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Compiled by
S.Rengasamy
Madurai Institute of Social
Sciences

S.Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work
2Contents
History of Social Welfare/ Social Work
.......................................................................................................................... 3The
need to understand history of social work
............................................................................................................. 3Framework
to understand History of Social Welfare / Social Work
.............................................................................. 4
Understanding History through Historical Phases
....................................................................................................... 5Photos of Walter
Friedlander & Simon Patten 9who used the term social work first time)
.................................... 9The Settlement House
.....................................................................................................................................
....... 10
Understanding the History of Social Welfare from various Welfare Traditions
....................................................... 11Social Work in historical perspective
...................................................................................................................... 11
2. Understanding the History of Social Welfare from various welfare
Traditions
.................................................... 11
Three Social Welfare / Social Security Tradition
........................................................................................................ 11
The Poor Law tradition
.....................................................................................................................................
.......... 11Poor Law Tradition
.....................................................................................................................................
............. 12
The Poor Law Tradition
.....................................................................................................................................
.......... 12Work House Conditions
.....................................................................................................................................
14Work Houses
.....................................................................................................................................
................. 14
Social Insurance Tradition
.....................................................................................................................................
. 14
Welfare Tradition
.....................................................................................................................................
.............. 17

The Welfare State

.....................................................................................................................................
........... 17
The Welfare State Why did it all start?
................................................................................................................. 17
Three Social Security Strategies
.................................................................................................................................
18The
Social Assistance strategy
originating in the Poor law tradition ..........................................................................
18
Social Insurance Strategy
.....................................................................................................................................
....... 18
Social Allowance Strategy
.....................................................................................................................................
...... 18
Founders of the Welfare State-Photo Album
............................................................................................................ 19History of
Social Welfare in USA
..................................................................................................................................
201
.....................................................................................................................................
......................................... 203
.....................................................................................................................................
......................................... 234
.....................................................................................................................................
......................................... 24
Celebrating Social Welfare / Work Pioneers
.............................................................................................................. 25Elizabeth
Gurney Fry
.....................................................................................................................................
.......... 25Octavia Hill
.....................................................................................................................................
......................... 26Arnold Toynbee
.....................................................................................................................................
................. 27Jane Addams
.....................................................................................................................................
...................... 28Mary Richmond

............................................................................................................................................... ....................... Barbara Ehrenreich .............................................. 42Subjects allocated Ministry of Women and Child Development -India .......... 32Jane Jacobs (1916-2006) .............................................................................................. Pat Moore............................. ..............................Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work 3 History of Social Welfare/ Social Work The need to understand history of social work ........... 36 Indian History Timeline ............................................................................................................................................ John Howard Griffin....... 39Subjects allocated to the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment -India ....................................................................................................... 43 S.......................... 37Evolution of Social Welfare Ministry in India.......................................................... ....... ................................................. Günther Wallraff............. 30Sir William Beveridge ................... 29George Orwell............................................................................. 33Joel Fischer ................................................................................... 35 Understanding Social Work history by understanding the history of fields of social work ................................. 41Ministry of Women and Child Development -India ............... ......................................................................... Tolly Toynbee... 38Table: Establishing an Independent Ministry of Social Welfare – Timeline .........................................................................................................

http://eris.and welfare regime – including the specific traditions of welfare systems and the position and role of social work within them. the issues it should address. but also contribute to the history of social work as a professional social system andsocial work practices in individual countries.how it should be carried out? … social workers travelled a long path…and it is worth knowing IN AN ERA OF CHANGE . issues of philosophy of science are of great importance for the development of the science of social work. and the theory of human rights..educational philosophy..php?kategorie=35174&id=5176 …to r each an understanding of what Social Welfare / Social Work is?. political philosophy and the general theory of social action play animportant role in the philosophy of social work. This challenge can be met successfully only with a deepphilosophical and historical understanding of the characteristics of a particular country . for example the philosophy of family. the philosophy of law. Philosophical analyses are closely connected with the history of concepts of social work. education and practice inthe rapidly internationalizing and globalizing world. The need to understand history of social work The diversity of social work represents a great challenge for social work research.eu/index. The development of socialwork as a modern social system depends on its intellectual capacity based on this kind of theoretical selfconception.Research into the philosophy and history of social work strengthens this understanding through analyzing theconceptual and genealogical fundamentals of the traditions of social work.Issues within the philosophy of science. In addition to this. This kind of research contributes tothe theoretical self-conception of social work which is necessary for the development of social work asa modern professional system. a scientific discipline and a research-based activity.osu. There are several specific areas in practical social philosophydealing significantly with the theoretical self-conception of social work..

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S.Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work 4 Framework to understand History of Social Welfare / Social Work Framework to understandHistory / evolution of Social Welfare / SocialWork can be understood inseveral ways Understanding history through historical phases /C h r o n o l o i c a l h i s t o r Understanding history by understanding differentWelfare traditions Understanding the Social Welfare / Social Work history in UK & USA that shaped the global historyUnderstanding history by understandingcontributions of pioneers of Social Work Understanding William Beveridge Contribution thatshaped global welfare policies Understanding the historical development of various fields of social work – Medical & Psychiatric Social Work. largest democratic & welfare state in theworld . School/CorrectionalSocial Work etcUnderstanding the evolution of Social Welfare inIndia.

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Charitable attitudes and behaviors expected of the rich. 1300s Bubonic plague kills nearly 1/3 of European population.Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work 5 Understanding History through Historical Phases Prior to1600 Tofler‟s Agricultural Society: special values about caring for individuals evolve. Alms to able-bodiedbeggars were forbidden. Church sanctioned to use donated funds toaid the poor. Laws passed to compel all able-bodied men to accept employment.1313 Christianity legalized by Roman Emperor. Labor shortages force the State tointervene. Constantine.S. Emergence of unconditional charity toward individuals in times of hardship 1084 Almshouses for the poor and handicapped are established in England. redistribution of wealth notpart of charitable principles1348 .

History of Social Work – UK & USA Social Work during primitive stage (before 1200 AD) Social Work during 1200 -1500 A. Social Work during 1800 -1900 A. Poor and unfortunate divided into two groups: "deserving" sick.The Statute of Laborers is issued in England. a philosophy that becomes influential in England.1662 . handicapped. and others has become established and manifested as theProtestant ethic. and hard work and leads many of its adherents tofrown on those who are dependant or unemployed. parts of Europe. 1500 Henry VIII in England broke from the Roman church. establishes apprentice programs for poor children. and dependant children). Spain introduces first State organized registrationof the poor. Built on the experiments of the earlier HenricianPoor Law (1536) and the Parish Poor Rate (1572). It emphasizes self-discipline.D. requiring people to remain on their home manorsand work for whatever lords want to pay. For the first time.1800 1600s Poor Law principles introduced to New World by Plymouth colonists.and "undeserving" offenders.1650 The influence of Luther.D. It also becomes the basis fordealing with the poor relief at the colonial level. Social Work during 1900 onwards Social Work during 1600 -1800 A.1600 . this legislation becomes the major codificationof dealing with the poor and disadvantaged for over 200 years. Begging and Almsgiving is outlawed except for the agedand those unable to work. and deals harshly and punitively with able bodied poor people. Calvin.D. vagrants. State confiscates Church wealth.D Social Work during 1500 – 1600 A. Social Work during 1600 -1800 A. and the "unworthy poor" (able-bodied butunemployed adults). Social Work during 1500 – 1600 A. frugality. and Americancolonies. develops workhouses for dependantpeople. 1601 The Elizabethan Poor Law is established. a distinction is made between the "worthy poor" (theaged. orphans and thrifty old. unemployed and the oldwithout savings. taxes people in each parish pay for their ownpoor. widows. disabled.D. widows.D. unmarried mothers. leaving itwithout means to carry out charity expectations.

though the law is basically harsh and punitive. some efforts too look atthe causes of poverty are codified. Thus. This law causes authorities to evaluate people as to the likelihood of their becoming poor. 1600-1800Priorto1600Phases Understanding History through Historical Phases . Municipal authorities to helponly poor local citizens and to expel from their jurisdictions anyone else who might becomedependant for assistance.The Law of Settlement and Removal is established in England as one of the world‟s first "residency requirements" in determining eligibility to receive help.

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It is designed to keep down poor taxes by denying aid to anyone who refuses to entera workhouse. Denigrating principles of "less eligibility" and "perception of need" imbedded in society‟s attitudes toward the poor and less able bodied. British East India Company economist. to institute reforms in many English jurisdictions. .Rengasamy-History of Social Welfare / Social Work 6 1697 The workhouse system is developed in Bristol and soon spreads throughout England and partsof Europe.1782 The Gilbert Act is passed in England. Thomas Malthus. Applied to human condition by Herbert Spencer‟s declaration that poverty was part of natural selection. Many workhouses areclosed. subsidization provided when wages dipped below thepoverty line. Charity Organization Societies (COS) form in England with an emphasis on detailedinvestigations.Social Work during 1800 -1900 A. helping the poor would only perpetuate unfit lazinessand non industriousness. assistance to the poor in their own home is established. enabling humanitarians.S. Coincides with Darwin‟s theory of evolution based on natural selection.1700 Humanitarian groups in Quebec establish centers for the relief of the poor.D.1795 Speemhamland system establishes earliest "poverty line" based on the price of bread andnumber of dependents in a workers family. 1800-1900 1800s Reforms to Elizabethan Poor Laws. These institutions are usually managed by private entrepreneurs who contract withthe legal authorities to care for the residence in exchange for the residence in exchange for usingtheir work.including very young children. preventable diseases. sweated labor. Nova Scotiansadopt English Poor Laws. slums and overcrowding. documents population numbers multiplying faster than production of goods to meet their needs. make individual assessments and correct theirproblems. and children under 6 are placedwith families. Reform activists work for the abolition of illiteracy. the handicapped and very old people – areoften given minimal care and are worked long hours as virtual slaves. Residence . Volunteers recruited to befriend applicants. appalled by the exploitation of workhouse residence.unemployment and poverty. Many private entrepreneurs are replaced by municipal employees as managers of the remaining workhouses.

1834 The new Poor Law is established in England to reform the Elizabethan Poor Law (1601). England.and government is not seen as responsible for the unemployed.the Dominion of Canada. Feminists in America convene to declare the goal of equal rights for women. frugality and hard work. encouraged disapproval of dependence on others. Nova Scotia. and legal rights. He develops private philanthropies to help meet the economic needs of the poor andorganizes a system of volunteers to meet individually and regularly with disadvantaged people togive them encouragement and training. The principle of "less eligibility" (arecipient of aid can never receive as much as does the lowest-paid worked) is enforced. equalopportunities in education and jobs. Theunderlying emphasis of the new law is on self-reliance. Info and Rating timeline cos milestones Addams Octavia Hill madurai institute of social sciences (more tags) S. Welfare was not seen as a major function of governments.Protestant Ethic emphasizes self-discipline.Rengasamy Share & Embed . 1800-19001600-1800 History of Social Work Download this Document for FreePrintMobileCollectionsReport Document This is a private document. using lay volunteersto provide emergency economic and spiritual assistance to the poor. Public assistance is not considered a right. and Canada West -.1844 1844: The first YMCA is established in London. suffrage.1819 Scottish preacher and mathematician Thomas Chalmers assumes responsibility for Glasgow‟s poor.Canada East. Responsibility for social welfare given tothe provinces.1833 Antoine Ozanam established in the Saint Vincent de Paul Society in Paris.1867 1867: The British North America Act created a political union between New Brunswick.

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