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Unemployment in India

Unemployment India as a nation is faced with massive problem of unemployment. Unemployment can be defined as a state of worklessness for a man fit and willing to work. It is a condition of involuntary and not voluntary idleness. Some features of unemployment have been identified as follows:
1. The incidence of unemployment is much higher in urban areas than in rural areas. 2. Unemployment rates for women are higher than those for men. 3. The incidence of unemployment among the educated is much higher than the overall unemployment. 4. There is greater unemployment in agricultural sector than in industrial and other major sectors.

Economists and social thinkers have classified unemployment into various types. Generally unemployment can be classified in two types: (1) Voluntary unemployment In this type of unemployment a person is out of job of his own desire doesn't work on the prevalent or prescribed wages. Either he wants higher wages or doesn't want to work at all. It is in fact social problem leading to social disorganization. Social problems and forces such as a revolution, a social upheaval, a class struggle, a financial or economic crisis a war between nations, mental illness, political corruption mounting unemployment and crime etc. threaten the smooth working of society. Social values are often regarded as the sustaining forces of society. They contribute to the strength and stability of social order. But due to rapid social change new values come up and some of the old values decline. At the same time, people are not is a position to reject the old completely and accept the new altogether. Here, conflict between the old and the new is the inevitable result which leads to the social disorganization in imposed situation. In economic terminology this situation is voluntary unemployment. (2) In voluntary unemployment In this type of situation the person who is unemployed has no say in the matter. It means that a person is separated from remunerative work and devoid of wages although he is capable of earning his wages and is also anxious to earn them. Forms and types of unemployment according to Hock are.
a. Cyclical unemployment - This is the result of the trade cycle which is a part of the capitalist system. In such a system, there is greater unemployment and when there is depression a large number of people are rendered unemployed. Since such an economic crisis is the result of trade cycle, the unemployment is a part of it. b. Sudden unemployment - When at the place where workers have been employed there is some change, a large number of persons are unemployed. It all happens in the industries, trades and business where people are employed for a job and suddenly when the job has ended they are asked to go. c. Unemployment caused by failure of Industries - In many cases, a business a factory

or an industry has to close down. There may be various factors responsible for it there may be dispute amongst the partners, the business may give huge loss or the business may not turn out to be useful and so on. d. Unemployment caused by deterioration in Industry and business - In various industries, trades or business, sometimes, there is deterioration. This deterioration may be due to various factors. In efficiency of the employers, keen competitions less profit etc. are some of the factors responsible for deterioration in the industry and the business. e. Seasonal unemployment - Certain industries and traders engage workers for a particular season. When the season has ended the workers are rendered unemployed. Sugar industry is an example of this type of seasonal unemployment.

The problem of unemployment has becoming a colossal. Various problems have caused this problem. There are individual factors like age, vocational unfitness and physical disabilities which restrict the people. External factors include technological and economic factors. There is enormous increase in the population. Every year India adds to her population afresh. More than this every year about 5 million people become eligible for securing jobs. Business field is subject to ups and downs of trade cycle and globalization. Economic depression or sick industries are often close down compelling their employees to become unemployed. Technological advancement contributes to economic development .But unplanned and uncontrolled growth of technology is causing havoc on job opportunities. The computerization and automation has led to technological unemployment. Strikes and lockouts have become inseparable aspect of the industrial world today. Due to these industries often face economic loses and production comes down. Since workers do not get any salary or wages during the strike period they suffer from economic hardships. They become permanently or temporarily unemployed. Today young people are not ready to take jobs which are considered to be socially degrading or lowly. Our educational system has its own irreparable defects and its contribution to the unemployment is an open truth.Our education does not prepare the minds of young generation to become self-employed on the contrary it makes them dependent on government vacancies which are hard to come. Our State right from the beginning of Five year plans has introduced several employment generating schemes and programmes over the years but in the absence of proper implementation and monitoring have failed to achieve the required targets. Recently UPA Government has come up with Rural Employment Guarantee program which aims to provide minimum days of employment to people living in the villages. This is a laudable programme if implemented sincerely because it will provide employment to people during natural calamities like drought, floods etc. The remedial measures for reducing unemployment may lay greater emphasis on creation of opportunities for self -employment, augmentation of productivity and income levels of the working poor, shift in emphasis from creation of relief type of employment to the building up of durable productive assets in the rural areas and instead of attempting to revert somewhat to protectionist policies the pace of privatization may be accelerated.

Causes Of Unemployment
In the set up of a modern market economy, there are many factors, which contribute to unemployment. Causes of unemployment are varied and it may be due to the following factors:

Rapid changes in technology Recessions Inflation Disability Undulating business cycles Changes in tastes as well as alterations in the climatic conditions. This may in turn lead to decline in demand for certain services as well as products.

Attitude towards employers Willingness to work Perception of employees Employee values Discriminating factors in the place of work (may include discrimination on the basis of age, class, ethnicity, color and race).

Ability to look for employment The above factors may be categorized into the following:

(I) Cyclical Unemployment


Cyclical unemployment goes hand in hand with the business cycle. Higher the GDP, lower will be the cyclical unemployment at the peak of the business cycle and the vice versa is true when the economy is in the trough of the business cycle. If cyclical

unemployment rate stretches for an extended period, it may cause irreparable damage to the labor force in the country.

(II) Structural Unemployment


It is a well-known fact that everyday new products are being launched in the market. As a result, the demand for certain goods and services also changes. This leads to increase in unemployment rate in certain sectors of the economy and creates jobs in yet others. Under these circumstances, re employment may be possible if the worker relocates or migrates to other sectors (in demand).

(III) Agricultural Activities


It has also been observed that if there are undulations in the agricultural sector (due to factors like low production, drought, famine or natural disaster), the effects are felt in agribusiness. This may also be regarded as one of the factors in unemployment.

(IV) Hard Core Unemployment


Hard core unemployment usually results when a worker is disabled and is not in a position to work. The worker may also give up his job after a few days due to dissatisfaction with the wage. Unemployment at any given point of time may be either due to one of the factors mentioned above or a combination of several factors (mentioned above). It has also been observed that if the labor market in the economy does not work in an optimum manner, it leads to unemployment. There are other factors, which point at the tempo of an economic activity in a region.

Measures For Reducing Unemployment Rate


Causes Of Unemployment Page 2 of 2 Framing economic policies, improving labor mobility, assisting in developing enhanced work habits are some of the measures, which may be taken to deal with unemployment. Extending unemployment insurance benefits is also a means of rendering financial protection to the unemployed. This system was first introduced during the period of Great Depression (1930s).

Macro Economic Stabilization Policy


In order to cater to the needs of the unemployed, the government has introduced the macro-economic stabilization policy, which aims at providing financial assistance to the workers till the time of recovery in the economy.

India's employment perspective

Overview of unemployment Sector-wise absorption of labour Trends in Labour Force Participation Labour Force Projections by Age Groups Projections of work opportunities Home

Underemployment Age structure of population: 1997-2002 Participation in labour force by age & sex Population & Labour Force: 1997-2012 Population, Labour Force & Employment

Overview Economic reforms may have given a boost to industrial productivity and brought in foreign investment in capital intensive areas. But the boom has not created jobs. This was not unexpected. According to a report by the Washington-based Institute of Policy Studies (IPS), the combined sales of the world's top 200 MNCs is now greater than the combined GDP of all but the world's nine largest national economies. Yet, the total direct employment generated by these multinationals is a mere 18.8 millions -one-hundredth of one per cent of the global workforce. India's Ninth Five-Year Plan projects generation of 54 million new jobs during the Plan period (1997-2002). But performance has always fallen short of target in the past, and few believe that the current Plan will be able to meet its target. India's labour force is growing at a rate of 2.5 per cent annually, but employment is growing at only 2.3 per cent. Thus, the country is faced with the challenge of not only absorbing new entrants to the job market (estimated at seven million people every year), but also clearing the backlog. Sixty per cent of India's workforce is self-employed, many of whom remain very poor. Nearly 30 per cent are casual workers (i.e. they work only when they are able to get jobs and remain unpaid for the rest of the days). Only about 10 per cent are regular employees, of which two-fifths are employed by the public sector. More than 90 per cent of the labour force is employed in the "unorganised sector", i.e. sectors which don't provide with the social security and other benefits of employment in the "organised sector." In the rural areas, agricultural workers form the bulk of the unorganised sector. In urban India, contract and sub-contract as well as migratory agricultural labourers make up most of the unorganised labour force. Unorganised sector is made up of jobs in which the Minimum Wage Act is either not, or only marginally, implemented. The absence of unions in the unorganised sector does not provide any opportunity for collective bargaining. Over 70 per cent of the labour force in all sector combined (organised and

unorganised) is either illiterate or educated below the primary level. The Ninth Plan projects a decline in the population growth rate to 1.59 per cent per annum by the end of the Ninth Plan, from over 2 per cent in the last three decades. However, it expects the growth rate of the labour force to reach a peak level of 2.54 per cent per annum over this period; the highest it has ever been and is ever likely to attain. This is because of the change in age structure, with the highest growth occurring in the 15-19 years age group in the Ninth Plan period. The addition to the labour force during the Plan period is estimated to be 53 millions on the "usual status" concept. The acceleration in the economy's growth rate to 7 per cent per annum, with special emphasis on the agriculture sector, is expected to help in creating 54 million work opportunities over the period. This would lead to a reduction in the open unemployment rate from 1.9 per cent in 1996-97 to 1.47 per cent in the Plan's terminal year, that is, by about a million persons - from 7.5 million to 6.63 million. In other words, if the economy maintains an annual growth of 7 per cent, it would be just sufficient to absorb the new additions to the labour force. If the economy could grow at around 8 per cent per annum during the Plan period, the incidence of open unemployment could be brought down by two million persons, thus attaining near full employment by the end of the Plan period, according to the Plan. However, there appears to be some confusion about the figure of open unemployment. The unemployment figure given in the executive summary of the Ninth Plan, gives the figure of open unemployment at 7.5 million while the annual report of the Labour Ministry, for 1995-96, puts the figure for 1995 at 18.7 million. An internal government paper prepared in 1997 put the unemployment figure at the beginning of the Eighth Plan at 17 millions and at 18.7 million at the end of 1994-95. Perhaps the Planning Commission referred to the current figure while the Labour Ministry figure referred to the accumulated unemployment backlog. Top Underemployment Open unemployment is not a true indicator of the gravity of the unemployment problem in an economy such as India, characterised as it is by large-scale underemployment and poor employment quality in the unorganised sector, which accounts for over 90 per cent of the total employment. The organised sector contributes only about 9 per cent to the total employment. Underemployment in various segments of the labour force is quite high. For instance, though open unemployment was only 2 per cent in 1993-94, the incidence of under-employment and unemployment taken together was as much as 10 per cent that year. This, in spite of the fact that the incidence of underemployment was reduced substantially in the decade ending 1993-94. According to the Planning Commission, the States which face the prospect of increased unemployment in the post-Ninth Plan period (2002- 2007) are Bihar, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala and Punjab. Top

Sector-wise absorption of labour Agriculture Manufacturing & construction Services Sundry / miscellaneous jobs 62 per cent 16 per cent 10 per cent 12 per cent Top Table 1 : Age structure of population: 1997-2002 Age-group 1997 2002 0 - 14 37.23% 33.59% 15 - 59 56.07% 59.41% 60+ 6.70% 7.00% Table 2 : Trends in Labour Force Participation Rates
(Per Thousand of Population)

Age Group

Period 1977-78 1987-88 1993-94 1977-78 1987-88 1993-94 1977-78 1987-88 1993-94 1977-78 1987-88 1993-94 1977-78 1987-88 1993-94

Male Rural 879 824 804 990 988 990 963 964 968 667 670 699 904 879 877 Urban 746 710 684 990 987 986 940 933 937 517 482 443 831 810 811 515 478 455 619 603 600 538 538 543 221 220 241 517 496 491

Female Rural Urban 257 211 204 324 301 300 291 275 283 130 123 114 269 239 238

15-29

30-44

45-59

60+

All (15+)

Note: Constituent shares in labour force in 1993-94 are Rural Male 0.499, Rural Female 0.270, Urban Male 0.182 and Urban Female 0.049.

Table 3: Participation in Labour Force by Age Group and by Sex: 1997 - 2012
(per thousand of population)

Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59

1997 517 871 975 988 996 986 981 961 914

Male 2002 2007 482 447

2012 412

(a)

1997 302 408 454 505 526 538 524 476 411

Female 2002 2007 282 261

2012 241

(a)

60+

637

205

Note: (a) No change in labour force participation in age groups above 20 years.

Table 4 : Labour Force Projections by Age Groups 1997 2002 Growth Age Group (Million) (% p.a.) 15-19 40.31 45.03 2.24 20-24 55.45 62.91 2.55 25-29 56.89 61.47 1.56 30-34 52.64 58.88 2.26 35-39 46.60 52.80 2.53 40-44 39.56 46.04 3.08 45-49 32.90 38.13 2.99 50-54 25.86 30.27 3.20 55-59 18.86 22.45 3.55 60+ 28.15 31.64 2.37 15+ 397.22 449.62 2.51 Table 5: Population and Labour Force: 1997 - 2012
(million - 1st April)

Population Labour Force

1997 951.18 397.22

2002 1028.93 449.62

2007 1112.86 507.94

2012 1196.41 562.91

Table 6 : Projections of Work opportunities 1997-2002 Sector Agriculture Mining & Quarrying Manufacturing Electricity Construction Wholesale & Retail Trade Transport, Storage & Communication Financing, Real Estate, Insurance and Business Services Community, Social and Personal Service All Sectors GDP Growth (% p.a.) 1997-02 3.9 7.2 8.2 9.3 4.9 6.7 7.3 8.5 7.1 6.5
(Million) 8th Plan 1978 (a) 1983 (b) 1994 (a) (1992-97) (f) 9th Plan (1997-02) (f) 10th Plan (2002-07) (f)

Work Opportunities (Million) 1997 238.32 2.87 43.56 1.54 14.74 34.78 11.96 4.55 38.98 391.30 2002 262.48 3.54 48.22 1.93 17.03 41.67 14.57 5.68 46.41 441.52

Table 7 : Population, Labour Force and Employment

Population (c) Labour Force Employment Unemployment Rate (%)

637.6 255.8 249.1 6.7 2.63

718.2 (2.19) 286.6 (2.09) 281.2 (2.23) 5.4 1.89

895.0 (2.12) 368.5 (2.42) 361.5 (2.42) 7.0 1.89

951.2 (1.89) 374.2 367.2 7.0 1.87

1028.9 (1.58) 423.4 416.4 7.0 1.66

1112.9 (1.58) 478.8 474.7 (d) 4.1 (e) 0.86 (e)

Notes: 1. Estimates of labour force and employment are on usual status concept and pertain to 15 years and above. 2. Figures in brackets are compound growth rates in the preceding period. (a) As on 1st January (b) As on 1st July (c) Population at the terminal year of the plan (d) Required to attain near full employment. (e) Unemployment reduces to negligible level by the year 2007 (f) Labour force, employment and unemployment are stated as annual averages during the Plan period.

Unemployment Scenario in India Posted: Oct 06, 2008 |Comments: 1 | Views: 2,706 | Share Ads by Google

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INTRODUCTION It needs not be defined afresh here the term unemployment. It is such an embarrassing state of a person which baffles him on all economic, social, mental, emotional and cultural fronts. In the presently prevailing period unemployment has become a challenge to Indian economy. All strategies and plans formulated to encounter the unemployment problem are not providing satisfactory outcomes whereby the desired level of unemployment mitigation is leading towards becoming a myth in India. The Indian economy, instead of succeeding to get the overall unemployment problem solved, appears rather to be swinging & dwindling between the rural and the urban unemployment. The well chosen, dexterously formulated and adroitly executed plans are not responding up to the mark and the state of affairs is becoming more depressive and distressing. It gives an impression that there is some mistake in formulating, choosing or executing the plans and strategies pertaining to economic development. To see if some error has really crept therein and, if so, how the error should be done away, we would better rethink retrospectively. The western countries, during their development journey crept, then walked and thereafter ran on the path of development. They finally achieved the present level of development after travelling for a long period of time along the whole locus with several acrid and beatific experiences. After a considerable part of their development path was covered, the world political scenario took such a turn that it allowed and rather helped the exploited eastern countries come out of their harness and start development. The western countries, that time, were called developed economies and the eastern countries, just starting their economic development, were termed as under developed or developing economies. India belonged to the latter group whereby we were (though still we are) a developing economy. THE PLAN PERIOD AND EMPLOYMENT SITUATION After getting independence in 1947 India started its planned economic development in 1951 having in hands the experience, a wide literature of well proved strategies and variegated plans pertaining to, used by and created or formulated by the well developed western economies, apart from the available natural resources. India was over enthusiastic and over ambitious on account

of having the ready and well proved weapons sought from the western world for combating the problem of development. Therefore, instead of starting from the very beginning and covering the whole path it, being enticed and allured by the surprisingly fascinating fruits of industrialization, started efforts but having longed for being developed and grabbing fruits thereof in a haste. Thus India lost sequences in its development path. It ignored agriculture that was the spine of the economy. Thereby the agricultural development lagged far behind the level required for feeding Indias industrialization up to the mark. Agriculture based small and cottage industries became shattered and the villages became ruined. This raised a huge bulk of unemployed people in the widely spread rural sector. The unemployed persons started migrating to the urban areas in search of job. The urban development and industrialization there had not sufficient level to absorb the whole migrating mass and to provide them proper urban life facilities. As a result thereof a mushroom growth of slums came about fast which eventually turned into big slum spots in cities and towns within a no longer period of 20 or 25 years. This hampered urban growth and urban life. On the other hand, in rural areas there emerged acute shortage of energetic workforce, service centres, infrastructure, intellectuals etc. This hindered the rural development whereby agricultural development and rural life remained slang lower. That is why, even having travelled a long path of planned economic development, the state of affairs of rural India still remains almost the same as it was before planning. There is a big gulf between urban and rural people regarding wealth, wage, education and income. Moreover, the rural-urban migration, due to the pitiable state of affairs in rural areas, resulted to unchecked urban growth. Thus, instead of overall development, an unbalanced and unfair development of Indian economy became resulted therein. However, the Central Government tried to make the situation better by initiating the process of economic reforms in 1991. But, unfortunately, the formulation of this process was on almost the same footings as those of the Five Year Plans and, therefore, this also could not bring about the desired change. Consequently a wide spread general unemployment prevailed in both the rural and the urban areas (as per ECONOMIC APPRAISAL 200607, the estimated number of unemployed persons rose from 7.98 million in 1983 to 9.02 million in 1993-94, to 10.51 million in 1999-2000 and to 13.10 million in 2004-05. These figures make amply clear that the average increase per year in the number of unemployed persons is going higher and higher without revealing any effect even of the economic reforms initiated in 1991. The average increase per year in the number of unemployed persons was 1.04 lac persons during the ten years period from 1983 to 1993-94. It became 2.48 lac during the next six years period and rose to 5.18 lac during the five years period from 1999-2000 to 2004-05.). In addition to this a considerable number of politically, socially and economically sound and effective elites emerged in cities and urban towns. These elites interfered in the formulation and execution of development plans, on one hand, and in the fixation of priorities, on the other. Thereby Indian development plans became urban oriented and concentrating on rich minority. Thus the poor majority and the rural economy became ignored. The unemployment situation in both the rural and the urban sectors became almost uncontrollable. The government has become politically weak. Therefore its priority has become to please the rich minority so that it may run. To mitigate resentment and dissatisfaction among the general mass it has to play pseudo role to remedy some times the rural and some times the urban mass alternating through various unsuccessful employment programmes and plans. The condition of the rural unemployment is more embarrassing than that of the urban unemployment since the rural unemployed people are subsisting in privation. Ads by Google

CAUSAL FACTORS OF RAMPANT UNEMPLOYMENT Actually the root cause of this todays stinging situation lies in Indias galloping along the development path instead of travelling along the true locus by creeping, walking and running as and when needed. Moreover the rapid population growth has added a lot to make the unemployment situation a mammoth. On account of extended medical facilities, uplift of living standard due to increased national income, control over epidemics, check on famines, alleviation of starvation, extension of maternity services etc. during the development process in the plan period, the death rate considerably went down (from 27.4 per thousand per year during 1941-50 to 7.6 per thousand per year in 2005) but the birth rate remained slang high (it was 39.9 per thousand per year during 194150 and came down only to 23.8 per thousand per year in 2005). Therefore population growth attained an increasingly high rate that was however tried unsuccessfully to be lowered through family planning programme. Therefore, whatever the number of employment-opportunities emerged on account of the development process, it was gulped by a rather high increase in population. Thus our mistake in the development process and the high rate of population growth are the two factors responsible for the rampant unemployment in Indian mass. SUGGESTIONS To solve this massive problem efforts should be made to rectify the mistake in the development move, on one hand, and to mitigate the high population growth, on the other. As far as the rectification of mistake in the development move is concerned, the time of making the mistake good by starting a fresh has gone far back. Therefore India should better take a drastic turn to re-fix its priorities, reformulate its strategies, reselect its programmes and reconstruct its plans so as to make the development move rural oriented, congenial to the micro-level needs of the people, akin to the overall development and compatible to the extenuation of economic disparities. This will bring about fast agricultural development, uplift of village life and revival of village industries, artisanship and handicraft to check the massive rural-urban migration. As regards to the check on high population growth the prevailing family planning programme has been proved insufficient and incomplete. To form a complete and effective family planning programme the policy makers should go in full details of why a child is born. The factors making a child take birth can be grouped under three heads (i) Biological Factor, (ii) Socio-cultural and Religious Factors and (iii) Economic Factors.

1-Biological Factor:On account of this factor the child is born as a byproduct of sexual gratification. The best way of checking such an unintentional childbirth as a result of sexual intercourse is either the use of contraceptives or the termination of pregnancy. The latter is painful, some times unethical, expensive and risky too. Therefore the use of contraceptives is more preferable. There is a wide range of contraceptives in vogue. The condom as mechanical contraceptive among males and the pills as oral contraceptive among females have been proved most acceptable, commonly used and comfortable due to the fact that other contraceptives have limitations and side effects of their own. During 2003-04 condoms were used by 17.83 million males and pills were used by 8.75 million females. Surgical operations were undergone by 4.88 million males/females and IUCD implantation was conducted to 6.08 million females. The barrier contraceptives and IUCS but have the main drawback that their application needs a specific time period before starting intercourse. Therefore in an unplanned and rather instant sex, that is generally performed in the poor families where separate accommodation is not available for husband-wife mating, there is no room for the use of barrier and IUCS contraceptives. Therefore, other types of contraceptives should be made prevail in slums and poor localities. The unintended childbirths on account of purely the biological factor can well be checked by making contraceptives so affluently prevail in the society that use of a suitable contraceptive in every case of mating is generally made sure when mating is purely for gratification. 2-Socio-cultural and Religious Factors:The main social factor inducing a person to have more sons is the social security. Sons are believed to care their old, physically wasted and worn-out parents and to provide safety to the family in case of conflicts or death of some of them. The tendency of producing more sons due to the social security factor can be limited to a great extent by old-age-house system, life insurance, dependent minors allowance, unemployment allowance etc. As regards to the religious factor, there are two main beliefs. One speaks of higher spiritual gain or place in heaven after death for a person having more sons. The second relates the production of more children to religious service and the duty of woman as being sent by God for increasing progeny. However education or literacy is advocated to be instrumental in the extinction of such beliefs from peoples mind. But poverty alleviation is the most powerful instrument since an economically sound man generally dares to break religious orthodoxy for enjoying the fascinating mirth of luxury of materialistic life. Apart from economic uplift certain schemes or programmes launched by the government may be proved rather fruitful in instilling the importance of small family among the people. For example (1) Fare-price-shop facility, if given on the basis of family units in a way that even a divided family would be considered as a single family unit during the survival of the pre-division head of the family, will certainly attract people towards small family size provided the facility covers almost all consumable items for a member family unit and that too at a very low price in comparison to the market price.

(2) Various schemes of bounties, subsidies or economic help for poor families if launched on the per undivided family unit basis instead of per capita or per divided family unit, will comparatively benefit more to small families whereby big families will be discouraged. (3) Among poverty stricken people, who mainly contribute to high birth rate, some are found fully adopting family planning. Such persons may be taken out and established as poor elites by providing them reservation and priority in various activities like education, employment, bank-loans, candidature in local body elections etc. These elites can better instill the advantage of small family through demonstration effect among the people. 3-Economic Factors:Economic factors are very effective factors like the biological factor. A person in acute economic privation leaves even deeply instilled social, cultural and some times the biological allurements too for economic gains, similarly as in the state of aggravated sexual agitation he can leave all social, cultural and economic gains for sexual gratification. Poverty generates three causes of more childbirth as given below. (i) The currently prevailing media based fascinating means of entertainment are not only out of the reach of poor man but these have also snatches the old socio-cultural, cheap and some times free entertainment sources from him. Therefore a poverty stricken person has to search the way of entertainment in sex and that too being circumstantially unprotected whereby childbirth goes on taking place one after one successively. To check population increase due to this factor, the modern media based means of entertainment should be so designed that these may be easily available to poor people. (ii) In poor families a child becomes earning hand at the age of seven or eight years. The expenditure on his feeding is considerably lower than the wage he earns. Therefore, a child in a poor family is proved an asset rather than liability in its stead. That is why a poor man tends to produce more children for the uplift of familys living standard. The child births on account of this tendency can be checked by making child-labour totally banned and by making child-education free and compulsory. (iii) If a person is owner of a series of units of small scale industries, cottage industries, small business units etc. the hired managing persons generally prove costlier, unfaithful and nondevoted. If a family member is deployed at each such unit the safety and profitability is increased. Similar is the position in a single cottage industry unit where margin of profit is low and hired labour makes the profit uncertain. Therefore the requirement of man power is tried to be met out by producing more children in the family. The population increase due to this reason can be mitigated to a marked extent by making such family occupations joint ventures of more than one family. Moreover, subsidy schemes and market protection schemes for such family occupations will help a lot by increasing and preserving the profit margin therein. CONCLUSION The whole length of discussion concludes that to solve the unemployment problem of India the development plans and the family planning programme, both, should be reformed on the lines

suggested herein above whereby the extra employment opportunities will be generated fast, on one hand, and population growth will be checked, on the other, in such a way that growth of employment opportunities would considerably exceed to the population growth