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COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)

COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and


Economics)
Kristine Joy E. Carpio
Department of Mathematics
De La Salle University Manila
Term 1 2011-2012
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Outline
Systems of Linear Equations
Introduction to Matrix Algebra
Basic Matrix Operations
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Gaussian Elimination Method
Cramers Rule
Matrix Inversion Method
References
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Course Description
This is a 3-unit course in College Algebra, specically designed
for Business and Economics students to provide them with a
solid and working knowledge of pre-Calculus Algebra. The
course tackles the real number system, polynomials, algebraic
fractions and radicals, dierent methods of solving, systems of
equations and their respective applications to business and
economic situations.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Systems of Linear Equations
Systems of Linear Equations
Denition
Any collection of two or more equations is called a system of
equations.
The ordered pair of numbers (p, q) is called a solution of the
linear equations
Ax + By = C
Dx + Ey = F
if its coordinates satisfy each equation.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Systems of Linear Equations
Methods of Solution
1. Graphical Method
2. Substitution Method
3. Elimination Method
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Systems of Linear Equations
Graphical Solution
The graph of a linear equation is a line and points that satisfy
both equations lie on both lines. For some systems these points
can be found by graphing. If the lines intersect at a single point
then the equations are independent or the system is
independent. If the two lines are parallel then there is no
solution and the equations are inconsistent or the system is
inconsistent. If the two equations of the system are equivalent
then the equations are dependent or the system is dependent.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Systems of Linear Equations
Exercises
Determine if the system is consistent, inconsistent or dependent
and solve the consistent system.
1.
_
x 2y = 3
3x 6y = 8
2.
_
3x + y = 1
2x + 4y = 6
3.
_
3x 2y = 9
6x 4y = 16
4.
_
x 2y = 1
3x + 4y = 17
Solve graphically to the nearest half-unit.
1.
_
5x + 2y = 10
2x + y = 4
2.
_
x + y = 1
4x + 3y = 2
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Systems of Linear Equations
Substitution Method
For substitution we replace a variable in one equation with an
equivalent expression obtained from the other equation. Our
intention in this subsitution step is to eliminate a variable and
to give us an equation involving only one variable.
1. Solve one of the equations for one variable in terms of the
other. Choose the equation that is easiest to solve for x
and y.
2. Substitute into the other equation to get an equation in
one variable.
3. Solve for the remaining variable (if possible).
4. Insert the value just found into one of the original
equations to nd the value of the other variable.
5. Check the two variables in both equations.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Systems of Linear Equations
Elimination Method
1. Write both equations in the same form (usually
Ax + By = C).
2. Multiply one or both of the equations by appropriate
numbers (if necessary) so that one of the variables will be
eliminated by addition or subtraction.
3. Add/Subtract the equations to get an equation in one
variable.
4. Solve for the remaining variable (if possible).
5. Substitute the value obtained for one variable into one of
the original equations to obtain the value of the other
variable.
6. Check the two variables in both equations.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Systems of Linear Equations
Exercises
Solve by substitution and elimination.
1.
_
3x + y = 7
2x + 3y = 7
2.
_
2x + 3y = 0
x + 2y = 1
3.
_

_
3
r

1
t
= 3
2
r
+
7
t
= 17
4.
_

_
4
r

3
t
= 1
5
r
+
2
t
= 4
5.
_

_
3x + 2y + 2z = 1
5x 3y + 4z = 3
2x + y + 2z = 2
6.
_

_
3x + 2y 5z = 1
13y 24z = 11
x + 5y + 8z = 5
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Introduction to Matrix Algebra
Matrix
Denition
A rectangular array of real numbers with m rows and n columns
_

_
a
11
a
12
a
1j
a
1n
a
21
a
22
a
2j
a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
i1
a
i2
a
ij
a
in
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
a
m2
a
mj
a
mn
_

_
is called an m n matrix.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Introduction to Matrix Algebra
Properties of Matrices
1. If m = n then it is called a square matrix.
2. An m n matrix consists of m rows (horizontal) and n
columns (vertical).
3. Each a
ij
is called an element of the matrix. The entry a
ij
is
the element in the ith row and jth column.
4. The order or dimension of a matrix is m n.
5. A matrix with m = 1 has one row and is called a row
matrix. A matrix with n = 1 has one column and is called
a column matrix.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Introduction to Matrix Algebra
Properties of Matrices
6. Two m n matrices are equal if and only if each element of
one is equal to the corresponding element of the other.
7. The matrix obtained by interchanging the rows and
columns of a matrix A is called the transpose of A, and it
is written as A
T
. If A is m n, then A
T
is n m.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Introduction to Matrix Algebra
Exercises
Find the valued of a, b, c and d.
1.
_
1 a 3
c 4 2
_
=
_
b 5 d
0 4 2
_
2.
_

_
2 a
1 0
b 7
_

_
=
_

_
c 3
1 0
6 d
_

_
State the order and nd the transpose.
1.
_
2 1 5
3 6 2
_
2.
_

_
1 4 0
4 5 2
0 2 3
_

_
3.
_
3 4
5 8
_
4.
_

_
3 2
1 5
0 4
_

_
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Introduction to Matrix Algebra
Basic Matrix Operations
Basic Matrix Operations
1. Scalar Multiplication
The product of a number k and the matrix A is the matrix
obtained by multiplying each element of A by k.
2. Addition
The sum of two m n matrices A and B is the m n
matrix obtained by adding the corresponding elements of
A and B.
If each element of a matrix is 0, then the matrix is called a zero
matrix and it is written as 0. It is the identity for matrix
addition if that addition is dened since
A+0 = A,
for any matrix A.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Introduction to Matrix Algebra
Basic Matrix Operations
Basic Matrix Operations
3. Multiplication
The product of two matrices A and B is written AB, and
it is dened if and only if the number of columns in A is
equal to the numbers of rows in B. In general, the product
of an mn matrix A and n p matrix B is dened, and it
is an m p matrix AB. The element c
ij
in the ith row and
jth column of the product AB is
c
ij
= a
i1
b
1j
+ a
i2
b
2j
+ + a
in
b
nj
.
Multiply a row in the rst matrix by a column in the
second matrix, element by element, and add products.
Note:
1. Matrix multiplication is not commutative.
2. Distributive Law does not hold.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Introduction to Matrix Algebra
Basic Matrix Operations
Exercises
Let A =
_
3 1 2
4 0 5
_
and B =
_
2 3 0
1 5 4
_
. Evaluate:
1. 2A
2. B
T
+A
3. B
4. 3A
5. A
T
+B
6. 4BA
7. 3A+ 2B
8. 2A5B
Find the product of the following matrices.
1.
_

_
2 1 3
3 0 1
2 2 5
_

_
_

_
2
0
1
_

_
2.
_

_
1 2
4 3
3 5
_

_
_
3
2
_
3.
_
1 2 4
3 1 0
_
_

_
1 3
2 1
4 0
_

_
4.
_

_
4 2
1 3
0 5
_

_
_
2 1
3 0
_
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Introduction to Matrix Algebra
Basic Matrix Operations
Remarks
If A is m n and A
T
is its transpose, then
1. A A
T
is a square matrix of order m.
2. A
T
A is a square matrix of order n.
If A is an n n matrix and if each entry in the main diagonal
is 1 (the diagonal from upper left to lower right) and all the
other elements are zero, the matrix is called an identity matrix
since it acts as identity for matrix multiplication. It is
designated by I or I
n
.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Gaussian Elimination Method
Suppose we have the following system of n linear equations in
the n variables x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
a
11
x
1
+ a
12
x
2
+ + a
1n
x
n
= k
1
a
21
x
1
+ a
22
x
2
+ + a
2n
x
n
= k
2
.
.
.
a
n1
x
1
+ a
n2
x
2
+ + a
nn
x
n
= k
n
Then each of the following operations will produce systems
which are equivalent to the given system.
1. Interchange two equations.
2. Multiply any equation a nonzero constant.
3. Add to a multiple of any equation to another equation.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Gaussian Elimination Method
Denition (Coecient Matrix, Augmented Matrix)
The matrix whose elements are the coecients of the given
system of equations, in the same relative position, is called the
coecient matrix. If the constant terms are included on the
right of the coecient matrix as another column, the new
matrix is called the augmented matrix.
For the augmented matrix of a system of linear equations,
applying the elementary row operations below will produce the
matrix of an equivalent system of linear equations.
1. Interchange any two rows of the augmented matrix.
2. Multiply any row of the augmented matrix by a nonzero
constant.
3. Add a nonzero multiple of any row to any other row, term
by term.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Gaussian Elimination Method
Gaussian Elimination Method
The elementary row operations will be abbreviated as
R
i
R
j
k R
i
R
i
+ k R
j
The method involves applying elementary row operations to
change the augmented matrix into one which represents an
equivalent set of equations, but which is easier to solve. The
goal is to produce a new augmented matrix in which:
Only 0 occurs below the main diagonal
Only 1 or 0 occurs on the main diagonal, 1 if possible
This produces a matrix which allows the corresponding system
of equations to be solved by substituting known values back
into the previous equations.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Gaussian Elimination Method
Exercises
Solve each system using the Gauss-Jordan elimination method.
1.
_
x + y = 6
3y = 6
2.
_
x y = 1
2x y = 2
3.
_
6x 7y = 0
2x + y = 20
4.
_
2x 3y = 1
6x + 9y = 3
5.
_

_
2x + y + z = 4
x + y z = 1
x y + 2z = 2
6.
_

_
x + z = 2
2x y = 5
y + 3z = 9
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Cramers Rule
Determinant of a 2 2 Matrix
The determinant of the matrix A =
_
a b
c d
_
is dened to be the
real number ad bc. We write

a b
c d

= ad bc.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Cramers Rule
Cramers Rule (2 2)
The solution to the system
a
1
x + b
1
y = c
1
a
2
x + b
2
y = c
2
is given by x =
D
x
D
and y =
D
y
D
, where
D =

a
1
b
1
a
2
b
2

, D
x
=

c
1
b
1
c
2
b
2

, and D
y
=

a
1
c
1
a
2
c
2

,
provided that D = 0.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Cramers Rule
Cofactor
Denition (Minor)
The minor of an element a
ij
is the determinant of the matrix of
order n 1 that remains after deleting the ith row and jth
column, and it is written as M
ij
.
The cofactor of the element a
ij
is
A
ij
= (1)
i+j
M
ij
.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Cramers Rule
Determinant of an n n Matrix
The determinant of a square matrix of order n can be expressed
in terms of the cofactors of the ith row as
|A| = a
i1
A
i1
+ a
i2
A
i2
+ + a
in
A
in
.
Similarly, it can also be expressed in terms of the cofactors of
the elements of the jth column as
|A| = a
1j
A
1j
+ a
2j
A
2j
+ + a
in
A
nj
.
In short, to nd the value of a determinant:
1. Choose any row or column.
2. Multiply each element in that row or column by its
cofactor.
3. Add these products.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Cramers Rule
Cramers Rule (3 3)
If D = 0, the solution of the system of three equations in three
variables is
x =
D
x
D
y =
D
y
D
and z =
D
z
D
,
where D is the determinant of the coecient matrix, D
x
is the
determinant of the matrix found by replacing the coecients of
x in the coecient matrix by the constant terms, and D
y
and
D
z
are found similarly.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Cramers Rule
Exercises
Solve each system using Cramers Rule.
1.
_
2x + 3y = 3
3x + 2y = 7
2.
_
5x + 3y = 7
4x + 5y = 3
3.
_
x + 5y = 3
3x 2y = 9
4.
_
4x 5y = 7
3x + 4y = 18
5.
_

_
2x 3y 2z = 10
3x 4y + 3z = 8
4x 5y + 4z = 10
6.
_

_
6x + 5y + 4z = 8
7x 5y + 3z = 26
5x 2y 6z = 9
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Matrix Inversion Method
If A is an n n matrix and a matrix B exists such that
AB = I = BA,
then B is called the inverse of A, and we write B = A
1
.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Matrix Inversion Method
Inverse of a 2 2 Matrix
If A =
_
a b
c d
_
and |A| = 0, then the inverse of A is
A
1
=
1
|A|
_
d b
c a
_
.
Note: An n n matrix A has an inverse if and only if |A| = 0.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Matrix Inversion Method
Inverse of an n n Matrix
If A is a square matrix with |A| = 0 and A
ij
is the cofactor of
a
ij
, then
A
1
=
1
|A|
_

_
A
11
A
12
A
1j
A
1n
A
21
A
22
A
2j
A
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A
i1
A
i2
A
ij
A
in
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A
n1
A
n2
A
nj
A
nn
_

_
T
.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Matrix Inversion Method
Matrix Inversion Method
A system of linear equations can be written in the form
AX = B,
where A is the coecient matrix and X and B are the column
matrices with n elements consisting of the variables and the
constant terms.
The solution of the matrix equation AX = B is X = A
1
B,
where A is a square matrix of order n with |A| = 0.
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
Solving Linear Equations Using Matrices
Matrix Inversion Method
Exercises
Solve each system using the Matrix Inversion Method.
1.
_
3x + 2y = 7
2x + 5y = 12
2.
_
3x + y = 11
2x + 3y = 7
3.
_
x + 2y = 5
3x + 2y = 11
4.
_
3x + 2y = 12
2x + 3y = 13
5.
_
2x + y = 3
3x + 5y = 1
6.
_
2x + 3y = 0
x + 2y = 1
7.
_
2x + y = 1
3x + 2y = 0
8.
_

_
x + y + 2z = 7
3x + 4y + 6z = 21
2x + 3y + 5z = 16
9.
_

_
2x + 2y + 3z = 9
3x + 3y + 4z = 13
x + 2y + 4z = 9
COMALGE (College Algebra for Business and Economics)
References
References
1. M.J. Acelajado, Y.B. Beronque and F.F. Co. Algebra:
Concepts and Processes. National Bookstore, Third
Edition, 2005.
2. M. Dugopolski. Algebra for College Students. McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company, Fourth Edition, 2006.
3. G. Fuller. College Algebra. Litton Educational Publishing,
Inc., Fourth Edition, 1977.
4. P.K. Rees, F.W. Sparks and C.S. Rees. College Algebra.
McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Tenth Edition, 1990.
5. E.P. Vance. Modern College Algebra. Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, Inc., Third Edition, 1975.