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Breast Cancer Pathophysiology

Breast cancer, like other forms of cancer, is the outcome of multiple environmental and hereditary factors. Some of these factors include:
1. Lesions to DNA such as genetic mutations. Mutations that can lead

to breast cancer have been experimentally linked to estrogen exposure. 2. Failure of immune surveillance, a theory in which the immune system removes malignant cells throughout one's life. 3. Abnormal growth factor signaling in the interaction between stromal cells and epithelial cells can facilitate malignant cell growth. 4. Inherited defects in DNA repair genes, such as ''BRCA1'', ''BRCA2'' and ''TP53''. People in less-developed countries report lower incidence rates than in developed countries.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND TYPES OF BREAST CANCER There are four different types of breast cancer. They are described below. Breast cancer is either invasive or noninvasive (often referred to as in situ). There are two types of noninvasive breast cancers: ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). These two types of noninvasive breast cancers do not invade the basement membrane of the breast (see Fig. 1, Anatomy of the Breast). As their names suggest ductal carcinoma in situ cancer cells are found in the lining of the duct whereas lobular carcinoma in situ cancer cells are found in the lobules (see Anatomy section for a detailed description of the ductals and lobules of the breast). There are the two types of noninvasive breast cancer described above and there are also two types of invasive breast cancer: infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. As their names suggest, infiltrating ductal carcinoma penetrates the wall of the duct and travels to areas outside of it whereas infiltrating lobular carcinoma spreads through the wall of the lobule and also travels to areas outside of it. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer, accounting for between 70%-80% of the cases of breast cancer. Each of the four types of breast cancer has four stages that relate to the severity of the cancer. The following describes the types and stages of breast cancer. Stage 0noninvasive carcinomas (LCIS or DCIS). Cancer cells have not invaded the surrounding breast tissue. Stage Ithe tumor is no more than 2 cm in size and cancer cells have not spread beyond the breast. Stage IIeither the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes under the arms but the tumor is less than 2 cm in size, or the tumor has not spread to the lymph nodes under the arms but is greater than 5 cm in size, or the tumor is between 2 and 5 cm and may or may not have spread to the nodes. Stage IIIthe tumor is greater than 5 cm in size and has spread to the lymph nodes under the arms. Stage IVthe cancer has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic cancer).

Modifiable:

Non Modifiable:

Overweight

Gender ( Female) Age ( 57 y/o )

Diet ( high in fat, red meat and processed meat )

Abnormal growth factor signaling in the interaction between stromal cells and epithelial cells can facilitate malignant cell growth.

breast cancer spread to lymph nodes under the arm

lump ( Swelling)