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Compiled by
S.Rengasamy
Madurai Institute of Social
Sciences

S.Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work
2Contents
History of Social Welfare/ Social Work
.......................................................................................................................... 3The
need to understand history of social work
............................................................................................................. 3Framework
to understand History of Social Welfare / Social Work
.............................................................................. 4
Understanding History through Historical Phases
....................................................................................................... 5Photos of Walter
Friedlander & Simon Patten 9who used the term social work first time)
.................................... 9The Settlement House
.....................................................................................................................................
....... 10
Understanding the History of Social Welfare from various Welfare Traditions
....................................................... 11Social Work in historical perspective
...................................................................................................................... 11
2. Understanding the History of Social Welfare from various welfare
Traditions
.................................................... 11
Three Social Welfare / Social Security Tradition
........................................................................................................ 11
The Poor Law tradition
.....................................................................................................................................
.......... 11Poor Law Tradition
.....................................................................................................................................
............. 12
The Poor Law Tradition
.....................................................................................................................................
.......... 12Work House Conditions
.....................................................................................................................................
14Work Houses
.....................................................................................................................................
................. 14
Social Insurance Tradition
.....................................................................................................................................
. 14
Welfare Tradition
.....................................................................................................................................
.............. 17

The Welfare State

.....................................................................................................................................
........... 17
The Welfare State Why did it all start?
................................................................................................................. 17
Three Social Security Strategies
.................................................................................................................................
18The
Social Assistance strategy
originating in the Poor law tradition ..........................................................................
18
Social Insurance Strategy
.....................................................................................................................................
....... 18
Social Allowance Strategy
.....................................................................................................................................
...... 18
Founders of the Welfare State-Photo Album
............................................................................................................ 19History of
Social Welfare in USA
..................................................................................................................................
201
.....................................................................................................................................
......................................... 203
.....................................................................................................................................
......................................... 234
.....................................................................................................................................
......................................... 24
Celebrating Social Welfare / Work Pioneers
.............................................................................................................. 25Elizabeth
Gurney Fry
.....................................................................................................................................
.......... 25Octavia Hill
.....................................................................................................................................
......................... 26Arnold Toynbee
.....................................................................................................................................
................. 27Jane Addams
.....................................................................................................................................
...................... 28Mary Richmond

................................................ ... ..... 33Joel Fischer ................................................ 30Sir William Beveridge ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38Table: Establishing an Independent Ministry of Social Welfare – Timeline ....................................................................................................................... 29George Orwell................................ Günther Wallraff.................................................. 37Evolution of Social Welfare Ministry in India........................... 32Jane Jacobs (1916-2006) ....................Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work 3 History of Social Welfare/ Social Work The need to understand history of social work ... John Howard Griffin......................... 35 Understanding Social Work history by understanding the history of fields of social work ................................................. Tolly Toynbee... 36 Indian History Timeline ..................................................... ................................................................................................ 43 S... 39Subjects allocated to the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment -India ....................................................................... Barbara Ehrenreich ............................................ 42Subjects allocated Ministry of Women and Child Development -India ........................................................................................................................................................................................ ..................... ..... 41Ministry of Women and Child Development -India ................................................................... Pat Moore......................

http://eris.osu. In addition to this. This kind of research contributes tothe theoretical self-conception of social work which is necessary for the development of social work asa modern professional system.Research into the philosophy and history of social work strengthens this understanding through analyzing theconceptual and genealogical fundamentals of the traditions of social work. and the theory of human rights. the issues it should address. The development of socialwork as a modern social system depends on its intellectual capacity based on this kind of theoretical selfconception.and welfare regime – including the specific traditions of welfare systems and the position and role of social work within them..educational philosophy..Issues within the philosophy of science. issues of philosophy of science are of great importance for the development of the science of social work. Philosophical analyses are closely connected with the history of concepts of social work.eu/index.. for example the philosophy of family. the philosophy of law. This challenge can be met successfully only with a deepphilosophical and historical understanding of the characteristics of a particular country . a scientific discipline and a research-based activity. education and practice inthe rapidly internationalizing and globalizing world. The need to understand history of social work The diversity of social work represents a great challenge for social work research. There are several specific areas in practical social philosophydealing significantly with the theoretical self-conception of social work. but also contribute to the history of social work as a professional social system andsocial work practices in individual countries.php?kategorie=35174&id=5176 …to r each an understanding of what Social Welfare / Social Work is?. political philosophy and the general theory of social action play animportant role in the philosophy of social work.how it should be carried out? … social workers travelled a long path…and it is worth knowing IN AN ERA OF CHANGE .

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Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work 4 Framework to understand History of Social Welfare / Social Work Framework to understandHistory / evolution of Social Welfare / SocialWork can be understood inseveral ways Understanding history through historical phases /C h r o n o l o i c a l h i s t o r Understanding history by understanding differentWelfare traditions Understanding the Social Welfare / Social Work history in UK & USA that shaped the global historyUnderstanding history by understandingcontributions of pioneers of Social Work Understanding William Beveridge Contribution thatshaped global welfare policies Understanding the historical development of various fields of social work – Medical & Psychiatric Social Work.S. School/CorrectionalSocial Work etcUnderstanding the evolution of Social Welfare inIndia. largest democratic & welfare state in theworld .

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Alms to able-bodiedbeggars were forbidden. Laws passed to compel all able-bodied men to accept employment. Church sanctioned to use donated funds toaid the poor. Emergence of unconditional charity toward individuals in times of hardship 1084 Almshouses for the poor and handicapped are established in England. 1300s Bubonic plague kills nearly 1/3 of European population. redistribution of wealth notpart of charitable principles1348 .Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work 5 Understanding History through Historical Phases Prior to1600 Tofler‟s Agricultural Society: special values about caring for individuals evolve. Labor shortages force the State tointervene.S. Charitable attitudes and behaviors expected of the rich.1313 Christianity legalized by Roman Emperor. Constantine.

It emphasizes self-discipline. and deals harshly and punitively with able bodied poor people.D Social Work during 1500 – 1600 A.D. Social Work during 1800 -1900 A. 1500 Henry VIII in England broke from the Roman church. Social Work during 1500 – 1600 A. handicapped. Calvin.1800 1600s Poor Law principles introduced to New World by Plymouth colonists. Poor and unfortunate divided into two groups: "deserving" sick. develops workhouses for dependantpeople. taxes people in each parish pay for their ownpoor.D. For the first time. Social Work during 1600 -1800 A. unmarried mothers. vagrants. leaving itwithout means to carry out charity expectations. and dependant children). requiring people to remain on their home manorsand work for whatever lords want to pay. Spain introduces first State organized registrationof the poor. History of Social Work – UK & USA Social Work during primitive stage (before 1200 AD) Social Work during 1200 -1500 A. orphans and thrifty old. Social Work during 1900 onwards Social Work during 1600 -1800 A. frugality. 1601 The Elizabethan Poor Law is established.D. and others has become established and manifested as theProtestant ethic.and "undeserving" offenders. parts of Europe. and hard work and leads many of its adherents tofrown on those who are dependant or unemployed.D. establishes apprentice programs for poor children. disabled. Begging and Almsgiving is outlawed except for the agedand those unable to work.1650 The influence of Luther.The Statute of Laborers is issued in England.1662 . a distinction is made between the "worthy poor" (theaged. State confiscates Church wealth. and the "unworthy poor" (able-bodied butunemployed adults). It also becomes the basis fordealing with the poor relief at the colonial level. Built on the experiments of the earlier HenricianPoor Law (1536) and the Parish Poor Rate (1572). a philosophy that becomes influential in England. widows.D. widows. this legislation becomes the major codificationof dealing with the poor and disadvantaged for over 200 years. and Americancolonies.1600 . unemployed and the oldwithout savings.

1600-1800Priorto1600Phases Understanding History through Historical Phases . some efforts too look atthe causes of poverty are codified.The Law of Settlement and Removal is established in England as one of the world‟s first "residency requirements" in determining eligibility to receive help. Municipal authorities to helponly poor local citizens and to expel from their jurisdictions anyone else who might becomedependant for assistance. though the law is basically harsh and punitive. Thus. This law causes authorities to evaluate people as to the likelihood of their becoming poor.

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Charity Organization Societies (COS) form in England with an emphasis on detailedinvestigations. These institutions are usually managed by private entrepreneurs who contract withthe legal authorities to care for the residence in exchange for the residence in exchange for usingtheir work. documents population numbers multiplying faster than production of goods to meet their needs.Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work 6 1697 The workhouse system is developed in Bristol and soon spreads throughout England and partsof Europe. .D. assistance to the poor in their own home is established. enabling humanitarians.1700 Humanitarian groups in Quebec establish centers for the relief of the poor. It is designed to keep down poor taxes by denying aid to anyone who refuses to entera workhouse.S. the handicapped and very old people – areoften given minimal care and are worked long hours as virtual slaves. Nova Scotiansadopt English Poor Laws. subsidization provided when wages dipped below thepoverty line. 1800-1900 1800s Reforms to Elizabethan Poor Laws.1795 Speemhamland system establishes earliest "poverty line" based on the price of bread andnumber of dependents in a workers family. Reform activists work for the abolition of illiteracy. Denigrating principles of "less eligibility" and "perception of need" imbedded in society‟s attitudes toward the poor and less able bodied.including very young children. to institute reforms in many English jurisdictions. and children under 6 are placedwith families.unemployment and poverty. Coincides with Darwin‟s theory of evolution based on natural selection. British East India Company economist. Many workhouses areclosed. preventable diseases.1782 The Gilbert Act is passed in England. make individual assessments and correct theirproblems. Many private entrepreneurs are replaced by municipal employees as managers of the remaining workhouses. Applied to human condition by Herbert Spencer‟s declaration that poverty was part of natural selection. Thomas Malthus. slums and overcrowding. Residence .Social Work during 1800 -1900 A. appalled by the exploitation of workhouse residence. sweated labor. Volunteers recruited to befriend applicants. helping the poor would only perpetuate unfit lazinessand non industriousness.

1800-19001600-1800 History of Social Work Download this Document for FreePrintMobileCollectionsReport Document This is a private document. England.1844 1844: The first YMCA is established in London. equalopportunities in education and jobs. Public assistance is not considered a right.Rengasamy Share & Embed .Canada East. and Canada West -.1867 1867: The British North America Act created a political union between New Brunswick. Welfare was not seen as a major function of governments. The principle of "less eligibility" (arecipient of aid can never receive as much as does the lowest-paid worked) is enforced. Info and Rating timeline cos milestones Addams Octavia Hill madurai institute of social sciences (more tags) S. frugality and hard work.Protestant Ethic emphasizes self-discipline. suffrage. Nova Scotia. using lay volunteersto provide emergency economic and spiritual assistance to the poor. encouraged disapproval of dependence on others. He develops private philanthropies to help meet the economic needs of the poor andorganizes a system of volunteers to meet individually and regularly with disadvantaged people togive them encouragement and training. Feminists in America convene to declare the goal of equal rights for women.1819 Scottish preacher and mathematician Thomas Chalmers assumes responsibility for Glasgow‟s poor.and government is not seen as responsible for the unemployed.the Dominion of Canada. Responsibility for social welfare given tothe provinces.1833 Antoine Ozanam established in the Saint Vincent de Paul Society in Paris.1834 The new Poor Law is established in England to reform the Elizabethan Poor Law (1601). and legal rights. Theunderlying emphasis of the new law is on self-reliance.

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