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N A VI - E NGLISH D ICTIONARY v. 10.

015
Compiled by Taronyu (Richard Littauer) www.LearnNavi.org Last updated: June 6th , 2010
This is the denitive dictionary for Navi, the language created by Dr. Paul Frommer for the lm Avatar. The words within come directly from, or are derived from, Frommer. Thanks are certainly to be given to the following people for their monumental efforts: Dr. Frommer, Karyu Amawey, all the people in the change log, and everyone on IRC, Skype, and the Learn Navi site. Where appropriate, extra notes have been included for the entries below. Compound noninected words and loan words from English have been noted.The traditional Navi transcription in use by Frommer has been maintained throughout: the IPA transcription is given as well. Some lenited words have been included if in the ofcial corpus. Some inected words are included here, if their inclusion is deemed particularly useful. I have on several occasions derived non-attested words: these are marked by a *, and are marked as root forms. Note that adpositions are free if before their modier, but are bound as a sufx if situated after it. Bold indicates Navi word. Italics indicate English denition." indicates where Frommer has given us stress information for polysyllabic words: the following syllable is stressed. Plain text indicates grammatical categorisation: parentheses indicate further notes. <x> represents an inx, where t<pre-rst><1>ar<2>on are the positions: I have included periods in the IPA to mark where inxes are to be placed, as in t.ar.on - this is not standard IPA, but I deem it useful. Proper nouns have been capitalised. Knowledge of lenition processes, including vowel reduction and ellision, will be assumed. Note also that allomorphs, where specied, are subject only to personal preference, and not syntactic or morphological rules. There are several useful appendices that hold further information.

Abbreviations: = morpheme boundary + = leniting morpheme boundary <> = inx morpheme adj. = adjective adp. = adposition adv. = adverb conj. = conjunction c.w. = compound word dem. = demonstrative intj. = interjection inter. = interrogative lit. = literally n. = noun num. = number part. = particle pn. = pronoun prop. n. = proper noun v. = verb = illegal phonotactics

An English - Navi dictionary, and a Dictionary Categorised by Parts of Speech are provided, and may be helpful when searching fails. Translations are also available in Dutch, German, Russian, Portugus, Hungarian, Estonian, and Polish. 1

Sources
I have sourced every word as best as I could. This sourcing is placed in a subscript after the IPA transcription, and tells where I, or the source from which I received a word, initially got their word from Frommer. In early March, Frommer sent us a list of words which he had: these are the denitive source now, and not the ASG. Some words are not present in this list, and so, in order of validity, from most to least: PF = Frommers Canon (Including approved entries by: JC, Prr and RL) F = Frommer himself M = The Movie S = The Survival Guide main text (ora, songs, and vocab list) G = the Avatar Games C = Cameron himself (not legalised by Frommer) T = Taronyu D = Words not derived by Taronyu ASG = The Survival Guide main text (ora, songs, and vocab list)

The Activists Survival Guide contains a list of words, with some errors. Words not in this list but still within the Guide are all illegal phonetically, and are to be regarded as noncanonical. I have attached the character to each such word, and put them in their own section in the appendix. However, the plant names and songs are distinctly Frommerian, and are thus included in the dictionary proper. James Cameron himself made up many words, which Frommer then legalised. Frommer did not legalise some pronounciation errors made during lming: these, like osss, are now canon regardless. Finally, Frommer has deigned some constructions made by learners as good words, and so, occasionally there are extra sources, as P RR and RL. These are to be treated as Frommerian, if included here, although not if they are attached to words whose part of speech is root, as those have been derived. I have edited this dictionary too many times not to assume that it will have errors. Please, if you note any, let me know here, and I will change them. As for version number, Ill change the rst digit when there is a big change. Ill update .0x0 when I make a signicant, but not large change. Finally, Ill edit the .00x number when Ive made tiny edits. Refer to the Change Log for explanation. Many, many thanks are to be given to Tuiq, who took the time and had the skill to put this dictionary into an online database, to help other translators and make the process of changing this dictionary much easier.

P ampi: ["P.amp.i] P F v. touch ango: ["PaNo] P F adj. soft (of a sound) aw: [Paw] P F num. one awkx: [Pawk] P F n. cliff awlie: [Paw"liE] P F adv. once (in the past) awlo: ["Pawlo] P F adv. once awm: [Pawm] P F n. camp awpo: ["Pawpo] P F pn. one individual awsiteng: [Pawsi"tEN] P F adv. together (c.w. from aw one and teng same, equal) awstengyem: [PawstEN"j.Em] P F v. join (two things together) (c.w. from awsiteng together and yem put) awve: ["PawvE] P F adj. rst nsyem: [Pn"sjEm] P F adj. complete rp: ["P.R.Ip^] P F v. move (something) eal: ["PEPal] P F adj. worst efu: ["P.Ef.u] P F v. feel, sense, perceive efu ohakx: ["PEfu o"hak] P F phrase be hungry (c.w. from efu feel and ohakx hungry) eko: ["P.Ek.o] P F v. attack ekong: ["PEkoN] P F n. beat (rhythmic) em: [P.Em] P F v. cook engeng: ["PENEN] P F adj. level A a: [a] F adjectival attributive marker a: [a] P F pn. which, that alaksi: [a"laksi] P F adj. ready alm: [a"lIm] P F adv. far away, at a distance apxa: [a"pa] P F adj. large asim: [a"sim] P F adv. nearby, at close range (c.w. from sim near, be near) atan: [a"tan] JC n. light atokirina: [atoki"RinaP^] JC n. seeds of the great tree (c.w. from rina seed) atxkxe: [at"kE] P F n. land ie: ["iE] P F n. vision (spiritual) o: ["o] P F adp. below E txle: ["tlE] P F n. request txle si: ["tlE s.i] M v. request au: ["au] JC n. drum (made of skin) aungia: [a"uNia] P F n. sign, omen awnga: [aw"Na] F pn. we derived from ayoeng we ayfo: [aj"fo] or ["ajfo] or [fo]] P F pn. they aylaru: [aj"laRu] P F pn. to the others (contraction of ay+laheru) aynga: [aj"Na] P F pn. you all, you (pl.) ayoe: [aj"oE] P F pn. we (exclusive) ayoeng: [aj"wEN] P F pn. we (inclusive)(ayoenga base for sufxes) eoio: ["PEoio] P F adj. ceremonious eveng: ["PEvEN] P F n. child evi: ["PEvi] P F n. kid (affectionate form of eveng child) ewan: ["PEwan] P F adj. young ewll: ["PEwl] P F n. plant " eylan: ["PEjlan] P F n. friend eyng: [P.EjN] P F v. answer, respond ia: ["P.iP.a] P F v. end, conclude ia: ["P.i.a] P F v. lose oneself (spiritual sense) it: ["Pit^] P F n. bit, a small amount itan: ["Pitan] JC,P F n. son ite: ["PitE] JC,P F n. daughter awn: [P.I"P.awn] P F v. remain, stay heyu: [PI"hEju] P F n. spiral ok: [Pok^] P F n. remembrance ong: [P.oN] P F v. unfold, blossom opin: ["Popin] P F n. color, colour ora: ["PoRa] P F n. lake u: [Pu] P F n. thing (object, fact, abstraction) uo: ["Puo] P F pn. something upe: ["PupE] P F inter. what (thing) (c.w. from u thing and pe inter. marker) upxare: [Pu"paRE] P F n. message

ean: ["Ean] P F adj. blue, green ekxan: [e"kan] P F n. barricade, obstruction eltu: ["Eltu] P F n. brain eltu lefngap: ["Eltu le"fNap^] P rr n. computer eltu si: ["Eltu s.i] P F v. pay attention, quit goong off emzau: [Em"z.aP.u] P F v. pass (a test), overcome (c.w. from em over and zau come) F fa: [fa] P F adp. with, by means of fahew: [fa"hEw] P F n. smell fay+: [faj] D prex these (c.w. from f this and ay+ plural) fayvrrtep: [fajvrtEp^] F n. these demons (c.w. from fay this "plural and vrrtep demon)T fpa: ["fpa] P F n. top fewi: ["f.Ew.i] P F v. chase f: [fI] F prex this derived from fpo this one and fu this thing fu: [fI"Pu] P F pn. this (thing) ffya: [fI"fja] P F adv. this way, like this fkem: [fI"kEm] P F pn. this (action) fpo: ["fIpo] P F pn. this one (person or thing) ftrr: [fI"tr] P F adv. today " ftseng(e): [fI" EN(E)] P F adv. here, this place ftxan: [fI"tan] P F adv. so, to such an extent (c.w. from f this and txan great, much) ftxon: [fI"ton] P F adv. tonight (c.w. from txon night) fkarut: ["fk.aR.ut^] P F v. peel fkay: [fkaj] P F adj. hateful fkew: [fkEw] P F adj. mighty fkip: [fkip^] P F adp. up among fko: [fko] P F pn. one, it (unspecied agent) fkxake: ["fk.ak.E] P F v. itch fkxen: [fkEn] P F n. vegetable (food) : [fl.] P F v. succeed ew: [flEw] P F n. throat fmal: [fm.al] P F v. sustain fmawn: [fmawn] P F n. news, something to report fmetok: ["fm.Et.ok^] P F v. test fmi: [fm.i] P F v. try, attempt fne-: [fnE-] P F prex kind, type (c.w. from fnel kind, type) fnel: [fnEl] P F n. kind, type fnepe: ["fnEpE] P F inter. which kind allomorph of pefnel 4

eo: ["Eo] P F adp. before, in front of (place) etrp: ["EtRIp^] P F adj. favourable, favorable, auspicious eyawr: [Ej"awR] P F adj. correct, right eyk: [.Ejk^] JC,P F v. lead eyktan: ["Ejktan] JC n. leader Eywa ngahu: ["Ejwa "Nahu] JC,P F intj. goodbye, Eywa (be) with you

fngap: [fNap^] P F n. metal fnu: [fn.u] P F v. quiet, be quiet fo: [fo] P F pn. they derived from ay+ deleted plural leniting morpheme and po he/she fpak: [fp.ak^] P F v. hold off, suspend action fpe: [fp.EP^] P F v. send fpeio: [fpE"io] P F n. challenge (ceremonial) fpi+: [fpI] P F adp. for the sake of, for the benet of fpl: [fp.Il] P F v. think fplfya: ["fpIlfja] P F n. thought pattern, way of thinking (c.w. from fpl think and fyao path) fpom: [fpom] P F n. well-being, peace, happiness fpomtokx: [fpom"tok] P F n. health (physical) (c.w. from fpom well-being and tokx body) fpxkm: ["fp.k.Im] P F v. enter frau: ["fRaPu] P F pn. everything frakrr: ["fRakr] P F adv. always, all the time (c.w. " from krr time) frapo: ["fRapo] P F pn. everyone (c.w. from po he/she) frato: ["fRato] P F superlative marker than all fratrr: [fRa"tr] P F adv. daily, every day (c.w. from trr day) " fratseng: ["fRa EN] P F adv. everywhere (c.w. from tseng place) frp: [fr.Ip^] P F v. bite frrfen: ["f.rf.en] P F v. visit " frrtu: ["frtu] P F n. guest, visitor " ftang: [ft.aN] P F v. stop ftawnemkrr: [ftaw"nemkr] P F n. past (c.w. " from ft<awn>em pass by (passive participle form) and krr time) ftr: [ftR] P F adj. left (not right) fte: [ftE] P F conj. so that fteke: ["ftEkE] P F conj. so that not, lest (c.w. from fte so that and ke not) ftem: [ft.Em] P F v. pass by (something)

ftia: [ft.i."a] P F v. study ftu: [ftu] P F adp. from (direction) ftue: ["ftuE] P F adj. easy, simple ftxavang: ["ftavaN] P F adj. passionate ftxey: [ft.Ej] P F v. choose ftxey...fuke: [ftEj fu"kE] P F conj. whether....or not ftx: [ftI] P F n. tongue ftxoz: [fto"z] P F n. celebration, happy occasion fu: [fu] P F conj. or furia: ["fuRia] P F conj. that (subordinate clause marker) (c.w. from furi this (topical) and a relative clause marker) H ha: [ha] P F adv. so, in that case hahaw: ["h.ah.aw] P F v. sleep hangham: ["h.aNh.am] P F v. laugh hapx: [ha"pI] P F n. part hapxtu: [ha"pItu] P F n. member (c.w. from hapx part) hasey: [ha"sEj] P F adj. done, nished hawl: [h.awl] P F v. prepare hawng: [hawN] P F n. overabundance hawnu: ["h.awn.u] P F v. protect, shelter hewne: ["hEwnE] P F adj. soft (of an object) heyn: [h.Ejn] P F v. sit hiyk: ["hijIk^] P F adj. funny, strange hang: ["hIPaN] P F n. insect (c.w. from hi small and ioang animal) I ien: ["iPEn] JC n. stringed instrument io: ["Io] P F adp. above l+: ["Il] or [I"l] P F adp. by, via, following K

futa: ["futa] P F conj. that (subordinate clause marker) (c.w. from fu-t this (accusative) and a that) fwa: [fwa] P F conj. that (subordinate clause marker) (c.w. from fu this (nominative) and a relative clause marker) fwk: ["fwkI] P F n. mantis fwel: [fwEl] P F adj. broken fwew: [fw.Ew] P F v. look for, seek, search fyao: ["fjaPo] P F n. path, way, manner fyape: ["fjapE] P F inter. how allomorph of pefya fyawntxu: [fjaw.In"t.u] P F v. guide (c.w. from *fya path and wntxu show)

hi: ["hIPi] P F adj. small, little (in size) hm: [hIm] P F adj. small (in quantity) hmtxampe: [hIm"tampE] P F inter. how much allomorph of pmtxan hmtxan: [hIm"tan] P F n. amount hol: [hol] P F adj. few holpxay: [hol"paj] P F n. number (c.w. from hol few and pxay many) holpxaype: [hol"pajpE] P F inter. how many (c.w. from holpxay number and pe how) hrrap: ["hrap^] P F n. danger hu: [hu] "P F adp. with (accompaniment) hufwa: [hu"fwa] P F conj. although hufwe: [hu"fwE] P F n. wind hum: [h.um] P F v. leave, depart

ioang: [i"oaN] P F n. animal, beast irayo: [i"Rajo] JC n., intj. thank you, thanks

ley: [I"lej] P F intj. war cry

kame: ["k.am.E] P F v. see, see into, understand, know (spiritual sense) kakrel: [kak"REl] P F adj. blind (c.w. from rel kan: [k.an] P F v. aim image, picture) kangay: [ka"Naj] P F adj. valid kalin: [ka"lin] P F adj. sweet kanu: ["kanu] P F adj. smart, intelligent (for a perkaltx: [kal"tI] P F intj. hello son) 5

ka: [ka] P F adp. across

kar: [k.aR] P F v. teach karyu: ["kaRju] P F n. teacher kato: ["kato] P F n. rhythm kavuk: [ka"vuk^] P F n. treachery kavuk si: [ka"vuk^ s.i] P F v. betray (c.w. from kavuk treachery and si make) kawit: [kaw"Pit^] P F adv. at all, not at all (see ke...kawit not...at all) kawkrr: ["kawkr] P F adv. never (c.w. from krr " time) kawng: [kawN] T adj. bad, evil kawtu: ["kawtu] P F pn. no-one k: [k.] P F v. go krp: [k"P.R.Ip^] P F v. push (c.w. from k go and rp move) kmakto: [k"m.akt.o] P F v. ride out (c.w. from k go and makto ride) kpx: [k"pI] P F n. rear (part or section) (c.w. from k go and hapx part) ksatseng: [k"sa EN] P F adv. out there (c.w. from k go and tseng place) ke: [kE] P F adv. not ke: [kE] T prex no, not keaw: [kE"Paw] P F adj. divided, torn apart, strife-ridden (c.w. from ke not and aw one) keu: ["kEPu] P F pn., adv. nothing, nothing at all, not at all (c.w. from ke not and u thing) kea: ["kEa] P F adj. no (before a noun) keftxo: [kE"fto] P F adj., intj. unhappy, upset, How sad! kefyak: [kE"fjak^] P F part. isnt it?, right? (c.w. from kefya not the way and srak question marker) kehe: ["kEhE] P F adv. no ke...kawit: [kE kaw"Pit^] P F phrase not...at all (c.w. from ke not and kawit at all) kelfpomtokx: [kEl"fpomtok] P F adj. unhealthy (c.w. from ke not and fpomtokx health) kelku: ["kElku] P F n. home, house kelku si: ["kElku s.i] P F v. live, dwell keltsun: [kEl" un] P F adj. impossible (c.w. from ke not and tsun possible) kem: [kEm] P F n. thing (action), deed kemlu: ["kEmlIPu] P F n. verb (c.w. from kem action and lu word) kempe: ["kEmpE] P F inter. what (action)

keng: [kEN] P F adv. even kenong: ["k.En.oN] P F v. model, represent, exemplify (c.w. from ke not and nong follow after) kerusey: ["kERusEj] P F adj. dead (c.w. from ke not and r<us>ey live (adj. inx)) keteng: ["kEtEN] P F adj. different (c.w. from ke not and teng same, equal) ketuwong: ["kEtuwoN] P F n. alien kewong: ["kEwoN] P F adj. alien key: [kEj] P F n. face keyeung: [kE"jEPuN] P F n. insanity kifkey: [kif"fkEj] P F n. world (physical, solid) kilvan: [kil"van] P F n. river kin: [k.in] P F v. need kinam: [ki"nam] P F n. leg kinamtil: [ki"namtil] P F n. knee kin: ["kin] P F num. seven kip: [kip^] P F adp. among kong: [kI"PoN] P F adj. slow km: [k.Im] P F v. spin kng: [kIN] P F n. thread ktee: [kItE"PE] P F n. service kyevame: [kIjE"vam.E] P F intj. good-bye, see you again soon (c.w. from kame see and <yev> future subjunctive inx) kllfro: [kl"fR.oP^] P F v. be responsible " kllk: [kl"k.] P F v. descend kllkulat:" [kl"k.ul.at^] P F v. dig up " kllkxem: [kl"k.Em] P F v. stand " kllpa: ["klpa] P F n. bottom " [kl"pIltu] kllpxltu: P F n. territory " n. ground kllte: ["kltE] P F " klltseng: ["kl EN] P F n. position (c.w. from kll " ground and tseng place) ko: [ko] P F part. solicit agreement koak: ["koak^] P F adj. old, aged (for living things) kop: [kop^] P F adv. too, also koren: [ko"REn] P F n. rule, guideline krr: [kr] P F n. time " krrnekx: [kr"n.Ek] P F v. take/consume time (c.w. from krr" time and nekx consume) krrpe: ["krpE] P F inter. when " kunsp: ["kunsIp^] P F n. gunship (loaned from Eng. gunship) kurakx: [k.u"R.ak] P F v. drive out

Kx kxa: [ka] P F n. mouth kxam: [kam] P F n. middle, midpoint kxaml: ["kaml] P F adp. through (via the middle of) kxamtseng: ["kam EN] P F n. center, place in the middle (c.w. from kxam center and tseng place) kxangangang: ["kaNaNaN] P F intj. boom (onomatopoeia) kxan: ["kanI] P F adj. forbidden kxawm: [kawm] P F adv. perhaps, maybe kxayl: [kajl] P F adj. high L lahe: ["lahE] P F adj. other lam: [l.am] P F v. seem, appear lapo: ["lapo] P F pn. other one (person or thing) (c.w. from po he/she) laro: ["laRo] P F adj. clean latem: ["l.at.Em] P F v. change latsi: [l.a" .i] P F v. keep up with someone law: [law] P F adj. clear, certain layon: [la"jon] P F adj. black le: [lE] F adjective deriving afx lefngap: [lE"fNap^] P F adj. metallic lefpom: [lE"fpom] P F adj. happy, peaceful, joyous (not for people) lefpomtokx: [lEfpom"tok] P F adj. healthy (c.w. from fpomtokx health) lehawng: [lE"hawN] P F adj. excessive (c.w. from hawng overabundance) lek: [l.Ek^] P F v. heed, obey lekin: [lE"kin] P F adj. necessary (c.w. from kin need) lekyeung: [lEk"jEPuN] P F adj. insane, crazy lemweypey: [lEm"wEjpEj] P F adj. patient (c.w. from maweypey be patient) len: [l.En] P F v. happen, occur lenavi: [lE"naPvi] F adj. having to do with the Navi, the people lerk: [lE"RIk] P F adj. leafy lertu: ["lERtu] P F n. colleague lesar: [le"saR] F adj. useful letam: [lE"tam] P F adj. sufcient (c.w. from tam sufce) letrr: [lE"tr] RL,P F adj. daily " letrrtrr: [lE"trtr] P F adj. ordinary " " letsranten: [lE" RantEn] P F adj. important (c.w. from tsranten matter) letsunslu: [lE" unslu] P F adj. possible (c.w. from tsun be able and slu become) lew: [lEw] P F n. cover, lid lew si: [lEw s.i] P F v. cover (c.w. from lew cover) lfya: ["lIPfja] P F n. language (c.w. from lu word and *fya way) lu: ["lIPu] P F n. word lupe: [lI"PupE] P F inter. what (word, utterance) allomorph of pelu lm: [l.Im] P F v. far, be far lok: [l.ok^] P F v. approach lok: [lok^] P F adp. close to lonu: [l.o"n.u] P F v. release, let go lor: [loR] P F adj. beautiful, pleasant to the senses (non-human) lrrtok: ["lrtok^] P F n. smile lrrtok si: "["lrtok s.i] M v. smile lu: [l.u] P F "v. be, am, is, are (predicative copula, existential verb) luke: ["lukE] P F adp. without lumpe: ["lumpE] P F inter. why allomorph of pelun lun: [lun] P F n. reason kxener: ["kEnER] P F n. smoke kxetse: ["kE E] P F n. tail kxeyey: ["kEjEj] P F n. error, mistake kxitx: [kit] P F n. death kxll: [kl] P F n. charge, running attack " kxll si: [kl s.i] P F v. charge (c.w. from kxll char" ge and si make) kxu: [ku] P F n. harm kxuke: ["kukE] P F adj. safe (c.w. from kxu harm and ke not) kxutu: ["kutu] P F n. enemy (c.w. from kxu harm)

M ma: [ma] P F part. O (vocative marker) makto: ["m.akt.o] P F v. ride maw: [maw] P F adp. after (time) mawey: [ma"wEj] P F adj. calm maweypey: [ma"wEjp.Ej] P F v. be patient (c.w. from mawey calm and pey wait) meem: [mE"PEm] P F adj. harmonious mefo: ["mEfo] P F pn. they, those two (c.w. from me+ dual marker and po he/she) mekre: ["mEkRE] P F n. supplies melo: ["mElo] P F adv. twice menari: [mE"naRi] P F n. eyes (two) (c.w. from me+ dual and nari eye) meoauniaea: ["mEoaunia"Ea] P F n. harmony, living at one with nature meuia: [mE"uia] P F n. honor (honour) meyp: [mEjp^] P F adj. weak mi: [mi] P F adv. yet, still, as before mikyun: ["mikjun] JC n. ear mip: [mip^] P F adj. new N na: [na] P F adp. like, as narng: ["naPRIN] P F n. forest nang: [naN] P F part. surprise, exclamation, encouragement nari: ["naRi] P F n. eye nari si: ["naRi s.i] P F v. watch out, be careful nawm: [nawm] P F adj. great, noble nawmtu: ["nawmtu] P F n. great person (c.w. from nawm great) nk: [n.k^] P F v. drink ne: [nE] P F adp. to, towards (direction) nem: [nE"PIm] P F adv. back (direction) nef: [ne"f] P F adv. up (direction) nekll: [nE"kl] P F adv. down (direction) " ne kllte: [nE "kltE] P F intj. get down (c.w. from " ne to and kllte the ground) nekx: [n.Ek] P F v. burn, consume nemfa: ["nEmfa] P F adp. into, inside (c.w. from ne towards and m in) neto: [nE"to] P F adv. away (direction) derived from ne to and *to away new: [n.Ew] P F v. want ni: [n.i."] P F v. grab nikre: ["nikRE] P F n. hair 8 nitram: [nit"Ram] P F adj. happy (of people) n: [nI] F adverbial deriving afx naw: [nI"Paw] P F adv. only nawtu: [nIP"awtu] P F adv. alone (as one person) nawve: [nIP"awvE] P F adv. rst neoio: [nI"PEoio] P F adv. ceremoniously neyng: [nI"PejN] P F adv. back, in response, in answer (c.w. from eyng answer) nit: [nI"Pit^] P F adv. a bit, a small amount (abstract) (c.w. from it bit, a small amount) nul: [nIPul] P F adv. more nawnomum: [nIaw"nomum] P F adv. as you know, as is known (c.w. from <awn> passive particple inx and omum know) nayoeng: [naj"wEN] P F adv. like us, as we do nftue: [nI"ftuE] P F adv. easily nftxavang: [nI"ftavaN] P F adv. passionately, with all heart nfyao: [nI"fjaPo] P F adv. in a manner nhawng: [nI"hawN] P F adv. too, excessively (c.w. from hawng overabundance) nkanu: [nI"kanu] P F adv. intelligently, in a smart way (c.w. from kanu smart) m+: [mI] P F adp. in, on mfa: ["mIfa] or [mI"fa] P F n., adv. inside mkam: [mI"kam] P F adp. between mn: [m.In] P F v. turn mso: [mI"so] P F adv. away (position) derived from *to away mllte: [m.l"t.E] P F v. agree " moe: ["moE] P F pn. we two (exclusive) (c.w. from me+ dual and oe I) mokri: ["mokRi] P F n. voice mowan: [mo"wan] P F adj. pleasing, enjoyable mrr: [mr] P F num. ve " mui: [mu"i] P F adj. proper, fair, right, justied muni: [m.un"P.i] P F v. cut mune: ["munE] P F num. two munge: ["m.uN.E] P F v. take, bring mungwrr: [muN"wr] P F adp. except muntxa: [mun"ta] P" F adj. mated muntxa si: [mun"ta s.i] P F v. mate (with someone)

nkeftxo: [nIkE"ftxo] P F adv. unfortunately, sadly (c.w. from keftxo unhappy) nlaw: [nI"law] P F adv. clearly (c.w. from law clear) nlkeftang: [nIlkE"ftaN] P F adv. continuously, incessantly, without stopping (c.w. from luke without and ftang stop) nltsan: [nIl" an] P F adv. well nmun: [nI"mun] P F adv. again nmweypey: [nIm"wEjpEj] P F adv. patiently (c.w. from maweypey be patient) nn: [n.In] P F v. look at nnavi: [nI"naPvi] F adv. like the Navi, Navi-ly nngay: [nI"Naj] P F adv. truly npxi: [nI"pi] P F adv. especially, pointedly, unambiguously (c.w. from pxi sharp) npxim: [nI"pim] P F adv. erectly, rightly nrangal: [nI"RaNal] P F adv. wish (contrary to fact) nsti: [nI"sti] P F adv. angrily (c.w. from sti angry) nswey: [nI"swEJ] P F adv. optimally, best (c.w. from swey best) Ng

ntam: [nI"tam] P F adv. enough (after an adjective) nteng: [nI"tEN] P F adv. too, also, as well, likewise (c.w. from teng same, equal) ntut: [nI"tut^] P F adv. continually ntxan: [nI"tan] P F adv. much (abstract), very (c.w. from txan much) nwin: [nI"win] P F adv. fast nwotx: [nI"wot] P F adv. all (of), in toto, completely nzawnong: [nI"zawnoN] P F adv. safely (c.w. from <awn> passive particple inx and zong safe) nong: [n.oN] P F v. follow, proceed after nulkrr: [nul"kr] P F adv. longer (time) " nulnew: [nul"n.Ew] P F v. prefer nume: ["n.um.E] P F v. learn numeyu: ["numEju] P F n. student (c.w. from nume learn) numtseng: ["num EN] P F n. school (c.w. from nume learn and tseng place)

ngenga: [NE"Na] P F pn. you (honoric (honouric) form) ngawng: [NawN] P F n. worm ngian: [Ni"an] P F adv. however ngay: [Naj] P F adj. true ngim: [Nim] P F adj. long (physical length) ngaytxoa: [Naj"toa] P F intj. sorry, my apologi- ngop: [N.op^] P F v. create es (acknowledgment of guilt and regret) (c.w. ngrr: [ngr] P F n. root from ngey your and txoa forgiveness) nguway:"["Nuwaj] P F n. howl, viperwolf cry (c.w. ngng: [NN] P F n. stomach from way song) O oe: ["oE] P F pn. I, me ohe: ["ohE] P F pn. I (deferential or ceremonial form) oeng: ["wEN] P F pn. we two (dual inclusive), you osss: [oI"s:] P F intj. angry snarl, watch it! and I olo: [o"loP^] P F n. clan oeyk: [o"Ejk] P F n. cause oloeyktan: [olo"PEjktan] P F n. clan leader (c.w. oeyktng: [o"Ejkt.IN] P F v. explain (why) derifrom olo clan and eyktan leader) ved from oeyk cause and tng give omum: [."om.um] P F v. know ontu: ["ontu] P F n. nose ohakx: [o"hak] P F adj. hungry

nga: [Na] P F pn. you

pao: ["paPo] P F n. side pak: [pak^] P F part. for disparagement pam: [pam] P F n. sound pamrel: [pam"REl] P F n. writing pamrel si: [pam"REl s.i] P F v. write pamtseo: ["pam Eo] P F n. music (c.w. from pam sound and tseo art) pate: ["p.at.E] P F v. get to a place, arrive pawm: [p.awm] P F v. ask pay: [paj] P F n. water, liquid payfya: ["pajfja] P F n. stream (c.w. from pay water and fyao way) payoang: [paj"oaN] P F n. sh (c.w. from pay water and ioang animal) phem: ["p.h.Em] P F v. arrive pngkxo: [p.N"k.o] P F v. chat, converse, have a conversation pngkxoyu lekoren: [pN"koju lEko"rEn] P F n. lawyer pnu: [pnu] P F n. promise pnutng: ["pnut.IN] P F v. promise (a thing to someone) (c.w. from pnu promist and tng give) pts: ["p I] P F n. badge pe+: [pE] P F afx inter. marker peun: ["p.EP.un] P F v. decide pefnel: [pE"fnEl] P F inter. which kind allomorph of fnepe pefya: [pE"fja] P F inter. how allomorph of fyape pehem: [pE"hEm] P F inter. what (action) allomorph of kempe pehrr: [pE"hr] P F inter. when allomorph of krr" pe Px pxan: [pan] P F adj. worthy pxask: ["pasIk^] P F intj. screw that!, no way! (vulgar) pxasul: ["pasul] P F adj. fresh, appealing as food pxaw: [paw] P F adp. around pxawpa: ["pawpa] P F n. perimeter, circumference, border (c.w. from pxaw around and pao side) pxay: [paj] P F adj. many pxel: [pEl] P F adp. like, as pxey: [pEj] P F num. three pxi: [pi] P F adj. sharp

pelu: [pE"lIPu] P F inter. what (word, utterance) allomorph of lupe pelun: [pE"lun] P F inter. why allomorph of lumpe peng: [p.EN] P F v. tell peseng: [pE"sEN] P F inter. where allomorph of tsengpe pesu: [pE"su] P F inter. who allomorph of tupe peu: [pE"u] P F inter. what (thing) allomorph of upe pewn: [pEwn] P F n. neck pey: [p.Ej] P F v. wait, wait for piak: [pi"ak^] P F adj. open piak si: [pi"ak^ s.i] P F v. open pizayu: ["pizaju] P F n. ancestor pmtxan: [pIm"tan] P F inter. how much allomorph of hmtxampe plltxe: [p.l"t.E] P F v. speak " po: [po] P F pn. he, she poan: [po"an] P F pn. he poe: [po"E] P F pn. she polpxay: [pol"paj] P F inter. how many (c.w. from holpxay number and pe how) pom: [p.om] P F v. kiss pongu: ["poNu] P F n. group of people, party (c.w. from po he/she) prrnen: ["prnEn] P F n. infant, baby prrnesyul: "["prnEsjul] P F n. bud (c.w. from prr" nen baby and syulang ower) prrte: ["prtEP^] P F adj. pleasurable (of an activi" ty) prrwll: ["prwl] P rr n. moss " puk: [puk^] P"F n. book (loaned from Eng. book) pukap: ["pukap^] P F num. six

pxim: [pim] P F adj. erect, upright pximaw: [pi"maw] P F adp. right after (c.w. from maw after (time)) pxiset: [pi"sEt] P F adv. right now (c.w. from set now) pxisre+: [pi"sRE] P F adp. right before (c.w. from sre before (time)) pxiswawam: [piswaw"am] P F adv. just a moment ago (c.w. from swaw moment and am past) pxiswaway: [piswaw"aj] P F adv. in just a second from now (c.w. from swaw moment and

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pxor: [p.oR] P F v. explode ay future marker) pxiyern: [pi"jEPIn] P F adv. immediately (not as pxun: [pun] P F n. arm soon as pxiswaway) (c.w. from yern soon) pxuntil: ["puntil] P F n. elbow pxm: [pIm] P F adv. often R ral: [Ral] P F n. meaning ralpeng: [Ral"p.EN] P F v. interpret (c.w. from ral meaning and peng tell) ramunong: [ra"munoN] P F n. well rangal: ["R.aN.al] P F v. wish rawke: ["RawkE] P F intj. alarm cry, call to defense r: [R"P] P F part. do not (for negative imperatives) reo: ["rEPo] P F n. head rel: [REl] P F n. image, picture reltseo: ["REl Eo] P F n. visual art (c.w. from rel image and tseo art) reltseotu: ["REl Eotu] P F n. artist (c.w. from reltseo art) renu: ["REnu] P F n. pattern rey: [R.Ej] P F v. live S sanok: ["saPnok^] P F n. mother(from saatenuk C) sanu: ["saPnu] P F n. mum, mommy (affectionate form of sanok mother) saa: ["sa:] P F intj. threatening cry salew: [s.a"l.Ew] P F v. proceed, go san: [san] P F adv. saying, quote sar: [s.aR] P F v. use sau: [sa"u] P F intj. exclamation upon exertion, urgh s: [s] F prex instrumental noun derived from snume teaching and sspxin disease sfpl: [s"fpIl] P F n. idea snume: [s"numE] P F n. teaching, instruction snumvi: [s"numvi] P F n. lesson (c.w. from snume teachings) sspxin: [s"spin] P F n. disease, sickness (c.w. from spxin sick) sekrr: ["sEkr] P F adv. present (c.w. from set now and krr "time) sempu: ["sEmpu] P F n. daddy (affectionate form of sempul father) sempul: ["sEmpul] P F n. father set: [sEt^] P F adv. now sevin: [sE"vin] P F adj. pretty (of people) seyri: ["sEjRi] JC n. lip si: [si] P F auxiliary verb, postpositional nonbound verb do, make deriving afx sim: [s.im] P F v. near, be near s: [sI] P F conj. and (connects two things, can be attached as s: for clauses use ulte and) sk: [sIk^] P F adv. unquote slpey: [sIl"p.Ej] P F v. hope slronsem: [sIl"RonsEm] P F adj. clever, smart (thing) (c.w. from sltsan good and ronsem mind) sltsan: [sIl" an] P F adj. good sn: [sIn] P F adp. on, onto skaa: [sk.a"P.a] P F v. destroy skepek: ["skEpEk^] M adj. formal skien: ["skiEn] P F adj. right (not left) skxakep: ["skakEp^] P F adj., adv. probable, probably skxawng: [skawN] P F n. moron, idiot reyeng: [rEj"PEN] P F n. the Balance of Life (c.w. from rey life) reypay: ["REjpaj] P F n. blood (c.w. from rey life and pay water) rikx: [R.ik] P F v. move, shift position rim: [Rim] P F adj. yellow rina: [Ri"naP^] P F n. seed rk: [RIk] P F n. leaf ro+: [Ro] P F adp. at (locative) rol: [R.ol] P F v. sing ronsem: ["RonsEm] P F n. mind rum: [Rum] P F n. ball run: [R.un] P F v. nd, discover rusey: [Ru"sEj] P F adj., n. alive, living, living thing (c.w. from rey live and <us> active participle inx) rutxe: [Ru"tE] P F intj. please

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skxom: [skom] P F n. chance, opportunity sl: [sl] P F conj. but sleyku: [slEj"k.u] P F v. produce (c.w. from slu become and <eyk> causative inx) slu: [sl.u] P F v. become sngap: [sN.ap^] P F v. sting sngi: ["sN.P.i] P F v. begin, start (intransitive) sngikrr: ["sNPikr] P F n. beginning, starting " time (c.w. from sngi begin and krr time) sngel: [sNEl] P F n. garbage, trash, rubbish sngeltseng: ["sNEl EN] P F n. rubbish place, garbage dump (c.w. from sngel garbage and tseng place) snumna: ["snumIna] P F adj. dim (of a person) soaia: [so"aia] P F n. family sok: [sok^] P F adj. recent som: [som] P F adj. hot sop: [s.op^] P F v. travel spaw: [sp.aw] P F v. believe sp: ["sp.] P F v. jump spee: [sp.E"P.E] P F v. capture speetu: [spE"PEtu] P F n. captive (c.w. from spee capture and tu person) speng: [sp.EN] P F v. restore spule: ["sp.ul.E] P F v. propel spuwin: ["spuwin] P F adj. old (not for people), former spxam: [spam] P F n. mushroom, fungus spxin: [spin] P F adj. sick srak(e): ["sRak(E)] P F part. inter. marker for yes or no questions sran: [sRan] P F adv., intj. yes (colloquial) srane: ["sRanE] P F adv., intj. yes sraw: [sRaw] P F adj. painful T ta: [ta] P F adp. from (various uses) taem: [ta"PEm] P F adv. from above taleng: ["taPlEN] P F n. skin tafkip: [ta"fkip^] P F adp. from up among (c.w. from ta from and fkip up among) tafral: [ta"fRal] P F adv. therefore, because of that takip: [ta"kip^] P F adp. from among (c.w. from ta from and kip among) takuk: ["t.ak.uk^] P F v. strike talun(a): [ta"lun(a)] P F conj. because, from the reason tam: [t.am] P F v., intj. sufce, do", OK

sre+: [sRE] P F adp. before (time) sre: [sREP] P F n. tooth sresea: [sREs.E"P.a] P F v. prophetize, prophesize, prophesy (c.w. from sre+ before and tsea see)D srew: [sR.Ew] P F v. dance srung: [sRuN] P F n. help, assistance srung si: [sRuN s.i] M v. help stawm: [st.awm] P F v. hear stn: ["st.Pn.I] P F v. catch steftxaw: [st.E"ft.aw] P F v. examine, check steyki: [stEj"k.i] P F v. anger, make someone angry (c.w. from sti anger and <eyk> causative inx) sti: [st.i] P F v. angry, be angry sto: [st.o] P F v. refuse (to do something) stum: [stum] P F adv. almost stxong: [stoN] P F adj. strange, unfamiliar, unknown sung: [s.uN] P F v. add sutx: [s.ut] P F v. track, follow, lock up swaw: [swaw] P F n. moment swey: [swEj] P F adj. best swir: [swi"R] P F n. creature swizaw: [swi"zaw] P F n. arrow swok: [swok^] P F adj. sacred swotu: ["swotu] P F n. sacred place syaw: [s.jaw] P F v. call syay: [sjaj] P F n. fate sy: ["sjP] P F adj. bitter syen: [sjEn] P F adj. last, nal syep: [sj.Ep^] P F v. trap syulang: [sjulaN] P F n. ower syuve: ["sjuvE] P F n. food

tam tam: [tam tam] M,T intj. calm, be content, there there tangek: ["taNEk^] P F n. trunk (of a tree) tanh: [tan"hI] P F n. star, bioluminescent freckle taron: ["t.aR.on] P F v. hunt taronyu: ["taRonju] P F n. hunter (c.w. from taron hunt and yu agent sufx) tatep: ["t.at.Ep^] P F v. lose track, lose awareness of something tatlam: [tat"lam] P F adv. apparently (c.w. from lam seem) taw: [taw] P F n. sky

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taweyk(a): [ta"wEjk(a)] P F conj. because, based on the cause tawng: [t.awN] P F v. duck, dive tawsp: ["tawsIp^] P F n. sky-ship (loaned from Eng. ship) tftxu: [t."ft.u] P F v. weave tftxuyu: [t"ftuju] P F n. weaver (c.w. from tftxu weave and yu agent sufx) ttxaw: [t."t.aw] P F v. return (intransitive) te: [tE(P)] JC part. used in full names tei: [tEi] G n. plain tel: [t.El] P F v. receive telem: [tE"lEm] P F n. cord tem: [t.Em] P F v. shoot (intransitive) teng: [tEN] P F adj. same, equal tengfya: ["tENfja] P F conj. as, same way as (c.w. from teng same, equal and fyao path) tengkrr: [tEN"kr] P F conj. while, same time as " (c.w. from teng same, equal and krr time) teri: [tE"RI] P F adp. about, concerning terkup: ["t.ERk.up^] P F v. die teswotng: [tE"swot.IN] P F v. grant (c.w. from tng give) tete: ["tEtE] P F adj. dull (as a blade) tewti: ["tEwti] P F intj. wow, expression of surprise and pleasure teya: [tE"ja] P F adj. full teyr: [tEjR] P F adj. white til: [til] P F n. joint, hinge tirea: [ti"REa] P F n. spirit tireafyao: [ti"REa"fjaPo] P F n. spirit path (c.w. from tirea spirit and fyao path) tireaioang: [ti"REai oaN] P F n. spirit animal (c.w. from tirea spirit and ioang animal) tireapngkxo: [ti"REap.N"k.o] P F v. commune (c.w. from tirea spirit and pngkxo chat) t: [tI] W noun. deriving afx tawm: [tI"Pawm] P F n. camping (c.w. from awm camp) tawm si: [tI"Pawm s.i] P F v. camp (c.w. from awm camp and si make) tawpo: [tI"Pawpo] P F n. individuality (negative connotation), selshness (c.w. from awpo one individual) tefu: [tI"PEfu] P F n. feeling (c.w. from efu feel) tefum oey: [tI"PEfumI "oEj] P F phrase in my opinion (c.w. from tefu feeling and oey my)

teylan: [tI"PEjlan] P F n. friendship (c.w. from eylan friend) teyng: [tI"PEjN] P F n. answer, response derived from eyng answer tiavay: [tI"PiPavaj] P F adv. until the end (c.w. from ia end and vay until) tiavay krr: [tI"PiPavaj "kr] P F phrase fore" ver, until the end of time (c.w. from tiavay until the end and krr time) tfmetok: [tI"fmEtok^] P F n. test tfnu: [tI"fnu] P F n. quiet, silence (c.w. from fnu quiet) tftang: [tI"ftaN] P F n. stopping derived from ftang stop tftxey: [tI"ftEj] P F n. choice (c.w. from ftxey choose) tfyawntxu: [tIfjawIn"tu] P F n. guidance thawl: [tI"hawl] P F n. preparations, plan (c.w. from hawl prepare) thawnu: [tI"hawnu] P F n. protection tkan: [tI"kan] P F n. aim, goal, purpose, target (c.w. from kan aim) tkangkem: [tI"kaNkEm] P F n. work tkangkem si: [tI"kaNkEm s.i] P F v. work tkanu: [tI"kanu] P F n. intelligence (c.w. from kanu smart) tkawng: [tI"kawN] P F n. evil tkenong: [tI"kEnoN] P F n. example (c.w. from t- abstract noun prex and kenong model) tketeng: [tI"kEtEN] P F n. difference derived from ke not and teng same tkin: [tI"kin] P F n. need tkxey: [tI"kEj] P F n. incorrectness, mistakeness (c.w. from kxeyey mistake) tkxey ngaru: [tI"kEj "NaRu] P F phrase youre wrong (c.w. from tkxey incorrectness and ngaru to you) tkxey si: [tI"kEj s.i] P F v. mess up, foul, do wrong (c.w. from tkxey incorrectness and si make) tlam: [tI"lam] P F n. appearance (c.w. from lam seem) tlor: [tI"loR] P F n. beauty tm: [tIm] P F adj. low tmeem: [tI"mEPEm] P F n. harmony (general sense) tmuntxa: [tImun"ta] P F n. mating, marriage (c.w. from muntxa mated)

13

tmweypey: [tIm"wEjpEj] P F v. patience (c.w. from maweypey be patient) tng: [t.IN] P F v. give tngay: [tI"Naj] P F n. truth tng mikyun: [t.Im "mikjun] P F v. listen, lit. give an ear tng nari: [t.In "naRi] P F v. look, lit. give eye tngop: [tI"Nop^] P F n. creation (c.w. from ngop create) tng tseng: [t.IN EN] P F v. back down, lit. give place toeyktng: [tI"wejktIN] F n. explanation (c.w. from <eyk> cause (root)) tohakx: [tIo"hak] P F n. hunger (c.w. from ohakx hungry) tpawm: [tI"pawm] P F n. question (c.w. from pawm ask) tphem: [tI"phEm] P F n. arrival (c.w. from phem arrive) tpngkxo: [tIpN"ko] P F n. conversation, discussion (c.w. from pngkxo chat) tpeun: [tI"pEPun] P F n. decision (c.w. from peun decide) tprrte: [tI"prtEP^] P F n. pleasure (c.w. from prr" te pleasurable) tran: [t.I"R.an] P F v. walk trey: [tI"REj] P F n. life trol: [tI"Rol] P F n. song tskaa: [tIska"Pa] P F n. destruction (c.w. from skaa destroy) tsop: [tI"sop^] P F n. journey (c.w. from sop travel) tspxin: [tI"spin] P F n. the state of being ill, sickness (c.w. from spxin sick) tsraw: [tI"sRaw] P F n. pain (c.w. from sraw painful) tsraw seyki: [tI"sRaw sEj"k.i] P F v. hurt (someone or something) (c.w. from tsraw pain and si + <eyk> make (causative)) tsraw si: [tI"sRaw s.i] P F v. hurt, be painful (c.w. from tsraw pain and si make) tsresea: [tI"sREsEPa] P F n. prophecy (c.w. from sresea prophetize) tsti: [tI"sti] P F n. anger (c.w. from sti angry) ttakuk: [tI"takuk^] G n. strike ttslam: [tI" lam] P F n. understanding, intelligence (c.w. from tslam understand) ttxanew: [tI"tanEw] P F n. greed (c.w. from txanew greedy)

ttxula: [tI"tula] P F n. construction, constructed thing (c.w. from txula build) ttxur: [tI"tuR] P F n. strength, power derived from txur strong tvawm: [tI"vawm] P F n. darkness (c.w. from vawm dark) tyawn: [tI"jawn] P F n. love (c.w. from yawne beloved) tyawr: [tI"jawR] P F n. correctness (c.w. from eyawr correct) tyawr ngaru: [tI"jawR "NaRu] P F phrase youre right (c.w. from tyawr correctness and ngaru to you) to: [to] P F comparative marker than tok: [t.ok^] P F v. be at, occupy a space (transitive) toktor: ["toktoR] P F n. doctor (loaned from Eng. doctor) tokx: ["tok] P F n. body toltem: [t.ol"t.Em] P F v. shoot (transitive) tompa: ["tompa] P F n. rain toruk makto: [toRuk makto] JC n. toruk rider (c.w. from toruk leonopteryx and makto ride) trr: [tr] P F n. day " trrawve: [tr"PawvE] P F n. Sunday (c.w. from " trr day and awve rst) trram: [tr"am] P F adv. yesterday " trray: [tr"aj] P F adv. tomorrow (c.w. from trr day " and <ay> future inx) trrkive: [tr"kivE] P F n. Saturday (c.w. from trr day and" kive seventh) trrmrrve: [tr"mrvE] P F n. Thursday (c.w. from " " trr day and mrrve fth) trrmuve: [tr"muvE] trr n. Monday " trrpeve: [tr"pEvE] P F inter. which day (c.w. from " trr day and peve which of the week) trrpuve: [tr"puvE] P F n. Friday (c.w. from trr day and "puve sixth) trrpxeyve: [tr"pEjvE] P F n. Tuesday (c.w. from " trr day and pxeyve third) trrtsve: [tr" IvE] P F n. Wednesday (c.w. from " trr day and tsve fourth) tu: [tu] direct object noun deriving afx, as in speetu captive T tukru: [tuk"Ru] P F n. spear tul: [t.ul] P F v. run tung: [t.uN] P F v. allow tungzup: [tuN"z.up^] P F v. drop (c.w. from tung allow and zup fall)

14

tup: [tup^] P F conj. instead of, rather than tupe: ["tupE] P F inter. who allomorph of pesu tut: [tut^] P F part. continuation marker tutan: [tu"tan] P F n. male (person) Ts tsa: [ a] P F prex that tsau: [" aPu] P F dem. that (thing) (c.w. from tsa that and u thing) tsa-hey: [ a-"hEj] P F intj. expression of warning or frustration, crap!, ah, hell! tsaheyl si: [ a"hEjl s.i] P F v. bond with, establish a neural connection (c.w. from tsaheylu bond and si make) tsaheylu: [ a"hEjlu] P F n. bond (neural connection) tsakem: [" akEm] or [ a"kEm] P F dem. that (action) tsakrr: [ a"kr] P F dem. then, at that time " tsakrrvay: [ a"krvaj] P F adv. until then, in the " meantime (c.w. from tsakrr that time and vay up to) tsalsungay: [ alsu"Naj] P F adv. nevertheless, even so tsam: [ am] P F n. war tsampongu: [" ampoNu] P F n. war party (c.w. from tsam war and pongu party) tsamsiyu: [" amsiju] P F n. warrior (c.w. from tsam si make war and yu agent sufx) tsapalute: [ ap"PalutE] P F n. apology tsapalute si: [ ap"PalutE s.i] P F v. apologise tsatseng: [ a" EN] or [" a EN] P F dem. there, that place (c.w. from tsa that and tseng place) tsatu: [" atu] P F dem. that person (c.w. from tsa that and tu person) tsaw: [ aw] P F dem., pn. that, it (same as tsau) tsawke: [" awkE] P F n. sun tsawl: [ awl] P F adj. big (in size), tall tsawl slu: [ awl sl.u] P F v. grow (c.w. from tsawl big and slu become) ts: [ .P^] P F v. squirt tse: [ E] P F part. well (conversation starter) tsea: [ .E"P.a] P F v. see (physical sense) tseng(e): [" EN(E)] P F n. place tsengo: [" ENo] P F pn. somewhere tsengpe: [" ENpE] P F inter. where allomorph of peseng tseo: [" Eo] P F n. art

tute: ["tutE] P F n. person tute: [tu"tE] P F n. female (person) tuteo: ["tutEo] P F pn. somebody, someone tuvon: ["t.uv.on] P F v. lean

tsewtx: [ Ewt] P F adj. dirty tsim: [ im] P F n. source tsng: [ IN] P F num. four tskalep: [" kalEp^] P F n. crossbow tsko: [ ko] P F n. bow (weapon) tsko swizaw: [ ko swi"zaw] P F n. bow and arrow tskxe: [ kE] P F n. rock, stone tskxekeng: [" kEkEN] P F n. training, exercise tslam: [ l.am] P F v. understand tsleng: [ lEN] P F adj. false tslolam: [ lo"lam] P F intj. get it, I understand derived from tslam understand and <ol> perfect aspect inx tsmuk: [ muk^] P F n. sibling tsmukan: [" mukan] P F n. brother tsmuke: [" mukE] P F n. sister tsmuktu: [" muktu] P F n. sibling(allomorph of tsmuk sibling) T tsngal: [ Nal] P F n. cup tsngan: [ Nan] P F n. meat tsngawvk: [" N.awv.Ik^] P F v. cry, weep tsn: [ nI] P F conj. that (function word) tsop: [" opI] P F n. lung tspang: [ p.aN] P F v. kill tsranten: [" R.ant.En] P F v. matter, be of import tsray: [ Raj] P F n. village tsrei: [" R.EP.i] P F v. throw tstal: [ tal] P F n. knife tstew: [ tEw] P F adj. brave tstu: [ tu] P F n. closed, shut tstu si: [ tu s.i] P F v. close tstxo: [ to] P F n. name tstxolu: [" tolIPu] P F n. noun (c.w. from tstxo name and lu word) tsuksm: [" uksIm] P F n. chin tsun: [ .un] P F v. can, be able tsunslu: [" .unsl.u] P F v. may, be possible (c.w. from tsun be able and slu become) tsurokx: [ .u"R.ok] P F v. rest tswa: [ w.aP] P F v. forget tswayon: [" w.aj.on] P F v. y

15

tsyal: [ jal] P F n. wing tsyo: [ jo] P F n. our Tx txa: [taP] P F adj. hard txal: [tal] F n. back (of the body) txampay: [tam"paj] P F n. sea, ocean (c.w. from txan great and pay water) txampx: [tam"pI] P F n. majority, most, large part (c.w. from txan much) txan: [tan] P F adj. great, much, many (in quantity) txanew: ["tanEw] P F adj. greedy (c.w. from txan much and new want) txantsan: ["tantsan] P F adj. excellent txantslusam: ["tan lusam] P F adj. wise (c.w. from txan much and tsl<us>am understand) txantstew: ["tan tEw] P F n. hero (c.w. from txan very and tstew brave) txantur: ["tantuR] P F adj. powerful (c.w. from txan much and txur power) txayo: ["tajo] P F n. eld, open terrain txelan: [tEP"lan] P F n. heart txele: ["tElE] P F n. matter (subject) txen: [tEn] P F adj. awake U uimi: [uPimi] S n. streamers ukxo: [u"ko] P F adj. dry ulte: ["ultE] P F conj. and (clausal conjunction) ultxa: [ul"ta] P F n. meeting ultxarun: [ul"taR.un] P F v. encounter, meet by chance ultxa si hu: [ul"ta s.i hu] P F v. meet with someone intentionally V vawm: [vawm] P F adj. dark

tsyokx: [ jok] P F n. hand tsyosyu: [" josju] P F n. food made from our (c.w. from tsyo our and syuve food)

txep: [tEp^] P F n. re txepvi: ["tEpvi] P F n. spark txewk: [tEwk^] P F n. club (weapon) txey: [t.Ej] P F v. halt txm: [tIm] P F n. butt, rear end, ass txng: [t.IN] P F v. leave, abandon txo: [to] P F conj. if txoa: ["toa] P F n. forgiveness txokefyaw: ["tokEfjaw] P F conj. if not, or else, otherwise (c.w. from txo-ke-fya-aw if not one path) txon: [ton] P F n. night txonong: [ton"PoN] P rr n. evening, twilight txonam: [to"nam] P F adv. last night (c.w. from txon night and <am> past inx) txonay: [to"naj] P F adv. tomorrow night (c.w. from txon night and <ay> future inx) txopu: ["topu] P F n. fear txopu si: [topu s.i] M v. be afraid txula: ["t.ul.a] P F v. build, construct txum: [tum] P F n. poison txur: [tuR] P F adj. strong

unil: ["unil] P F n. dream uniltrantokx: [uniltI"Rantok] JC,P F n. avatar, dreamwalker body uniltranyu: [unitI"Ranju] P F n. dreamwalker uo: ["uo] P F adp. behind utral: ["utRal] P F n. tree uvan: [u"van] P F n. game uvan si: [u"van s.i] P F v. play (a game)

venzek: ["vEnzEk] P F n. toe (c.w. from venu foot and zekw nger) vay: [vaj] P F adp. up to vey: [vEj] P F n. food made from animal origin, vaykrr: [vay"kr] P F conj. until (c.w. from vay esh " up to and krr time) vir: [v.i"R.] P F v. spread, proliferate v: [vP^] P F adj. unpleasant to the senses, no- vitra: [vit"Ra] P F n. soul isome T vol: [vol] P F num. eight venu: ["vEnu] P F n. foot vrrtep: ["vrtEp^] P F n. demon " 16

vul: [vul] P F n. branch (of a tree)

vur: [vuR] P F n. story vurvi: ["vuRvi] P F n. summary, synopsis (c.w. from vur story)

W way: [waj] P F n. song waytelem: ["wajtElEm] P F n. song chord w+: [w] P F adp. against (as in: ght against) wem: [w.Em] P F v. ght wempongu: ["wEmpoNu] P F n. squad, military clan, battle party (c.w. from wem ght and pongu group) wew: [wew] P F adj. cold weyn: [w.ejn] P F v. draw, illustrate win: [win] P F adj. fast Y ya: [ja] P F n. air yawne: ["jawnE] P F adj. beloved yawnetu: ["jawnEtu] P F n. loved one (c.w. from yawne beloved) yawntu: ["jawntu] P F n. loved one (c.w. from yawne beloved) yayo: ["jajo] P F n. bird (c.w. from ya air and ioang animal)D yn: [j.n] P F v. fasten, tie down yern: ["jEPRIn] P F adv. soon yem: [j.Em] P F v. put, place Z zarp: [za"P.R.Ip^] P F v. pull zau: ["z.aP.u] P F v. come zam: [zam] P F num. sixty four zamunge: [za"m.uN.E] P F v. bring derived from munge bring zapx: [za"pI] P F n. front (part or section) (c.w. from *za come and hapx part) zawng: [z.awN] P F v. scream zekw: ["zEkw] P F n. nger zene: ["z.En.E] P F v. must zenke: ["z.ENkE] P F v. must not (root sense) (c.w. from zene must and ke not) zerok: ["z.ER.ok^] P F v. remember zst: ["zIsIt^] P F n. year zong: [z.oN] P F v. save, defend zongtseng: ["zoN EN] P F n. safe place, refuge (c.w. from zong save and tseng place) zoplo: [zop"lo] P F n. offence, insult zup: [z.up^] P F v. fall zusawkrr: [zu"sawkr] P F n. future (c.w. from " z<us>au coming and krr time) yemfpay: [jEm"fpaj] P F n. dipping, immersion (into liquid) yemfpay si: [jEm"fpaj s.i] P F v. dip into liquid yey: [jEj] P F adj. straight ym: [j.Im] P F v. bind yol: [jol] P F adj. short (of time) yom: [j.om] P F v. eat yomtng: ["jomt.IN] P F v. feed (c.w. from yom eat and tng give) yu: [ju] W nominative agent noun deriving afx, as in taron-yu hunter yur: [j.uR] P F v. wash win spi: [win s"p.i] P F v. hurry (c.w. from win fast and si + <p> do (reexive)) win si: [win s.i] P F v. rush something, make something fast (c.w. from win fast and si do) wiya: ["wiya] P F intj. expression of warning or frustration, damn! wntxu: [w.In"t.u] P F v. show wok: [wok^] P F adj. loud wotx: [wot] P F n. totality, whole wrrpa: ["wrpa] P F n., adv. outside " wutso: ["wu o] P F n. dinner, served meal

17

The Number System.

The following are charts of Navi numbers. Note that it is not a decimal, but an octal system. Underlining indicates where the stress ought to fall. Navi Numbers: 0 39 1 2 3 vol mevol pxevol volaw mevolaw pxevolaw vomun mevomun pxevomun vopey mevopey pxevopey vosng mevosng pxevosng vomrr mevomrr pxevomrr vofu mevofu pxevofu vohin mevohin pxevohin Navi Numbers: 40 63 5 6 7 mrrvol puvol kivol mrrvolaw puvolaw kivolaw mrrvomun puvomun kivomun mrrvopey puvopey kivopey mrrvosng puvosng kivosng mrrvomrr puvomrr kivomrr mrrvofu puvofu kivofu mrrvohin puvohin kivohin

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 aw mune pxey tsng mrr pukap kin

4 tsvol tsvolaw tsvomun tsvopey tsvosng tsvomrr tsvofu tsvohin

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

x1 aw mune pxey tsng mrr pukap kin

combining -aw -mun -pey -sng -mrr -fu -hin

More Navi Numbers: x8 x64 x512 vol zam vozam mevol mezam mevozam pxevol pxezam pxevozam tsvol tszam tsvozam mrrvol mrrzam mrrvozam puvol puzam puvozam kivol kizam kivozam

x4096 zazam mezazam pxezazam tszazam mrrzazam puzazam kizazam

18

Navi Proper Nouns


Neytiri: [nEjtiRi] JC prop.n. womans name Ninat: [ninat^] JC prop.n. womans name, good singer Nok: [nok^] G prop.n mans name Omati: [omati] G prop.n mans name Omatikaya: [omati"kaja] JC,S prop.n. Blue Flute Clan Onantu: [onantu] G prop.n a Navi name Peyral: [pEjRal] JC prop.n name Raiuk: [RaiPuk^] G prop.n name Ralu: ["Ralu] S prop.n. childs name Rongloa: [RoNloa] JC prop.n clan name Seyvaro: [sEjvaRo] G prop.n Navi name Silwanin: [silwanin] JC prop.n. Neytiris sister Swotulu: ["swotulu] P F prop.n. sacred river (c.w. from swotu sacred place) Tasun: [tasun] G prop.n name Tawkami: [tawkami] G prop.n clan name (c.w. from taw sky and kame see) Tawtute: ["tawtutE] P F prop.n. Sky-person, human (c.w. from taw sky and tute person) Tipnai: [tipnai] G prop.n. clan name Tsahk: [" ahIk^] P F prop.n. matriarch, high priestess, interpreter Tskaha: [ kaha] JC prop.n. tribe name Tsutey: [ uP"tEj] JC prop.n. mans name Uimi huyuticaya: [uPimi hujutikaja] ASG prop.n. clan name Uniltaron: ["unil"taRon] P F prop.n. Dream Hunt

ngls: ["PINlIsI] P F n. English language (loaned from Eng. English) Rrta: ["Prta] P F prop.n. Earth (loaned from " Eng. Earth) Amhul: [amhul] S prop.n. name nst: ["nsIt^] S prop.n. name Anurai: [anuRai] G prop.n. clan name Ateyitan: [atEjitan] JC prop.n. son of Ateyo derived from Ateyo male name and itan son Ayvitray Ramunong: [ajvit"Raj Ra"munoN] JC prop.n Well of Souls (c.w. from vitra soul and ramunong well) Eytukan: ["Ejtukan] JC prop.n. mans name Eywa: ["Ejwa] JC prop.n. world spirit, Gaia (derived from Proto-Indo-European *aiw) T Eywaeveng: [Ejwa"PEvEN] P F prop.n. Pandora (c.w. from Eywa Gaia and eveng child) Iknimaya: ["ikni"maja] JC prop.n. Stairway to Heaven, the rite of passage for young Navi liOna: [liPona] G,F prop.n clan name Lompo: [lompo] G prop.n mans name Malimi: [malimi] G prop.n a Navi name Moat: ["moPat^] JC prop.n. womans name Moatite: [moPatPitE] JC prop.n. daughter of Moat derived from Moat a woman and ite daughter Navi: ["naPvi] JC,P F prop.n. the People, indigenous Pandoran sentient race Neranak: [nERaPnak^] G prop.n a Navi name

Flora *atoki: [atoki] T n. sacred tree derived from atokirina seeds of the great tree arlek: [arPlEk^] G n. a seed-bearing plant awaiei: [awaiEi] S n. banshee of paradise eyaye: [EjajE] S n. warbonnet fngapsutxwll: [fNapsutwl] S n. metal-following " plant Kelutral: ["kElutRal] S,M prop.n. Hometree loreyu: [loREju] S n. helicoradium spirale, beautiful spiral (c.w. from lor beautiful and heyu spiral)T pamtseowll: [pam Eowl] S n. cat ear, music " plant paywll: [pajwl] S n. water plant, dapophet " penghrrap: [pENhrap^] S n. binary sunshine, " fringed lamp (c.w. from peng tell and hrrap danger) pxiut: [piut^] S n. razor palm, sharp tree pxorna: [poRnaP^] S n. episoth, exploding seed (c.w. from rina seed and pxor explode) rumut: [Rumut^] S n. ball tree seze: ["sEzE] P F n. blue ower somtlor: [somtIloR] S n. popsicle, hot beauty (c.w. from som hot and tlor beauty) tautral: [tautRal] S n. sky tree (c.w. from taw sky and utral tree)T tawtsngal: [taw Nal] S n. panopyra, sky cup (c.w. from taw sky and tsngal cup)

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torukspxam: [toRukspam] S n. octoshroom, great leonopteryx fungus tsawlapxangrr: [ awlapaNr] S n. unidelta tree, " lit. tall large root (c.w. from ngrr root)(for short, tsawlapx) tsyorinawll: [ joRinaPwl] S n. cycad, our seed " plant (c.w. from rina seed and ewll plant)T txllu: [tlPu] P F n. hookagourd " txumpaywll: [tumpajwl] S n. scorpion thistle, " poison water plant (c.w. from txum poison and paywll water plant) txumtswll: [tum Pwl] S n. reclining ask, " Fauna

poison-squirting plant (c.w. from ts squirt and ewll plant) Utral Aymokriy: ["utRal aj"mokRij] P F prop.n. Tree of Voices(from utraya mokri C ) utral utu mauti: [utRal utu mauti] S n. push fruit tree utu mauti: [utu mauti] S n. banana fruit, push fruit Vitrautral: [vit"RautRal] P F prop.n Tree of Souls (c.w. from vitra soul and utral tree) yomioang: [jomi"oaN] S n. chalice plant (c.w. from yom eat and ioang animal T )

pali: ["paPli] P F n. direhorse palulukan: ["palu"lukan] JC n. thanator riti: ["Riti] P F n. stingbat talioang: ["tal"ioaN] P F n. sturmbeest (c.w. from ioang animal) teylu: ["tEjlu] P F n. beetle larva T kaliweya: [kaliPwEja] S n. species of poisonous toruk: ["toRuk^] JC n. great leonopteryx, last shadow arachnid lenayga: [lEnajPga] ASG n. slinger, predatory yerik: ["jERik^] P F n. hexapede yomhang: [jomhIPaN] S n. small animal/insect animal eater, dakteron derived from yom eat and lonataya: [lonataja] ASG n. medusa hang insect nantang: ["nantaN] JC,P F n. viperwolf Caniferratus costatus, striped armored wolf zize: [zi"zEP] P F n. hellre wasp angtsk: ["PaN Ik^] P F n. hammerhead eltungawng: ["EltuNawN] P F n. brainworm (c.w. from eltu brain and ngawng worm) fpxafaw: ["fpafaw] P F n. medusa ikran: ["ikRan] JC n. banshee ikranay: ["ikRanaj] ASG n. forest banshee(non-F)

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Illegal Words

These are illegal words that are not from Frommer: I have included them as they are in the corpus, but they are not to be regarded as Navi words. The following words, or their roots, either break syllable rules that Frommer set forth, or have at least one of the following illegal sounds, spellings, or digraphs: h [Ph], b [b], c [k], ch [tS], d [d], g [g], h [hP], ii [i:], j [Z], sh [S], uu [u:] chantu gorek nuuto: [tSanPtu gorPEk^nuuto] ASG n. stone jar chey: [tSEj] ASG n. possesions rack derived from Pah sivil chey rack Eywa ksey nivibrista: [Ejwa kPsEj niviPbriPsta] ASG hammock, from Eywa cradles everyone Eywa silivi maskit nivi: [Eywa sPilivi masPkit^nivi] ASG Ewyas wisdom is revealed to all of us Eywa te _ tansey makta: [Ejwa tEP tanPsEJ makPta] ASG n. ikran queue harness, lit. the love of Eywas embrace is gifted to (personal name) feru mpreduk: [fEru mPpREduPk^] ASG n. basket iveh knivi sdir: [ivEh kPnivi sPdir] ASG n. baby sling jakesully: [ZEjksu:li] M n. moron, toruk mak" toyu (loaned from Eng. Jake Sully) ksey nivi: [kPsEj nivi] ASG n. group sleep Kyuna: [kjuna] G prop.n girls name mreshtuyu: [mPRESPtuju] or [mPREshPtuju] ASG n. shield malmoks: [malmoks] G n. rings of stone maskit nivi sanok: [masPkit^nivi saPnok^] ASG mother loom mereshti caupla: [mERESPti kauPpla] or [meReshPti kauPpla] ASG n. banshee catcher, bola, lit. nothing to see mreki ulito: [mREki uPlito] ASG n. re pit nahla bukne: [naPhla bukPnE] ASG n. direhorse lead, lit. face pull niktchey: [niktP hEj] or [niktPtSEj] ASG n. small bit of food, packed lunch nivi: [nivi] ASG n. hammock (informal), us derived from Eywa ksey nivibrista Ewya cradles everyone omati sampta: [omati sPampta] ASG n. blue ute Pah sivil chey: [pPah sPivil tSEy] SAG n. personal belongings rack pxtxawng: [ptawN] C n. douchebag shah-tell: [SahtEl] ASG n. shuttle (loaned from Eng. shuttle) sushiri tacto sa: [suPshiri tPacto sa] or [suPshiri tPacto sa] ASG n. toy ikran sumin jiitluy: [sumin ZiitPluy] ASG n. leaf plate suminsey hulleh: [suminPsEj hulEh] ASG slee" ping outside of the group triti so jahmka: [tPRiti so Zahmka] ASG n. pendulum drum tmi natsey: [tmi natPsEj] ASG n. bladder lantern, from food here ulivi maritsey makdinito: [Ulivi mariP Ej makPdiniPto] ASG loom, lit. branches of the tree look to each other for strength, or many branches together are strong ulutah inibsey mulsi: [uluPtah inibPsEy mulsi] ASG n. leaf plate

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Inections

Verb Inxes <am>: [am] W past tense verbal inx in position 1: Oe tamaron. I hunted. <ng>: [N] W pejorative affect verbal inx in position 2: Oe tarngon. I hunt (ugh!). <p>: [p^] F E reexive verbal inx in position 0: Oe tparon. I hunt myself. <arm>: [aRm] W imperfective past tense verbal inx in position 1, derived from am + er: Oe tarmaron. I was hunting. <asy>: [asj] P F future tense with determination verbal inx in position 1: Oel tspasyang palulukanit. I will denately kill the thanator. <ats>: [a ] F E inferential, indicating uncertainty or indirect knowledge verbal inx in position 2: Oel tspatsang poanit. I killed him (I think.) <awn>: [awn] P F passive participle verbal inx in position 0: Oe tawnarona tute lu. I am a hunted person. <ay>: [aj] W future tense verbal inx in position 1: Oe tayaron. I will hunt. <ei>: [Ei] W laudative affect verbal inx in position 2: Oe tareion. I hunt (hooray!). <er>: [ER] D imperfective aspect verbal inx in position 1: Oe teraron. I am hunting. <eyk>: [Ejk] F E causative verbal inx in position 0: Oel teykaron pot. I caused him to hunt. <ilv>: [ilv] F E present perfective subjunctive verbal inx in position 1: Oe new tslilvam. I want to understand. <m>: [Im] W recent past verbal inx in position 1: Oe tmaron. I just hunted. <imv>: [imv] F E past subjunctive verbal inx in position 1: Oe namew tslimvam I wanted to understand. <rm>: [IRm] W imperfective recent past tense verbal inx in position 1: Oe trmaron. I was just hunting. <irv>: [iRv] F E present imperfective subjunctive verbal inx in position 1: Oe new tslirvam. I want to be understanding. <sy>: [Isj] P F immediate future tense with determination verbal inx in position 1: Oel tspsyang palulukanit. I will denately kill the thanator soon. <iv>: [iv] W subjunctive mood verbal inx in position 1: Ngal new futa oe tivaron. You want this thing: for me to hunt <y>: [Ij] W immediate future tense verbal inx in position 1: Oe tyaron. I am about to hunt. <yev>: [IjEv] F E future subjunctive verbal inx in position 1: Oel kyevame ngati. I will see you soon. <iyev>: [ijEv] F E future subjunctive verbal inx in position 1: Oel kiyevame ngati. I will see you soon. <ol>: [ol] F perfective aspect verbal inx in position 1: Oe tolaron. I hunted (nished action). <us>: [us] W active participle verbal inx in position 0: Oe tusarona tute lu. I am a hunting person. <uy>: [uj] F honoric (honouric) or ceremonial verbal inx in position 2: Naviy, l<uy>u hapx. You are part of The People.

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Noun Inections : [] F genitive sufx for nouns ending in a everything but a, , e, and (allomorph of y): Oel yom ikran yerikit. I eat the ikrans yerik. an: [an] W masculine sufx for certain nouns: Oe tutan lu. I am a male dude. e: [E] F feminine sufx for certain nouns: Oe tute ke lu. I am not a girl l: [Il] F ergative case sufx for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allomorph of l): Ikranl taron yerikit. The ikran hunts the yerik. ri: [IRi] F topical sufx for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allomorph of ri): Ikranri taron yerikit. The ikran hunts a yerik. it: [it^] F accusative sufx for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allomorph of t, ti): Oel taron yerikit. I hunt the yerik. l: [l] W ergative case adp. for nouns ending in a vowel: Oel taron yerikit. I hunt the yerik. lo: [lo] P F multiplicative number sufx: Awlo oe ramol. Once I sang. ng: [N] W clusivity adp. for pronouns: Ayoeng taron. We all hunt. o: [o] P F indenite sufx: Oel tspamang tuteot. I killed someone. ri: [Ri] F topical adp. for nouns ending in a vowel: Oeri taron yerikit. I hunt the yerik. ru: [Ru] W dative sufx for nouns ending in a vowel (allomorph of ur): Oel slpeyit ngaru tng. I give hope to you. t: [t^] W accusative sufx for nouns ending in a vowel (allomorph of it, ti): Oel ngat kame. I see you. ti: [ti] W accusative adp. for pronouns and nouns: Ngati taron torukl. The toruk hunts you. ur: [uR] F dative sufx for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allomorph of ru): Ayeylan-ur oey. To my friends. ve: [vE] P F ordinal sufx for numbers (used mostly in the days of the week; not entirely productive): Ftrr lu trrpeve? Which day is it today? y: [--j] P F genitive adp. for pronouns ending in a or e: Ngey toruk sltsan lu. Your toruk is good. y: [j] W genitive sufx for nouns ending in a a, , e, and (allomorph of ): Oel yom Neytiri-y yerikit. I eat Neytiris yerik. (Causes vowel fronting of a in pronouns: may look like ey) ya: [ya] P F,M vocative sufx for collective nouns: ay+: [aj] F plural adp. for nouns: Ay+oe taron. We hunt. me+: [mE] W dual adp. for nouns: Oel new me+narit. I want eyes. pe+: [pE] W afx inter. marker what: pe+hrr nga tayaron. What time will you hunt? pxe+: [pE] F trial adp. for nouns and pronouns: Ayoeng Pxe+veng lu. We are three children.(Note that e + e cannot be together, and so ellision occurs) Other a: [a] F adjectival attributive marker: Oel ikranit aean tswayon. I y the blue ikran. am: [--am] P F past reference marker for nouns, adverbs (not entirely productive): ay: [--aj] P F future reference marker for nouns, adverbs (not entirely productive): tu: [tu] T direct object noun deriving afx Oe tarontu lu. I am prey. vi: [--vi] P F dimunitive relationship marker (not very productive): yu: [ju] W nominative agent noun deriving afx Oe skaayu ke lu. I am not a destroyer. le: [lE] F adjective deriving afx Poan lehrrap lu. He is dangerous. n: [nI] W adverbial deriving afx Oe nNavi plltxe. I speak navi-ly. (Like a Navi.) s: [s] F instrumental noun deriving afx Oel snumet nume. I learn the teaching. si: [si] W postpositional verb deriving afx Oe

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kelku si m kelutral. I live in Hometree. (lit. t: [tI] W noun deriving afx Tngay sltsan I home make in Hometree.) lu. The truth is good.

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English Short-Hand Terms for Trilinear Glosses

Here is a list of the short-hand notation often used in trilinear glosses on the Forums, with some common morphemes. ACC: it. F accusative sufx for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allomorph of ti) ACC: t. W accusative sufx for nouns ending in a vowel (allomorph of ti) ACC: ti. W accusative adp. for nouns. ADJ: le. F adjective deriving afx. ADJ M.: a. F adjectival attributive marker. ADV: n. W adverbial deriving afx. AGENT N: yu. W nominative agent noun deriving afx. CAUS: <eyk>. F E causative verbal inx in position 0 0. CLU: ng. W clusivity adp. for pronouns. DAT: ru. W dative adp. for nouns. DUAL: me+. W dual adp. for nouns. ERG: l. F ergative case sufx for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudovowel (allomorph of l) ERG: l. W ergative case adp. for nouns ending in a vowel. FEM: e. F feminine sufx for certain nouns. FUT: <ay>. W future tense verbal inx in position 1 1. GEN: . F genitive sufx for nouns ending in a everything but a, , e, and (allomorph of y) GEN: y. P F genitive adp. for pronouns ending in a or e. GEN: y. W genitive sufx for nouns ending in a a, , e, and (allomorph of ) IMM. FUT: <y>. W immediate future tense verbal inx in position 1 1. IMPF: <er>. D imperfective aspect verbal inx in position 1 1. IMPF. PAST: <arm>. W imperfective past tense verbal inx in position 1 1. IMPF. REC. PAST: <rm>. W imperfective recent past tense verbal inx in position 1 1. INST: s. T instrumental noun deriving afx. INTER: pe+. W afx inter. marker what. LAUD: <ei>. F laudative affect verbal inx in position 2 2. MASC: an. W masculine sufx for certain nouns. NMLZ: t. W nominalizer (noun-er) deriving afx. OBJ: tu. T direct object noun deriving afx. ORD: ve. T ordinal sufx for numbers. PAST: <am>. W past tense verbal inx in position 1 1. PEJ: <ng>. W pejorative verbal inx in position 2 2. PERF: <ol>. W perfective aspect verbal inx in position 1 1. PLU: ay+. F plural adp. for nouns. REC. PAST: <m>. W recent past verbal inx in position 1 1. REFL: <p>. F E reexive verbal inx in position 0 0. SUBJ: <iv>. W subjunctive mood verbal inx in position 1 1. TOP: ri. F topical sufx for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allomorph of ri) TOP: ri. F topical adp. for nouns ending in a vowel. V: si. W postpositional verb deriving afx.

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The Changelog

This is the changelog. Ive kept it in, not for translators, who should contact Tuiq, but for the reader, who would presumably like to know what Ive done. 10.015 Added a ton, xed a ton, deleted all roots as being mostly useless. Added vawm, tvawm, polpxay dark, darkness, what number. Added nsti, keaw angrily, divided. Deleted two extraneous entries, and one wrong one (awlie with the wrong stress). Added layon, teyr black, white, edited tatep, added j to endings for genitive pronouns ending in a or e. Edited vaykrr. Fixed IPA issues, added pnu promise.

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