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Involvement and learning

Involvement: relevance, centrality, importance

Perceived relevance/salience Perceived risk Perceived role and centrality in life and self

Impact on Learning
Type of learning Speed Strength: decay / retention; rate & quantum Degree, content

Knowledge and memory

All knowledge a set of information
Organised as semantic or episodic memory Categorised, hooked to a mental peg, on which all facts related to objects/events Schema: all related information, percepts categorized under the same label, Schema of pegs, inferences and rules

Analytical processes thinking, buying decisions, retrieval from memory Memory: short, long term, buffers

Brand choice and the Self

Segment choice Brand Image and positioning Communication message and audience fit Communication media. Product features Place Pricing Launch method

Self Image Theory

People who wish to express themselves may choose brands with the same image as themselves / portraying same lifestyle. Enhancement through brands with an image close to the ideal self image / ideal social self image. Routinised purchase of brands of less frequently bought products if image close to expected self image. Fantasy products which allow fulfillment by expressing movement towards ideal self.

Rogers Self Theory Self concept: totality of thoughts and feelings with reference to him/herself, in context of important others
Private self , Social self images Actual self, ideal social images Expected self, social self images Extended self: other objects which define self image

Self evolves over time, over life stages Dominance of some responses and needs at a given stage Orientation: Interdependant/independent continuum

Relatively enduring characteristic response tendencies in similar situations Trait: a particular characteristic behaviour or response A typical response on a given dimension of behaviour Single Trait:
Conformity, sensation seeking, extroversion, vanity, locus of control, romanticism/classicism, need for uniqueness

Multi-trait theory: Behaviour choices are governed by many traits at the same situation Freudian theories: Id, Ego, Super-ego

Need systems
Need (n) Power, Affiliation, Achievement Maslow: Physiological, social, ego related. Interpersonal needs
Affectional (emotionally satisfying relations) Ego bolstering (domination) Ego defensive (avoid loss of face; protect image, status, prestige) Which needs will be aroused; which will dominate?

TAT, Sentence completion, Other tests

McGuires Classification
Cognitive preservation motives Consistency: attitudes, behaviour, self
image all consistent

Attribution: determining cause-effect Categorization: Organize

info/experience into categories

Cognitive growth motives Autonomy: Independence, individuality Stimulation: variety/stability seeking Teleological: matching patterns of end
states with own desired end states movies

Objectification: Need for symbols to

infer meaning, feelings: clothes, cars, watch

Utilitarian: Functional problem solving,

learning mode

Affective preservation motives Tension reduction/homeostacy Expression (self to others) - cars,

clothes, watches to create image for others

Affective growth motives Assertion: competitive achievement,

success, dominance

Ego defense (protect image) Reinforcement

Affiliation: relationships with others Identification (roles, norms, rewards) Modelling: conformity, imitation, self image desirable others

Personality and Choice

Lifestyles are a typical way of living and consuming personality determines typical responses to situations, including consumption situations. personality determines lifestyle. Personality determines choice of brands.
Extent of predictability is suspect re trait theory etc. self image theory explains the need for using products with a particular brand image.

Image measurement methods

Semantic or meanings or dimensions map.
Exploratory phase
Free / semi structured interviews Group discussions, focus groups, etc Projective techniques

Descriptive : TAT, etc Associative: word / attribute association Sentence completion etc. Maps the meaning of brand: Dimensions or the attributes that build up a particular meaning
Semantic differential scales Graphical scales

Reasoned Action / Behavioral Intention

Belief (product/service attributes lead to outcome: whether value is
likely to be an outcome)

Evaluation (outcomes of product attributes are desirable: how

valuable is that outcome)

Perceived Social Norms (external influences desirable acts) Motivation to Comply with Norms (desire to act desirably)

Behavioural Intention

bi*Xi + SNi*Mci Direct measure

Limited correlation in the two measures across studies

Model 3. Theory of Planned Behavior Plus Social Identity


Individual Influences
Perceived Behavioral Control

Participation We-Intentions

Participation Behavior

Subjective Norms

Social Identity

Group Norms




Social Influences

Attitude Theories ATO: Attitude towards Product/Service ATB: Attitude towards Using Product/Service Ideal Point Scale: Comparison with ideal product/service: Wi /I-X/I W=Importance; X=performance
Assuming more/most is not always best

Practise in MR: Importancei*Performance/expectationi I = ith Attribute For product/usage

Changing the motivational function changing the cognitive component

Change beliefs

Attitude Change

modify existing beliefs Add new beliefs Disassociate existing beliefs break the association

Change importance, based on competitive strengths Shift the ideal point

Change affective component

Create associations with positive feelings ( towards brand, advts, mere exposure

Using consistency principles (cognitive-affective consistency, homogeneity etc)

Associate with rewarding behavior Implementing changes:

using dissonance Using the ELM model: see pg 440

How to measure: