Even- and (b) odd-mode excitations for a coupled line.


For the even-mode, the electric field has even symmetry about the center line, and
no current flows between the two strip conductors (H-wall). The resulting capacitance of
either line to ground for the even mode is:

The characteristic impedance for the even mode is:

22 11 C C Ce = =
e
e
e
e
oe
C v C
LC
C
L
Z
1
= = =
14
For the odd mode, the electric field lines have an odd symmetry about the center
line, and a voltage null exists between the two strip conductors (E-wall). The effective
capacitance between either strip and ground is:

The characteristic impedance for the odd mode is:
Any excitation of coupled lines may be treated by even-odd analysis using
superposition. For TEM lines, the capacitances can be derived using analytical techniques
such as conformal mapping. However, for quasi-TEM lines, numerical methods such as
the finite difference method have to be used.
The complexity in quasi-TEM calculations comes from the fact that the phase
velocity is different for the even and odd modes. This is because of the air-dielectric
interface. This theory has a special importance in the design of coupled line filters
discussed in following sections.

2.5 Practical Filter Designs
The lumped-element filter design generally works at low frequencies, but two
problems arise at microwave frequencies. First, lumped elements such as inductors and
capacitors are generally available only for a limited range of values and are difficult to
implement at microwave frequencies, but must be approximated with distributed
components. In addition, at microwave frequencies the distances between filter
components is not negligible. Richard's transformation is used to convert lumped
elements to transmission line sections, while Kuroda's identities can be used to separate
filter elements by using transmission line sections. Because such additional transmission
line sections do not affect the filter response, this type of design is called redundant filter
12 22 12 11 2 2 C C C C Co + = + =
o
o
o
C v
Z
1
0 =
15
synthesis. It is possible to design microwave filters that take the advantage of these
sections to improve the filter response; such nonredundant synthesis does not have a
lumped element counterpart.
2.5.1 Low-Pass Filter Design Using Stubs.
First, the design of the lumped element circuit with the required response is
performed using the insertion loss method (maximally flat or equal ripple for example).
The next step is to use Richard's transformation to convert series inductors to series stubs,
and shunt capacitors to shunt tubs. The characteristic impedance of a series stub
(inductor) is L, and the characteristic impedance of a shunt stub (capacitor) is 1/C. For
commensurate line synthesis, all stubs are /8 long at = c (cutoff frequency). It is
more convenient to work with normalized quantities until the last step in the design.
Because series stubs would be very difficult to implement in practice, one of the
Kuroda identities is used to convert these to shunt stubs. In order to do this, unit elements
(/8 long at c) are added at either end of the filter. These redundant elements do not
affect filter performance since they are matched to the source and load. Then we can
apply Kuroda identity to both ends of filter.
Finally, the circuit is impedance and frequency scaled. By doing that, the desired
response is obtained in the passband of the filter, but it will be repeated periodically
because of the nature of Richard's transformation.
2.5.2 Low-Pass Filters Using Stepped-Impedance
An easy way to implement low-pass filters in microstrip or striplines is to use
alternating sections of very high and very low characteristic impedance lines. Such filters
may be called hi-Z, low-Z filters. The advantages over shunt-stub filters are that they are
easier to fabricate and take up less space. One disadvantage is that this method uses
approximations that will lead to an electrical performance that is not very good; this type
doesn't give a sharp cutoff. This must be considered when a filter is required in a certain
application.

16
It can be shown that the Z-parameters of a length, l, of line having characteristic
impedance Z0 are given by: [1]
. csc
, cot
0 21 12
0 22 11
l jZ Z Z
l jZ Z Z

= =
= =


The series elements of the T-equivalent circuit are: [1]

|
.
|

\
|
=
(


=
2
tan
sin
1 csc
0 0 12 11
l
jZ
l
l
jZ Z Z



While the shunt element of the T-equivalent is Z12. So if l < /2, the series
elements have a positive reactance (inductors), while the shunt element has a negative
reactance (capacitor). We thus have the equivalent circuit shown in Fig 2.8(a), where
. sin
1
,
2
tan
2
0
0
l
l

Z
B
Z
X
=
|
.
|

\
|
=


Now assume a short length of line (l < /4) and a large characteristic impedance.
Then, the above relations reduce to

, 0
,
0

B
Z X l

This gives a series inductor.

Now, for a short length of line and small characteristic impedance,

l
0
, 0
Y B
X



This implies a shunt inductor.
17


Fig. 2.8 Approximate equivalent circuits for short sections of transmission lines.

So, the series inductors of a low pass prototype can be replaced with a high-
impedance line sections (Z0=Zh), and the shunt capacitors can be replaced with low-
impedance line sections (Z0=Zl). The ratio Zh/Zl should be as high as possible, so the
actual values of Zh and Zl are usually set to be the highest and the lowest characteristic
impedances that can be practically fabricated. The lengths of the lines are evaluated at the
cutoff frequency, and can be calculated as follows:
The electrical length for the inductor section is
, (inductor)
0
h
Z
LR
= l

The electrical length for the capacitor section is
, ) (capacitor
0
R
CZ
l
l =
where R0 is the filter impedance and L and C are the normalized element values (the g
k
's)
of the low-pass prototype [1].






18
2.5.3 Coupled Line Filters
These kinds of filters are used for bandwidths less than 20%. More bandwidth
needs very small distances between the strips, which is hard to implement practically.


















Fig. 2.9 Even and odd mode analysis


19
( )
( )
( )
( )

csc
2
csc
2
cot
2
cot
2
0 0 32 23 41 14
0 0 42 24 31 13
0 0 43 34 21 12
0 0 44 33 22 11
o e
o e
o e
o e
Z Z
j
Z Z Z Z
Z Z
j
Z Z Z Z
Z Z
j
Z Z Z Z
Z Z
j
Z Z Z Z
+

= = = =

= = = =

= = = =
+

= = = =
Using even and odd analysis, the open-circuit impedance matrix for a four port
coupled line section can be determined. This is important to observe the filter properties
of a coupled line section. Fig. 2.9 shows the even and odd mode excitations. It can be
shown that: -









A two-port network can be formed by terminating two of the four ports in either
open or short circuits; there are ten possible combinations as shown in [3]. We are
interested in the bandpass filter. There are three possible configurations to implement a
bandpass filter. The one in Fig. 2.10 is the easiest to implement since implementing open
circuit on printed circuit boards is much easier than short circuit. This is the type that will
be used in our design.


Fig. 2.10 Coupled line circuit for bandpass filter response.


Using this configuration, the four port network reduces to:-

3 33 1 31 3
3 13 1 11 1
4 2 0
I Z I Z V
I Z I Z V
I I
+ =
+ =
= =
20
The filter characteristics of this circuit can be observed by calculating the image
impedance (Zi) and the propagation constant (). Using the results of the image
parameters method, it can be shown that: [1]

In the design, coupled line sections with quarter-wave lengths are used, and thus
the image impedance reduces to:

This is real and positive, since Z0e > Z0o. The cutoff frequencies can be found from the
Zi equation as:

The propagation constant is found to be: [1]


where is real for
1 2 1 = < <
.
( ) ( )
2
2
0 0
2
2
0 0
33
2
13 11
2
11
cot csc
2
1
o e o e
i
Z Z Z Z
Z
Z Z
Z
CD
AB
Z
+ =
= =
( ) o e i Z Z Z 0 0
2
1
=
o e
o e
Z Z
Z Z
0 0
0 0
2 1 cos cos
+

= =
cos cos
0 0
0 0
13
11
13
33 11
2
o e
o e
Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z
Z
Z Z
AD

+
= = = =
21
Designing a narrow bandpass may be done by cascading a number of coupled line
filter. The design equations are derived using an equivalent circuit of a single coupled
line section of length /4 ( = /2 ), which will correspond to the center frequency of the
bandpass response. Fig. 2.11 shows the equivalent circuit.
Fig. 2.11 Equivalent circuit of the coupled line section.

It can be shown that the two circuits are equivalent by calculating the image
impedance and the propagation constant of the equivalent circuit and showing that they
are the same for both circuits. This is done using ABCD parameters.
By equating the ABCD parameters of the equivalent circuit, the image impedance
of the equivalent circuit is found to be:-

At the center frequency = /2, Zi reduces to:

And the propagation constant





2 2 2
0
2 2
0
cos sin ) / 1 (
cos ) / 1 ( sin
2
J JZ
J JZ
C
B
Zi

= =
2
0 JZ Zi =
cos sin
1
cos
0
0
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
JZ
JZ A
22
,
,
,
,
0 2 0
2
0
0 2
2
0 0
1
1
1 0
0
1
Z g
C
Z g
L
Z
g
C
g
Z
L

=

=

=

=
Equating the image impedances and propagation constants, and assuming sin = 1
for near /2 gives:

Now, consider a bandpass filter composed of N+1 coupled line sections, as shown
in Fig. 2.12. The sections are numbered from left to right, with the load on the right. But,
the filter is reciprocal and can be reversed without affecting the response of the filter. It
can be shown mathematically that the filter is equivalent to a lumped-element circuit. In
the figure, a bandpass filter of 3-coupled lines (N=2) is shown. Where L'
n
s and C'
n
s are
determined from the element values of a lumped-element low pass prototype which has
been impedance scaled and frequency transformed to a bandpass filter.
For our case:-









where = (2 1) / 0 is the fractional bandwidth of the filter
| |
| |
2
0 0 0 0
2
0 0 0 0
) ( 1
) ( 1
JZ JZ Z Z
JZ JZ Z Z
o
e
+ =
+ + =
23
1
1 0
1
0
1
1 0
2
,
2
,
2
+
+

=
N N
N
n n
n
g g
J Z
g g
J Z
g
J Z

Fig. 2.12 Development of an equivalent circuit for derivation of design equations for a coupled line
bandpass filter

The design equations for a bandpass filter with N+1 coupled line sections are:





24
The even and odd mode characteristics for each section are found from the
previous values.

2.5.4 Bandpass Filters Using Capacitively Coupled Resonators
In this type, an Nth order filter will use N resonant sections of transmission line
with N+1 capacitive gaps between them. The discontinuities may be approximated as
series capacitors. The resonators are approximately /2 long at the resonant frequency
0. This is shown in Fig. 2.13 below.
Fig. 2.13 Capacitively coupled resonators.


The filter can be modeled as in Fig. 2.14




















Fig. 2.14 Development of an equivalence of a capacitive-gap coupled resonator bandpass filter to the
coupled line bandpass filter of Fig. 2.13

25
( )
( )
2
0
0
1
1
2 tan
i
i
i
i i
J Z
J
B
B Z

=
=

where,










CPW Capacitively Coupled Filters
In designing bandpass filters using the previous approach, the design equations
were based on the equivalency of the gap to a series capacitance. In the case of coplanar
waveguides, the gap is equivalent to a pi-network of capacitances, as shown in Fig. 2.15.

Fig. 2.15 Equivalent pi-network of a CPW gap.

Even though the shunt capacitances are significantly smaller than the series
capacitance, they do affect the behavior of the filter. One way to reduce this effect is to
find the proper line dimensions and dielectric permittivity that make the shunt
jBa
jBb
jBa
n = 2,3,4,,N
.
2
,
2
,
1 2
1
1 0
1
0
1 0
+
+

=
N N
N
n n
n
g g
J Z
g g
J Z
g
J Z

( ) ( ) | |


n
n
i i
i
B
C
B Z B Z
=
+ =
+

1
0
1
0
1
2 tan 2 tan
2
1
26
capacitances negligibly small. Another way is to take the effect of the shunt capacitances
into consideration. Both approaches have been used and discussed in the result section.
It is found that the capacitive pi-network, with appropriate lengths of transmission lines
added to both ends, is equivalent to a J-inverter.

Fig. 2.15 The realization of admittance inverters using a CPW gap.

Equations for the length of the lines were obtained by equating the ABCD
parameters of the pi- network with the added lines to the parameters of an ideal J-
inverter. The equations obtained are given below:
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

o o
CZ B Y
A j2
tan
1

2
cos
2
sin sin
2 2 2

jC B jY A Y J
o o
+ =
where Y
o
and Z
o
are the characteristic admittances and impedances respectively and A,B
and C are the ABCD parameters of the gap.


27
The values of are found to be negative. This is not a problem because they can
be absorbed by the adjacent transmission line sections. The line lengths of the filter are
found to be [1] :
N 1,2,...., i for
2
1
2
1
1
= + + =
+ i i i


2.6 Open End Effect
In an open circuit, the electric fields extend beyond the end of the line. This
excess capacitance makes the electrical length longer than the nominal length, typically
by a third to a half of the substrate thickness. This causes the design frequencies of patch
antennas and filters to be shifted. To compensate for this effect, a negative length
correction can be added reducing the overall length of the lines. Hammerstad and
Bekkadal [4] found an empirical formula for the length extension in a microstrip:


where h is the substrate thickness, and W is the strip width.













|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
813 . 0 /
262 . 0 /
258 . 0
3 . 0
412 . 0
h W
h W
h
l
re
re

28
3. Results and Discussion

3.1 Stepped Impedance Low-Pass Filters

In this section, we need to design a filter that has a maximally flat response and a
cutoff frequency of 2.5 GHz. It is necessary to have more than 20 dB insertion loss at 4.0
GHz. The filter impedance is 50, with Zh=150 & Zl=10

To get the necessary attenuation at 4.0 GHz, we will use a filter with order N=6,
then, from tables in [1],
g1 = 0.517 = C1,
g2 = 1.414 = L2,
g3 = 1.932 = C3,
g4 = 1.932 = L4,
g5 = 1.414 = C5,
g6 = 0.517 = L6.

The electrical lengths of the hi-Z and low-Z transmission line sections to replace
the series inductors and shunt capacitors are obtained as follows:
. 9 . 9
, 2 . 16
, 9 . 36
, 1 . 22
, 0 . 27
, 9 . 5
0
6 6
0
5 5
0
2 4
0
3 3
0
2 2
0
1 1

= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
h
h
h
Z
R
g
R
Z
g
Z
R
g
R
Z
g
Z
R
g
R
Z
g
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l




29
3.1.1 Lumped Elements
Fig. 3.1 shows the filter realized using lumped elements. Fig. 3.2 shows the
insertion loss of this filter obtained using Ansoft Designer. It can be clearly seen that the
filter satisfies all the required specifications.

Fig. 3.1 Lumped elements low-pass filter



Fig. 3.2 Lumped elements low-pass filter response.

30
3.1.2 Stripline
Now, we need to implement the filter using stripline technology, with the
following specification:
Substrate:
r = 2.1
Thickness = 1mm.
Metallization:
Copper
Resistivity = 1.724137931 .cm
Thickness = 0.675 mil


Fig. 3.3 shows the realized low-pass filter as it is analyzed using Designer.
Fig. 3.4 shows the insertion loss which still meets the required specifications.



Fig. 3.3 Stepped impedance low-pass filter using stripline

31

Fig. 3.4 Stepped impedance low-pass filter response using stripline


3.1.3 Microstrip line
Now, we need to implement the filter using microstrip technology, with the
following specification:
Substrate:
r = 9.8
Thickness = 2mm.
Metallization:
Copper
Resistivity = 1.724137931 .cm
Thickness = 0.675 mil.

Fig. 3.5 shows the realized low-pass filter. Fig. 3.6 shows the insertion loss
which still meets the required specifications.

32


Fig. 3.5 Stepped impedance low-pass filter using microstrip line.


Fig. 3.6 Stepped impedance low-pass filter response using microstrip line.



Figures 3.7 and 3.8 show the structure and response of another microstrip filter
realized using different type of substrate having:

Substrate:
r = 2
Thickness = 2mm.
33
Metallization:
Copper
Resistivity = 1.724137931 .cm
Thickness = 0.675 mil.








Fig. 3.7 Stepped impedance low-pass filter using microstrip line.


Fig. 3.8 Stepped impedance low-pass filter response using microstrip line.


3.1.4 Discussion
From the previous results, it can be seen that we were able to implement stepped
impedance low pass filters using both stripline and microstrip lines. We couldn't
implement low pass filters using shunt stubs due to the large variation of the values of the
34
characteristic impedances of the lines. From figures 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, it is clear that the
passband characteristics of all types are very similar but the lumped element circuit gives
the sharpest attenuation at higher frequencies. Stripline filters have the least attenuation at
higher frequencies. This is because stepped impedance filter elements depart significantly
from the lumped-element values at the higher frequencies.
Fig. 3.4 shows that when using the stripline filter, we couldn't obtain more than
20dB insertion loss at 4 GHz. Unfortunately, we couldn't implement this kind of filter
using CPW. It was impossible to get practically high characteristic impedances. The
stepped impedance filter may have other passbands at higher frequencies, but the
response will not be perfectly periodic because the lines are not commensurate. Finally, it
is worth mentioning that the discontinuity effect of the step was not taken into account in
our design.

3.2 Coupled line bandpass filters

The filter to be designed has a 0.5 dB equal-ripple response with N=3. The center
frequency is 2.0 GHz, the bandwidth is 10%, and Z0=50.

Using 0.5 equal ripple table [1] we get the following table:

n gn Z0Jn Z0e Z0o
1 1.5963 0.3137 70.61 39.24
2 1.0967 0.1187 56.64 44.77
3 1.5963 0.1187 56.64 44.77
4 1 0.3137 70.61 39.24

3.2.1 Ideal Transmission Lines
Fig. 3.9 shows the filter using ideal transmission lines. Fig. 3.10 shows the
insertion loss of this filter obtained.
35

Fig. 3.9 Coupled Line bandpass filter using ideal transmission line.



Fig. 3.10 Coupled Line bandpass filter response using ideal transmission line.




36
3.2.2 Microstrip Line without Considering End Effect
Now, we need to implement the filter using microstrip technology, with the
following specification:
Substrate:
r = 9.6
Thickness = 4mm.
Metallization:
Copper
Resistivity = 1.724137931 .cm
Thickness = 0.675 mil.

Fig. 3.11 shows the realized bandpass filter. Fig. 3.12 shows the insertion loss.


Fig. 3.11 Coupled Line bandpass filter using microstrip line.
37

Fig. 3.12 Coupled Line bandpass filter response using microstrip line.

3.2.3 Microstrip Line Considering End Effect
Using the end effect equation in page 27, we got 3 . 0 =

h
l
, then mm l 2 . 1 = .
Each line is shortened by 1.2 mm.

Fig. 3.11 Coupled Line bandpass filter using microstrip line with end effect.

38

Fig. 3.12 Coupled Line bandpass filter response using microstrip line with end effect.



3.2.4 Discussion
Comparing the response of the ideal line filter with that of the microstrip filter
when the open end effect is not considered, it is found that there are very slight
differences in the response un the passband. In addition, the attenuation at higher
frequencies is smaller for the microstrip filter.
As already mentioned, the fringing of the field at open ends makes the line
effectively longer. To compensate for this effect, the length of the line is reduced by
1.2mm. The passband attenuation of the filter is higher than that of the ideal. This could
be due to inaccuracy of the used length reduction method.


39
3.3 Capacitively Coupled Bandpass Filters

The filter to be designed has a 0.5 dB equal-ripple passband characteristics. The
center frequency is 2GHz, the bandwidth is 10%, & Z0=50. At least 20 dB of
attenuation is required at 2.2 GHz.
To get the necessary attenuation at 2.2 GHz, we will use a filter with order N=3.
The resonator lengths are calculated and the following table summarizes the
results:

n gn ZoJn Bn Cn n
1 1.5963 0.3137 6.96 m 0.554 pF 155.8
2 1.0967 0.1187 2.41 m 0.192 pF 166.5
3 1.5963 0.1187 2.41 m 0.192 pF 155.8
4 1 0.3137 6.96 m 0.554 pF

When dealing with practical transmission lines, we faced the problem of the shunt
capacitances arising from the pi network model of the gap. This is shown in Fig. 3.13



Fig. 3.13 Equivalent pi network for gap

To solve this problem, we tried to find values for the relative permittivity and the
thickness of the dielectric substrate, at which the gaps give very low shunt capacitance
compared to the series capacitance. This was done by using Ansoft Designer to find the Y
parameters of each gap. The results were similar to the ideal response as shown later.

40
3.3.1 Ideal Transmission Lines and Capacitors
Fig. 3.14 shows the filter using ideal transmission lines and capacitors. Fig. 3.150
shows the insertion loss of this filter obtained. It can be clearly seen that the filter
satisfies all the required specifications.

Fig. 3.14 Capacitively coupled bandpass filter using ideal transmission lines and capacitors

Fig. 3.15 Capacitively coupled bandpass filter response using ideal transmission lines and capacitors










41
3.3.2 Striplines
Now, we need to implement the filter using stripline technology, with the
following specification:
Substrate:
r = 13
Thickness = 3.6mm
Metallization:
Copper
Resistivity = 1.724137931 .cm
Thickness = 0.675 mil.
Tx Line
W = 0.417857 mm
Gap1
G1 = 0.04155 mm
Y12 = -6.960078 S
Y11 = 7.022301 S
Y11+Y12 = 0.062223 S
(Y11+Y12)/Y12 = 0.00894
Gap2
G2 = 0.5925 mm
Y12 = -2.409867 S
Y11 = 3.191193 S
Y11+Y12 = 0.781326 S
(Y11+Y12)/Y12 = 0.32422

Fig. 3.16 shows the analyzed bandpass filter. Fig. 3.17 shows the insertion loss.


42

Fig. 3.16 Capacitively coupled bandpass filter using stripline


Fig. 3.17 Capacitively coupled bandpass filter response using stripline


3.3.3 Microstrip Line
Now, we need to implement the filter using microstrip technology, with the
following specification:


43
Substrate:
r = 2.1
Thickness = 4.1mm
Metallization:
Copper
Resistivity = 1.724137931 .cm
Thickness = 0.675 mil.
Tx Line
W = 13.107mm

Gap1
G1 = 0.04655 mm
Y12 = -6.963744 S
Y11 = 6.990010
Y11+Y12 = 0.026266
(Y11+Y12)/Y12 = 0.003772
Gap2
G2 =1.358 mm
Y12 = -2.412967 S
Y11 = 3.039858 S
Y11+Y12 = 0.626891 S
(Y11+Y12)/Y12 = 0.259801

Fig. 3.18 shows the realized bandpass filter as it is analyzed using Designer.
Fig. 3.19 shows the insertion loss which still meets the required specifications.





Fig. 3.18 Capacitively coupled bandpass filter using microstrip line
44

Fig. 3.19 Capacitively coupled bandpass filter response using microstrip line



3.3.4 Coplanar Waveguide (CPW)
Now, we need to implement the filter using CPW technology, with the following
specification:
Substrate:
r = 9.8
Thickness = 4mm
Metallization:
Copper
Resistivity = 1.724137931 .cm
Thickness = 0.675 mil.
Tx Line
W = 2.33164 mm
G = 1 mm
45
Gap1
GAP1 = 0.00535 mm
Y12 = -j6.958811 S
Y11 = j6.963698
Y11+Y12 = j0.026266
(Y11+Y12)/Y12 = 0.000702
Gap2
GAP2 =0.505 mm
Y12 = -j2.410659 S
Y11 = j2.828159 S
Y11+Y12 = 0.4175 S
(Y11+Y12)/Y12 = 0.173

Fig. 3.20 shows the realized bandpass filter as it is analyzed using Designer.
Fig. 3.21 shows the insertion loss which still meets the required specifications.










Fig. 3.20 Capacitively coupled bandpass filter using CPW.














46



























Fig. 3.21 Capacitively coupled bandpass filter response using CPW.


3.3.5 Capacitively Coupled Bandpass Filters Using CPW When Shunt
Capacitances are Taken into Consideration
In designing bandpass filters in the previous section, the design strategy was to
find the appropriate dielectric permittivity and line dimensions to make the shunt
capacitances negligibly small. However, this method has the disadvantage of being
impractical. The designer does not always have the freedom to choose the dimensions
that achieve negligible shunt capacitances. In such a case, shunt capacitances cannot be
avoided and they need to be taken into consideration.
Using Designer, we can find the ABCD parameters at the design frequency for
gaps of different widths. The corresponding value of J is then calculated. Using trial and
error, the gap widths that produce the required values of J are found. The CPW line used
in the design has the following specifications:
47
Substrate:
r = 9.8
Thickness = 4mm
Tx Line
W = 3mm
G = 1.2mm

The resonator lengths are calculated and the following table summarizes the
results:





Fig. 3.22 shows the realized bandpass filter as it is analyzed using Designer.
Fig. 3.23 shows the insertion loss which still meets the required specifications.













Fig. 3.22 Capacitively coupled bandpass filter using CPW (shunt capacitances considered).
N Gn ZoJn n
1 1.5963 0.31137 153.5866
2 1.0967 0.1187 145.153
3 1.5963 0.1187 153.5866
4 1 0.3137
48

Fig. 3.23 Capacitively coupled bandpass filter response using CPW (shunt capacitances considered).


3.3.6 Discussion
Fig. 3.15, 3.17, 3.19, 3.21 show that all the types of transmission lines used in the
designs met the attenuation requirements at 2.2 GHz. The stopbands were all similar. It
appears that the microstrip filter has the worst passband response where an attenuation of
5.4 dB, instead of 0 dB, appeared at 1.87GHz. The stripline filter passband response was
better. The CPW filter has the best passband response, since it gave us relatively the
smallest shunt capacitances.
In the design where the shunt capacitances were taken into consideration, the
response differed significantly from what was required. The attenuation in the passband
was as high as 10 dB at 2.15GHz. In addition, there was a shift in the filter center
frequency. Alternative design equations [5] were used and the same results were still
obtained. The reasons causing these problems are not known so far and needs more
investigation.


49
4. Conclusions

In this project, the Ansoft Designer SV was used in the design of microwave
filters. Three different types of filters were studied and implemented using strip line,
microstrip line and coplanar waveguide. Based on the results obtained, the designs using
these transmission lines were discussed and compared.
The first type is the stepped impedance low-pass filter. Its compactness and
simplicity of design make it preferable over shunt stubs filters. Because of the
approximations involved, however, its electrical performance is not as good, so the use of
such filters is usually limited to applications where sharp cutoff is not required.
The coupled line filter is a bandpass filter used for narrow bandwidth. Wider
bandwidth filters require very tightly coupled lines which are difficult to fabricate. One
advantage of this type over the capacitively coupled is the smaller size; it uses quarter
wave instead of half wave resonators.
The capacitively coupled filter is also a bandpass filter that is used for narrow
bandwidths. It is easier to implement than the coupled line, but the attenuation is not as
high as that of coupled line filter at high frequencies. Coplanar waveguide transmission
line was used efficiently to implement this kind of filters during this project.
Finally, it is worth to mention that the work and designs in this project are highly
dependent on the accuracy of the models built in the Ansoft Designer SV, since no
practical fabrication and measurements were performed.










50
5. References

1. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, Second Edition, Wiley and Sons,
1998.
2. R. N. Simons, Coplanar Waveguide Circuits, Components, and Systems,
Wiley and Sons, 2001.
3. E. M. T. Jones and J.T. Bolljahn, Coupled-Strip Transmission Line
Filters and Directional Couplers, IRE Trans. Microwave Theory and
Techniques, vol. MTT-4, pp. 78-81, April 1956.
4. E. O. Hammerstad and F. Bekkadal, A Microstrip Handbook, ELAB
Report, STF 44 A74169, N7034, University of Trondhiem, 1975.
5. D. F. Williams and S. E. Schwarz, Design and Performance of Coplanar
Waveguide Bandpass Filters, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory
and Techniques, vol. MTT-31, No.7, July 1983.
6. R. E. Collin, Foundation for Microwave Engineering, Second Edition,
McGraw-Hill, 1992.
7. J. A. G. Malherbe, Microwave Transmission Line Couplers, Artech
House, 1988.
8. G.L. Matthaei, L. Young and E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters,
Impedance Matching Networks and Coupling Structures, Artech House,
Dedham, Mass., 1980