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Finnish Verbs Verb types

Verbs are a class of words that are to express actions, processes and conditions. In Finnish, there are six types of verbs (V means any vowel): Type 1 (-Va/ -V, e.g. lukea, puhua, etc.) Type 2 (-da/-d, e.g. saada, syd, etc.) Type 3 (-la/-l, -na/-n, -ra/-r, -sta/-st, e.g. tulla, menn, surra, nousta, etc.) Type 4 (-Vta/-Vt, e.g. haluta, pelt, pelata etc.) Type 5 (-ita/-it, e.g. tarvita, mainita, hallita, etc.) Type 6 (-eta/-et, e.g. paeta, kyet, etc.)

Type
(-Va/ -V, e.g. lukea, puhua, etc.)

verbs

These types of verbs end in 2 vowels (-aa, -ea, -e, -ia, -i, -oa, -ua, -y, , -). To find this type of verb's infinitive stem, remove the -a or -, thus lukea's infinitive stem is luke-. Remember that Type 1 verbs undergo consonant gradation if it is possible, which is why it is laajennan and not *laajentan. Examples of some common Type 1 verbs: ajaa 'to drive' alkaa 'to start', 'to begin' antaa 'to give', 'to let' (someone do something), 'to allow' asua 'to live in a place', 'to reside' auttaa 'to help' etsi 'to look for', 'to seek' hertt 'to wake (someone) up' hoitaa 'to take care of' huutaa 'to shout' katsoa 'to look at' kielt 'to deny' kiert 'to go around' kirjoittaa 'to write' kysy 'to ask' laajentaa 'to expand' laskea 'to count'

lukea 'to read', 'to count' (old form) lhte 'to leave' maksaa 'to pay', 'to cost' muistaa 'to remember' neuvoa 'to give advice' odottaa 'to wait', 'to expect', 'to be expecting' (in other words, pregnant) ostaa 'to buy' ottaa 'to take' paistaa 'to fry', 'to shine' potea '#' puhua 'to speak' rakastaa 'to love' rakastua 'to fall in love' saartaa 'to shatter' sallia 'to allow' sanoa 'to say' soittaa 'to call' (someone on the phone), 'to play' (an instrument, records, cds) sortaa 'to collapse' tiet 'to know' (something, not someone), 'to forecast' (old form) tuntea 'to feel' unohtaa 'to forget' unohtua 'to forget oneself' vaatia 'to demand' ymmrt 'to understand'

Lukea - Type 1 verb


Present Indicative Active - Affirmative
Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person luen luet lukee Plural luemme luette lukevat

Present Indicative Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en lue et lue ei lue Plural emme lue ette lue eivt lue

Present Perfect Indicative Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en ole lukenut et ole lukenut ei ole lukenut Plural emme ole lukeneet ette ole lukeneet eivt ole lukeneet

Past Indicative Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person luin luit luki Plural luimme luitte lukivat

Past Perfect Indicative Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person olin lukenut olit lukenut oli lukenut Plural olimme lukeneet olitte lukeneet olivat lukeneet

Past Indicative Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en lukenut et lukenut ei lukenut Plural emme lukeneet ette lukeneet eivt lukeneet

Past Perfect Indicative Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en ollut lukenut et ollut lukenut ei ollut lukenut Plural emme olleet lukeneet ette olleet lukeneet eivt olleet lukeneet

Present Perfect Indicative Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person olen lukenut olet lukenut on lukenut Plural olemme lukeneet olette lukeneet ovat lukeneet

Present Conditional Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person lukisin lukisit lukisi Plural lukisimme lukisitte lukisivat

Present Potential Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person lukenen lukenet lukenee Plural lukenemme lukenette lukenevat

Present Conditional Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en lukisi et lukisi ei lukisi Plural emme lukisi ette lukisi eivt lukisi

Present Potential Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en lukene et lukene ei lukene Plural emme lukene ette lukene eivt lukene

Perfect Conditional Active - Affirmative


Singular Plural 1st person 2nd person 3rd person olisin olisimme lukeneet lukenut olisit olisitte lukeneet lukenut olisi olisivat lukeneet lukenut

Perfect Potential Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person lienen lukenut Plural lienemme lukeneet lienette lukeneet lienevt lukeneet

2nd person lienet lukenut 3rd person lienee lukenut

Perfect Conditional Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Plural en olisi emme olisi lukeneet lukenut et olisi ette olisi lukeneet lukenut ei olisi eivt olisi lukeneet lukenut

Perfect Potential Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Plural en liene lukenut emme liene lukeneet et liene lukenut ei liene lukenut ette liene lukeneet eivt liene lukeneet

Imperative Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person --lue lukekoon Plural lukekaamme lukekaa lukekoot

Things to note with this verb


There is a diabolical k in this verb! For instance: Luin sanomalehden eilen. I read the (whole) newspaper yesterday. Hn luki sanomalehden eilen. He read the (whole) newspaper yesterday. Lukea can be both transitive and intransitive. Lukea used to mean to count also.

When is lukea used?


Imperative Active - Negative
Singular 1st person 2nd person --l lue Plural lkmme lukeko lk lukeko lkt lukeko

3rd person lkn lukeko

Passive - Affirmative and Negative


Affirmative Present Indicative Past Indicative Present Indicative Perfect luetaan luettiin on luettu oli luettu luettaisiin olisi luettu luettaneen lienee luettu luettakoon Negative ei lueta ei luettu ei ole luettu ei ollut luettu ei luettaisi ei olisi luettu ei luettane ei liene luettu lkn luettako

Past Perfect Indicative Present Conditional Perfect Conditional Present Potential Perfect Potential Imperative

Mit luet yliopistossa? What are you studying at the university? Luen suomea yliopistossa. I study Finnish in the university. Mit siin lukee? What's that say? Kyltiss lukee "Mee pois!". The sign says: go away! Kiltiss lukee "Mee pois!". It says: go away! on the kilt. (NB. This is a joke.) Harrastuksiini kuuluu lukeminen. One of my hobbies is reading. Osaan lukea japania, mutta en osaa kirjoittaa sit. I can read Japanese, but I can't write it. Hnet luetaan perusnrtteihin. He's considered a complete geek. Pystytk lukemaan miestsi kuin avointa kirjaa? Can you read your husband like an open book? Pystyn, pystyn. Osaan vaikkapa lukea hnen ajatuksiaan. Yeah, I can even read his thoughts. Eilen luin pari kirjaa, kolme kirjett ja sanomalehden. Yesterday I read a couple of books, three letters and the newspaper. (NB. Like couple in English, pari doesn't always mean two. It could be two or three, muutama means between two and five, in other words, a vague amount, a few.) Hnen pivns ovat luetut. His days are numbered. He's a dead man.

Words with an element in common with lukea


luettava readable; something that has to be read Hnen ksialansa on helposti luettava. His handwriting is easy to read. luku Lue neen kaikki parittomat luvut. Please read out loud all the odd numbers.
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Lukekaa kirjan ensimminen luku. Please read the first chapter of the book. #jnk luvulla in the ~ 1900-luvulla Suomi itsenistyi. Finland gained independence in the 1900's. lukija reader

The Infinitive Stem


The infinitive stem is formed by removing the following from the end of the verb in its infinitive or dictionary form:

Verb type

How the cases decline when used with lukea:


lukea jkn to read something completely Luin tmn pivn sanomalehden parissa tunnissa. I read today's newspaper in a couple hours. Tunnilla luimme kirjan (lpi). We read the (whole) book in class. lukea jtk to partially read something Luin eilen saapunutta kirjett keittinpydn ress. I read the letter that came yesterday (sitting) at the kitchen table. lukea jtk to study something Yliopistossa luen kntmist. I study translation at the university. lukea jstk to read in something, Luimme lehdest, ett Neuvostoliitto oli romahtanut. We read in the newspaper that the Soviet Union had collapsed.

What to remove infinitive stem -a/-, -da/-d,

to

get

the

Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Type 5

-la/-l, -na/-n, -ra/-r, -ta/-t, -a/-, -a/-,

Type 6 -a/-, If you do this correctly, types 1 and 2 will end in a vowel (V) and types 3-6 will end in a consonant (C), for example: Verb type Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Type 5 Dictionary form Infinitive stem lukea saada surra pelata mainita lukesaasurpelatmainit-

Phrases with lukea:


lukea jnk ajatukset to read someone's mind lukea rivien vlist to read between the lines lukea jstk neen to read aloud, to read from something Koulussa luimme kirjoista neen luokan edess. We used to read aloud out of books in front of the class in school. lukea jtk kuin avointa kirjaa to read someone like an open book lukea jkn lpi to read something through Tunnilla luimme kirjan lpi. We read the (whole) book in class. lukea tenttiin to study for exams Minun on luettava tentteihini. I have to read for my exams. lukea uudestaan to reread lukea vrin to misread

Type 6 paeta paetThis form is important because it is used in forming the following verb forms: the infinitive the perfect participle the plural 3rd person imperative the potential the passive imperfect the passive conditional the passive perfect participle
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Type 2 (-da/-d, e.g. saada, syd, etc.)

verbs

Present Indicative Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en saa et saa ei saa Plural emme saa ette saa eivt saa

These types of verbs end in -da or -d. To find this type of verb's infinitive stem, remove the -da or -d, thus saada's infinitive stem is saa-. Examples of some common Type 2 verbs: juoda 'to drink' jd 'to stay' kanavoida 'to channel'? kyd 'to visit' luennoida 'to lecture' myyd 'to sell' pyskid 'to park' saada 'to get', 'to be allowed' soida 'to ring (out)' syd 'to eat' terrorisoida 'to terrorize' tuoda 'to bring' tupakoida 'to smoke' uida 'to swim' vied 'to take' voida 'to be able to' NB. nhd, tehd and arvioida are irregular. Nhd and tehd follow the same conjugation pattern as lukea
Saada - Type 2 verb

Past Indicative Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person sain sait sai Plural saimme saitte saivat

Past Indicative Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en saanut et saanut ei saanut Plural emme saaneet ette saaneet eivt saaneet

Present Indicative Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person saan saat saa Plural saamme saatte saavat

Present Perfect Indicative Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 3rd person olen saanut on saanut 2nd person olet saanut Plural olemme saaneet olette saaneet ovat saaneet

Present Perfect Indicative Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en ole saanut et ole saanut ei ole saanut Plural emme ole saaneet ette ole saaneet eivt ole saaneet

Present Conditional Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en saisi et saisi ei saisi Plural emme saisi ette saisi eivt saisi

Past Perfect Indicative Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person olin saanut olit saanut oli saanut Plural olimme saaneet olitte saaneet olivat saaneet

Perfect Conditional Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person olisin saanut olisit saanut olisi saanut Plural olisimme saaneet olisitte saaneet olisivat saaneet

Past Perfect Indicative Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en saanut ollut Plural emme olleet saaneet ette olleet saaneet eivt olleet saaneet

Perfect Conditional Active - Negative


Singular 1st person en olisi saanut 2nd person 3rd person et olisi saanut ei olisi saanut Plural emme olisi saaneet ette olisi saaneet eivt olisi saaneet

et ollut saanut ei ollut saanut

Present Conditional Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person saisin saisit saisi Plural saisimme saisitte saisivat 1st person 2nd person 3rd person

Present Potential Active - Affirmative


Singular saanen saanet saanee Plural saanemme saanette saanevat

Present Potential Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en saane et saane ei saane Plural emme saane ette saane eivt saane

Imperative Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person --l saa lkn saako Plural lkmme saako lk saako lkt saako

Perfect Potential Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person lienen saanut lienet saanut lienee saanut Plural lienemme saaneet lienette saaneet lienevt saaneet

Passive - Affirmative and Negative


Affirmative Present Indicative Past Indicative Present Indicative Past Indicative Perfect Perfect saadaan saatiin on saatu oli saatu Negative ei saada ei saatu ei ole saatu ei ollut saatu ei saataisi ei olisi saatu ei saatane ei liene saatu lkn saatako

Perfect Potential Active - Negative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en liene saanut et liene saanut ei liene saanut Plural emme liene saaneet ette liene saaneet eivt liene saaneet

Present Conditional saataisiin Perfect Conditional Present Potential Perfect Potential Imperative olisi saatu saataneen lienee saatu saatakoon

Imperative Active - Affirmative


Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person --saa saakoon Plural saakaamme saakaa saakoot

Saada's meanings get to be allowed may to acquire to receive

Type 3 verbs ( -la/-l, -na/-n, -ra/-r, -sta/-st, e.g. tulla, menn, surra, nousta, etc. etc.)
These types of verbs end in -la/-l, -na/-n, -ra/-r, -sta/-st. To find this type of verb's infinitive stem, remove the -la or -l, -na or -n, ra or -r, or -sta or -st, thus tulla's infinitive stem is tul-. To get the 1st person singular present form, place an -e on the end of the infinitive stem, and if necessary (i.e. with -la and -l), perform consonant gradation. In the case of Type 3 verbs, the 3rd person plural present form is the same as the 1st person singular present form. NB. Consonant gradation does occur in Type 3 verbs, but only with -la/-l! Examples of some common Type 1 verbs:

suudella 'to kiss' tapella 'to fight' tulla 'to come', 'to become' tyskennell 'to work'

Menn - Type 3 verb


Present Indicative Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person menen menet menee Plural menemme menette menevt

Present Indicative Active - Negative Singular 1st person en mene et mene ei mene Plural emme mene ette mene eivt mene

ajatella jtk 'to think about something' hymyill 'to smile' julkaista 'to publish' kiistell 'to quarrel' kuulla 'to hear' kuunnella 'to listen' kvell 'to walk' menn 'to go' nousta 'to rise' olla [slightly irregular] 'to be' ommella 'to sew' opetella 'to learn' opiskella 'to study' panna 'to put' pest 'to wash' purra 'to bite' ratkaista 'to solve' riidell 'to fight' surra 'to mourn'

2nd person 3rd person

Past Indicative Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person menin menit meni Plural menimme menitte menivt

Past Indicative Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en mennyt et mennyt ei mennyt Plural emme menneet ette menneet eivt menneet

Past Perfect Indicative Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en ollut mennyt et ollut mennyt ei ollut mennyt Plural emme olleet menneet ette olleet menneet eivt olleet menneet

Present Perfect Indicative Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person olen mennyt olet mennyt on mennyt Plural olemme menneet olette menneet ovat menneet

Present Conditional Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person menisin menisit menisi Plural menisimme menisitte menisivt

Present Perfect Indicative Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en ole mennyt et ole mennyt ei ole mennyt Plural emme ole menneet ette ole menneet eivt ole menneet

Present Conditional Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en menisi et menisi ei menisi Plural emme menisi ette menisi eivt menisi

Past Perfect Indicative Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person olin mennyt olit mennyt oli mennyt Plural olimme menneet olitte menneet olivat menneet 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Perfect Conditional Active - Affirmative Singular olisin mennyt olisit mennyt olisi mennyt Plural olisimme menneet olisitte menneet olisivat menneet

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Perfect Potential Active - Negative Perfect Conditional Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en olisi mennyt et olisi mennyt ei olisi mennyt Plural emme olisi menneet ette olisi menneet eivt olisi menneet Imperative Active - Affirmative Present Potential Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person mennen mennet mennee Plural menneemme mennette mennevt Imperative Active - Negative Present Potential Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en menne et menne ei menne Plural emme menne ette menne eivt menne 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Singular --l mene lkn menk Plural lkmme menk lk menk lkt menk 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Singular --mene menkn Plural menkmme menk menkt 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Singular en liene mennyt et liene mennyt ei liene mennyt Plural emme liene menneet ette liene menneet eivt liene menneet

Passive - Affirmative and Negative Perfect Potential Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person lienen mennyt lienet mennyt lienee mennyt Plural lienemme menneet lienette menneet lienevt menneet Present Indicative Past Indicative Present Indicative Past Indicative Perfect Perfect Affirmative mennn mentiin on menty oli menty mentisiin Negative ei menn ei menty ei ole menty ei ollut menty ei mentisi 11

Present Conditional

Perfect Conditional Present Potential Perfect Potential Imperative

olisi menty mentneen lienee menty mentkn

ei olisi menty ei mentne ei liene menty lkn mentk

Present Indicative Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en mee et mee ei mee Plural emme mee ette mee eivt mee

Things to note with this verb When is menn used?

The 1st person plural imperative menkmme is usually replaced with mennn in everyday speech. In addition this form changes in this fashion with all verbs. For instance: o Mennn jo! Let's go already! o Mentiin eilen Tuijan polttareihin ja dokattiin itsemme knniin. Yesterday we went to Tuija's bachelorette party and drank ourselves into an oblivion. o Mennn kahville. Let's go get some coffee. The 2nd person plural imperative mene is usually replaced with mee in speech. For instance: o Mee pois jo ja jt mut rauhaan! Go away already and leave me alone! The Present Indicative Active forms of menn often change in speech. The 3rd person forms don't change though. For instance:

Present Indicative Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person meen meet menee Plural meemme meette menevt

Miten menee? How's it going? How are things? Huomenna meen ostoksille. I'm going shopping tomorrow. Mee pois! Go away! Mee heittmn roskat pois! Go take the garbage out! Menin hakemaan kirjat kirjastosta. I went to get some books from the library. Minun mekkoni on mennyt rikki saumasta. My dress has ripped at the seam. Th? Toi meni minulta ohi. Huh? I didn't get that. Toissapivn hn oli ihan ok, mutta tnn en sied hnt. Mik hneen oikein meni? Two days ago he was just fine, but today I can't stand him. What on earth happened to him? Kun mummoni oli 75 vuotta vanha, hnelt meni nk. My nana lost her eyesight when she was 75. Mee suoraan, knny vasemalle ja mee sillan yli. Go straight ahead, turn left and then go over the bridge.

Words with an element in common with menn

menett jkn to lose o Naapurini menetti miehens kolarissa. My neighbour's husband was killed in a car crash. o l edes yrit tai menetn malttini! Don't even start or I'm going to lose my temper! o Kun mummoni oli 75 vuotta vanha, hn menetti nkns. My nana lost her eyesight when she was 75. o Sanottuaan sen hn tajusi, ett hn menetti kasvonsa. Upon saying it, he realized he had lost face. o Serkkuni puoliso menetti mielenkiintonsa kaikkeen, kun hn menetti typaikkansa. My cousin's husband lost interest in everything when he lost his job. 12

Menett terveytesi lhitulevaisuudessa, jos ryyppt niin paljon. You're going to ruin your health in the near future if you continue to drink so much. menett maansa ja mantunsa to lose one's house and home; to lose everything you have o Naapurini menetti maansa ja mantunsa, kun menetti miehens kolarissa. My neighbour lost everything when her husband was killed in a car crash. meno o Janilla on aina meno pll. Jani's always on the go. o Olin menossa ulos, kun hn soitti. I was just leaving when he called. o Hn puhui viisi tuntia yhteen menoon. He talked non-stop for five hours. menot [=tulot] o Hn tuhlasi niin paljon rahaa, ett hnen tulonsa eivt riittneet kaattamaan hnen menojansa. He blew so much money that his income wasn't enough to cover his expenses. jhk menness by ~ o Lhet tm lomake tiistaihin menness. Send in this application by Tuesday mennyt o Maksa nyt tai oot mennytt! Pay up or you're a dead man! o Hn on mennytt kalua. He's a goner. o Se on ollutta, mik on mennytt. Let bygones be bygones. o Se on olutta, mik on mennytt. [Play on words from above saying] The beer has passed through me. (NB. I wouldn't suggest trying to use this to be funny, as Finns will just think you're mispronouncing the above one, but I put it here so that you know what it is if you run across it at a party. =) o Voi helkkari! Nyt mun maineeni on mennytt! Damn it! There went my reputation! o Muistelimme menneit tuopin rell. We were remembering the good old times over a pint. o Olkoon menneeksi! Yeah, whatever! (when you're giving up during a quarrel for instance.) o Maksa nyt tai oot mennytt! Pay up or you're a dead man! menneisyys menev menij

menekki meneilln mennen tullen easily, without effort o Hn pihitti minut mennen tullen. He creamed me. He beat me easily. He beat me with one hand tied behind his back. He beat me without breaking a sweat.

How the cases decline when used with menn:

menn jllak o menn taksilla to take a cab, to take a taxi, to catch a cab. o menn bussilla to go by bus. o menn autolla to go by car. o menn junalla to go by train, to take the train. o menn laivalla to go by ship, to take a boat. o menn reell to go by sleigh. o menn ratikalla (slang) to go by tram. o menn raitsikalla (slang) to go by tram. o menn rautiovaunulla to go by tram. o menn sporalla (Helsinki slang) to go by tram menn jstk [rare : more commonly lhte jstk]
o to leave a place menn jhk o to go somewhere [with noun] o to go do something [with verb] itini kski minun menn etsimn veljeni. My mother told me to go find my brother. menn jnk yli o to cross something (i.e. a street, bridge)

The 1st person singular present


The 1st person singular present is derived from the infinitive stem by not adding anything or by adding the following endings according to verb type. CG means to perform consonant gradation if possible.
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Type 4 verbs (-ata/-t, -ota, -uta, -yt, e.g. pelata, lyt, etc.)
Verb type Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Type 5 Type 6 What to add to get the 1st person singular present form CG -e- + CG (only for -la/-l), otherwise only -eremove -t and replace with -a- or -- +CG -seremove -t and replace with -ne- +CG

These types of verbs end in -ata, -ota, -yt or -t. Ocassionally, you will come across verbs that end in -et or -it, although these usually belong to types 5 and 6. To find this type of verb's infinitive stem, remove the -a or -, thus pelata's infinitive stem is pelat-. Remember that Type 4 verbs undergo consonant gradation if at all possible, which is why it is hyppn and not *hypn. Additionally, this is an extremely common verb type, as new verbs that come into Finnish often come into this category. Examples of some common Type 4 verbs:

If you do this correctly, all types will end in a vowel (V):

Verb type Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Type 5 Type 6

Dictionary form lukea saada surra pelata mainita paeta

1st person singular present luesaasurepelaamainitsepakene-

This form is important because it is used in forming the following verb forms:

the 1st person the singular imperative the passive forms for verb type 1 the negative present

avata 'to open' erota 'to quit' hakata 'to beat' haluta 'to want' hert 'to wake up' huomata 'to notice' hypt 'to jump' hvet 'to be ashamed' hvit 'to lose', 'to disappear' juoruta 'to gossip' kadota 'to disappear' kiivet 'to climb' lakata 'to stop' luvata 'to promise' maata 'to lie (down)' mrt 'to determine' osata 'to be able to' peitota 'to thrash', 'to beat up' pelata 'to play' pelt 'to be scared' piffata 'to treat' pihdata 'to skimp' pudota 'to fall' ruveta 'to start' selvit 'to become clear' siivota 'to clean' 14

tarjota 'to offer', 'to serve' tavata 'to play' tilata 'to order' todeta 'to state' tykt 'to like' vastata 'to answer' lyt 'to get something', 'to understand'

Past Indicative Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en halunnut et halunnut ei halunnut Plural emme halunneet ette halunneet eivt halunneet

Haluta - Type 4 verb


Present Perfect Indicative Active - Affirmative Present Indicative Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person haluan haluat haluaa Plural haluamme haluatte haluavat Present Perfect Indicative Active - Negative Present Indicative Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en halua et halua ei halua Plural emme halua ette halua eivt halua 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Singular en ole halunnut et ole halunnut ei ole halunnut Plural emme ole halunneet ette ole halunneet eivt ole halunneet 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Singular olen halunnut olet halunnut on halunnut Plural olemme halunneet olette halunneet ovat halunneet

Past Perfect Indicative Active - Affirmative Past Indicative Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person halusin halusit halusi Plural halusimme halusitte halusivat 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Singular olin halunnut olit halunnut oli halunnut Plural olimme halunneet olitte halunneet olivat halunneet

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Past Perfect Indicative Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en ollut halunnut et ollut halunnut ei ollut halunnut Plural emme olleet halunneet ette olleet halunneet eivt olleet halunneet

Perfect Conditional Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en olisi halunnut et olisi halunnut ei olisi halunnut Plural emme olisi halunneet ette olisi halunneet eivt olisi halunneet

Present Conditional Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person haluaisin haluaisit haluaisi Plural haluaisimme haluaisitte haluaisivat

Present Potential Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person halunnen halunnet halunnee Plural halunnemme halunnette halunnevat

Present Potential Active - Negative Present Conditional Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en haluaisi et haluaisi ei haluaisi Plural emme haluaisi ette haluaisi eivt haluaisi 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Singular en halunne et halunne ei halunne Plural emme halunne ette halunne eivt halunne

Perfect Potential Active - Affirmative Perfect Conditional Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Plural 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Singular lienen halunnut lienet halunnut lienee halunnut Plural lienemme halunneet lienette halunneet lienevt halunneet

olisin halunnut olisimme halunneet olisit halunnut olisi halunnut olisitte halunneet olisivat halunneet

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Perfect Potential Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en liene halunnut et liene halunnut ei liene halunnut Plural emme liene halunneet ette liene halunneet eivt liene halunneet

Present Potential Perfect Potential Imperative

haluttaneen lienee haluttu haluttakoon

ei haluttane ei liene haluttu lkn haluttako

Things to note with this verb

Imperative Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person --halua halutkoon Plural halutkaamme halutkaa halutkoot

This verb occasionally drops the -t- from the infinitive stem, so please be careful! This verb also follows the traditional trend of -ti turning to -si in the past tenses.

Type 5 (-ita/-it, e.g. tarvita, merkit, etc.)

verbs

Imperative Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person --l halua lkn halutko Plural lkmme halutko lk halutko lkt halutko

These types of verbs end in -ita or -it. Ocassionally, you will come across verbs that have this ending but do not conjugate this way; these verbs belong to type 4. To find this type of verb's infinitive stem, remove the -a or -, thus tarvita's infinitive stem is tarvit-. Remember that Type 5 verbs need -se- between the infinitive stem and the personal endings, which is why it is tarvitsen and not *tarvitan. Examples of some common Type 5 verbs:

Passive - Affirmative and Negative Affirmative Present Indicative Past Indicative Present Indicative Perfect halutaan haluttiin on haluttu oli haluttu haluttaisiin olisi haluttu Negative ei haluta ei haluttu ei ole haluttu ei ollut haluttu ei haluttaisi ei olisi haluttu

Past Perfect Indicative Present Conditional Perfect Conditional

hallita 'to rule', 'to govern'; 'to be able to' havaita 'to perceive' hillit 'to restrain', 'to check', 'to control' hirit 'to disturb' kyydit 'to give s.o. a lift', 'to drive'; 'to forcibly eject' mainita 'to mention' merkit 'to mark' palkita 'to reward'; 'to award' tarvita 'to need' tulkita 'to interpret' tuomita 'to sentence', 'to condemn' valita 'to choose'

Verbs that look like they belong to type 5, but actually belong to type 4: 17

hvit 'to lose', 'to disappear' selvit 'to become clear'

Past Indicative Active - Negative Singular 1st person en tarvinnut et tarvinnut ei tarvinnut Plural emme tarvinneet ette tarvinneet eivt tarvinneet

Tarvita - Type 5 verb


Present Indicative Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person tarvitsen tarvitset tarvitsee Plural tarvitsemme tarvitsette tarvitsevat

2nd person 3rd person

Present Perfect Indicative Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Plural

olen tarvinnut olemme tarvinneet olet tarvinnut on tarvinnut olette tarvinneet ovat tarvinneet

Present Indicative Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en tarvitse et tarvitse ei tarvitse Plural emme tarvitse ette tarvitse eivt tarvitse

Present Perfect Indicative Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en ole tarvinnut et ole tarvinnut ei ole tarvinnut Plural emme ole tarvinneet ette ole tarvinneet eivt ole tarvinneet

Past Indicative Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person tarvitsin tarvitsit tarvitsi Plural tarvitsimme tarvitsitte tarvitsivat

Past Perfect Indicative Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person olin tarvinnut olit tarvinnut oli tarvinnut Plural olimme tarvinneet olitte tarvinneet olivat tarvinneet

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Past Perfect Indicative Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en ollut tarvinnut et ollut tarvinnut ei ollut tarvinnut Plural emme olleet tarvinneet ette olleet tarvinneet eivt olleet tarvinneet

Perfect Conditional Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en olisi tarvinnut et olisi tarvinnut ei olisi tarvinnut Plural emme olisi tarvinneet ette olisi tarvinneet eivt olisi tarvinneet

Present Conditional Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person tarvitsisin tarvitsisit tarvitsisi Plural tarvitsisimme tarvitsisitte tarvitsisivat

Present Potential Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person tarvinnen tarvinnet tarvinnee Plural tarvinnemme tarvinnette tarvinnevat

Present Conditional Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en tarvitsisi et tarvitsisi ei tarvitsisi Plural emme tarvitsisi ette tarvitsisi eivt tarvitsisi

Present Potential Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person en tarvinne et tarvinne ei tarvinne Plural emme tarvinne ette tarvinne eivt tarvinne

Perfect Conditional Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person olisin tarvinnut olisit tarvinnut olisi tarvinnut Plural olisimme tarvinneet olisitte tarvinneet olisivat tarvinneet

Perfect Potential Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person lienen tarvinnut lienet tarvinnut lienee tarvinnut Plural lienemme tarvinneet lienette tarvinneet lienevt tarvinneet

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Perfect Potential Active - Negative Singular 1st person en liene tarvinnut Plural emme liene tarvinneet ette liene tarvinneet eivt liene tarvinneet

Perfect Potential Imperative

lienee tarvittu tarvittakoon

ei liene tarvittu lkn tarvittako

Things to note with this verb

2nd person et liene tarvinnut 3rd person ei liene tarvinnut

This verb occasionally has -se- or -si- in between the infinitive stem and the personal ending, so please be careful!

Imperative Active - Affirmative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person --tarvitse tarvitkoon Plural tarvitkaamme tarvitkaa tarvitkoot

Type 6 (-eta/-et, e.g. paeta, kyet, etc.)

verbs

Imperative Active - Negative Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person --l tarvitse lkn tarvitko Plural lkmme tarvitko lk tarvitko lkt tarvitko

These types of verbs end in -eta or -et. To find this type of verb's infinitive stem, remove the -a or -. For the personal suffix stem, change the -t- to -ne- and remember to do consonant gradation, thus vaieta's stem for personal suffixes is vaikene- and vaiet- for the infinitive stem. NB. Consonant gradation does occur in Type 6 verbs! Examples of some Type 6 verbs:

Passive - Affirmative and Negative Affirmative Present Indicative Past Indicative Present Indicative Past Indicative Perfect Perfect tarvitaan tarvittiin on tarvittu oli tarvittu tarvittaisiin olisi tarvittu tarvittaneen Negative ei tarvita ei tarvittu ei ole tarvittu ei ollut tarvittu ei tarvittaisi ei olisi tarvittu ei tarvittane

Present Conditional Perfect Conditional Present Potential

aleta ehet = ehjet enet erjet halveta heiket helet heljet herjet = heret hiljet himmet hoiketa hllet ilmet irjet jylhet jhmet 20

kalveta kangeta kehjet kelmet kelmet kiihket kiret kyet kylmet khet kyet kyhet laaeta laajeta langeta liieta liket lyhet lhet lmmet myhet niuketa = niukentua noeta nuoreta paeta paheta parata pehmet pidet pienet pimet seljet sietII silet supeta suureta synket teljet tummeta tungeta tyhjet tyhmet

vaaleta vaieta vaimeta vanheta viilet viret virjet vhet vljet ylet

Verbs that look like they belong to type 6, but actually belong to type 4:

hvet 'to be ashamed' kiivet 'to climb' ruveta 'to start' todeta 'to state'

Even though their infinitives stay the same, some verbs are slowly changing from Type 6 to Type 4:

aueta raueta nget --> ngt

And some have synonyms (not always completely compatible though!) that are Type 1:

aueta ~ avautua kylmet ~ kylmenty vanheta ~ vanhentua

Occasionally the synonyms combine so that in some cases one form is used, while in other cases, the second one is used, e.g. erkaantua is used in the infinitive form, but erkene- (from erjet) is used as the personal suffix stem! In some cases, the forms overlap, e.g. erkaantuvat and erkenevt.

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Type 6 verbs are usually created from adjectives and have the underlying meaning of become the adjective or become more like the adjective. Some of these verbs do seem to have nouns as their root though, although it could just be that their adjectival root has disappeared from the language. When declining Type 6 verbs, remember that consonant gradation does occur and that the infinitive always has a weak vowel and that the finite forms have a strong one. Thus:

The Negative Verb


The negative in Finnish is actually another verb form, although this one doesn't change for tense or mood. Each grammatical person, singular and plural, has its own form.

Singular 1st person en et ei 2nd person 3rd person

Plural emme ette eivt

Infinitive 1st person singular - present indicative 3rd person plural - present indicative 3rd person singular - past indicative Active past participle Passive past participle 2nd person plural - imperative 2nd person singular - imperative

vaieta vaikenen vaikenevat vaikeni vaiennut vaiettu vaietkaa

Thus, when answering "no" to a question, you must use the proper form of the negative verb:

Puhutko suomea? Do you speak Finnish? o En (puhu). No(, I don't). Ostaako hn leip? Is he buying bread? Is he going to buy bread? o Ei (osta). No(, he isn't).

Personal endings for the verbs


In Finnish, there are 6 personal endings for verbs: Singular Plural 1st person 2nd person 3rd person -n -t -V or - -mme -tte -vat or -vt

When answering "no", you don't need to repeat the question's verb, although you can, which is why it appears in parentheses.

Transitive and intransitive verbs


When using Finnish, proper attention should be paid as to whether and intransitive verb (never takes an object) is needed or a transitive one (may take an object). For instance, the sentence Johtajamme erotettiin is completely different in meaning from Johtajamme erosi. In the first one, the infinitive is erottaa, and the manager was dismissed (he was asked to leave), whereas in the second one the infinitive form is erota and he quit (he left on his own). To somewhat facilitate this, I have put up a chart comparing the two.

The negative verb


There is a so-called negative verb in Finnish, which declines according to person and, in effect, removes the affirmative verb's personal suffix, e.g. puhun 'I talk' becomes en puhu 'I don't talk'.

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perehdytt Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Transitive aiheuttaa avata erottaa haistaa hvitt jakaa jatkaa jrjest jtt kaataa kadottaa kastaa kasvattaa kehitt kuivata kyhdytt lopettaa loukata lyt masentaa nostaa nhd paljastaa parantaa Intransitive aiheutua avautua, aueta erota haista hvit jakautua jatkua jrjesty jd kaatua kadota kastua kasvaa kehitty kuivua kyhty loppua loukkaantua lyty masentua nousta nky paljastua parantua perustaa pudottaa pst rakastaa rikastuttaa sammuttaa selvitt siirt soittaa sulattaa suljeta sytytt tarjota toteuttaa unohtaa vaihtaa valmistaa yleist

perehty perustua pudota pst rakastua rikastua sammua selvit siirty soida sulaa sulkeutua sytty tarjoutua toteutua unohtua vaihtua valmistua yleisty

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