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Mine ASSET MANAGEMENT and SERVICES Mine Services Tutorial assignment Assessment Value 20% A) Electricity and Dewatering

A section of an underground mine has the following electric powered equipment (a) Water is to be pumped from a sump to another tank at an upper level (vertical height of 90m). The pipe diameter is 30cm and the total length of the pope between the pipe entrance and exit is 150m. A centrifugal pump is located just above the sump in the pipeline and it has the characteristics shown in Fig. 11.3 of course notes. The friction factor for the pipe can be assume constant and equal to 0.03 (b) Three secondary ventilation fans each rated at 60kW (c) An electric drill rig that consumes 175kW of peak power (d) Power requirements for lighting is 100kw The supply voltage is 1000 volts 3-phase AC and the power factor is 0.8. (i) Develop a relationship between the pressure head supplied by the pump and the flow rate. Ignore the pressure difference at the two levels. Losses other that due to pipe friction can be neglected (Hint: apply Bernoulli equation).
2 2 p1 V1 p2 V2 + + z1 + hp = + + z2 + hL g 2g g 2g

According to Bernoulli equation: Following information is given: p1 = p2= 0 v1= v2 = 0 f = 0.03 D = 0.3m l = 150m Ignoring minor losses Therefore,

hp = 9 +

V2

Because V = Q A
hp = 9 + 764

2 98 hp = 9 + 764 V 2
2

( )2 =9 +
A

(ii) Determine the head and the flow rate at the operating point of the pump, and the pump efficiency. You will need to use the pump characteristics and the system curve.

Centrifugal pump performances table Discharge, (m^3/s) 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 Q Head (m) 105 102 100 99 90 80 Pump Power (kW) 90 90.4 91.5 93.5 96.1 99.6

Centrifugal Pump Performance curve

120 Head(m), pump power(kW) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.1 Discharge 0.2 (m3/s) 0.3 Head (m) Pump Power (kW)

Head at the operating point of pump: 95.5m 3 Flow late at the operating point of pump: 0.187 m /s Efficiency: 86% (iii) Water power=ghp

=1000* 9.81*95.5*0.187=175.19KW

Water power Efficiency

=175.19/0.86=203.7KW

The total power in a star or delta connection; PT = VL IL cos Where; cos= 0.8 Vp = 1000V PT = [198.82 +(60 x 3)+100+175] kW = 653.82 kW Line voltage is; VL = VP )=1732.1V VL = ( Total line current IL = The apparent power: S = Vp Ip S= ( )(274 2) S = 274 2 kVA
653 82(1000) 3(1732 1)(0 8)

=272.4A

Hydraulics and Pneumatics 1. = =

The pressure and flow rate is given,

= 4 = 4 6 = / = 8 And,

3 /

= Therefore,

= = 7 4 9 2. Comparison between hydraulic and pneumatic = Hydraulic Use in heavy application, e.g. excavator Start for (full circle) Lubrication (uses oils) Use pressurised and incompressible fluid to rotate mechanic parts Use pressurised and incompressible fluid to produce linear force Use pressures of 1000 to 5000 PSI Pneumatic Use in light application Open circle start with compressed No lubrication Use pressurised and compressible air to rotate mechanical parts Use pressurised and compressible gas to produce linear force Use pressures of 80 to 100 PSI

3. Factors determine the choice between hydraulics and pneumatics as a suitable power source: Work load: hydraulic equipment is more suitable for heavy application compared to pneumatic ones. Reliability: Pneumatic is more reliable Operating pressure: Hydraulic can be operated at higher pressure Power output: Hydraulic generate more power and higher pressure 4. Compare gear, vane and piston hydraulic pumps in terms of pressure able to be developed, corresponding flow rates and overall efficiencies. (Present this in a brief table).

Comparison between Pulford Piston Compressor 79/10L and Pulford Screw Compressor KS44 Piston Screw compressors Weight (Kg) 440 440 Pressures developed 1,034 1,000 (KPa) Volume of air delivered 1.098 4.1 3 (m /min) 5. An example of the application of compressed air in mining would be air leg. Air leg is the tool used in underground for drilling purposes in an area that has small space. Air leg uses pneumatic as its power source and from the name, it uses air and the pressure developed from air leg is no more than 100 PSI.