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Types of Power Generation:

Hydral generation Thermal generation

Steam power plants

Nuclear generation

Basic generation in all over the word is 11kv to 30kv.it is step up to 5001000KV for power transmission. Bundle of conductors are used to increase the capacity of current.

Input Transmission Lines: The transmission line, to 132KV grid station


N\S comes from 220KV grid station N\S.

GRID STATION:
Grid Station mainly consists of two parts. Control Room Switch yard

Control Room:
In control room everything is controlled digitally.The control room is consisting of programmable logic controllers. The control room is directly connected to the national power control center, and everything can be controlled directly from the national power control center. Every fault can be traced from the control center.

Relay:
Relay is an electro-mechanical switch which operates digitally; it isolates the faulty system from the healthy system. Relays operate the isolator to on or off the line. It also detects the fault in the line and also the exact location of fault. It also orders the circuit breakers to off the line .All this process start in micro seconds when fault occur. Relay is based in self induction. Relay is used to sense the fault and to sense the fault, to remove the healthy system from faulty system.

Relay Panel:
Every transformer bay & line bay has its relay panel. There are different relays that protects the system by automatically closed if fault occur. i.e,

Over Current Relay. Under Current Relay. Over Voltage Relay. Under Voltage Relay. Reverse Power Relay. Bucolz relay Differential Relay to balance Current.

DC Battery:-

Any time we have not AC source. Therefore DC Batteries are used for protection System of grid stations because these are reliable, but AC Batteries are not reliable. They have 55Cells & each cell has 2 Volt. Therefore total Voltage is 110V.

AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER:
It has 200kVA capacity in this grid station.It is used for operating the control room appliances.It is used for supplying the electricity to control room.

SWITCH YARD:
The switchyard mainly consists of transformer bays,busbar & line bays.

LINE BAYS:
It mainly consists of line isolator, C.TS,P.T.S,circuit breaker, bus isolator.In this gridstation there are two line bays. LINE ISOLATOR: It is OFF load device.When we want to open the line bay then it is opened after opening the circuit breaker,bus isolator & for closing the process is vice versa.It is manually operated.All line isolators in this grid station are CHINA made .They have 1600A capacity.

CIRCUIT BREAKER:
It is ON load device. When we want to close the circuit breaker then it is closed after closing the bus isolator & line isolator & for opening the process is vice versa.It is manually & automatically operated.All circuit breakers in this grid station are SIEMENS company.They have 2000A capacity.

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS:
They are used for protection & metering.Any fault in line bay is protected through C.T.S. All C.T.S in this grid station are EMEK company.It is in series with the circuit.

BUS ISOLATOR:
It is used for working on line bay.They are connected with busb bar.All bus isolators in this grid station are china made.They have 1600A capacity.

POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS:
They are used for protection & metering.Any fault in line bay is protected through P.T.S. All P.T.S in this grid station are CHINA made.It is in parallel with the circuit.

Bus Bar:
The bus bar and combine all the same voltage level. normal the voltage is used for synchronize connections on the When the system is and current is balance.

Types of Bus Bar:


Flexible bus bar Rigid bus bar

Flexible bus bar is used for connecting voltage levels and rigid bus bar is used for synchronization. In synchronization voltage frequency and the angle is synchronized. In this grid station,there is only one bus bar.

TRANSFORMER BAY:
It mainly consists of lightning arrester, C.TS,P.T.S,circuit breaker, bus isolator.In this gridstation there are two line bays.

BUS ISOLATOR:

It is used for working on current bay.They are connected with busb bar.All bus isolators in this grid station are china made.They have 1600A capacity.

CUR RENT

TRANSFORMERS:
They are used for protection & metering.Any fault in tranformer bay is protected through C.T.S. All C.T.S in this grid station are EMEK company.It is in series in the circuit.

CIRCUIT BREAKER:
It is ON load device. When we want to close the circuit breaker then it is closed after closing the bus isolator & for opening the process is vice versa.It is manually & automatically operated.All circuit breakers in this grid station are SIEMENS company.They have 2000A capacity.

Lightning Arrestor:

They are used to avoid lighting and switching surge. When the lighting occurs the line is grounded for a few micro seconds to avoid the damage on the system.

Transformer:
Transformers in this grid station are step down transformers.

Each T/F has a power of 20/26 MVA. There are two T/Fs in this grid station. So total power of two T/Fs are 2*(20/26 ) = MVA.

Construction:
It consists of conservative tank,breather,radiator,bushes,fans

etc.
Breather has silica gel which absorbs the moisture of

transformer.So it protects the transformer.


Fans are used for cooling the transformer.When fans are

used for cooling then transformer has 26MVA capacity.Without fans transformer has 20MVA capacity.

Windings on Transformer:
Primary winding Secondary windi
This high tention line helps us to minimize the Line losses. The power

losses are directly proportional to the square of the current. When the voltage is step up to higher values, the current reduces the power losses reduces .the cost of the system reduces. The system is high tension because the power generation plants are in the mountains areas which are on very long distance from the consumers and industries. . Output From 132KV G\S: Input 132KV stepsdown to 11KV in20/26MVA transformer.There are 15 feeders that comes out from 11KV bus bar.

VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER: It is used in 11KV feeder.

Conclusions:
The main purpose of the Grid is to step down the 132KV H\T lines to 11 KV lines, that supplies electricity to consumers through 220V in case of single phase supply or 440V in case of three phase supply.