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API 653

Minimum Thickness For Welded Tank Shell, API 653


Where: t = minumum acceptable thickness in inches D = nominal diameter of tank in feet H = liquid height from bottom of corroded area or floor in feet C = course number ( C=1 for bottom course ) G = specific gravity relative to water (G = 1.0 for water) S = maximum allowab le stress in psi. Use smaller of 0.8Y or 0.426T for bottom and 2nd course. Use smaller of 0.88Y or 0.472T for all other courses. Y = minimum yield strength in in psi rength psi T = minimum tensile strength in psi trength in psi E = joint efficiency Use E=0.7 if original E is unknown. Use E=1.0 when away from welds by 1 inch or 2t.

Calculation based on this formula: t = [2.6 D (H-1) G]/S E E from 2.3.3.1 of API Standard 653 Enter Values D= H= C= Y= T= G= E=
Value of S selected, Calculated minimum thickness,

38 24 1 13000 21000 1 0.7


S= t=

0.8Y = 0.426T =

10400 8946

0.88Y = 0.472T =

11440 9912

8946 0.362876

Page 1

API 570

Minimum thickness for straight pipe, ANSI B31.3


Calculation based on t = PD/2SE from paragraph 304.1.2 of ANSI B31.3 where t = pressure design thickness in inches P = internal gage pressure in psi S = stress value for material from stress table D = outside diameter of pipe in inches E = quality factor from table A-1A or A-1B

Enter values P= S= D= E= 250 20000 6 1 0.0375

Calculated design thickness: t =

Page 2

API 510, Shell

Minumum shell thickness for vessel under internal pressure: Calculation based on ASME Section VIII, Division 1 paragraph UG-27. Where: t = minimum required thickness of shell, inches P = internal pressure, psi R = inside radius of shell course under consideration, inches S = maximum allowable stress value, psi. at design temperature. E = joint efficiency. See UW-12 for welded shells. See UG-53 for ligaments between openings.

The minumum thickness will be the greater thickness of t = (PR)/(SE - 0.6P) for circumferential stress or t = (PR)/(2SE + 0.4P) for longitudinal stress. Enter Values: P= R= S= E= 500 psi 54 inches 13800 psi 0.85

NOTE: The value of S is selected from the allowable stress tables and for the appropriste design temperature in in Section 2D ot the ASME code. Do not use yield or tensile stregnth values as in API 653 calculations. 2.362 inches 1.141 inches

Based on circumferential stress, Based on longitudinal stress,

t= t=

USE

t=

2.362 inches

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API 510, Formed Head

Formed vessel heads in Sterling Chemicals will generally fall into one of two categories.

Ellipsoidal: Inside depth of the head minus the skirt is equal to one fourth of the inside diameter of the skirt. These are also commonly refered to as 2:1 elliptical heads. Torispherical: Inside crown radius is equal to the outside diameter of the skirt and the knuckle radius is 0.06 times the inside crown radius.
It will not be readily apparent in the field whether a head is ellipsoidal or torispherical so it's best to consult vendor drawings and data. The calculations below are for pressure on the concave side.

Thickness calculation for ellipsoidal head. Based on ASME Section VIII, Section UG-32(d) t=(PD)/(2SE - 0.2P) where t = minimum required thickness of head, inches D = inside diameter of head at skirt, inches P = internal design pressure, psi E = joint efficiency S = maximum allowable stress value, psi 530 psi 42 inches 15000 psi 1 0.745 inches

Enter values:

P= D= S= E= t=

Calculated thickness,

Scroll down for torispherical head calculation. Thickness calculation for torispherical head. Based on ASME Section VIII, Section UG-32(e) t = (.885PL)/(SE-0.1P) where t = minimum required thickness of head, inches L = inside spherical or crown radius, inches P = internal design pressure, psi E = joint efficiency S = maximum allowable stress value, psi P= L= S= E= t= 360 psi 48 inches 17500 psi 1 0.876 inches

Enter values:

Calculated thickness,

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API 510, Bolted Flat Head

CALCULATION FOR THICKNESS OF BOLTED, FLAT UNSTAYED CIRCULAR HEADS, COVERS, AND BLIND FLANGES Enter values: Bolt circle diameter Nominal bolt size Number of bolts Gasket Factor, m= Seating stress, y= Gasket O.D., Go = Gasket I. D., Gi = Sealing Face O.D., Fo = Sealing Face I.D., Fi = Design pressure, P= Allowable bolt stress at ambient temperature, Sb = Allowable stress for head at design temp, S= Calculated values: Bolt area, single bolt Total bolt area Diameter at location of gasket load reaction Width used to determine basic seating width, bo Basic seating width, table 2-5.2, Appedix 2, ASME Sect. VIII Effective gasket seating width, table 25.2, App. 2 ASME Sect VIII Initial bolt load for seating gasket Bolt load required for operating conditions Head thickness based on operating conditions Head thickness based on gasket seating Operating conditions govern therefore use t1

48.625 0.75 52 3.75 9000 47.375 46.375 47.375 44.5 115

inches inches

NOTE: 1. This program calculates the minimum required thickness for bolted, flat unstayed circular heads, covers, and blind flanges of the type shown in Fig. UG-34, sketch (j) and sketch (k) of Part UG-34 in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. 2. Enter the decimal equivalent of fractions in all dimensions. 3. Gasket Factor, m, and Seating Stress, y, for a given gasket material are obtained from table 2-5.1 in Appendix 2 of the ASME Code or table UA-49.1 in the Lamons Gasket Handbook. 4. The basic gasket seating width, b O, in cell C24 must be selected from table 2-5.2 in Appendix 2 of the ASME Code or table UA-49.2 in the Lamons Gasket Handbook and manually entered at the cell location.

psi inches inches inches inches psi

20000 psi 17500 psi


2

A= Ab = G=

0.334 in 2 17.368 in 46.88 inches

5. All formulas and tables in the Lamons Handbook are taken from Appendix 2 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section Vlll, Division 1.

N=

0.50 inches

bo =

0.25

b=

0.25

Bolt area req'd for seating 331340 lbs. Bolt area req'd for operating = 230212 lbs. Bolt area selected

Am2 = W m2/Sb =

16.57 in2

W m2 = 3.14bGy =

Am1 = W m1/Sb =

11.51 in2

W m1 =

.785G2P + 6.28bGmP

16.567 in2

t1 =

2.191 inches

t2 = 0.8865659 inches

2.191 inches

Page 5

Material Properties

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS, KSI, FOR METAL TEMP. OF == MINIMUM TENSILE, psi 58,000 60,000 60,000 47,000 125,000 95,000 47,000 60,000 75,000 75,000 70,000 75,000 70,000 55,000 55,000 70,000 70,000 125,000 60,000 60,000 65,000 70,000 55,000 60,000 65,000 70,000 40,000 110,000 110,000 110,000 80,000 55,000 80,000 55,000 80,000 -20 to 100 14.5 15.0 15.0 11.8 25.0 18.8 10.0 15.0 18.8 18.8 16.7 18.8 16.7 13.8 13.8 16.3 16.7 25.0 15.0 15.0 16.3 17.5 13.8 15.0 16.3 17.5 10.0 27.5 23.4 27.5 20.0 13.0 20.0 13.0 20.0

Nominal Composition C-Mn-Si C-Mn C-Si C 1Cr- /5 Mo 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo C C-Si 18Cr-8Ni 18Cr-8Ni 18Cr-8Ni 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo C C 18Cr-8Ni 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 1Cr-1/5 Mo C-Mn-Si
1 1 1

SPEC NO. SA36 SA53 SA106 SA179 SA193 SA193 SA214 SA234 SA240 SA240 SA240 SA240 SA240 SA283 SA285 SA312 SA312 SA320 SA333 SA387 SA515 SA516 SA516 SA516 SA516 SB309 SB333 SB619 SB622 SB550 SB551 SB551 SB658 SB658

TYPE/ GRADE PRODUCT FORM S/B B B7 B8M2 WPB 304 304H 304L 316 316L C C TP304L TP316L L7 6 P11 70 55 60 65 70 5083 N10665 N10665 N10665 R60705 R60702 R60705 R60702 R60705 plate, sheet smls. pipe smls. pipe smls. tube bolting (<2.5") bolting (<2") wld. tube fittings plate plate plate plate plate plate plate smls. pipe smls. pipe bolting smls. pipe smls. pipe plate plate plate plate plate plate plate wld. pipe smls pipe bar plate plate wld. & smls. pipe wld. & smls. pipe

MINUMUM YIELD, psi 36,000 35,000 35,000 26,000 105,000 75,000 26,000 35,000 30,000 30,000 25,000 30,000 25,000 30,000 30,000 25,000 25,000 105,000 35,000 30,000 40,000 38,000 30,000 32,000 35,000 38,000 18,000 51,000 51,000 51,000 55,000 30,000 55,000 30,000 55,000

150

200

250

300

400 14.5 15.0 15.0 11.8 25.0 18.8 10.0 15.0 12.9 12.9 11.7 14.3 11.7 13.8 13.8 11.7 11.7 25.0 15.0 15.0 16.3 17.5 13.8 15.0 16.3 17.5

500

600

14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 18.8 18.8 18.8 18.8 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 18.8 15.7 15.7 14.1 18.8 15.7 15.7 14.1 16.7 14.3 14.3 12.8 18.8 17.7 17.7 15.6 16.7 14.1 14.1 12.7 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 16.3 14.3 14.3 12.8 16.7 14.1 14.1 12.7 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 10.0 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 23.4 23.4 23.4 23.4 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 20.0 16.6 16.6 14.2 13.0 11.0 11.0 13.0 11.0 11.0 9.3 9.3 20.0 16.6 16.6 14.2 20.0 16.6 16.6 14.2

14.5 14.5 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 11.8 11.8 25.0 25.0 18.8 18.8 10.0 10.0 15.0 15.0 12.1 11.4 12.1 11.4 10.9 10.3 13.3 12.6 10.9 10.4 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 10.9 10.3 10.9 10.4 25.0 25.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 16.3 16.3 17.5 17.5 13.8 13.8 15.0 15.0 16.3 16.3 17.5 17.5

1 /4 Cr- /2 Mo-Si SA335 1Cr- /2 Mo C-Si C-Si C-Mn-Si C-Mn-Si C-Mn-Si Al 65Ni-28Mo-2Fe 65Ni-28Mo-2Fe 65Ni-28Mo-2Fe 95.2Zr+Cb 95.2Zr+Cb 95.2Zr+Cb 95.2Zr+Cb 95.2Zr+Cb
1

Gr12 Cl2 plate

Aluminum Hastelloy B2 27.5 23.4 27.5 12.5 7.0 12.5 7.0 12.5 27.5 27.2 23.4 23.1 27.5 27.2 11.3 10.4 6.1 6.1 6.0 6.0 11.3 10.4 11.3 10.4

Zirconium

Page 6

Material Properties

KSI, FOR METAL TEMP. OF ===>

cont'd ==>

650 14.5

700

750

800

850

900

950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

15.0 14.4 15.0 14.4 11.8 11.5 25.0 25.0 18.8 18.8 10.0 9.8 15.0 14.4 11.2 11.1 11.2 11.1 10.1 10.0 12.3 12.1 10.2 10.0 13.8 13.8 13.3 10.1 10.0 10.2 10.0 25.0 25.0 15.0 14.4 15.0 15.0 16.3 16.3 17.5 16.6 13.8 13.3 15.0 14.4 16.3 15.5 17.5 16.6

13.0 13.0 10.6 23.6 18.8 9.1 13.0 10.8 10.8 9.8 11.9 9.8 12.1 9.8 9.8 13.0 14.8 16.3 14.8 12.1 13.0 13.9 14.8

10.8 10.8 9.2

7.8 8.7 7.9

5 6.5 6.5 12.5 5.5 6.6 8.5 3.8 4.6 4.5 2.1 2.5 9.8 9.8 9.5 9.5 11.2 8.9 8.9 11.0 7.7 7.7 9.8 6.1 6.1 7.4 4.7 4.7 5.5 3.7 3.7 4.1 2.9. 2.9. 3.1 2.3 2.3 2.3 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.3 18.8 18.8 18.8 4.5 2.5

21.0 17.0 18.8 18.8 7.8 10.8 6.7 8.7

10.6 10.4 10.6 10.4 9.7 11.7 11.6 9.6 10.0 9.7 9.6 10.8 14.4 12.0 10.0 10.8 11.4 12.0 9.4 7.8 14 9.3 8.4 8.7 9.0 9.3 9.4 8.4

10.2 10.0 10.2 10.0

11.5 11.4 11.3

6.5

5 13.6 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5

3.0 9.3 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

1.5 6.3 7.2 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 4.2 4.5 2.8 2.8 1.9 1.8 1.2 1.1

16.3 15.8

15.2 11.3

26.8 26.6 22.8 22.6 26.8 26.6 10.4 6.0 10.4 6.0 10.4 9.9 4.8 9.9 4.8 9.9

26.1 22.2 26.1

25.6 21.8 25.6

Page 7

Ext. Pres. on Shells

Thickness of cylindrical shells under external pressure. ASME Sect. VIII, paragraph UG-28.
This work sheet calculates the allowable external pressure for a cylindrical vessel having a known outside diameter, wall thickness, and length between lines of support. It is assumed that external stiffeners are adequately designed.
Gather the following information and reference materials prior to using the worksheet. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Material designation for the vessel Design temperature Outside diameter Vessel shell thickness Section ll, Part D of the ASME Code opened to Subpart 3 (page 621)

Step 1. Enter known values. Outside diameter, Do = Shell thickness, t = Section length between lines of support, L= Step 2. Calculate ratios.

168.625 inches 0.3125 inches 39 inches Do / t =


Note: For definition of a line of support, see ASME Section VIII, paragraph UG-28(b).

540

L / Do =

0.231

Step 3. Determine factor A a. Go to ASME Section II, Part D, Subpart 3, Figure G (page 622 & 623). b. Enter Figure G at the value of L / Do in Step 2 above. If L / Do is greater than 50, enter the chart at L / Do = 50. If L / Do is less than 0.05, enter the chart at L / D o = 0.05. c. Move horizontally to the line for the value of D o / t calculated above. From this point of intersection, move vertically downward to determine the value of factor A. d. Enter the value for factor A at cell B29 below. (scroll down) Value of factor A = 0.0005

Step 4. Determine factor B a. Using the value of A from step 3, enter the applicable material chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 for the material being considered. The material charts start on page 624. b. Move vertically upward to an intersection with the material/temperature line for the design temperature. If A falls to left of the material/temperature line, skip this step and scroll down to step 6. If A falls past the right end of a material/temperature line, use the horizontal projection of the end of the line as the point of intersection. c. From the point of intersection in step b, move horizontally to the right and read the value for B. Enter this value in cell B41 below. (scroll down) Value of factor B = 6100

Step 5. Maximum allowable external pressure using factor B. Pa = (4B) / 3(Do/t) = 15.07 psi

Step 6. Select modulus of elasticity, E. No factor B. If factor A falls to the left of the material/temperature line, P a is calculated using the modulus of elasticity, E, at the design temperature. Select the modulus of elasticity and enter its value in cell B52 below. E= 2.70E+07

Step 7. Maximum allowable external pressure using modulus of elasticity. Pa = (2AE) / 3(Do / t) = 16.68 psi

Page 8

Stiffening Ring

This worksheet calculates the required moment of inertia for a stiffening ring attached to a cylindrical shell under external pressure. The calculated moment of inertia can be compared to the moment of inertia of a corroded or damaged stiffening.The calculation is performed in accordance to ASME Sect. VIII, paragraph UG-29. Information and reference material needed to perform this calculation include: * ASME Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 * modulus of elasticity, E, for stiffening ring material at design temperature * outside diameter of shell * shell thickness * distance between lines of support (see ASME Sect. VIII, paragraph UG-28(b)) * cross sectional area of existing stiffening ring Step 1. Enter known values. Shell O.D. Do = 169 Shell thickness t= 0.375 External pressure P= 15 Modulus of elasticity for material E= 2.45E+07 Cross sectional area of stiffener, As = Ls=

inches inches psi psi

2 2.39 in 40 inches

L s is defined as one half the distance from the stiffener center line to the next line of support above plus one half the distance from the stiffener center line to the next line of support below. (ASME VIII, UG-29)

Step 2. Factor B calculated B= 4373

Step 3. Determine factor A a. Open ASME Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 to the applicable chart for the stiffener material under consideration. The charts begin on page 624. b. Enter the right hand side of the applicable chart at the value of B determined in step 2 above. c. Move left horizontally to the material/temperature line for the design metal temperature. For values of B falling below the left end of the chart, go to step 5. d. At the point of intersection, move down vertically for the value of A. Enter that value in cell B38 below. Factor A = 0.0004

Step 4. Determine the required moment of inertia. Is=


4 14.19 in

Step 5. Calculated value of factor A for factor B below chart. A= 0.00036

Step 6. Required moment of inertia using A from step 5.

Page 9

Stiffening Ring

Is=

4 12.67 in

Page 10

Stiffening Ring

ndrical shell inertia of a I, paragraph

he stiffener

e to the next

Page 11