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Guide to Power Transformer Specification Issues

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Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Power Transformer Specification Issues

Edition 2, January 2009

DISCLAIMER This document was prepared by the Electric Power Engineering Centre (EPECentre) at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. The content included in this document is based on a power transformer specification workshop held in July 2007. The EPECentre takes no responsibility for damages or other liability whatsoever from the use of this document. This includes any consequential damages resulting from interpretation of material. Electric Power Engineering Centre, University of Canterbury

Published by Electric Power Engineering Centre (EPECentre), University of Canterbury 1st Edition 1, August 2007 [revised January 2008] Reviewed & edited by: Wade G. Enright BE(Hons), PhD, MIPENZ, MCIGRE Produced & co-edited by: Joseph D. Lawrence BE, MEM, PMP, MPMINZ, MNZIM

Acknowledgements: Sponsors and participants of the EPECentre Power Transformer Conference 2007, Workshop: Guide to Transformer Technical Specification, 3 July 2007, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

Electric Power Engineering Centre


University of Canterbury Private Bag 4800 Christchurch New Zealand T: +64 3 366 7001 E: info@epecentre.ac.nz www.epecentre.ac.nz

2008 Electric Power Engineering Centre, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. All rights reserved, no part of this publication may be reproduced or circulated without written permission from the Publisher.

Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Power Transformer Specification Issues

Edition 2, January 2009

Electric Power Engineering Centre -

GUIDE TO POWER TRANSFORMER SPECIFICATION ISSUES

CONTENTS
FOREWORD ...................................................................................................................................3 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................4 SETTING THE SCENE....................................................................................................................6 PART 1. FIRE & EXPLOSION PROTECTION ................................................................................7 PART 2.THE DETAILED DESIGN REVIEW ...................................................................................9 PART 3. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION EXPERIENCES ............................................................11

APPENDIX A. REFURBISHMENT & REPAIR OF POWER TRANSFORMERS*13 APPENDIX B. DRIVEN FACTORS FOR TRANSFORMER LONG LIFE** ..30 APPENDIX C. EPECENTRE ELECTRIC POWER R&D CAPABILITY ........92
* Courtesy of Transfield Services Limited ** Courtesy of Pauwels Trafo Asia Limited

Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Power Transformer Specification Issues

Edition 2, January 2009

FOREWORD
Tn koutou te whnau, Nga mihi ki koutou mana, koutou korero, koutou whakaaro, koutou awhina. Kua mutu te wnanga. No reira tn koutou, tn koutou, tn koutou katoa. The power transformer technical specification workshop is completed. Thank you to all that attended, for your presence, discussions, thoughts and support. Australasia is currently most active in the processes associated with purchasing power transformers. July 2007 was a good time to peer review some important components within this process, and some of the present practices. It was also fantastic to have representatives from Indonesia, France, Australia and Aotearoa involved in the workshop. The Electric Power Engineering Centre
Dr. Wade Enright and Prof. Pat Bodger (EPECentre Director) pictured with the 15kVA, single phase, prototype superconducting transformer, designed and built at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand.

(EPECentre) has prepared a summary of the workshop for each of you, enjoy. Hei kna,

Wade Enright
Dr. Wade G. Enright
Associate, Electric Power Engineering Centre, University of Canterbury August 2007

Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Power Transformer Specification Issues

Edition 2, January 2009

INTRODUCTION

Power Transformer Technical Specification


During 2006 and 2007 to date, an unusually high number of requests have arrived for Technical Specification reviews, both in New Zealand and Australia. More than six power transformer Technical Specifications for machines over 200MVA in New Zealand alone. The challenges of a significantly loaded electrical network reliant on service aged equipment: refurbish and/or replace. The challenges of increasing load and new generation types e.g. wind turbines. The commodity price issues (copper, electrical steel, structural steel and oil). The changes from well established European factories to new South East Asian manufacturing sites. The need for form relationships with new people (new manufacturer personnel, new employers/clients). It may be that power transformer Technical Specifications has become cumbersome, out of focus and needs a spring clean. The peer review process: are our ideas good ones?

Published Documents
Published documents that contain guidelines specific to power transformer Technical Specification:
CIGRE Working Group 12.15., Guide for Customers Specifications for Transformers 100MVA and 123kV and above, Technical Brochure 156, April 2000.

ABB, Transformer Handbook, ABB Power Technologies Management Ltd, 2004.

Heathcote, M.J., The J&P Transformer Book, Twelfth Edition, Newnes, 1998, ISBN 07506 1158 8.

ABB, Testing of Power Transformers, Routine Tests, Type Tests and Special Tests, 1st Edition, ABB Business Area Power Transformers, 2003, ISBN 3 00 010400 3.

Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Power Transformer Specification Issues

Edition 2, January 2009

Refocus: Why Have a Technical Specification?

From an Employer (Client) perspective: To formally and fairly communicate exactly what you want the Contractor to deliver.

From a Contractor perspective: To be able to accurately offer services and products which provide a satisfactory solution (technical/commercial) to an Employer (Client); while remaining a long-term profitable business.

For both Contractors and Employers (Clients): To avoid relationship mishaps associated with costly Variation work misunderstandings.

Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Power Transformer Specification Issues

Edition 2, January 2009

SETTING THE SCENE


1. The Use of International Standards Example: Australian Standards
AS60076.1-2005: Power Transformers General. AS2374.2-1997: Power Transformers Temperature rise. AS2374.3.0 1982 Power Transformers Insulation levels and dielectric tests, General Requirements. Including Amendment 1 1992. AS2374.3.1 1992 Power Transformers Insulation levels and dielectric tests, external clearances in air. AS60076.4 2006 Power Transformers Guide to the lightning impulse and switching impulse testing power transformers and reactors. AS2374.5 - 1982 Power Transformers Ability to withstand short-circuit. AS2374.6 - 1994 Power Transformers Determination of transformer and reactor sound levels. Including Amendment 1 2000. AS2374.7-1997 Power Transformers Loading guide for oil immersed power transformers. Including Amendment 1 1998. AS2374.8 2000 Power Transformers Application Guide. AS1265 1990: Bushings for alternating voltages above 1000V. AS60214.1 2005: Tap-changers, Performance requirements and test methods. AS60214.2 2006 Tap-changers, Application guide.

The repair bill is significant. What is the Industry going to do about it?

3. Partial Discharge Testing of Refurbished Power Transformers in New Zealand


This is an expensive and time consuming test. It could commonly be the case that the original power transformers were not designed to be subjected to the Partial Discharge test. Why are expected Partial Discharge pass levels being set at 50% of the value specified in the IEC International Standard for new transformers? What is the plan if the Partial Discharge fails? The Partial Discharge test initially failed but has now passed, how does this make you feel?

4. On-Load Tap-Changers on Generator Step-Up Transformers


More and more tapping ranges. Lower and lower tap sizes. Why the generator has an Automatic Voltage Regulator? Has system simulation taken over the importance of reliable machine design? What is the impact upon short-circuit with-stand e.g. multi-start, layer wound tapping windings?

5. Transformer Cooling
ONAN/ONAF/ODAF versus ODW versus ONAN?

2. The Single-Point Earthing of Power Transformer Cores, Frames and Tanks


The insulation is failing. Dissolved Gas Analysis tests are being over-run with alarming gas signatures.

When should we buy straight ONAN machines? Reliable, not dependent on l.v. systems, and simple. ONAN/ODAF may be significantly more cost effective above 65MVA? Will specifying ODW significantly reduce the number of Contractors who will tender for the work?

Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Power Transformer Specification Issues

Edition 2, January 2009

PART 1. FIRE & EXPLOSION PROTECTION


What is considered an acceptable level of fire and explosion protection that should be

steam and gas plant than hydro. All money and susceptible to damage. Nitrogen. Enclosure. Fire Wall. Blast walls in all critical areas. Design of location. Fast acting protection.

specified for power transformers in the c) A generator step-up transformer connected to a following scenarios? hydro-turbine unit
a) A remote outdoor substation Physical separation (firewalls if duplicate units). Buchholz relay. Pressure relief. Separate cable terminations > 100MVA. Vented cable box. Generator circuit breaker. Bushing plus monitoring. Conservator tank isolation >100MVA. Temperature indicators. Single unit (rural) - let it burn! Double unit - physical separation / + blast wall. Sump flame trap - Important substations. Control consequential damage. Consider the layout of the surroundings. Consider building materials. Consider neighbouring natural environment. Dependent on size use pressure relief valve and shut off valve on conservator. Blast walls for smaller critical areas. d) b) A generator step-up transformer connected to a steam or gas turbine unit Possible use of Sergi protection, etc. Positioning transformers away from station. However, look at the economics. Buchholz relay. Pressure relief. Vented cable box. Generator circuit breaker. Bushing monitoring. Conservator tank isolation. Choice of oil. Temperature indicators. Fire protection (foam). GSU (Generator Step Up) transformer Generator CB (Circuit Breaker) preferred. Blast walls and deflectors. Water sprinklers on the walls. More likely to provide fire fighting equipment for Environmental risks - oil contamination of lakes / rivers, etc. Containment of full volume of oil. Buchholz relay. Pressure relief. Vented cable box. Generator circuit breaker. Bushing monitoring. Conservator tank isolation. Choice of oil. Temperature indicators. Fire protection (foam). GSU transformer - generator CB required. Water sprinklers and oil interceptor. Hydro in environment sensitive areas, must consider heat and oil. Environmental issues are important, especially oil containment. Deluge.

Any power transformer greater than 100MVA Physical separation (firewalls if duplicate units). Possible use of Sergi protection, etc. Positioning transformers away from station. However, look at the economics. Environmental risks - oil contamination of lakes / rivers, etc. Containment of full volume of oil. Buchholz relay. Pressure relief. Vented cable box. Generator circuit breaker. Bushing plus monitoring. Conservator tank isolation. Choice of oil. Temperature indicators. Fire protection (foam). Blast walls and sprinklers on wall. Conservator shut off valves. Options: foam, water curtain, CO2, FR3. Sergi system economical for larger units.

Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Power Transformer Specification Issues

Edition 2, January 2009

High velocity water spray system. C02 for sealed enclosures. Fast acting digital protection. Sergi transformer protection or gas insulated transformer.

e) Indoor substation Buchholz relay. Pressure relief. Vented cable box. Generator Circuit Breaker. Bushing monitoring. Conservator tank isolation. Choice of oil. Temperature indicators. Fire protection (foam).

General Notes: All scenarios require risk assessment. Consider use of polymer bushing i.e. GSA, etc. All scenarios depend on transformer size and blast wall requirements. Oil containment bunding with fire-traps/ drainage. Situational considerations not one answer for all remote transformers or all hydro, etc. All situations consider: NFPA850 Guidelines but these are only guidelines, but you must go through and specify. Blast walls for specified separation. Bunding w/ drainage to suffocate fire. Shutter valves on conservators. Differential Protection.

Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Power Transformer Specification Issues

Edition 2, January 2009

PART 2.THE DETAILED DESIGN REVIEW


When the Detailed Design Review process is specified:
a) Employers (Clients), what Detailed Design

Provide alternatives. Assurance that the design will work and meet specifications. Provides assurance that the employer is getting what we want. Facilitates forum for improvements in design that may impact on overall cost and performance. Gain understanding of the design so we can gain understanding of test results. Find any steps in design/manufacture that you want to witness to help with maintenance.

Review (DDR) outputs do you require and why? Using knowledge of supplier to tailor client requirements. Adding value to project. Specifically reviewing: component mounting, footprints, weights, shape, oil volumes etc. Reconfirmation of 'no surprises' / confirmation that supplier has the ability to deliver. Compatibility with existing spares / stock, intercompatibility with existing network. Key scope requirements. Fit for purpose. Delivery. Inspection process. Transport / shipping to site. Site constraints. Performance criteria. Cooling plus interlock systems. Material listing. Acceptance tests. Type tests / compliance. Special tests. Material quality. Review of mechanical design. Review of loss calculations. Scope of DDR and timing of review at supplier. Compare DDR outputs to specification clauses. Special transformers need proper DDR. Report on basis of IEC and CIGRE DDR guide documents. Result is confidence in the transformer design.

b) Contractors (suppliers), what are the key matters that will influence the power transformer detailed design that you need the Employer (Client) to clarify? Ensuring spec following best practice. Possible provision of future on-line monitoring equipment. What is important to client i.e. on time, cost, etc? Confirmation of spec / deviations. QA (Quality Assurance) requirements. Drawing, documentation, manuals, maintenance procedures. Required specs. Seismic requirements. Weight - gross, transport. Dimensions - centre of gravity. Terminations. Specification does not cover all details. Need DDR these details, Allows agreement on these details. No DDR for standard transformers only one off/New Designs. Also discussed customer acceptance Clarification of: Out of date standards included in spec. Standard Designs i.e. 6MVA spec but a 7.5MVA standard cheaper, faster, and easier. Component specification e.g. bushings, colour, tap changer type This may effect delivery and cost. Transport issues. Paint colour. Factors relating to delivery and cost.

Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Power Transformer Specification Issues

Edition 2, January 2009

Need to know in spec if employer wants influence on design e.g. stress levels or specific short circuit. Need employer to have expertise or a contractor to be brought in.

General Notes: Should a detailed spec be required? How about the customer saying we need a transformer to fill this space, these are the connections, go to it. However, still a lot of things need to be known. Different tolerances are not always required, overbuilding, etc. Its about relationship/confidence in supplier. QA systems, review, etc. should be done before specifications i.e. due diligence. Standardisation of one set of designs does not always work, as component costs may change meaning the set design is no longer the most economical. Where is the innovation coming from? Suppliers or Clients? Probably a combination of both. Clients drive adoption of certain items e.g. condition monitoring. Suppliers drive changes in winding types, materials, etc. In general, this is a very important process that is important for both parties. It aids clarification and understanding of how to proceed with design (contractor) and provides a certain level of optimisation for the employer (client) i.e. relationship building.

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Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Power Transformer Specification Issues

Edition 2, January 2009

PART 3. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION EXPERIENCES


a) From an Employer (Client) and / or Contractor (Supplier) perspective, what information must be given in a 2007 Technical Specification? Refer to standard lists. MVA, voltage, impulse, tap changer, connection, vector group, and seismic. Intended application. Rating, MVA, kV. Vector group. Cooling, type of oil. Impedance. Tap-changer, plus minus percentage. Load profile. Regulation. Standards (manufacturers). List of accessories. Type of bushing. Short circuit withstand capability. Seismic. System earthing. BIL (Basic Insulation Level). Loss evaluation formula. Guaranteed losses. Corrosion protection. Tank strength. Noise level. Phase clearance, spacing. Creepage distances. Surge arrestors. Cable box, open bushings. CT (Current protection. Station voltage. Transformer) requirements,

Refer to AS60076.1 appendix A as a minimum requirement. Site requirements Footprint, Transport etc., MVA, Voltage, Losses, Vector group. Bushing types, taps, terminations, SCADA interfaces, protection devices, auxiliaries, voltage, and cooling and seismic requirements. Finishing Painting, galvanising, wielded or bolted. Documentation for transfer and timetable. As built, maintenance manuals, specs, wiring specs and code. Standards AS/NZ and IEC. Relevant standards. General characteristics / performance criteria Auxiliary components / systems. Arrangement of transformer; dimensions; bushing/terminal layouts; site requirements; system requirements. Voltage, vector group, frequency, noise requirements (sound pressure, sound power, distance), losss, rating, list of standards that it must comply to, Overload rating, ambient temperature, earthing, fault level, environment, seismic requirement, altitude, typical rang of impedance, tap rang, type of entry. b) Employers (Clients) and Contracts (Suppliers), what times have you witnessed recently in Technical Specifications that have been

unhelpful to the process? Clearances - often specified when standards are in place (Designer wants a different clearance for some reason?) Too prescriptive specs i.e. 'old school' Too many standards. Insistence on copper winding. Totally useless offload sufficient. Specification of duplicate/overlapping test requirements ( contributes to additional cost/time) e.g. stating two test methods to gain same result, such as meggar vs. sweep frequency tests. Irrelevant/out of date standards. PD (Partial Discharge) test requirements NZ/AUS very low almost impractical. Radiator specified to be both galvanised and painted. Colour of bushing in cable box. Items that are contradictory. Items that are out of date.

Remote tap changing.

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Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Power Transformer Specification Issues

Edition 2, January 2009

c) Why are on-load tap changers being fitted to generator step-up transformers and what are the implications of increasing tapping ranges and decreasing step sizes? Insurance policy. Guarantees and flexibility? Transformer design. Old school, conservative. Asset owner compliance. More voltage regulation required. Near load centres. Increase tap range: extreme ends of tap settings are not used. Totally useless offload sufficient. More leads and more introduced points of potential failure. EGR (Electricity Governance Rules) requirements impact on generators ability to support/import reactive power is severe. Tap changers are not needed on generator transformers with an AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator). d) Is single-point earthing of core, frames, and tanks a good approach? What happens when the single point earthing fails? Good idea! Cost trade-off on insulation maybe. Agreed acceptance testing completed. In service for specified period and handed over. On site install / commissioning completed and documentation complete. Fence sitting: cost of coping with circulating current vs. single point. Want device that is reliable regardless of design Choice of single point earthing or not is a trade off between equipment costs and losses. The best will vary with circumstances.

e) When transformers over 150MVA are specified, how should they be livened if the high voltage network must be used? What are some

experiences with such livening? Point on wave switching. 480MVA back livening, audible complaint from other transformer for 10 15 minutes. Pre-Insertion resistors.

f)

What are the key acceptance criteria that will allow an Employer (Client) and Contractor

(Supplier) to close-out a project? Setting of maintenance procedures. Drawings. Documentation. Defects. Warranty, commercial bonds, etc. Successful livening. Handover of drawings, manuals, test certificates, etc. Clear communication and well defined procedure needed. Define in contract. Pass site acceptance test.

General Notes: Single point earthing lives! Need better construction to withstand transport failures, lamination failures etc, not necessarily insulation failure. Need better access for repair, replacement. On-Load Tap Changer (OLTC) - AVR might be all good, but if it has a problem, the OLTC provides good backup. But it may still not be needed as it won't be in operation if AVR is out. May need OLTC to allow for future system expansion/change. Lowers system reliability but increases system flexibility. System planners should consider this more. OLTC alters voltage seen by generator, but AVR can withstand plus minus 5% typically anyway (sometimes!).

12

Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Transformer Technical Specification

Edition 1, August 2007

APPENDIX A REFURBISHMENT & REPAIR OF POWER TRANSFORMERS*

* Courtesy of Transfield Services Limited

Page 13 of 94

Refurbishment & Repair of Power TransformersA review of current practices in New Zealand
Conference- Christchurch,2-3 July 2007
Presented by Ramesh Gopalan

Transfield Services Partners for Change

Overview
General Principles of Refurbishment
What is being done at present

Specific aspects
What could be done during refurbishment
Review of specifications

Repair of Power Transformers


- What could be done An overview from the contractor

Transfield Services Partners for Change

Refurbishment of transformers

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General Principles of Refurbishment


Power Transformers worldwide are ageing
The average age in New Zealand is about 36 years

Grid & Network operators have an ongoing programme of refurbishment for life extension. Refurbishment includes
Testing the average DP of transformer insulation De-tank & Inspection of core & windings Minor modifications to blocking arrangement Changes to insulation structure- paper wound cylinders to solid cylinders Single point Earthing modifications- not always practical

Transfield Services Partners for Change

Refurbishment of Transformers
Dry-out of core & windings using heat and vacuum Re-tightening and clamping windings. Replacement of accessories- OTI, WTI, Buchholz Relay etc
Replace Explosion Vent to PRV . Install Flexible Separators in Conservators OLTC replacements

Corrosion control of tank and enclosures Oil reclamation to improve physical and dielectric properties. Routine Low Voltage testing following refurbishment

Transfield Services Partners for Change

EPRI Guidelines for residual life estimates


DP Value 1000 to 1400 500 300 200 % Life Left 100% 60 to 66% 30% 0%

Source: Guidelines for the Life Extension of Substations, 2002 Update, Electric Power Research Institute( EPRI), California, USA

Transfield Services Partners for Change

Residual Life Estimates-NZ network transformers


Remaining life estimates are favourable for up-rating
Mid Year of No. of Decade of Samples Manufacture tested Average tested DP value % Life Left # of years of service life left Total Service Life

1955 1965 1975 1990*


1. 2.

35 110 39 9

520 543 505 719

60% 60% 60% 80%

30 30 30 40

80 70 65 55

DP Values tested during refurbishment, Residual Life Assessment based on EPRI Guidelines. The above figures affirm the assessment of post 1970 transformers will have a lower life than those manufactured during 50-60s
7

Transfield Services Partners for Change

What could be done during refurbishment


Refurbishment Specifications should include
A review of cooling arrangement

Older transformers have different style of radiators


Not necessarily efficient

Could be changed to more efficient Plate-fin type radiators with symmetrical arrangement ONWF arrangement could be changed to ONAN instead of OFWF

Transfield Services Partners for Change

What could be done during refurbishment


Up-rate transformers during refurbishment
Generally not called for

Review original Heat-run test reports Most of the transformers are ONAN cooled Could be changed to ONAN/ONAF and increase capacity

Transfield Services Partners for Change

Dry-out of windings
Dry-out is under-taken using Hot-air heating and vacuum drying thereafter
Vapour phase drying is not under-taken as set up cost is prohibitive The termination of dry-out is generally based
on volume of water collected per hour and a certain minimum value of vacuum
usually less than 1 mbar

Recommend this be changed to standard Moisture-Equilibrium curves published by IEEE


Dr.Oommen curves are used by most manufacturers Eliminates the need for collecting water and monitoring water collection
Cumbersome

Transfield Services Partners for Change

10

Testing of transformers

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11

Testing of Transformers
Post refurbishment, testing is done only at low voltage Emphasis on Insulation resistance test post refurbishment
Minimum acceptable value is specified based on TMI-US guidelines
IR & PI values are often not achievable due to the transformer capacitance IEC standards do not specify a minimum value

Minimum value for Insulation Resistance should be specified independent of kVA Rating We recommend
50Hz separate source voltage test at 75% rated value for refurbished transformers No-load excitation at 100% voltage for 30 minutes for refurbished transformers

Transfield Services Partners for Change

12

Partial Discharge test


Post repair, a partial discharge test is specified IEC 60076 recommends PD test for transformers with Um>300kV
Some clients insist on this test for lower voltages Values specified are 50% of IEC recommended values

The transformer is manufactured 25-30 years ago


Only part of the winding is replaced The transformer was originally not subjected to a PD test Is it practical to achieve such low levels?
The PD test is conducted in an unshielded environment

Transfield Services Partners for Change

13

Repair of transformers

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14

Repair of Transformers
While choosing to repair, some clients
Based on internal economic models, prefer the least cost option. The purchase price of transformers has doubled in the last three years
Cost of repair likely to be 20-25% of the cost of new transformer. Lead times for new transformers exceeds 12 months
P r ic e In d e x 2.400 2.200 2.000 1.800 1.600 1.400 1.200 1.000 0.800 0.600 0.400 0.200 0.000 Jan-04 Aug-04 Feb-05 Sep-05 Mar-06 Oct-06 Apr-07 Nov-07 Jun-08 Month-Year Pq/Po

Transformer Price Variation

Repair should consider existing risk Generally recommended to replace whole windings
At least the complete winding of the faulted phase Minimises risk

Transfield Services Partners for Change

15

Repair of Transformers
While formulating repair specifications, we recommend
Testing of the replacement winding for turns ratio, resistance and inter-strand tests
prior to shipping the windings to New Zealand

This will involve the windings be put on a transformer core


But it is recommended

We have had failures of replacement windings having


Centre entry and two halves in parallel
Unequal turns between parallel halves

Recommend the involvement of replacement contractor in inspecting the winding prior to shipping
to avoid surprises / delays upon arrival in New Zealand

Specify PD levels to which transformer will be tested to the replacement winding manufacturer

Transfield Services Partners for Change

16

Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Transformer Technical Specification

Edition 1, August 2007

APPENDIX B DRIVEN FACTORS FOR TRANSFORMER LONG LIFE**

* Courtesy of Pauwels Trafo Asia

Page 30 of 94

ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT PAUWELS TRAFO ASIA Contact person ; Didik Susilo Widianto (+62.21.8230430.ext 230)

Transformer life time


ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

The Transformer life expectation is measured by the Rate of Degradation of the Insulation normally this Insulation is cellulose paper.

The expectation of transformer end life can be indicated by the degree polymerization of paper approximate 200 (and other indications).
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 2

Two important design driven factors


Transformer temperature behavior ; IEC 60076 part 2 and IEC 600354 indicate the limits based on temperature of this life time expectation. The normal life time/temperature rise & emergency capabilities at particular ambient temperatures have to be considered.
ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

Partial discharge levels ; IEC 60076 part 3 indicates the standard limits of partial discharges for 130% Um (300 pC) and 150% Um (500 pC). These levels seem to be are very high and we would not manufacture to them. One must have low PD as with increasing moisture content, the PD rises quite dramatically at 20 ppm, 20oC moisture content mineral oil (see diagram for moisture content) while the transformer is normally tested at very good oil condition.

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

Why is temperature important for transformer life time ???

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

Cellulose Conductor Insulation Ageing

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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

TRANSFORMER LIFE TIME CELLULOSE DESIGN

IEC 354 Loading Guide


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Section 1.2; The hottest part of the winding is used for evaluation of a relative value for rate of thermal ageing. Conductor insulation ageing Section 2.6.2; Relative thermal ageing based on 20oC ambient + 78oC hot spot rise = 98oC.

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

TRANSFORMER LIFE TIME CELLULOSE DESIGN

ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

yearly average hot spot 98oC

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

TRANSFORMER LIFE TIME CELLULOSE DESIGN

ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

V=2

(h-98)/6

h
92oC 98oC 104oC 110oC 134oC

Relative ageing rate 0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0 64

yearly average hot spot 98oC

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

Temperature Rise and Driven Factors


Temperature Rise for Class A (IEC 60076-2/ ANSI C57); Top oil rise ; = 60K / 55 K or 65 K. Average oil rise ; = 65 K / 55 K or 65 K (By resistance method) Hot spot rise ; = 78 K / 65K or 80K.
ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

Site elevation height; The standard elevation height is 1000 m above sea level. Climatic temperature behaviors; Yearly average ambient temperature (IEC std = 20oC) transformer life time. Hot monthly average ambient temperature (IEC std = 30oC) Maximum ambient temperature (IEC std = 40oC) transformer loading capability Temperature class;

Insulation class Operating temperature


Tuesday, August 21, 2007

A
105oC

E
120oC

B
125oC

F
145oC

H
220oC
9

Introduction Power Transformer

Temperature Identification
Hf x gradient

core
ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

cooler
winding

gradient

Bottom oil

Mean oil

Top oil

Average winding

Hot spot factor is normally presented between 1.1 to 1.5 depending on winding design.
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer

Hot spot

10

Cooling Medium
INTERNAL COOLING MEDIUM Besides the thermal absorption, the internal cooling medium also functions as the insulation medium. Class A; Mineral oil (Inhibited or Un-inhibited oil). Class K; Silicon oil Synthetic ester Hi-Temp natural liquid (seeds). EXTERNAL COOLING MEDIUM Air Water
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 11

ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

Terminology Of Cooling System


Directed Cooling ; Indicates that the oil is flowing in the winding by zig-zag paths. This Directed Cooling is using Oil Barriers in several sections of winding to guide the oil flow. Non Directed Cooling ; Indicates that the oil is flowing in the winding axially. Normally, clack bands are used to improve the cooling performance. Pumped unit Fully Directed Cooling ; Indicates that the principal part of the pumped oil from heat exchangers or radiators is forced to flow through the windings arrangement.
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 12

ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

Winding Cooling System

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Directed Cooling
Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Non-directed Cooling
Introduction Power Transformer 13

Pumped - Fully Directed Flow


In order to avoid > 60% of cold oil leakage, the Fully Directed Cooling is the only recommended cooling for Pumped unit.
ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

Windings ; 80% oil flow Core & leakage ; 20% oil flow

core

cooler
winding

Oil Chamber for oil flow distribution Pump


Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 14

Class A Standard Temperature Limits


*) suitable for thermally up graded paper insulation
Annual average Long Emergency Short emergency Thermal short circuit 1.Copper 2.Aluminum
115 115 250 200 160 160 Conductor softening

Maximum temperature design limit [oC]


Oil 80 105 115 Winding 98 / 110 * 140 160 Metal part 110 140 160 Consequences Life time Gas generation Gas generation

ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

15

Conservative Temperature Limits


Temperature limits for mineral oil filled transformer with conservative safety margin to avoid any insulation degradation; 1. 125oC for maximum winding hotspot temperature during short emergency at max. 30 minutes. 2. 115oC for maximum winding hotspot temperature during continuous emergency (above time constant).

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Pumped - Fully Directed oil flow cooling is the most effective solution to fulfill those conservative temperature limit requirements for medium & large power transformer. The 50/100% for ONAN/ODAF cooling is the optimum combination in the case of pumped, finned radiator & fan combination (external cooling).
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 16

Recommended Cooling Method


Directed cooling;
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For pumped unit (OD), the Fully Directed windings with oil Directed to the windings and through the windings is the most optimum for medium & large transformer with conservative temperature limits & severe overloading requirements. For in case natural oil flow unit, we also produce Directed in the windings only. Some time ago (up to 2000), we had built Non Directed/Axial cooling with Clack band cooling systems. Value for money in any system, Fully Directed Oil flow gives the most effective commercial result and provides significant design benefits in fully fitting the severe overloading requirements.
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 17

Recommended Cooling Method


Directed cooling;
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1. As there is an oil gap in the middle of the winding due to clack band which is required for additional cooling, the buckling withstand is more difficult to control. There are difficulties controlling alignment of the clack band due to the fixed distance between the clacks. 2. The usage of clack band for the axial cooling duct of Non Directed cooling reduces the series capacitance of the winding. Due to this reduction in series capacitance, more insulation is required to strengthen the insulation coordination against impulse switching surges and high frequency voltage spikes inherent in the system.
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 18

Recommended Cooling Method


Directed cooling;
3. Under OD, we are more able to accurately predict and control our low gradients. A low gradient allows one to more easily control the temperature behavior and cater for severe overloading conditions. The value of the gradient is that as the current increases, the gradient rises by the power of 1.6 for Non-Directed cooling, 1.2 for natural flow Directed cooling and 2.0 for Fully Directed pumped oil flow. The gradient of a competitive unit of Non Directed cooling is typically almost double the Fully Directed (OD) unit and ,if one overloads, the gradient temperature increase can be quite dramatic and limits overload capacity.
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 19

ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

Recommended Cooling Method


Directed cooling;
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4. Fully Directed flow units can be made electrically stronger than Non Directed flow units as the duct size on either side of the winding can be significantly reduced (increased strength per mm). In naturally cooled units ie ONAN and ONAF, the duct normally need to be increased for cooling considerations due to very low thermosyphonic oil flow. 5. It is the fact that the pumped fully Directed flow unit will eliminate the local overheated oil around the hot spot area. This system is suitable for Hybrid design technology in mobile transformer application or other compact transformer.
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 20

Recommended Cooling Method


Directed cooling;
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6. Due to its high cooling effectiveness, the Fully Directed flow pumped units in combination with low RPM big fans is mostly able to minimize the cooling noise fitting with extremely low noise requirements. This solution is the most preferred solution rather than reducing the induction and increasing the active material (core & copper) as consequences. ODAN cooling gives practically lower noise increase at approx. 20% rating above ONAN in comparison with ONAF solution. Note : - we build all types of units, ONAN, ONAF and ODAF
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 21

Winding Gradient Grad. = Function (q, 1/ , 1/ , 1/c ,)


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Grad. Liquid to conductor gradient temperature [K] q c Distributed losses density [W/mm2] Distributed liquid mass flow rate [mm/s] Liquid mass density [kg/mm3] Specific heat capacity [J/kg.K] Coefficient of convective heat transfer [W/mm2]
Introduction Power Transformer 22

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient (surface heat transferred coefficient) is a function of duct size, oil flow length & velocity.
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For directed (zig-zag) cooling ; The axial and radial surface of the winding conductor are considered as the surfaces for heat transfer. This can be quite accurately calculated to determine the winding gradient of the winding. For non-directed (axial) cooling ; The axial surface of the winding conductor section is predominantly considered as the main heat transfer surface.
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 23

Mass Flow Rate


ON Cooling 1. Determined by thermosyphonic principle of Buoyancy effect.
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2. Driven by winding heat due to losses (I2R + eddy losses) and cooling medium properties (mass density, viscosity). OD Cooling 1. Determined by thermo-hydrodynamic calculation at equilibrium hydraulic pressure. 2. Driven by winding heat due to losses (I2R + eddy losses), designed oil speed, pump capacity and cooling medium properties (mass density, viscosity, specific heat capacity).
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 24

Typical OD Mass Flow Rate Distribution

270 mm/s
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180 mm/s

110 mm/s

OD design

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

25

Flow Barrier in Directed Cooled Winding

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Outside Flapped type barrier

Inside Flapped type barrier


Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 26

Partition Ring to Control Thermal Balance Between Windings


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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

27

Fully Oil Directed Cooled All Windings

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Oil Directed Twin Boosters

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

28

Gradient Comparison Of Directed vs Non-directed Cooling In Natural Flow


60/90 MVA, 132/33 kV ONAN/ONAF + 150% CMR two hours emergency
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Directed Calc. Meas.


12.6 oC 15.6 oC 24.3 oC NA 10.7 oC 16.7 oC 26.6 oC NA
Introduction Power Transformer

Non-directed Calc. A Calc. B


19.5 oC 29.4 oC 43.8 oC 2092 kgs NA 22.3 oC 33.7 oC 55.5 oC 2816 kgs NA 7.9 oC 15.0 oC 28.7 oC 2550 kgs 3 pcs 7.9 oC 15.1 oC 28.9 oC 3450 kgs 2 pcs
29

LV

AN 0.67 pu AF 1.00 pu AF 1.50 pu CU net weight # Clack band

11.0 oC 14.2 oC 23.4 oC

2092 kgs 10.3 oC 15.0 oC 25.0 oC

HV

AN 0.67 pu AF 1.00 pu AF 1.50 pu CU net weight # Clack band

2816 kgs

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Comparison Of Experienced Cooling System


Factory Test Results
Transformer Rating Type Of Transformer LV
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ONAN/ONAF
150 MVA 230/115 kV Double Wound 42.65 oC 19.2 oC 67.6 oC Non-Directed 5 x 5.4 mm thick. 42.65 oC 22.5 oC 71.9 oC Non-Directed 4 x 5.9 mm thick.
Introduction Power Transformer

ONAN/ODAF
250 MVA 220/114 kV Auto Transformer 46.8 oC 12.6 oC 63.2 oC Fully Directed NA 46.8 oC 18.9 oC 71.4 oC Fully Directed NA
30

Top Oil Rise Winding Gradient Hot Spot Rise Winding Cooling # Clack band

HV

Top Oil Rise Winding Gradient Hot Spot Rise Winding Cooling # Clack band

External Cooling
Tuesday, August 21, 2007

12 rad. + 30 small fans 1(+1) pumps + 8 rad.+ 4 fans

150 MVA DOUBLE WOUND TRANSFORMER NON DIRECTED COOLING

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End user : CHEVRON Indonesia. (Energized 2000) 90/150 MVA ONAN/ONAF DOUBLE WOUND TRANSFORMER HV : 230 + 16 x 0.625% kV OLTC. IV : 115 kV / LV : 13.8 + 2 x 2.5% kV DETC
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 31

250 MVA AUTOTRAFO FULLY DIRECTED

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End user : TransPower New Zealand. (Energized 2005) 250 MVA ONAN/ODAF AUTOTRANSFORMER HV : 220 + 8 x 1.25% kV OLTC. IV : 114 kV / LV : 11 + 2 x 2.5% kV (capacitive load)
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 32

Fiber Optic Installation


Purpose : To directly measure the Hot Spot temperature, fibre optics can be used to measure temperatures in cores and tank walls - not only the windings of the transformer.

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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

33

Infra Red Thermal Investigation


Typical Infra Red Thermal Check To avoid local overheating
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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

34

Extendable Plate type Water Cooler


Possibility to extend the cooler capacity at site to reduce the transformer temperature

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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

35

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Why is Partial Discharge important for transformer life time ???

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

36

Partial Discharge
Partial Discharge level will measure the activity of electron discharging from the conductive materials thru the dielectric medium. Inside the transformer, the cellulose insulation and mineral oil are the dielectric medium and this partial discharge will ionize their hydrocarbon molecules. High Partial Discharge Level will destroy the hydrocarbon chains of the transformer insulation and cause the electric breakdown ignition. When there is moisture involved, the insulation degradation rate will be much faster.
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 37

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Six Categories Of Partial Discharges


Partial Discharge indicates the defects existence prior to dielectric breakdown. breakdown
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1. Corona discharges occurs due to the sharp edge electrode. 2. Surface discharges (creepage) occurs due to overstress component parallel to the dielectric medium surface. 3. Internal discharges occurs due to the non-homogenous dielectric medium. 4. Electric trees due to the particle or cavity in the solid insulation. 5. Floating discharging occurs due to badly grounded component. 6. Contact noise occur in case bad contact terminal.
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 38

Optimized Oil Duct Thickness


The oil duct thickness has to not only provide reliable cooling but has to provide electrical insulation. The diagram shows how a smaller duct provides higher voltage strength per mm.
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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

39

Equilibrium Of Moisture Content In Oil vs. Paper


Moisture Content In Paper [%weight]

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The transformer is tested normally at less than 5 ppm moisture content in oil

Moisture Content In Mineral Oil [ppm weight]


Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 40

Oil Moisture Content vs Dielectric Strength

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Power Freq. Withstand Voltage [%]

Moisture Content In Oil [ppm]


Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 41

Paper Moisture Content vs Dielectric Strength


Power Freq. Withstand Voltage [%]

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Moisture Content In Oil Impregnated Paper [%]


Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 42

Typical Of Low Partial Discharge

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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

43

Discharging Circle Prior To Flashover

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High Partial Discharge

Insulation Ionization

Insulation weakening

Gassing

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

44

CONCLUSION FOR MINERAL OIL XMER


Temperature limits; The temperature limits and the type of overloading at particular ambient temperature have to be indicated. New class A cellulose paper covered conductor immersed in new mineral oil will start gassing at hot spot temperature of 145oC. Cooling system; Fully directed cooling with pump is the most suitable for medium & large transformer. The directed cooling with no pump can be used for cost effectivenes consideration on small/medium transformer. Conductor paper ; The cellulose paper should have Degree Polymerization min. 950. Low partial discharge product shall be performanced at factory test; => 40 pC up to 120% Voltage for 30 minutes. => 75 pC up to 150% Voltage for 30 minutes. => to monitor the partial discharge at induced level, 1min.

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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

45

Doubled Capacity On Existing Foundation

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End User : COMALCO ALUMINIUM SMELTER AUSTRALIA


168 MVA ODAF, 220 kV / 2.7 to 40.4 kV in 3 x 52 steps via 2 x OLTCs + DETC.

This was installed on existing foundation of a 110 MVA regulator .


Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 46

ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

FUTURE SOLUTIONS ? FUTURE SOLUTIONS ?

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

47

Hybrid Design
CALENDERED KRAFT BOARD CALENDERED KRAFT BOARD NOMEX T-993 Creped NOMEX CALENDERED KRAFT BOARD NOMEX T-410 Angle Rings and Caps Support Washers Static Rings Cylinders Conductor Insulation Axial & Radial Spacers

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NOMEX T-994

PRECOMPRESSED KRAFT BOARD

Clamping Rings, Blocks

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

48

Hybrid Design Engineering Transformer 97oC hot spot rise


Capacity = 12.5 MVA (ONAN) Voltage = 115 + 1.4 / 21.5 kV BIL HV/LV = 550 / 125 kV Vector group = YNd11 HV winding = Disc / PI 0.8 / ksp. 2.0 LV winding = Disc / PI 0.5 / ksp. 1.5

Cellulose pressboard
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Cooling = ONAN in 10 radiators Top oil rise = 57 K Average HV rise = 62.1 K Cellulose insulated lead outs Average LV rise = 70.1 K Measured HV grad. = 25 K Measured LV grad. = 33 K Hot spot factor = 1.2
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 49

CASE STUDY 30 MVA for PG&E


Built by Pauwels for Pacific Gas & Electric
Hybrid design
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with same MVA Power (MVA)

Cellulose design with same MVA

Cellulose design with same weight

45 44,1 19,1 11,9 752 95

45 57,5 10,0 10 225 65

31,5 44,1 10,0 8 110 65

Weight (T) IZ (%) No load losses (kW) Load losses (kW) Temperature rises (K)

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

50

Hybrid Design In Mobile Transformer Under Substation Installation

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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

51

Hybrid Design In Mobile Transformer Test Drive

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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

52

DGA Report Typical Hybrid design


The gas generation produced by Hybrid transformers after temperature rise test at PAUWELS factory.
50 MVA, 161-115/13.8-34.5 kV, Inert air system, Nitro 10XT oil
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Gas

Symbol

Temperature rise test (8 hours) Before After unit ppm % % ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm

Increment in ppm/hour

Cellulose Typical

Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Methane Acetylene Ethylene Ethane
Tuesday, August 21, 2007

H2 O2 N2 CO CO2 CH4 C2H2 C2H4 C2H6

< 0.8 0.96 2.15 7.17 122.32 1.75 0.08 0.11 0.12

10.13 0.77 1.61 9.40 205.78 2.01 0.11 0.10 0.11

1.27 0.27 10.43 0.03 -

<2

<2 < 11 < 0.25 < 0.25 < 0.25 < 0.25
53

Introduction Power Transformer

Future Environmental Friendly Liquid


Environmental liquid = Enviro-Temp FR3 by COOPER Inhibited oil = Nitro 10XT by NYNAS Property typical values
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Inhibited oil 0.08% per Wt 500 hours 25% 80 ppm 60/65/78 K 145oC -57oC
Introduction Power Transformer

FR3 n.a. continuous 100% 1200 ppm 80/110/130 K 330oC -18oC


54

Antioxidant, phenols Oxidation stability by 120oC Biodegradable in 21 days Saturated moisture at 25oC Temp. rise for unity life time *) Flash point Pour point
Tuesday, August 21, 2007

*) Top oil/Average winding/hot spot rise (+ Hybrid design for FR3)

Water Saturation of Mineral oil vs FR3

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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

55

Liquid Water Absorption versus Time Exposure


Water Absorption of Dielectric Fluids Exposed to Ambient Air (2 of 2)
100

R e la tiv e W a te r C o n te n t ( % s a tu ra tio n )

80

Envirotemp FR3 fluid conventional transformer oil

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60

Water Absorption of Dielectric Fluids Exposed to Ambient Air (1 of 2)


600

40

20

Absolute Water Content (ppm)

500

400

0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

300 Envirotemp FR3 fluid conventional transformer oil

Exposure Time (hrs)

200

100

100% Saturation = FR3, 1200 ppm Mineral Oil, 80 ppm


Tuesday, August 21, 2007

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

Exposure Time (hrs)

Introduction Power Transformer

56

Liquid Dielectric Strength vs. Water Content


Dielectric Strength versus Water Content
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Envirotemp FR3 fluid conventional transformer oil

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D 1816 Dielectric Breakdown (kV)

Water Content (ppm)

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

57

Partial Discharge Of FR3 Filled Transformer

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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

58

Prototype transformer filled with FR3

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12/17 MVA, 33kV,ONAN/ONAF + provision for future ODAF Measured PD = 25 pC max. at induced voltage level. Liquid Main tank = Enviro Temp - FR3
(Hi-Temp natural ester based 100% biodegradable)
Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 59

ENERGY IS OUR BUSINESS, QUALITY IS OUR MISSION

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Introduction Power Transformer

60

Low partial discharge product ;


Assists to increase a units life from overvoltage spikes and prolongs oil quality
Typical guaranteed partial discharge ;

75 pC at 150% Un, IEC 60076 500 pC at 150% Um 40 pC at 120% Un, IEC 60076 100 pC at 110% Um
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Typical achievement , by rating voltage = 220 kV (950 kVp BIL);

14 pC at 150% voltage. 27 pC at 200% voltage.

Dirrected cooling path ;


Assists life time expectation under overloading conditions and suitable for Low noise requirement.

Compact design, safety and enviromental friendly;


Usage Hybrid design and Vegetable liquid to minimize the land space required, less flammable risk and

enviromental friendly unit.


Tuesday, August 21, 2007 Introduction Power Transformer 61

Electric Power Engineering Centre Guide to Transformer Technical Specification

Edition 1, August 2007

APPENDIX C EPECENTRE ELECTRIC POWER R&D CAPABILITY

Page 92 of 94

New Zealands Centre of Excellence for Power Engineering

Electric Power R&D Programme


Energy Efficient Generation & Distribution Power Systems Reliability

System Studies

Demand Side Management

Alternative Power Generation

Power Transformers

HV Testing

Renewable Energy

Power Quality

Energy Modelling

www.epecentre.ac.nz Supporting Industry R&D needs for NZs Energy Future

Launched New Zealands first collaborative industry-academia R&D Programme for power in 2005
Our Services Short-term projects in specialist areas (see overleaf); customised technical workshops & training; design & testing; technical advise and support. About Us Formed in 2002, the EPECentre is an industry funded Centre of Excellence for power engineering in New Zealand, hosted at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch. It is focused on power engineering education, research & development, innovation, and industry interaction. Our People The EPECentre has a dedicated team of R&D power engineers, technical power systems specialists, research scholars, and in-house project management and technical support a combined team of over 25 power engineers within campus, combined with a reputation for one of the leading power engineering programmes in the southern hemisphere. Our Facilities World class facilities and equipment, including a state-of-the-art electric machines laboratory and a HV laboratory with an impressive 1.4MV Impulse Generator - Plus: industry standard test equipment, including power harmonics analysers, signal generators, oscilloscopes, and software for harmonic analysis, power flow, and fault analysis, such as PSCAD, IPSA, Power Factory, and PSPICE. Past Clients Orion, Transpower NZ, Meridian Energy, Vector, Enermet, ElectraNet SA, Metrix, ACCG, Antarctica NZ, Canterbury TX, Pearson Innovations, CAE NZ...

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our industry partners:

Electric Power Engineering Centre (EPECentre) University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand Tel: +64 21 1144 330 Email: joseph.lawrence@epecentre.ac.nz