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Electrical Lab
PRECAUTIONS
WORKING ON ENERGIZED CIRCUITS In so far as is practical, you should NOT undertake repair work on energized circuits and equipment. However, it could become necessary, such as when you make adjustments on operating equipment. In such cases, obtain permission from your supervisor, then proceed with your work, but carefully observe the following safety precautions: DO NOT WORK ALONE. Station an assistant near the main switch or circuit breaker so the equipment can be immediately de-energized in case of an emergency. Someone qualified in first aid for electrical shock should be standing by during the entire operation. Ensure that you have adequate lighting. You must be able to see clearly if you are to perform the job safely and properly. Be sure that you are insulated from ground by an approved rubber mat or layers of dry canvas and/or wood. Where practical, use only one hand, keeping the other either behind you or in your pocket. If you expect voltage to exceed 150 volts, wear rubber gloves. DO NOT work on any type of electrical apparatus when you are wearing wet clothing or if your hands are wet. DO NOT wear loose or flapping clothing. The use of thin-soled shoes and shoes with metal plates or hobnails is prohibited. Flammable articles, such as celluloid cap visors, should not be worn. Remove all rings, wristwatches, bracelets, and similar metal items before working on the equipment. Also ensure that your clothing does not contain exposed metal fasteners, such as zippers, snaps, buttons, and pins. Do not tamper with interlock switches; that is, do not defeat their purpose by shorting them or blocking them open. Ensure that equipment is properly grounded before energizing.

De-energize equipment before attaching alligator clips to any circuit. Use only approved meters and other indicating devices to check for the presence of voltage. Observe the following procedures when measuring voltages in excess of 300 volts: Turn off the equipment power. Short-circuit or ground the terminals of all components capable of retaining a charge. Connect the meter leads to the points to be measured. Remove any terminal grounds previously connected. Turn on the power and observe the voltage reading. Turn off the power. Short circuit or ground all components capable of retaining a charge. Disconnect the meter leads. On all circuits where the voltage is in excess of 30 volts and where decks, bulkheads, or workbenches are made of metal, you should insulate yourself from accidental grounding by using approved insulating material. The insulating material should have the following qualities: It should be dry, without holes, and should not contain conducting materials. The voltage rating for which it is made should be clearly marked on the material. The proper material should be used so that adequate protection from the voltage can be supplied. Dry wood may be used or, as an alternative, several layers of dry canvas, sheets of phenolic(resin or plastic) insulating material, or suitable rubber mats. Care should be exercised to ensure that moisture, dust, metal chips, and so forth, which may collect on insulating material, are removed at once. Small deposits of such materials can become electrical hazards. All insulating materials on machinery and in the area should be kept free of oil, grease, carbon dust, and so forth, since such deposits destroy insulation.

WORKING ON DE-ENERGIZED CIRCUITS

When any electronic equipment is to be repaired or overhauled, certain general safety precautions should be observed. They are as follows: Remember that electrical and electronic circuits often have more than one source of power. Take time to study the schematics or wiring diagrams of the entire system to ensure that all sources of power have been disconnected If pertinent, inform the remote station regarding the circuit on which work will be performed. Use one hand when turning switches on or off. Safety devices, such as interlocks, overload relays, and fuses, should never be altered or disconnected except for replacement. In addition, they should never be changed or modified in any way without specific authorization. Fuses should be removed and replaced only after the circuit has been deenergized. When a fuse "blows," the replacement should be of the same type and have the same current and voltage ratings. A fuse puller should be used to remove and replace cartridge fuses. All circuit breakers and switches from which power could possibly be supplied should be secured (locked if possible) in the OPEN or OFF (safe) position and danger tagged in accordance with After the work has been completed, the tag (or tags) should be removed only by the same person who signed it (them) when the work began. Keep clothing, hands, and feet dry if at all possible. When you must work in wet or damp locations, place a rubber mat or other nonconductive material on top of a dry, wooden platform or stool; then use the platform or stool to sit and stand on. Use insulated tools and insulated flashlights of the molded type when you are required to work on exposed parts.

GROUNDING OF POWER TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

The possibility of electrical shock can be reduced by ensuring that all motor and generator frames, metal bases, and other structural parts of electrical and electronic equipment are at ground potential. Normally, on steel-hull vessels, such grounds are inherently provided because the metal cases or frames of the equipment are in contact with one another and with the metal structure of the vessel. In some instances where such inherent grounding is not provided by the mounting arrangements, such as equipment supported on shock mounts, suitable ground connections must be provided. The grounding wire used for this purpose is generally made of flexible material (copper or aluminum) that provides sufficient current-carrying capacity to ensure an effective ground. In this manner, equipment cases and frames that are not intended to be above ground potential are effectively grounded; also, the possibility of electrical shock to personnel coming in contact with metal parts of the equipment is minimized. The secondary purpose of grounding equipment is to improve the operation and continuity of service of all equipments. Paint, grease, or other foreign matter can interfere with the positive metal-to-metal contact at the ground connection point. Therefore, all bonding surfaces (connection points or metallic junctions) must be securely fastened and free of such matter. In all instances where equipment grounding is provided, certain general precautions and preventive maintenance measures must be taken. A few of these precautions are listed below: Periodically clean all strap-and-clamp connectors to ensure that all direct metal-to-metal contacts are free from foreign matter. Check all mounting hardware for mechanical failure or loose connections. Replace any faulty, rusted, or otherwise unfit grounding strap, clamp, connection, or component between the equipment and the ground to the ships hull. When replacing a part of the ground connection, make certain that the metallic contact surfaces are clean and that electrical continuity is re-established. After completing the foregoing steps, recheck to be sure that the connection is securely fastened with the correct mounting hardware. Paint the ground strap and hardware in accordance with current procedures. Because of the electrical shock hazards that could be encountered aboard ship, plugs and convenience outlets for use with portable equipment and power tools normally are standard three-prong type. Both plugs and outlets are keyed so that the plug must be in the correct position before it can be inserted into the receptacle. To ensure that

the safety factors incorporated in these devices are in serviceable condition and are safe for use, you must perform the following precautions and inspections: Inspect the pins of the plug to see that they are firmly in place and are not bent or damaged. Check the wiring terminals and connections of the plug. Loose connections and frayed wires on the plug surface must be corrected and any foreign matter removed before the plug is inserted into the receptacle. Use a meter to ensure that the ground pin has a resistance of less than 1 ohm equipment ground. Do not attempt to insert a grounded-type plug into a grounded receptacle without first aligning the plug properly. CAUTION Never use a power tool or a piece of portable test equipment unless you are absolutely sure that it is equipped with a properly grounded conductor.