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21st Century Physics Flexbook: A Compilation of Contemporary and Emerging Technologies

September 21, 2009

CK-12 Foundation is a non-profit organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials for the K-12 market both in the U.S. and worldwide. Using an open-content, web-based collaborative model termed the “FlexBook,” CK-12 intends to pioneer the generation and distribution of high quality educational content that will serve both as core text as well as provide an adaptive environment for learning.

Copyright ©2009 CK-12 Foundation

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.

or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105,
or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105,

Contents

1 VA Introduction

 

5

1.1 Background and Overview of Goals .

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5

1.2 Pilot FlexBook Outcomes Expanded

 

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6

1.3 Quality Control .

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7

1.4 The Future

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7

1.5 Organization of this FlexBook

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7

1.6 FlexBook Chapter Synopses

 

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8

1.7 About the Authors

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9

2 Toward Understanding Gravitation.

 

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2.1 Preface—A Note to the Teacher and Student Regarding Background Information and Pedagogy 11

2.2 Toward an Understanding of Gravitation (With a Few Interesting Side Trips)

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11

2.3 Virginia Physics Standards of Learning .

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31

3 Nuclear Energy

33

3.1 Introduction .

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33

3.2 The Foundations: Atoms and Nuclei

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33

3.3 Review Questions .

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37

3.4 Review Answers

 

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37

3.5 Nuclear Binding Energy

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39

3.6 Review Questions .

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41

3.7 Review Answers

 

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42

3.8 Fission of Heavy Nuclei

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43

3.9 Review Questions .

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47

3.10 Review Answers

 

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47

3.11 Controlling the Nuclear Reaction

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49

3.12 Review Questions .

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50

3.13 Review Answers

 

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50

3.14 Final Note

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51

3.15 References / Further Reading

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52

3.16 Virginia Physics Standards of Learning .

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52

4 The Standard Model of Particle Physics

 

55

4.1 Visual Overview for The Standard Model

 

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55

4.2 In the Beginning

 

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55

4.3 References / Further Reading

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78

4.4 Virginia Physics Standards of Learning

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80

3

5

The Standard Model and Beyond

81

5.1 Unit Overview

 

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81

5.2 Terminology and Some Background Physics

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81

5.3 What is a “Collider?”

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82

5.4 Large Hadron Collider, LHC

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83

5.5 LHC Facility

 

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85

5.6 What is Mass?

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85

5.7 Super Symmetry

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88

5.8 Dark Matter and Dark Energy

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92

5.9 Review Questions

 

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96

5.10 References / Further Reading

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97

5.11 Virginia Physics Standards of Learning

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98

6 A Brief Synopsis of Modern Physics

 

101

6.1 Outline

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101

6.2 Section 1: What is Modern Physics?

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102

6.3 Section 2: What Parts of Modern Physics are Still Being Researched?

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112

6.4 Section 3: What are the Implications of Some of Modern Physics (Including String Theory, Nanoscience, Dark Matter, Black Holes, Parallel Universes, and The Graviton)?

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6.5 References / Further Reading

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116

6.6 Virginia Physics Standards of Learning

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116

7 Nanoscience

117

7.1 Introduction .

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117

7.2 References / Further Reading

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151

7.3 Virginia Physics Standards of Learning

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151

8 Biophysics (Medical Imaging)

 

155

8.1 Ultrasound

 

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155

8.2 Virginia Physics Standards of Learning

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166

9 Kinematics: Motion, Work, and Energy

 

167

9.1 Linear Motion and How to Describe It

 

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167

9.2 Review Questions .

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