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NITRATE IN GROUNWATER: REPORT

Groundwater serves as the chief and principal domestic water supply for over 90% of the rural population and 50% of the total population of America. Therefore, protection of groundwater from contagion or infectivity is of foremost concern. This report reviews the trouble of scheming nitrate pollution of groundwater, its quantification and the remedies to surmount this problem. Nitrates in groundwater cannot originate on its own, there are causes and explanations behind it, following are some the logical reasoning for groundwater being polluted by the nitrate Geological origins, Diseased tanks, Improper use of animal manures, Cultivation (especially fallowing) rainfall and fertilizers.

Accretion of nitrate in groundwater is probably attributed to different sources for different regions. Major areas of nitrate pollution often occur under irrigation because leaching is required to control salt accumulation in the root zone. In the last few decades, areas under irrigation and the use of N fertilizers have increased greatly, and both of these have probably contributed to groundwater nitrate problems. Use of known best management practices such as Irrigation arrangement and forecast; Fertilization based on standardize soil tests; Conservation tillage; Acceptable cropping practices; Recommended manure rates have been demonstrated to be highly effective in controlling leakage and discharge of nitrates. Government intervention is a must at this point, where the problem is not in hands of people to solve. Thus, Government should think of such policies that will

encourage and reward the use of the best management practices that help control nitrate amassing in groundwater. If the steps are not taken to stop the nitrate flowing into groundwater, then the basic water necessities will not be available for the people in near future. Nitrogen restrains and management is major concern for the government now. Since, its emerging as a huge problem for the agriculture world of any country.

When nitrate - nitrogen concentrations get in touch with extreme unwarranted levels there can be harmful biological penalty for the organisms which depend on groundwater. Of course, human interest is of primary concern when setting guidelines for up to standard nitrate levels and proper agricultural practices. Nitrate if taken in by any means of source and of course as we are discussing, the intake of groundwater, then it can cause diseases like Blue-baby Syndrome, Stomach and Gastrointestinal Cancer. But the concentration level does not remain the same at all times, it varies and why do the concentrations vary so much? The nitrogen arrangement in soil is multifaceted and there are many reasons that affect the amount of nitrogen that is leached from the soil, including:

Rates and timing of fertilizer applications Rates, timing and methods of irrigation

Cultivation practices Wastewater disposal Weather.

For discontinue and prevent the further contamination of groundwater with nitrate, immediate steps have to be taken, not just by the government but by the people themselves for their own health and wellness. If people themselves are concern about their physical wellbeing, then no other person is liable to take care of their health. The following measures and concerns should be considered to avoid pollution and contagion of the groundwater.

Stop the practice of over-using fertilizers in intensive agriculture as it is causing troubles Specially Fertilizer N should be stopped Government should limit the supply of fertilizer N so that if it is not available in the market, then no point using the same. Phase out fertilizer subsidies Implement and enforce national fertilizer reduction policies that define maximum nitrogen applications per area There are certain methods that are used such as distillation, anion exchange, or reverse osmosis. Use soil and water analysis to determine exact nitrogen needs of crop Set a realistic yield goal for each field. Take the five-year average production of your field and add 5 percent to get an attainable yield goal. Credit all sources of nitrogen available to the crop, including manures, water, organic matter, legumes and residual subsoil nitrate. Split nitrogen fertilizer into as many separate applications as feasible.

These were some of the technical measures for avoiding nitrate in groundwater, but there are certain measures and remedies that can be followed by people in their household. Infants are the greatest at risk from nitrate, so it is best to breastfeed babies and avoid mixing formula with tap water unless the water has been tested. Boiling the water does not remove nitrate from the contaminated water, instead it may increase the level of nitrate and make it further unsafe. Use water from municipal systems, nearby wells (but wells should also be tested and safe). Installation of in-home treatment system, such systems should be certified by an organization accredited by the standards council of that country. Consult Public Health authority for advice regarding the specific parameters to test for and how often the test should be done. Prevention is the best method to safeguard oneself.

People should not forget that the level of nitrate is rising so steadily that the quality of fresh water sources is steadily declining while the costs of obtaining clean water is rising. The non-management of waste water has led to nitrate contamination in groundwater. Since, most of the waste water flows into groundwater due to poor arrangements for the disposal and the hydro geological conditions of a loose and liberated aquifer. Care must be taken when this water is used specially for drinking. It can be seen that the nitrate mixing into the groundwater is causing loads of trouble to the agriculture sector as well as the common people. Every person who is related to agriculture or not should realize the importance of water and the hazardous effects, if such a lifeline is contaminated with a string acid like nitrate which can even kill people. Standards can be accurately prepared for avoiding the problem of nitrate inflow in the water. Even a little amount of copper can enhance nitrate removal efficiently. Further study should be done regarding removing mixture of inorganic and organic pollutants together by iron metal and applying this novel promising method to practical groundwater remediation. The distorted occurrence of large areas of NO3 contaminated water indicates that groundwater in in many intensily agricultural regions is not particularily vulnerable. This distribution pattern is a consequence to both natural and man-induced factors. Abuntant rainfall, high temperatures, and riparian soils with high organic C cause relatively rapid uptake of nitrate and dentrification. This may also occur in the rich soils and subsoils of corn belts but tilr drainage appears more important in intercepting the downward movement of nitrate. A recurring theme and concept throughout this review was that substandard well construction and improper siting of wells were associated with anomalously high nitrate levels. Not only the wells the use of extra manure and fertilizer N is highly putting into the increased concentration of nitrate in groundwater. People are not aware of the problem much and they do not opt for any measures to reduce or minimize the effect of nitrate on groundwater because they are unaware about its impacts on the human mental and physical health.