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What is computer? A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or "data.

" Data means collection of information Expansion of computer: C - Commonly

O - Oriented or Operator or User M P Machine Particularly or Practically

U - Used for T E R Trade or Technical Educational

- Research

The word computer comes under in compute. Computer means Calculate

What is the use the computer? Computer has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. You can use a computer to type documents, send email, and browse the internet. You can also use it to handle spreadsheets, accounting, database management, presentations, games, and more. What is OS? Operating system means combination of hardware and software. Hardware: To study about physical parts or equipments EQ: Hard disk, Keyboard, processor, Motherboard Software: To create a new programs or To view existing programs EQ: C, C++,Java, .NET

What is the difference between Windows XP and Windows 7?

The shutdown and startup is very fast in windows 7 when compared to the windows XP. The kernel of windows 7 is very good when compared to windows XP User defined themes can be implemented in windows 7 but in windows XP themes cannot be created In windows 7 no need to install drivers where as in windows XP drivers should be installed.

What is the difference between Windows XP and Windows 98? Windows 98 support only FAT where as XP support both FAT and NTFS Win 98 does not need faster processing speed while XP need 500mhz processing speed. Win 98 does not have Remote access facility while in XP there Win 98 does not having hibernate facility while XP having hibernate facility.

What is the difference between FAT and NTFS? FAT: 1. Fat stands for File Allocation Table 2. There are two categories in Fat File System Fat 16 Fat 32 3. In Fat Up To Folder Level Security is available 4. Compression Option is not available 5. Encryption Option is not available 6. Disk Quota Option is not Available 7. FAT Supported By All Of The Microsoft Based Operating System


NTFS stands for New Technology File System There are three categories in NTFS file System NTFS 4.0 - NT O/S NTFS 5.0 - 2000 O/S NTFS 6.0 - 2003O/S In NTFS Up-to File Level Security is available Compression Option is available Encryption Option is available Disk Quota Option is Available NTFS Supported By only Limited Microsoft Based Operating System

What is the difference between Windows and DOS? DOS uses CLI (command line interface), whereas Windows used GUI (graphical user interface).. DOS does not support networking, Windows does.. DOS is a single user OS, Windows is Multiuser.. DOS is a single tasking OS, Windows is Multitasking.. Dos is a single threading OS, Windows is a Multithreading.. DOS supports 2 GB of maximum partition size, Windows supports 2 TB or more.. DOS uses FAT 16 file system, Windows uses FAT 32.. Server administration is not possible in DOS..

What is difference between RAM and ROM? RAM is Random Access Memory, while ROM stands for Read Only Memory.

RAM is volatile and is erased when the computer is switched off. ROM is non-volatile and generally cannot be written to. RAM is used for both read and write while ROM is used only for reading. RAM needs electricity to flow to retain information while ROM is permanent. RAM is analogous to a blackboard on which information can be written with a chalk and erased any number of times, while ROM is permanent and can only be read. One example is BIOS (basic input output system) that runs when computer is switched on and it prepares disk drives and processor to load OS from disk.

What is the difference between Static RAM and Dynamic RAM? Static RAM (SRAM) 1. 4 times more expensive 2. Very low access time 3. Can store as much 4. Information stored on RS flip-flops 5. No need for refreshing Dynamic RAM (DRAM) 1. Low cost 2. Consumes less power 3. Can store 4 times as much 4. Information stored on FET transistors 5. Needs to be refreshed What are the features available in Windows XP? Build on the new windows engine Enhanced device driver verifier Ip security(IP sec) Smart card support Windows fire wall Windows security center

Kerberos support Windows installer

What are the features available in Windows 7? Automatic changing of desktop wallpaper Blu Ray disk support Live media streaming Multiple instances of same program Xp mode Direct access feature Fast booting

What is the difference between windows 7 and Windows 8? Windows 7 Windows 7 is the latest operating system released by Microsoft. Windows 7 was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009. It includes new features like touch and handwriting recognition, support for virtual hard disks, improved performance on multi-core processors,improved boot performance, DirectAccess, kernel improvements, UAC (User Account Control), Windows Action Center, Jumplist, etc., It started using Windows Aero.

WINDOWS 8 Windows 8 is the upcoming operating system by Microsoft. Windows 8 will be released in sometime in 2012. It supports System-on-a-chip (SoC) and mobile ARM processors It includes new features like Hybrid Boot which uses advanced hibernation functionality far faster shutdown times, Portable Workspace, ability to install Winodws 8 on a USB Storage, Modern Task Manager, native ISO mounting, Modern Reader to read PDF Files, etc., It started using Windows Metro User Interface.

What are the features available in Windows 8?

Windows Phone 7's theme and UI Ribbon User Interface in Explorer Cloud Integration Windows Live Integration Built-In PDF Reader ISO Mounting File Download Verification Aero Auto-Colorization

What is the difference between Unix and Linux? The UNIX operating system is used in internet servers and workstations while LINUX is mostly used on personal computers. The UNIX operating system was developed at Bell labs while LINUX operating system is made by LINUX Torvalds. The LINUX operating system is based on the kernel of UNIX operating system. Although both the operating systems are open source but UNIX is relatively closed one as compared to LINUX.

What is IP? IP (Internet Protocol) is the primary network protocol used on the Internet, developed in the 1970s. On the Internet and many other networks, IP is often used together with the Transport Control Protocol (TCP) and referred to interchangeably as TCP/IP. IP supports unique addressing for computers on a network. Most networks use the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) standard that features IP addresses four bytes (32 bits) in length. The newer Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) standard features addresses 16 bytes (128 bits) in length. What is the difference between TCP and UDP? TCP is connection oriented protocol where as UDP is connection less protocol TCP is reliable where as UDP is unreliable TCP is heavy weight where as UDP is less weight TCP is used in webpages, database information etc. where as UDP is used in Audio and Video files.

How many Versions available in IP? There are two versions in IP. They are IPV4 and IPV6. How many classes available in IP version 4? The IPv4 address space can be subdivided into 5 classes - Class A, B, C, D and E. Each class consists of a contiguous subset of the overall IPv4 address range. What is subnet mask? An IP address has two components, the network address and the host address. A subnet mask separates the IP address into the network and host addresses (<network><host>). Subnetting further divides the host part of an IP address into a subnet and host address (<network><subnet><host>). It is called a subnet mask because it is used to identify network address of an IP address by perfoming bitwise AND operation on the netmask. What is sub netting? Subnetting is a network design strategy that segregates a larger network into smaller components. While connected through the larger network, each subnetwork or subnet functions with a unique IP address. What is networking? More than one system connected with each other or inter connected or connecting together for sharing the informations. What is the use of Networking ? File sharing, printer sharing, online games, internet sharing, Telephone sharing. What is the difference between DDR1, DDR2, DDR3, and DDR4? DDR DDR, or double data rate, memory is simply a memory chip that processes twice as many bits of data per clock cycle as a standard RAM chip. This allows twice as many calculations to be done, effectively doubling the computing power of the processor. DDR was available in 200 MHz, 266 MHz, 333 MHz and 400 MHz speeds. DDR2 DDR2 is the second version of DDR memory. It requires less power -- 1.8 volts as compared to the DDR's 2.5 volts. It also comes with a different form factor which means

that it is not usable in motherboards designed for DDR. DDR2 was available in 400 MHz, 533 MHz, 667 MHz, 800 MHz and1033MHz speeds. DDR3 DDR3 is the third generation of double data rate memory. Even more efficient than the DDR2, DDR3 operates on 1.5 volts of electricity. It is available in 800 Mhz, 1066 Mhz, 1330 Mhz and 1600 Mhz speeds. The DDR3 form factor, although consisting of the same number of pins, is not backwards compatible with DDR2 machines. DDR4 DDR4 was set to be released in 2011 and the specs were not set in stone as of December 2010; although they were to be faster and more efficient than the DDR3's from all indications. How many pins available in VGA, RS-232, LPT, RJ-45, RJ-11, USB, and Fire wire? VGA- 15, LPT-25, RJ 45- There are 8 pins (4 pairs of twisted wires), RJ 11RJ11(Registered Jack-11) has 4 to 6 pins. Generally 4 ports are there in RJ11, USB- 4 pins 2 for power supply and 2 for data transfer, FireWire - 800 ports have 9 pins How many pins available in PCI, ISA, and AGP slots? PCI- A 32-bit PCI slot has 62 pins. A 64-bit PCI slot has 94 pins ISA- The 8-bit slot had 62 pins. The 16-bit slot had an additional 36 pins AGP- its 132 pins What is the function of Physical layer? Bit-by-bit or symbol-by-symbol delivery Providing a standardized interface to physical transmission media Modulation Line coding Circuit switching Multiplexing

What is the function of Data link layer? It segments and reorders the data. It exchanges data between programs that are running on the source and destination hosts. It generates signals to represent the bits in each frame.

What is the function of Network layer?

Connection model: connectionless communication Host addressing Message forwarding

What is the function of Transport layer? Resource utilization, connection management, flow control, reliable transport. What is the function of Session layer Establishes, manages and terminates sessions between applications as they interact on different hosts on a network. What is the function of Presentation layer? Manipulates the representation of data for transfer to applications on different devices. Data representation, data security, data compression. What is the function of Application layer? Provides a means for the user to access information on the network through an application. This layer is the main interface for the user to interact with the application and therefore the network.